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Today’s AI systems are quickly evolving to become humans’ new best friend. We now have AIs that can concoct award-winning whiskey, write poetry, and help doctors perform extremely precise surgical operations. But one thing they can’t do — which is, on the surface, far simpler than all those other things — is use common sense.
Common sense is different from intelligence in that it is usually something innate and natural to humans that helps them navigate daily life, and cannot really be taught. In 1906, philosopher G. K. Chesterton wrote that “common sense is a wild thing, savage, and beyond rules.”
Robots, of course, run on algorithms that are just that: rules.
So no, robots can’t use common sense — yet. But thanks to current efforts in the field, we can now measure an AI’s core psychological reasoning ability, bringing us one step closer.
Really it comes down to the fact that common sense will make AI better at helping us solve real-world issues. Many argue that AI-driven solutions designed for complex problems, like diagnosing Covid-19 treatments for example, often fail, as the system can’t readily adapt to a real-world situation where the problems are unpredictable, vague, and not defined by rules.
Common sense includes not only social abilities and reasoning but also a “naive sense of physics.”
Injecting common sense into AI could mean big things for humans; better customer service, where a robot can actually assist a disgruntled customer beyond sending them into an endless “Choose from the following options” loop. It can make autonomous cars react better to unexpected roadway incidences. It can even help the military draw life-or-death information from intelligence.
So why haven’t scientists been able to crack the common sense code thus far?
Called the “dark matter of AI”, common sense is both crucial to AI’s future development and, thus far, elusive. Equipping computers with common sense has actually been a goal of computer science since the field’s very start; in 1958, pioneering computer scientist John McCarthy published a paper titled “Programs with common sense” which looked at how logic could be used as a method of representing information in computer memory. But we’ve not moved much closer to making it a reality since.
Common sense includes not only social abilities and reasoning but also a “naive sense of physics” — this means that we know certain things about physics without having to work through physics equations, like why you shouldn’t put a bowling ball on a slanted surface. It also includes basic knowledge of abstract things like time and space, which lets us plan, estimate, and organize. “It’s knowledge that you ought to have,” says Michael Witbrock, AI researcher at the University of Auckland.
All this means that common sense is not one precise thing, and therefore cannot be easily defined by rules.
We’ve established that common sense requires a computer to infer things based on complex, real-world situations — something that comes easily to humans, and starts to form since infancy.
Computer scientists are making (slow) but steady progress toward building AI agents that can infer mental states, predict future actions, and work with humans. But in order to see how close we actually are, we first need a rigorous benchmark for evaluating an AI’s “common sense,” or its psychological reasoning ability.
Researchers from IBM, MIT, and Harvard have created just that: AGENT, which stands for Action-Goal-Efficiency-coNstraint-uTility. After testing and validation, this benchmark is shown to be able to evaluate the core psychological reasoning ability of an AI model. This means it can actually provide a sense of social awareness and could interact with humans in real-world settings.
To demonstrate common sense, an AI model must have built-in representations of how humans plan.
So what is AGENT? AGENT is a large-scale dataset of 3D animations inspired by experiments that study cognitive development in kids. The animations depict someone interacting with different objects under different physical constraints. According to IBM:
“The videos comprise distinct trials, each of which includes one or more ‘familiarization’ videos of an agent’s typical behavior in a certain physical environment, paired with ‘test’ videos of the same agent’s behavior in a new environment, which are labeled as either ‘expected’ or ‘surprising,’ given the behavior of the agent in the corresponding familiarization videos.”
A model must then judge how surprising the agent’s behaviors in the ‘test’ videos are, based on the actions it learned in the ‘familiarization’ videos. Using the AGENT benchmark, that model is then validated against large-scale human-rating trials, where humans rated the ‘surprising’ ‘test’ videos as more surprising than the ‘expected’ test videos.
IBM’s trial shows that to demonstrate common sense, an AI model must have built-in representations of how humans plan. This means combining both a basic sense of physics and ‘cost-reward trade-offs’, which means an understanding of how humans take actions “based on utility, trading off the rewards of its goal against the costs of reaching it.”
While not yet perfect, the findings show AGENT is a promising diagnostic tool for developing and evaluating common sense in AI, something IBM is also working on. It also shows that we can utilize similar traditional developmental psychology methods to those used to teach human children how objects and ideas relate.
In the future, this could help significantly reduce the need for training in these models allowing businesses to save on computing energy, time, and money.
Robots don’t understand human consciousness yet — but with the development of benchmarking tools like AGENT, we’ll be able to measure how close we’re getting.
Jeff Grundy has been writing computer-related articles and tutorials since 1995. Since that time, Grundy has written many guides to using various applications that are published on numerous how-to and tutorial sites. Born and raised in South Georgia, Grundy holds a Master of Science degree in mathematics from the Georgia Institute of Technology.
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New Jersey, United States, Oct. 11, 2022 /DigitalJournal/ The Automation Testing Market research report provides all the information related to the industry. It gives the markets outlook by giving authentic data to its client which helps to make essential decisions. It gives an overview of the market which includes its definition, applications and developments, and manufacturing technology. This Automation Testing market research report tracks all the latest developments and innovations in the market. It gives the data regarding the obstacles while establishing the business and guides to overcome the upcoming challenges and obstacles.
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Table of Contents
Global Automation Testing Market Research Report 2022 – 2029
Chapter 1 Automation Testing Market Overview
Chapter 2 Global Economic Impact on Industry
Chapter 3 Global Market Competition by Manufacturers
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President Biden traveled to New York on Thursday to tout another major manufacturing investment, this time from IBM, as a sign of confidence among business leaders in the U.S. economy.
Amid concerns about gas prices, broader inflation and rising interest rates, Biden on Thursday sought to focus on a particular bright spot for the administration: latest investments by major tech companies spurred by federal legislation to support semiconductor manufacturing and shore up the domestic supply chain.
Biden was in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., on Thursday to celebrate a planned $20 billion investment from IBM over the next decade to boost research and development initiatives and semiconductor manufacturing.
The IBM announcement came on the heels of Micron, another semiconductor manufacturer, unveiling plans to spend $100 billion on a new facility near Syracuse, N.Y. Micron previously announced a major investment in its Boise, Idaho, campus.
And Biden visited Ohio last month to highlight a groundbreaking for a new Intel facility.
“As we saw during the pandemic, when factories that make these chips shut down around the world, the global economy literally comes to a screeching halt,” Biden said Thursday.&nbsp;
“More Americans have learned the phrase ‘supply chain,’” he added. “Well guess what. The supply chain is going to start here and end here, in the United States.”
Those investments aim to restore microchip manufacturing to the U.S. over the next decade after companies outsourced production to Asian countries. Biden noted that car prices skyrocketed in latest years due to a shortage of chips, which are also used in smartphones, appliances and weapon systems.&nbsp;&nbsp;
The IBM announcement is the latest economic win for the White House since the passage of the CHIPS and Science Act, which passed with bipartisan support and included more than $50 billion in incentives for manufacturers to build domestic semiconductor plants. It also included more than $80 billion for the National Science Foundation to support innovation and research.
Still, the White House is grappling with shorter-term economic headwinds and policy decisions that are largely out of its control.
The Federal Reserve, an independent body, is sticking with its plan to raise interest rates in an effort to bring prices down, despite warnings from Biden administration officials and lawmakers that continued fiscal tightening could ravage the economy.&nbsp;
In her first public remarks since being confirmed to the board, Federal Reserve Governor Lisa Cook said Thursday that getting inflation under control “will require ongoing rate hikes and then keeping policy restrictive for some time.”
Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen said Thursday that interest rate hikes are taking a toll on the global economy, particularly among poorer nations that may now struggle to pay their debts.
“Policymakers in the major economies must continue implementing policies to rein in high inflation while remaining attentive to global repercussions,” Yellen said at a Center for Global Development event.
Her comments came after the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development this week urged the Federal Reserve and other central banks to reverse course on aggressive rate hikes, warning that they could cause a global recession.
The International Monetary Fund said Thursday that the global economy will lose out on roughly $4 trillion in growth through 2026 and predicted that “things are more likely to get worse before it gets better.” The World Trade Organization on Wednesday estimated that global trade will only grow by 1 percent next year, down from its 3.4 percent prediction in April.
Higher interest rates are already beginning to slow hiring in the U.S. The number of job openings fell by 1.1 million from July to August, according to Labor Department data released Tuesday, giving economists some hope that the nation’s labor shortage will ease but prompting concerns about a larger slowdown.
Meanwhile, OPEC+ this week announced that it would cut global oil production by 2 million barrels a day in anticipation of lower demand, a move that will likely increase prices at the pump soon.&nbsp;
Before departing for New York, Biden told reporters he was disappointed in the decision by the oil-exporting coalition, which includes Saudi Arabia and Russia, and indicated the White House was exploring alternatives to try and stabilize gas prices.
“There’s a lot of alternatives. We haven&#8217;t made up our mind yet,” Biden said.
Brian Deese, head of the National Economic Council, said one focus would be on pushing oil refiners to bring down the retail price of gasoline to more in line with historical trends when compared with the wholesale cost.
The administration will be closely eyeing a few key economic indicators in the coming weeks. Unemployment numbers from September will be released on Friday, with last month&#8217;s inflation data coming the week after.
When asked about the broader economic trajectory of the country, Deese told reporters the White House is trying to balance both short-term concerns about the U.S. economy and long-term efforts to transition the economy after the peak of the coronavirus pandemic into a sustainable, stable place.
“Even as we focus on the important near-term issues, like dealing with refineries to try to keep the progress in gas prices coming down to sustain it, we are very focused on the long-term economic strategy that this president has had since taking office,” Deese told reporters. “And one of the key hallmarks of that is how do we build a more resilient economy.”
POUGHKEEPSIE, N.Y., Oct 6 (Reuters) - President Joe Biden on Thursday championed his administration's push to subsidize U.S. semiconductor chip manufacturing and boost blue-collar jobs at a visit to an IBM Corp (IBM.N) facility in New York.
IBM plans to invest $20 billion in New York's Hudson Valley region, once a manufacturing powerhouse, over the next decade to make and develop semiconductors, mainframe technology, artificial intelligence and quantum computing.
"Where is it written that we can’t lead manufacturing in the world?” Biden said. "The supply chain is going to start here and end here, in the United States."
Government funding is essential to boost manufacturing and ensure U.S. national security by producing critical goods now made abroad, Biden said. His administration and fellow Democrats have directed billions in federal funding to encourage private- sector spending and create jobs.
IBM's announcement is the latest in a string of investments unveiled since Biden signed the Chips and Science bill in August which funded $52 billion to subsidize semiconductor chips manufacturing and research.
"America invented these chips," Biden said.
Hefty subsidies for private businesses are necessary because China and the European Union had been awarding billions in incentives to chip companies, the White House says.
Biden has sought to capitalize on the investment announcements ahead of next month's midterm congressional elections. Last month, he traveled to Ohio to speak at the site of Intel Corp's (INTC.O) planned $20 billion semiconductor manufacturing facility.
The Hudson Valley, home of IBM's Poughkeepsie site, was an economic powerhouse during America's Industrial Revolution, but regional jobs dried up during the second half of the last century, as companies fled to lower-cost locations.
IBM, which laid off thousands of people in the region in the 1990s when it moved chip and other manufacturing, said it now plans to make the site "a global hub of the company's quantum computing development, just as it is today for mainframes."
IBM did not provide a detailed breakdown of its $20 billion investment plans.
The White House said it was sparked by Biden's economic policies.
"The industrial strategy is really helping to drive a renaissance in American manufacturing, and domestic investment ... that we haven’t seen in generations," White House National Economic Director Brian Deese told reporters en route to the IBM site.
On Tuesday, Micron Technology (MU.O) said it would invest up to $100 billion over the next 20-plus years to build a semiconductor fabrication facility in New York that is expected to create nearly 50,000 jobs, with the first phase investment of $20 billion planned this decade.
Biden was joined by IBM Chief Executive Arvind Krishna.
Reporting by Nandita Bose in Poughkeepsie, N.Y., and David Shepardson in Washington Editing by Heather Timmons and Matthew Lewis
Our Standards: The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.