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Communication Server 1000 Rls. 6.0 and IP Networking Design
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Killexams : Nortel Communication test - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/922-103 Search results Killexams : Nortel Communication test - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/922-103 https://killexams.com/exam_list/Nortel Killexams : Securing Smart Cities from the Ground Up

Smart City network infrastructure demands a proactive approach to find vulnerabilities before hackers find them

Smart technology continues to change how people live and interact with the cities around them. While the full value of a connected city evolves – one that leverages innovations powered by artificial intelligence and machine learning – cybersecurity stands as one of its greatest challenges. 

The Smart City Conundrum

While the promise of Smart Cities provides municipalities and inhabitants with the efficiency and value of “smart” services, it also creates a cybersecurity challenge. Each connected component – from devices to the network infrastructure – offers a potential entry point for hackers to steal data, damage systems, and gain access to information they shouldn’t have. 

Smart City ecosystems could be filled with tens of thousands of Internet of Things (IoT) devices communicating over public network infrastructure. In order for the Smart City to succeed, each IoT device must be low power, exhibit excellent performance, be able to withstand interference, and be reliable. They’ll operate with the free flow of data between devices and the network infrastructure that connects them. How do Smart Cities ensure that each part of the Smart City ecosystem – the devices and network infrastructure -- remains secure?

Smart City device security begins at the component level 

Smart City device manufacturers -- from smart lighting and water systems to smart traffic management systems and transportation systems -- serve as the first line of defense when it comes to security. Each device may feature many technologies working together such as chipsets, sensors, communications protocols, firmware and software. These technology components must be built or sourced with security in mind. 

Security testing of components and devices should not be an afterthought, but a proactive part of the design and manufacturing process. Best practices may include:

• Communication protocol testing - For example, Bluetooth vulnerabilities like Sweyntooth and Braktooth in communication chipsets, could open the door to hackers. Braktooth vulnerabilities recently impacted billions of devices from the system-on-a-chip (SOC) in more than a thousand chipsets used in laptops, smartphones, IoT and industrial devices. Protocol level vulnerabilities like these are difficult to detect. While the security community established best practices for discovering application-level vulnerabilities, protocol-level vulnerabilities are much harder to pinpoint. The only way to test for these kind of vulnerabilities is using protocol fuzzing which detects vulnerabilities during the communications handshake or hand-off process. 

• Cybersecurity firmware, software and password update capabilities - Cybersecurity threats and vulnerabilities change over time. Many headline-making IoT security incidents have been caused by poor passwords and out-of-date firmware. Device manufacturers can take simple steps to enable Smart City device owners to strengthen authentication and provide methods to update firmware and software as the cybersecurity landscape evolves over the lifetime of their devices. 

Unfortunately, once a device is purchased, there is little a Smart City can do to Boost its security, so making the right purchase is the key to success. The purchasing process should consider cybersecurity in the “bill of materials” (BOM) that requires that the device manufacturer considered component and device cybersecurity and can validate that their devices passed appropriate cybersecurity testing. Smart City owners should keep in mind that over time, smart device manufacturers may continue to develop new devices with short product cycles. This means that owners will need to understand that manufacturers will may accelerate dropping support for older devices.

Taking the risk out of the Smart City network

The second line of defense in a Smart City is network infrastructure. In a Smart City, the back-end network is the nerve center that keeps everything running smoothly. That’s why it’s important for Smart Cities to rigorously test their back-end network’s security posture including policies and configurations on a continuous basis.

There is additional network infrastructure to consider. Smart Cities now connect operational technology (OT) systems such as water and energy utilities to Smart City network infrastructure. These OT connections increase the risk to the network since they are prime targets for bad actors. OT systems traditionally existed as stand-alone city infrastructure separated from the connected network. Now, newly connected to the shared network infrastructure, OT systems must be secured like traditional IT systems. 

Smart City owners should follow cybersecurity best practices to Boost their overall network security posture. Smart City network infrastructure demands a proactive approach to find vulnerabilities before hackers find them.  A proactive approach includes utilizing breach and attack simulation tools to continuously probe for potential vulnerabilities. Adopting these tools can:

• Prevent attackers from moving laterally across the network

• Avoid “configuration drift” where system updates and tool patches cause unintended misconfiguration and leave the door open to attackers

• Reduce dwell time by training your security information and event management system to recognize indicators-of-compromise for emergency or common attacks.

Smart Cities promise to deliver value from big data and analytics. However, for every new connection, there’s an attacker looking to exploit it. For Smart Cities to truly live up to their promise, we shouldn’t forget that – like all infrastructure – safety and security are a top priority.

Learn About Securing Smart Cities at SecurityWeek's ICS Cybersecurity Conference

Marie Hattar is chief marketing officer (CMO) at Keysight Technologies. She has more than 20 years of marketing leadership experience spanning the security, routing, switching, telecom and mobility markets. Before becoming Keysight’s CMO, Marie was CMO at Ixia and at Check Point Software Technologies. Prior to that, she was Vice President at Cisco where she led the company’s enterprise networking and security portfolio and helped drive the company’s leadership in networking. Marie also worked at Nortel Networks, Alteon WebSystems, and Shasta Networks in senior marketing and CTO positions. Marie received a master’s degree in Business Administration in Marketing from York University and a Bachelor’s degree in Electrical Engineering from the University of Toronto.
Previous Columns by Marie Hattar:
Thu, 28 Jul 2022 02:28:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.securityweek.com/securing-smart-cities-ground
Killexams : IPTV pioneer causes a ruckus

Although revenues are still a fraction of the global telecoms market, at the IPTV World Forum in London earlier this month there was plenty of optimism that just around the corner awaits a market of millions.

Triple play refers to a combination of wireless TV, internet and digital telephone services provided via broadband connections to the home using the new generation of wi-fi technology.

Western Europe currently has the largest number of IPTV subscribers of any region - 1.6 million - with France accounting for approximately half of them. Global customers are expected to double each year from 6.4m at the end of 2006 to nearly 50m by 2010, according to analysts Gartner.

Home internet and VOIP using wireless makes sense for consumers who want to move on from broadband cable and fixed line or mobile phones, but how many people are desperately waiting to get their TV piped via wireless into their bedrooms?

Well, they might do when the technology is sold as a package by your broadband carrier, and the technology provides consistent high-quality pictures and sound. In France, early adoption of IPTV by France Telecom and aggressive competition among players including Free and Neuf helped push up subscriptions.

Making the switch to IPTV happen was the challenge that inspired Selina Lo to found Ruckus Wireless, an IPTV pioneer, in 2004. At the IPTV World Forum in London last week, Ruckus Wireless was named Best Distributor of IPTV. According to Lo, the show has doubled in size since last year.

Earlier this year Lo attended the World Economic Forum in Davos and mingled with the world's top CEOs, which she says was an "amazing experience". The feeling was apparently mutual, with WEF's technology panel picking Ruckus Wireless as a "technology pioneer" for its "smart wi-fi" home networking technology.

Hong Kong-born Lo, who took her computer science degree at Berkeley, stands out in this male-dominated industry for being an Asian woman technology entrepreneur - the company website advertises her love of shoes, shopping and one-word answers. But her record for technology start-ups, industry awards and multi-billion dollar IPOs speaks for itself.

Ruckus's CEO and president has built a career and fortune by setting out to solve big problems. This time it is the following: "The problem all IPTV service providers have is the destructive customer experience when they get IPTV to the gateway. They start having to wire the set-top box to the DSL modem. Most people don't like that and there is a rejection rate of 30%," says Lo.

Then comes the pitch: "There are thousands of wi-fi players and IPTV service providers - it's a very competitive market. But we are the only one known to support video, voice and internet with a reliable signal that a consumer can set up at home without a complicated registration process. Once they take it out of the box and connect it up, it's ready to use."

Ruckus's biggest market is Europe, which is not as saturated with cable and satellite as the US. "Cable and satellite in the US are pretty well penetrated but that is not the case in Europe, so new cable is being installed with higher bandwidth. Satellite is not so popular in Europe either," Lo says

She says that Belgium's biggest telcom Belgacom took a "visionary position" in their approach to wireless at home. "They knew they had to make it [triple play wireless] a self-installing service otherwise people would not be interested. They now have 130,000 subscribers a year. You have to remember that when a provider has to install they can only do two jobs a day so it would take forever to do this number.

"Belgacom looked at our solutions - they plugged our router into their DSL gateway, and our adaptor into the set-top box. O2 telephone in the Czech Republic did the same." Ruckus are now in around 12 markets - the biggest being Italy and France. Its first customer was IPPC Hong Kong.

The market, of course, is not just about TV -internet and VOIP telephone are equally important. Fixed line and mobile phone telecom companies are losing minute usage to VOIP services, and small and medium businesses are leading the charge to VOIP. Last year around 58 percent of IP lines shipped went to medium-sized companies, while an increasing interest from small businesses saw them buy 18 percent of IP lines sold, according to IDC.

"There is a very competitive market for creating system infrastructure. Alcatel and Siemens now working on IPTV, and Nortel, Cisco and Ericsson are jumping in. We are just one player at the end of the broadband tunnel," says Lo.

But while wi-fi is becoming more popular, most consumers still haven't heard of triple play. Part of the reason for this is problems with the quality of the signal and the long lead time for the telcoms to test and market wi-fi products. Normal wi-fi antenna send a signal evenly in all directions and are susceptible to interference from other signals in the vicinity. In addition, the range of normal wi-fi is often very limited. The Ruckus technology is more like a beam with software that chooses the most efficient route to the VOIP phone, computer or TV set-top box. Lo describes it as "just like a torch compared to a lightbulb.

"Bluetooth, microwaves, cordless phones and a lot of consumer electronic household goods generate noise and interfere with signals. Most antenna in the market don't have a way of stopping the noise. We have created a smart signal that can get around obstacles in the home."

This is Lo's third start-up in the network communications field. The second, Alteon WebSystems, went public in 2000 and was sold to Nortel Systems for a cool $7.8 billion. The timing -just before the bursting of the dotcom bubble - was fortuitous. "Those were good times," says Lo wistfully.

Lo went from being Alteon's VP of marketing to become VP of Nortel Networks' content business unit following the acquisition. Her first start-up, Centillion, was sold to Bay Networks in 1994 for $150m, where she joined Bay Networks as a VP of marketing.

Lo tells the story of how, having quit Nortel Networks to "try out semi-retirement" the seed of the Ruckus idea was born when she decided to get a cable TV in her bedroom. "I had to get a guy to do it. It took six hours and they had to come back to fix it later. He had to run a wire through my ceiling." The experience was "tremendously irritating" and got her thinking. "I just started looking for telecoms companies doing wireless television. I found two guys developing the technology - William Kish and Victor Shrom - at an incubation research centre, with funding from Secoya Capital."

Secoya Capital is synonymous with the rise of Silicon Valley, having helped create most of the household names one associates with the 1990s digital boom - Yahoo, Google, Cisco, Paypal and many others. Lo met the technical founders and decided their ideas were worth funding. Major telecoms have been trialling the product, but progress is slow. "Practically every major telcom has IPTV in the lab, in home trials or in production. It takes a long time to work with the carriers. We have chosen a path that is a lot more difficult than working with retailers but hopefully the payback will be worth it."

She adds that Ruckus is talking to all the major telecom companies in the UK. The advantage of going with the carriers is that they can offer a ready-made package which removes the need to navigate through an electronics shop or online retailer and find the right package for your needs.

So far Ruckus has shipped around 100,000 units of branded technology and more than that number again as licensed technology under the Netgear brand for its routers and DSL gateway.

Lo, naturally, is optimistic. She expects company revenues to more than double in 2007 although going public "is not in our plans this year", she adds with the clear implication that it will be in future. "We are not Cisco yet, but we are on our way there."

Sat, 25 Nov 2017 21:53:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.managementtoday.co.uk/iptv-pioneer-causes-ruckus/article/643523
Killexams : LogicVision and Virage Logic team to integrate embedded test technology into embedded memory design-for-test solution IP News

LOGICVISION AND VIRAGE LOGIC TEAM TO INTEGRATE EMBEDDED TEST
TECHNOLOGY INTO EMBEDDED MEMORY DESIGN-FOR-TEST SOLUTION

ATLANTIC CITY,  New Jersey – September 27, 1999 – Virage Logic and LogicVision, Inc. today announced a partnership to provide their mutual customers with LogicVision's memBIST-IC as an embedded test strategy solution at the memory level.   Both companies will also work together to integrate and automate the interface between the memory level embedded test and the full-chip embedded test. 

"This agreement provides our customers with a complete design-for-test strategy by providing seamless integration with the world-leader in embedded test solutions," said Adam Kablanian, president and CEO of Virage.  "Not only can our customers now use memBIST-IC at the memory level, but they will also save significant design time through the seamless integration with their full-chip embedded test."

According to terms of the joint agreement, Virage will build EDA (Electronic Design Automation) and test models for LogicVision's memBIST-IC to ensure seamless integration between the memory-level and full-chip level embedded test.  Together, the two companies will validate the models to ensure high quality.  This will greatly benefit the growing number of common customers that both companies have. Some of the common customers are National Semiconductor, and Level-One Communications. In addit ion, both companies will jointly market LogicVision's memBIST-IC and Virage's Custom-Touch STAR memory compilers for embedding one megabit and greater of embedded SRAM memory into SoC (System-on-a-Chip) designs.

As the total size of embedded memory on SoC designs approaches one megabit and greater, there is an increasing need to have a comprehensive DFT (Design-for-Test) strategy.  Consequently, a seamless interface between the memory and the full-chip embedded test becomes essential to achieve high yield and maintain high profit margins. The integration of Logic Vision's embedded test to Virage Logic's redundancy scheme in the Custom-Touch STAR compiler facilitates diagnosing failures and repairing def ec tive memory locations.

"As memory increases in size and complexity, it becomes necessary to embed test in the memory as well.  This allows customers to test at-speed to isolate faults and increase yields in the most efficient manner," said Dr. Vinod Agarwal, president and CEO of LogicVision.  "We are pleased to join the leading embedded memory core provider in an effort to provide customers with the most effective embedded memory solution on the market."

About LogicVision

LogicVision's patented technology embeds high-performance test and diagnosis circuitry directly into integrated circuits, eliminating some of the most challenging design and manufacturing issues associated with very deep submicron and system-on-a-chip.   The embedded test circuits are inserted using LogicVision's proprietary design tools, and test programs are automatically generated.  LogicVision has licensed its embedded test technology to leaders in the computer, communications, military/ae ronautics and semiconductor industries, including Sun Microsystems, Nortel Networks, Hughes Space and Communications, and Texas Instruments.

Headquartered in San Jose, Calif., LogicVision has sales and support offices in Solana Beach, Calif.; Waltham, Mass.; Raleigh, N.C.; Richardson, Texas and Basingstoke, United Kingdom.  Distribution partners provide sales and support in Ra'anana, Israel; Seoul, South Korea; Taipei, Taiwan; Tokyo, Japan and Singapore. For more information on the company and its products, please visit the LogicVision Web site at: www.logicvision.com.

About Virage Logic

Virage Logic is the market leader in application-specific embedded memory cores.  The company's products include memory compilers, software tools that enable the development and reuse of memory cores, and custom memory design services.  Virage's customers include the leading semiconductor and electronic systems companies designing system-on-a-chip applications.  The memory products developed by Virage are available for COT customers targeting pure-play foundries and also optimized for semiconductor companies.  Founded in January 1996, the company is privately held, and is located at 46501 Landing Pkwy., Fremont, Calif.  94538.  Telephone: (877) 360-6690 (toll free) or (510) 360-8000.  Fax: (510) 360-8099.  For more information, please visit www.viragelogic.com.


 
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For More Information on Virage Logic:

Agency Contact:
Wendy Truax
Lee Public Relations
(503) 672-9073
E-mail: wendy@leepr.com

Company Contact:
Krishna Balachandran
Virage Logic
(510) 360-8080
E-mail: krishna@viragelogic.com

Mon, 18 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.design-reuse.com/news/2033/logicvision-virage-logic-integrate-embedded-test-technology-into-embedded-memory-design-test-solution.html
Killexams : Verification methodology serves memory subsystem

Verification methodology serves memory subsystem
By Jeremy Yiu, EEdesign
May 16, 2002 (5:25 p.m. EST)
URL: http://www.eetimes.com/story/OEG20020516S0066

AcceLight Networks recently developed a verification environment and methodology for a complex datapath controller (DPC). To accomplish this task, AcceLight used Denali Software's MMAV and Synopsys' Vera products. The DPC is used in high-speed line cards to provide temporary storage for data packets arriving at one or more of the input ports or destined for one or more of the output ports. As shown in Figure 1, the DPC typically communicates with a traffic management engine (TME) that directs the DPC as to where and when to de-queue a packet to the downstream device.

Figure 1 - System block diagram

Denali's MMAV product, along with Synopsys' Vera, was instrumental in providing a sophisticated and flexible verification testbench. To verify the DPC device under test (DUT), Vera was used to create a behavioral model of the DUT, a bus-functional model of the related devices, a traffic generator, data monitors, and data checkers. The Verilog RTL DPC was used along with Denali memory models to complete the memory subsystem.

Vera provides a shell to link Vera and Verilog together. In addition, it provides mechanisms to call Vera tasks directly from Verilog. Denali's memory models provide a C interface to allow direct communication between the Vera testbench and the memory devices, while maintaining coherency within the Verilog simulation. The following conceptual diagram illustrates how Vera, Denali, and Verilog co-exist in a typical verification environment.

Figure 2 - Denali/Vera logical flow diagram

Memory selection, configuration and integration
Fast Cycle RAM (FCRAM) is a revolutionary DRAM core architecture that achieves SRAM-like performance with DRAM technology by using a proprietary pipeline operation and hidden pre-charge to reduce the random access cycle time. It was chosen for the memory subsystem due to these desired characteristics.

In this design, the DPC required a number of 64-bit memory interfaces for temporary storage of packet information. The memory was implemented using 256Mbit (4M x 4 banks x 16 bit) FCRAM devices. These 16-bit wide devices were combined in groups of four to comprise each separate 64-bit wide memory interface.

Ensuring correct memory behavior while interacting with many separate FCRAM memory devices was a key challenge in developing a robust memory subsystem verification environment. Verifying that the DPC correctly accessed these memory devices, by following the proper protocol and timing requirements, was a necessity. Denali's MMAV provided accurate and robust FCRAM models to ensure the DPC's correctness. Together with accurate protocol and timing checks, Denali's MMAV models also integrate directly into Synopsys' Vera environment.

Testbench design
Synopsys' Vera testbench automation tool was used to accelerate module and s ystem level verification. With Vera, it is easy to quickly model the target environment at a high-level of abstraction, essentially creating a virtual prototype. This target environment included complex data monitors and checkers, traffic generators, and bus functional models of upstream and downstream devices.

Vera includes rich object-oriented constructs and key hardware-oriented concepts like clock timing, asynchronous timing, and signals (including unknown values.) This made it possible to create a Vera behavioral model in less time than a Verilog behavioral model, and with fewer lines of code. This behavioral model allowed us to develop and debug the traffic generators and checkers before the Verilog RTL was completed. By allowing for the concurrent creation of the testbench and Verilog RTL design, the testbench was ready before the RTL description, saving significant time in the schedule.

This combination of Vera behavioral models and RTL descriptions was especially useful for multi-chip sim ulations, where the configuration and connections between various blocks was controlled by Vera scripts. The Vera dynamic signal binding capability allows Vera inputs or outputs to be connected to different RTL signals or nodes at run time, enabling dynamic configuration control.

For stimulus generation, we relied on the native randomization and data packing capabilities in Vera, as well as the Vera class structures that make packet definition straightforward. The data monitors implement a self-checking capability that relies on the Vera mailbox construct to synchronize separate threads of activity and to queue complex data objects.

Another key decision in using Vera was its direct integration with Denali's MMAV. Because of the ability to directly interact with Denali's C-based memory devices from Vera, simulation performance was significantly improved over the usual overhead of PLI within a verilog simulation.

Logical memories
Denali's MMAV provided the capability to group physical me mory devices together to create a logical memory. This feature was used to group four 16-bit FCRAM devices into a single 64-bit logical memory. In this design, several 64-bit logical memories were generated to provide sufficient storage for the DPC.

These logical memories enabled preloading of a 64-bit data image into a single logical memory, instead of separating the data into smaller 16-bit chunks. They provided full data word backdoor read and write capabilities through Vera. And they generated memory access callbacks on the single logical memory, versus multiple individual callbacks on the physical memory instance. These features resulted in a much simpler and cleaner Vera testbench than would have been possible with other memory model alternatives.

Figure 3 illustrates how the logical memories were created using Vera's built-in Denali User Defined Functions (UDFs). In this example, a Verilog task (DenaliFcramBm) is created to generate a Denali logical memory from the already instantiated phy sical FCRAM devices. This task uses the following Vera's Denali UDFs to generate the logical memory configuration:

  • $DENALIstartSysMem - Defines a new logical memory instance named "iSysName" that is comprised of the specified number of physical instances wide, deep and interleaved.
  • $DENALIaddSysMem - Adds each physical memory instance to the aforementioned logical memory instance (iSysName).
  • $DENALIcreateSysMem - Last step in enabling the logical memory instance. This is called once all the physical instances have been added using DENALIaddSysMem.

Memory access callbacks are another key Denali MMAV feature used in the Vera testbench environment. This built-in feature allows users to dynamically "scoreboard" check each memory transaction as it occurs. This mechanism allows users to define a Vera function (access callback function) that will automatically be called when any Denali memory is accessed. This callback function then passes back the memory instance that was accessed, an enumerated access type (such as read, write, masked write, and load), plus the address and data associated with the memory access.

Used in combination with the logical memories created above, this callback will pass back the entire logical address and a 64-bit data word in a single callback, thus significantly simplifying the testbench design and data handling. This feature makes it easy for the Vera testbench to perform checking, scoreboarding, or coverage tasks in response to particular memory transactions. Figure 4 illustrates how this was accomplished.

Summary
Verifying a complex memory subsystem, as is found in a typical line card application, can present unique and interesting challenges. In this design, a new memory technology, FCRAM, was used. Ensuring that the DPC correctly and efficiently accessed this memory was crucial to the application. In addition, the challenges of creating a powerful, yet flexible system verification testbench were numerous. With the aid of Denali's MMAV, which provided accurate memory simulation models and some key verification features, and Synopsys' Vera, which provided a sophisticated and powerful system level testbench, the overall verification time and effort was significantly reduced.

Jeremy Yiu is an ASIC Designer and Verification Expert for AcceLight Networks in Ottawa, Canada since August 2000. Yiu previously worked as a Verification expert for Nortel Networks in Ottawa.

Mon, 18 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.design-reuse.com/articles/3186/verification-methodology-serves-memory-subsystem.html
Killexams : Engineering News

Electronics, software help cars cruise design crossroads

Future automobile designs announced at the Detroit Auto Show combine the technology of different platforms with futuristic design features to create a new driving experience
Anna Allen, Staff Editor

Detroit, MI--The future has arrived. Thanks to the efforts of design teams from General Motors (GM), Daimler-Chrysler, and Ford, concept cars are exploring new roads. SUVs, minivans, sports cars, coupes, and sedans are crossing paths, creating a new entry of vehicles, a metamorphosis if you will.

Among the concept introductions at the North American International Auto Show:

Visual interest. General Motors (GM) introduced five cars at the show, they include the Pontiac Aztek, Buick Cielo, Oldsmobile Recon, Cadillac Evoq, and Chevrolet Nomad. To design these cars, engineers are using Alias software's 2D digital sketching, paintbox, 3D digital modeling, and 3D visualization tools.

Each brand has its own design center that houses exhibits to inspire new automobile concepts. Kate Zak, a developer of brand center characters, comments that GM wants its engineers to know what the focus is, what it feels like.

Such exhibits include Speedforms, a generic sculpture of the individual brands' shape that helps engineers maintain the concept's focus and the model's theme. A glass case houses the brightest, boldest products, such as the latest Nike sneaker, which influence car design and keep engineers aware of consumer wants and needs.

Tom Peters, one member of the Pontiac Aztek design team, recalls going shopping with his kids and being captivated by a yellow/gray jacket. Products such as this gear, says Peters, stimulate a visual interest and incorporate materials to attract the consumers. He comments that sports bikes are another eye-catcher, especially those that feature exposed structural elements.

It's products and designs such as these that the design teams adopted for Pontiac Aztek, which combines the basic elements of an SUV, sedan, and van into one automobile. The Aztek, says design team member Phil Kuchera, is "in the hunk look, with a dual-port exhaust. Its profile is most dominant, a whole new animal, not a Clint Eastwood but rather an Arnold Schwarzenegger."

This four-door hatchback seats four passengers and features a 3.4l V6 200-hp engine with 225 lb ft of torque mated to a four-speed automatic transmission. This combination makes it possible to tow up to 3,500 lb--enough power to trailer not one, but two SeaDoo personal watercraft.

The car offers front-wheel drive with traction control and rack-and-pinion steering. Other features include MacPherson fully independent front struts, open-section twist-axles with integral stabilizer bar, and gas shocks with coil springs in the rear.

Inside, the titanium and textured-leather instrument panel features a fully exposed floating-instrument cluster pod with round analog gauges peer out of a titanium face plate.

The pod features Delphi Delco Electronic System's Ultra-Lite technology that uses a thin sheet of acrylic to efficiently channel light to the yellow primary display graphics. At night, the display takes on a 3D look.

The panel also features a driver information center with built-in heads-up display and multifunction LCD. The LCD screen delivers driver information center messages, time and radio-station readouts, and navigational information.

The main monitor also controls Pioneer's premium visual audio system. This system features a radio with CD changer control, two LCD displays, DVD, six-disc multi-CD changer, cordless remote control, and 10 speakers. The door speakers feature Pioneer's low-profile Kevlar(R) cone and neodynium-magnet circuit technology for loud, clear sound.

The Pontiac Aztec is is just one example of how GM is moving design. Another is a new spin on today's convertible.

"A no-compromise vehicle." That's how the Buick Cielo's design team described this concept, which they say provides the comfort of a sedan with the with the open-air enjoyment of a convertible.

This concept is designed from a primarily math-based process that involves extensive use of computers, 3D modeling, computer sketches, rendering, and production of a foam, not clay, model. This four-door convertible seats five and features a 3.8 liter supercharged V6 engine with four-speed auto transmission.

The Cielo features wide-opening doors, a dual head-up display, voice-activated systems (such as a retractable roof that is either voice or button operated), air bags (mounted in the roof rails), and a shift-by-wire roof (a sunroof that opens to varying degrees). The ignition is keyless.

Cielo's two roof rails run between the front of the passenger compartment and the rear end, strengthening the overall body and allowing use of three hard roof panels that slide into the trunk when the driver wants the top down. When the convertible top is up, the roof rails provide increased body stiffness and reduce noise and wind intrusion.

The four doors are power-operated and hinged at the front and rear pillars, opening at the center pillar. Articulating hinge mechanisms allow the doors to open wide. Recessed rockers and door sills Boost access to the car. And, the rear seat folds down.

A hybrid hybrid. At Daimler-Chrysler, designer's are using Visio and CATIA to create their futuristic concoctions. And once again, commercial products are driving some of the design considerations.

Chrysler's concept cars also address the need to increase fuel efficiency or look at alternative operating methods. The Citadel blends a sport sedan with an SUV and mixes in a futuristic performance powertrain.

"The Citadel is a hybrid-hybrid, a new breed of crossover vehicle. It provides the driving passion of the Chrysler 300M with ample cargo room," says Neil Walling, vice president of advanced design and exterior large-car, small car, and minivan. While Citadel is a hybrid among market segments, it is also a hybrid of powertrains; that is, it draws from two different sources.

"It's a performance hybrid," explains Bernard Robertson, senior vice president, engineering technologies. "The Citadel gives you V-8 power with V-6 fuel economy." A gas engine propels the rear wheels and electricity drives the front wheels. "We use the hybrid concept to recover energy normally lost when braking, while providing all-wheel -drive."

The rear wheels move by way of a 3.5l V-6 and the front wheels receive additional power from Siemens Automotive electric motors, which have been used on electric vehicles, similar to the Dodge Caravan/Plymouth Voyager EPIC electric minivan. The V-6 generates 253 hp and the electric motors add another 70 hp.

Other highlights of the Citadel include dual-power sliding rear doors and a retracting cargo door that slides under the floor. The B pillar moves with the rear door as it opens to maximize accessibility.

The Citadel has 2 inches more ground clearance and is 3 inches taller than the Chrysler Concorde. It has 20 x 3 ft of storage room, as compared to the 18.7 x 3 ft. for the Concorde.

Instrument panel design is influenced by high-end sports watches such as Chronoswiss and Blancpain. Hand-sculpted chrome is used for the indices on the gauges face. Other features include handmade chrome bevels around the odometer and clock--which carries into the steering wheel, door-control modules, pedals, and the folding tray table on the backside of the front seats.

As we round the corner to the millenium, car design races full speed ahead. Today's roads are the track for a new breed of vehicles. Which concepts will move forward and what else will emerge? That is in the hands of the designers, the vendors, and the tools--we'll have to wait and see.

Also...

Here's some other concept cars introduced at the Detroit Auto Show:

Ford: Thunderbird, Blackwood

This is just one example of how GM is moving design. Another is a new spin on today's convertible.

"A no-compromise vehicle." That's how the Buick Cielo's design team described this concept, which they say provides the comfort of a sedan with the with the open-air enjoyment of a convertible.

This concept is designed from a primarily math-based process that involves extensive use of computers, 3D modeling, computer sketches, rendering, and production of a foam, not clay, model.

This four-door convertible seats five and features a 3.8l supercharged V6 engine with four-speed auto transmission.

The Cielo features wide-opening doors, a dual head-up display, voice-activated systems (such as a retractable roof that is either voice or button operated), air bags (mounted in the roof rails), and a shift-by-wire roof (a sunroof that opens to varying degrees). The ignition is keyless.

Cielo's two roof rails run between the front of the passenger compartment and the rear end, strengthening the overall body and allowing use of three hard roof panels that slide into the trunk when the driver wants the top down. When the convertible top is up, the roof rails provide increased body stiffness and reduce noise and wind intrusion.

The four doors are power-operated and hinged at the front and rear pillars, opening at the center pillar. Articulating hinge mechanisms allow the doors to open wide. Recessed rockers and door sills Boost access to the car. And, the rear seat folds down.

Flex ring rinses out washer abuses

Newton, IA--Maytag Corp.'s washing machines are noted for their reliability and maintenance-free performance. Therefore, it seemed only natural for the quality-conscious engineers at Maytag to team up with a product development group at a major producer of elastomers for ideas on how to make its washers even better.

The project: Build a new multi-cavity tool for a flex ring that makes up part of the torque-sensitive mechanism in the agitator of the vertical washer. The previous material did not provide the high stiffness characteristics needed to adjust the amount of agitation for varying load sizes. However, no standard-grade thermoplastic polyurethanes Maytag tested fulfilled the need.

Maytag engineers conferred with personnel from Pella Plastics (Pella, IA), the part's producer, and with BF Goodrich (Cleveland) development engineers to come up with a solution. The team quickly identified the properties needed to meet both process and performance objectives of the new flex-ring design. Then product development engineers at BFGoodrich's IDEA Center turned these requirements into reality by developing Estane(R) 58151, a high-stiffness, durable, 70 Shore D thermoplastic polyurethane that offered excellent hydrolytic stability.

System cools off computer processor

West Columbia, SC--Fast processor speeds generate heat, which means something's got to cool everything off. That's why Compaq turned to KryoTech Inc. to provide the cooling system for the KryoTech/Digital 767 Personal SupercomputerTM, which runs at 767 MHz.

KryoTech's patented -40C cooling system was developed specifically for use with the Alpha Workstation, according to Scott Spears, product marketing manager for KryoTech. "Each cooling system is specifically designed for use with the specific processor," he says.

The Alpha Workstation works with mechanical, CAD, or CAE applications. It also has been used in research and in custom design applications. "People use it when they need as much number-crunching power as they can get out of one processor," Spears notes.

The cooling system is a standard vapor-phase refrigeration one. It uses a freon alternative coolant, which is environmentally friendly. The system pumps liquid coolant to the evaporator, which is in contact with the workstation CPU inside the KryoCavity.

The KryoCavity is a hermetically sealed and specially insulated device that holds the CPU and maintains the electrical connection with the motherboard. A pressure decrease inside the evaporator causes the liquid coolant to change into a gas, and this phase change pulls the heat off the CPU, Spears says.

KryoTech came to Compaq, which was then Digital, with the idea for a thermal cooling solution. "We work on the premise that as chip technology progresses, chip size doesn't change, but chip power does, and they produce more and more heat," Spears says.

"Active cooling systems like we promote not only dissipate the heat but help the user get more power out of the chip."

The cooling system goes to -40C, and at that temperature, the system provides a 30% increase in processor speed. KryoTech is working on a system that gets colder than that. "At -120C, you double the speed of the processor," Spears says.

People at home sometimes also overclock their computers, tuning their motherboards and turning up the speed of their processors. This gives the user extra power and speed, but generates high heat, which can cause damage to the machine. "They use any and every means they can to cool them off, including putting their entire computer in the refrigerator," Spears says. "We've heard about all sorts of strange methods."

Elastomer prevents process contamination

Fremont, CA--HTM Technology Corp. believes staying ahead in the computer industry demands only the best manufacturing techniques and technology. That's why, as a leading provider of thin-film disks for high-capacity disk drives in PCs, network servers, and workstations, the company must control contamination during processing. It's also a major reason why HMT recently replaced fitted fluorocarbon-coated elastomer seals with perfluoroelastomer parts in its electro-less nickel plating production equipment.

Supplied by Pan Pacific Supply Co. (Concord, CA), the parts, made by DuPont Dow Elastomers (Wilmington, DE) from Kalrez(R), have saved HMT an estimated $770,000 per year in reduced downtime, while improving safety on the production line.

Kalrez combines the sealing force and resilience of an elastomer with the chemical inertness and thermal stability of Teflon(R) fluorocarbon resin to create an extremely durable seal that can survive under severe caustic conditions. It contains no active hydrogen atoms in its polymer backbone, giving it the ability to withstand a wide range of chemicals, yet remain thermally stable at temperatures as high as 600F.

In the electro-less nickel plating process, nitric acid (40% at 125F) removes nickel build-up on the side of the plating tank. For HMT, the harsh chemical environment disintegrated previously installed fluorocarbon O-rings used in various valves and fittings. Result: The company had to manually change the seals at least once a month.

HMT replaced the fluorocarbon O-rings with Kalrez in one of its seven plating tanks in December 1995. After a successful two-year trial-and-error campaign, the company fitted the six remaining tanks with the material.

"Degrading of the fluorocarbon O-rings would begin almost immediately, resulting in equipment contamination, acid leaks, and production loss," says Brian McIntyre, HMT's equipment engineering manager. "Since the switch to Kalrez seals, we're replacing seals about once every two years."

Mobile phones withstand tough environments

Nashville, TN--Given survey results showing that people at work spend at least two and a half hours a day away from their desks--costing businesses over $3 billion a year--Northern Telecom (Nortel) decided to develop a more-durable, less-costly wireless phone. The result: the Companion C3050 phone with a tough phone-covering accessory made of thermoplastic rubber.

The companion phone series enables mobile, wireless communications within the workplace, increasing worker productivity, improving customer service, and reducing costs. Whether a person is climbing a ladder or just in an office down the hall, the phone's custom-designed Rugged Protector accessory allows the user to clip the phone on for greater comfort and freedom of movement.

Design Workshop (Ottawa, Canada) was the industrial designer for the holster of Nortel's earlier Companion C3020 series of phones, designed primarily for office use. The new phone series needed to withstand the tougher conditions of an industrial environment, so Nortel asked Design Workshop to incorporate the Rugged Protector in the new models.

In turn, Design Workshop contracted the molding process to ITW Plastiglide (Toronto, Canada), which had the insert molding and tooling expertise needed for the accessory's design. The application presented both companies with a challenge: Make an intricate, yet protective and durable cover that allows the user to operate the phone while still in its holster.

"The C3050 was more advanced and contained more delicate parts than the earlier series," notes John Tutton, partner, Design Workshop. "We needed to make sure we selected the right grade of material that would meet critical performance and visual requirements."

Tutton used Santoprene(R) rubber, supplied by Advanced Elastomer Systems L.P. (AES, Akron, OH) as the base material for testing and comparing other potential material candidates. The material they sought had to have the ability to form the phone's intricate features, resist abrasion, and still provide adequate impact protection.

"We went through a long list of thermoplastic elastomers when trying to come up with the right material, beginning with Santoprene, since its properties made it the top contender from the start," Tutton recalls. "After conducting the tests, we ended up choosing a standard 75 shore A grade of Santoprene as the best material."

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National Manufacturing Week showcases diverse products

Chicago--From March 15 through 18, engineers will have the chance to experience "America's #1 Source for Today's Industrial Solutions" at National Manufacturing Week. The show, which drew more than 60,000 attendees last year, is sponsored by the National Assn. of Manufacturers.

Manufacturing Week consists of the National Enterprise IT, National Industrial Automation, National Plant Engineering MRO and Management, and the National Design Engineering shows and conferences.

A new development this year in the National Design Engineering part of National Manufacturing Week is the Motion Hall, which is an entire hall devoted to motion-control products.

Last year, 2,100 exhibitors were on the show floor. Two companies who are returning this year are Cutler-Hammer (Cleveland, OH) and Intergraph Computer Systems (Huntsville, AL).

Cutler-Hammer will be celebrating its five-year anniversary as a company, and will be showing "best-in-class solutions, and how we will be taking them into the future and impacting manufacturing processes," says Paul Handle, marketing communications manager. The stage show, which featured music and dancers that transitioned into a speaker last year, will return, and will be "bigger and better, informational and entertaining," Handle adds.

"We're going to blow everyone away," he says. "The show is important to us, and we feel lucky to be a part of it. You'll have to see it to believe it."

Cutler-Hammer will also be showcasing several new products, including the SM Series photoelectric sensors. The series uses a microprocessor-controlled system called TargetLockTM to help users speed up the installation process and Boost sensor reliability, the company says.

Another product Cutler-Hammer will be showing in its booth at National Manufacturing Week is the SV9000 line of drives, which are available from 0.75 to 1,100 hp and 200 to 690V. The drives are consistent across all frame sizes, Handle says.

In the Intergraph Computer Systems booth, watch for the latest Intel/Windows NT-based TDZ-2000 visual workstations targeted at MCAD professionals. Intergraph will also show a variety of mechanical CAD applications, including Pro/ENGINEER and SolidWorks, according to Marla Robinson, media relations manager for Intergraph. The TDZ-2000 workstations feature Intense(R) 3D Wildcat graphics, which, Robinson adds, are the fastest graphics on Windows NT.

In the Design News booth, be on the lookout for web site demonstrations and several innovative products that have appeared in the magazine's pages last year.

FOR DAILY UPDATES on all show activities during National Manufacturing Week, check out www.manufacturing.net/nmw99

Unix workstation breaks memory bottleneck

Palo Alto, CA--Hewlett-Packard has broken a memory bottleneck with its HP Visualize Model C360 workstation, which it touts as the world's fastest desktop workstation. Based on HP's new 367-MHz PA-8500 64-bit microprocessor, the C360 achieves performance specs of 26.0 SPECint95 and 28.1 SPECfp95, as measured by HP.

Its performance numbers are significantly better than those of its predecessors, the C200 and C240, which use previous versions of the PA-8000 family. Performance on mechanical design applications is up to 77% faster, says Barry Crume, product marketing manager for HP's workstation division. But the only hardware difference is that the C360 has its primary (or first-level) cache memory integrated on the PA-8500, and the C200 and C240 primary caches are the motherboard. Other than that, the three machines are practically identical.

HP engineers were able to integrate 1.5 Mbytes of primary cache on the PA-8500 chip by using a 0.25-micron manufacturing process instead of 0.33 micron. (The smaller geometry also increased the chip's frequency.)

Other advantages of on-chip primary cache include:

Bus between on-chip primary cache and CPU runs at CPU clock rate (367 MHz for PA-8500), which is much faster than for off-chip cache.

The C360 was designed for engineers doing computationally intensive work. A C360 with VISUALIZE-fx2 graphics, 256 Mbytes of RAM, a 4-Gbyte hard disk, and 21-inch monitor costs $24,500.

Earlier detection, easier cure

Rick DeMeis Associate Editor

Skaneateles Falls, NY--A direct result of medical equipment supplier Welch Allyn's ongoing education atmosphere is the technology in its frequency-doubling Visual Field Analyzer (see DN 1/18/98). Here, a Medical Products Operation advanced technology manager attended a conference and met the Australian researcher who formulated the concept. The company brought the technology in house for development in conjunction with university and industry design partners. Extensive, targeted training in electromagnetic interference (EMI) and susceptibility brought one engineer up to speed for his portion of the design. Finally the product was implemented and introduced via the company's cross-functional teams.

The Visual Field Analyzer looks at eye function for advanced warning of glaucoma. It is more sensitive and provides fewer false positives and negatives than the common methods of eye-pressure measurement, such as the "air puff." Previously, high accuracy was possible only using equipment costing four times as much (up to $25,000), the company asserts. Testing would take 15 min/eye as opposed to 45 sec now.

The patient looks at a series of bars that vary sinusoidally between light and dark. Between 25-28 Hz, a set of retinal nerve cells, that happen to be the first degraded by glaucoma, produce an optical illusion of twice as many bars. Determining the contrast level where the bars are just barely visible correlates to a variety of eye diseases for earlier detection and easier cures.

Wed, 06 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.designnews.com/engineering-news-25
Killexams : PCTEL Announces Spectrum Monitoring and Uplink Testing Solution for Critical Communications Networks

Press release content from Business Wire. The AP news staff was not involved in its creation.

NEW ORLEANS--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Aug 1, 2022--

PCTEL, Inc. (Nasdaq: PCTI), a leading global provider of wireless technology solutions, today announced the launch of SeeHawk™ Monitor, an automated spectrum monitoring system for P25 public safety radio and other critical communications networks. SeeHawk Monitor also enables automatic testing of the uplink signal, which is the signal from a handset to the radio site, for the purpose of determining that in-building coverage complies with fire code standards.

First responders rely on radio communications to protect their teams and the communities they support. Interference on the radio network can have life threatening consequences if public safety personnel can’t communicate with incident command or with each other. The SeeHawk Monitor system automatically detects and helps users to identify interference from sources such as other communications networks, bidirectional amplifiers (BDAs), and high-powered industrial systems, so radio network managers can mitigate these sources of interferences to ensure reliable critical communications for first responders.

SeeHawk Monitor users can:

  • Continuously monitor spectrum across multiple radio sites
  • Rapidly detect and characterize service impacting noise and interference
  • Investigate problems with spectrum analysis in real-time or event replay modes
  • Automatically test the uplink signal during in-building coverage testing

“SeeHawk Monitor resolves key pain points repeatedly mentioned in our conversations with public safety industry professionals,” said James Zik, PCTEL’s Vice President, Test & Measurement Product Management. “It’s more than just public safety, as public and private wireless networks can also benefit from quickly and efficiently identifying service-impacting issues such as interference and poor in-building coverage.”

The SeeHawk™ Monitor system is easy to install and is scalable to the needs of any network. It is composed of multiple Remote Test Units (RTUs), which monitor spectrum and measure radio signals at each radio site, and the SeeHawk Monitor Platform Manager, which monitors and configures all RTUs in the system.

SeeHawk Monitor’s uplink testing feature makes it easier to ensure high-quality indoor coverage that complies with National Fire Protection Agency (NFPA) and International Fire Code (IFC) standards. The SeeHawk Monitor Platform Manager remotely manages automated uplink data collection on RTUs throughout the network. This enables a tester using a single PCTEL® public safety network testing solution to automatically collect uplink and downlink measurements in one survey of a building.

Customers can contact PCTEL now to place an order for SeeHawk™ Monitor, expected to ship in the fourth quarter of 2022.

PCTEL will demonstrate SeeHawk Monitor along with its other solutions for the critical communications industry at the National Association of State Fire Marshals’ NASFM Fire Prevention & Safety Symposium in Las Vegas, August 2 at booth #303.

About PCTEL

PCTEL is a leading global provider of wireless connectivity solutions, including purpose-built Industrial IoT devices, antenna systems, and test and measurement products. Trusted by our customers for over 25 years, we solve complex wireless challenges to help organizations stay connected, transform, and grow.

For more information, please visit our website at https://www.pctel.com/.

PCTEL® is a registered trademark of PCTEL, Inc. © 2022 PCTEL, Inc. All rights reserved.

View source version on businesswire.com:https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20220801005089/en/

CONTACT: Suzanne Cafferty

Vice President, Product Management & Global Marketing

PCTEL, Inc.

(630) 339-2107

public.relations@pctel.com

KEYWORD: UNITED STATES NORTH AMERICA ILLINOIS LOUISIANA

INDUSTRY KEYWORD: OTHER MANUFACTURING MOBILE/WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY TELECOMMUNICATIONS PUBLIC POLICY/GOVERNMENT MANUFACTURING NETWORKS INTERNET IOT (INTERNET OF THINGS) PUBLIC SAFETY

SOURCE: PCTEL, Inc.

Copyright Business Wire 2022.

PUB: 08/01/2022 08:50 AM/DISC: 08/01/2022 08:52 AM

http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20220801005089/en

Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:52:00 -0500 en text/html https://apnews.com/press-release/business-wire/business-ca318d0be62c49e9a1bc6d8008bbea7b
Killexams : Business News

Plan to link kids, computers

Jennifer Beauprez
Denver Post Business Writer

Dec. 11 - High school students who dream of becoming the next dotcom zillionaire may soon be able to dump their summer jobs and get paid to take classes to achieve those goals.

The new Colorado Institute of Technology, organized by Gov. Bill Owens, will offer summer-school scholarships as soon as next year to get more young people interested in and prepared for high-tech jobs, according to Marc Holtzman, the state's secretary of technology.

"We've got to tell these kids that you've got to take some math, you've got to take some computer courses or that door won't be open to you,'' said Tim Foster, director of the Colorado Commission on Higher Education, a key organizer of the program.

The summer-school initiative is just one piece of the Colorado Institute of Technology, known as CIT.

The privately financed institute will be made up of a network of high-tech research and training centers, housed at universities and community colleges and at the Advanced Technology Center at the former Lowry Air Force Base.

Next month, organizers will start searching for an institute president and begin raising $250 million from local companies and individuals.

Organizers hope to get financial support from at least 15 to 20 large corporations.

About 15 percent of the money will go to K-12 education and recruitment efforts, including the summer scholarship program. Students from grades 8 to 12 will be able to apply for monthly stipends to take courses needed to pursue high-tech degrees in college. With 12,000 unfilled high-tech jobs in Colorado, young people are already being courted by Colorado companies. They want to build relationships now that will last until the students have graduated from college and are looking for jobs.

"They invite them to their offices, and they have pizza,'' said Lew Wilks, president of Internet and multimedia markets for Qwest Communications International.

Wilks' 16-year-old son, Adam, was among a handful of gifted students invited this fall to visit Nortel Networks in Denver and offered the chance to work on cutting-edge projects.

"My son came home and said "Wow, this is a really great thing,''' Wilks said. "He came home so excited, it caused me to rethink how we build ongoing recruitments at Qwest.''

Like the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, which starts recruiting top students as early as age 16, CIT would use test scores to identify top students throughout the nation. CIT would also offer up to 1,000 scholarships to encourage them to come to CIT, according to Holtzman.

"Given our quality of life, if people come to Colorado, they're likely to stay,'' Holtzman said. CIT organizers want to add 6,000 students to the existing university enrollment and graduate 1,200 to 1,500 CIT students a year. Students would apply to CIT and get a certification in addition to a university or community college degree.

To build its reputation nationwide, CIT will use a portion of the $250 million to hire Nobel Prize winners and outstanding faculty.

"We want this to represent a serious currency in the marketplace,'' Holtzman said. "This will be one of the best recruitment opportunities for technology businesses to identify talent early.''

When the program is ready, students may get information and applications through high school career counselors.

Copyright 1999 The Denver Post. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.

Sun, 26 May 2019 15:46:00 -0500 text/html https://extras.denverpost.com/business/biz1211.htm
Killexams : Honorary degree citation - John A. Roth

By: Mohsen Anvari, November 2000

Mr. Chancellor, I have the honour to present to you John Roth, president and chief executive officer of Nortel Networks Corporation.

Born in Calgary, John Roth grew up in Lethbridge, Alberta, and came to Montreal to study at McGill University, where he earned a Bachelor of Engineering in electrical engineering and a Masters in engineering.

He began his professional career with RCA Montreal and in 1969 joined Nortel, then known as Northern Electric, as a design engineer. Over the next three decades, he held a range of management and executive positions, where his leadership had a significant impact on the development of Canada's high-technology industry.

In the mid-1980s, as President of its Bell-Northern Research subsidiary, he was in charge of the company's global network of research-and-development labs. In the early 1990s, he established Nortel Networks as one of the world's leading wireless network suppliers. He was named chief operating officer in 1995 and, in 1997, became president and CEO.

Mr. Roth's rise through the corporate ranks reflects his outstanding leadership abilities as well as his vision. Immediately on assuming the leadership of Canada's high-tech flagship, he issued a manifesto for change. He called for a "Right-Angle Turn" away from the past. He set out his vision of a new foundation for global communications and began leading sweeping changes in his company's way of doing business.

A safe and steady 100-year-old maker of telecom equipment for a handful of the world's largest telephone companies had to be transformed. It had to become an aggressive supplier of networking gear for thousands of Internet-related network operators. It had to compete with aggressive and fast-moving high-tech firms in California's Silicon Valley.

Not everyone in global communications shared the vision he described in 1997. But by setting his company on a bold new course and steering it into the heart of the Internet Revolution, John Roth effectively transformed the communications industry worldwide.

By making the right decisions at the right time, he also boosted Nortel Networks sales by 44 percent between 1997 and 1999 to $32.7 billion (Canadian). As CEO, he has strengthened the company's position at the core of Canada's technology environment and ensured Nortel Networks can continue contributing to Canada's economic development.

John Roth's leadership skills have been given shape by a passionate commitment to Canada. He has been an active participant in the public policy process, addressing economic and social issues important to Canada's future. He is committed to making Canada the world's most connected nation and a leader in the new global economy.

Under his leadership, Nortel Networks traditional support for education has expanded and become the focus of its corporate citizenship activities. The company is contributing about $25 million (Canadian) this year to expand capabilities for science, math, and technology education.

He has served on the Prime Minister's Advisory Board on Science and Technology and is chair of the Premier of Ontario's industry advisory board for the Access to Opportunities Program. He is also a member of the Premier of Alberta's external advisory committee on information and communications issues and a member of the policy committee of the Business Council on National Issues.

Through his participation in public and industry forums and organizations, he has worked to keep high-tech jobs in this country so that Canada can offer its young people opportunities at the forefront of global technology and business. Most recently, he co-chaired the Canadian E­Business Opportunities Roundtable, a joint public and private sector initiative examining what Canada has to do to prosper in the new Internet economy.

Since becoming CEO, John Roth has received many awards and other forms of recognition from public and industry organizations around the world. These have recognized his business accomplishments, his industry leadership, his support for education, and his contributions to Canada and the world.

He received the Emerging Markets CEO of the Year Award in 1998. In 1999, he was presented with the New York Hall of Science Distinguished Leadership Award for the Application of Technology to Telecommunications and Education. Earlier this year, he was awarded an honorary doctorate from Queen's University and received the IWAY Award for public leadership for his contributions to the advancement of Canada's information society and the development of its high-­tech industry.

For his success in transforming Nortel Networks into a 21st century powerhouse, he was recently named Outstanding CEO of the Year 2000 by a panel of business peers and academics.

Mr. Chancellor, on behalf of Senate and the Board of Governors, it is my privilege and an honour to present to you John Roth, so that you may confer upon him the degree of Doctor of Laws, honoris causa.

Sat, 18 Mar 2017 21:21:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.concordia.ca/offices/archives/honorary-degree-recipients/2000/11/john-roth.html
Killexams : Acorn Charts a Course to Global Product Development with PDM

We may have grown into a global economy, but orchestrating product development and engineering practices on a global scale is no small feat for any company — no matter what size. Yet while some of the largest manufacturers are still trying to iron out the organizational and cultural challenges surrounding global product development, one small U.S. design shop has mapped out a strategy and is well on its way to making the practice less myth and more reality.

The 40-plus person Acorn Product Development develops mechanical and electro-mechanical products for a roster of marquee clients — Siemens Medical, Apple Computer Inc. and Nortel Networks, among them — in industries such as communications, medical devices, computers and communications. Unlike most small design firms that are primarily U.S.-based, Acorn's engineering team is spread across offices in Fremont, CA, Boston and Dongguan, China. This far flung business model gives Acorn an edge among the smaller players, company executives maintain, while helping it better compete with contract manufacturing giants which are changing the game by adding design capabilities to their arsenal of outsourced manufacturing services.

“Contract manufacturers designing product use labor engineering talent from Asia,” explains Ken Haven, Acorn's principal. “That was one of the drivers to go global — we had to develop manufacturing relationships and tap design engineering talent that more closely modeled and matched what the contract manufacturers use.”

Matching that global business model meant Acorn would have to confront the same set of challenges the big guys are grappling with. High on the list of hurdles for Acorn, and any company pursuing global development: Creating business models that support a multi-site approach, putting processes in place to enable round-the-clock development across time zones, embracing tools to foster collaboration and file sharing across remote engineering sites and last, but certainly not least, addressing the cultural differences between geographic regions.

“People work and think differently depending on their personal and organizational cultures — using the same words does not always mean the same thing and that can cause confusion,” notes Ken Amann, director of research for CIMdata Inc., an Ann Arbor, MI, market research firm specializing in CAD and product design. “Helping workers in different organizations, time zones and cultures understand how others work and what they need to accomplish improves communication, the proper setting of expectations and collaboration.”

Design for Manufacturability: Acorn's Original Value Proposition — it's Focus

While a differentiator today, going global wasn't Acorn's original value proposition — it's focus on design for manufacturability was — and still is — a major strong suit. Haven, who spent years in engineering roles at companies such as NeXT Computer and Hewlett-Packard Co., had first-hand experience with outside firms that produced strong front-end mechanical designs that often ended up requiring last minute and expensive tweaks when it came time for manufacturing. From its inception in 1993, Acorn put processes in place to ensure that kind of scenario wouldn't happen. Its entire mechanical engineering staff is trained in thermal and structural analysis. There is always an engineer as the point person for each client, and there are a variety of other checks and procedures in place to ensure the designs are conceived from the ground up with production in mind, Haven says.

Beyond those internal procedures, Acorn's efforts to expand globally over the last few years have bolstered its ability to manufacture for design. Since a sizeable percentage of manufacturing is outsourced to China, it made perfect sense, Haven contends, to open an Acorn office in that region. There, Acorn could take advantage of low-cost manufacturing expertise available in the region, gain access to local clients as well as deliver a service to customers by having the manpower to oversee clients' manufacturing efforts, allowing them to cut back on international travel.

Acorn's approach of integrating its remote offices as opposed to mirroring operations at each location is part of its pitch around globalization and customer value. As opposed to providing a “cookie-cutter” palette of services in each region for mechanical engineering, human factors or industrial design, Acorn instead tailors the primary services it offers geographically based on the level of expertise available and the local need. “The danger of a cookie-cutter approach is that each area of the world operates very differently and the way you perform services might not be required in that marketplace,” says Mike DiMartino, Acorn's vice president of business development. “Making the argument that CAD work has to be done in China doesn't create a value proposition to a major customer. But telling a company that their guy in Austin [Texas] doesn't have to fly over to China for two weeks when the first article comes off the line — that's how you can establish a successful office.”

Whether you set up in China or Boston, there is still a significant amount of formal communication and operating procedures that must be established in order to make a remote office a success. Of primary concern is where to set up shop—a requirement that Acorn bases on the needs of the market and its current (and potential) customer base. Once the market is chosen, picking the right office environment is equally important, especially in Acorn's case, where the remote sites are small — generally between five and 10 employees.

In Boston, for example, Acorn choose a location at the Cambridge Innovation Center, a facility that has all the infrastructure in place for an office (including IT and administrative support), but also offers a community of other innovation-focused businesses to draw on. China presented greater challenges. There, Acorn found a manufacturer looking for an engineering partner, enabling it to trade its engineering expertise to defray some of the costs associated with office and administrative overhead. Haven and his partner also serve as sponsors for each of the remote sites and travel to each accordingly. “Remote offices can feel like out of sight means out of mind,” Haven says. “By each of us managing one site, they feel like they're not orphans and it splits up the travel burden.”

One of the more pressing issues has been how to handle cultural differences between how product development is done in the United States compared with China. In China, for example, following instructions in a direct fashion is sacrosanct, while in the U.S., people are encouraged to speak up if there are problems, explains DiMartino. “In the United States, it's OK for someone to stand up and say, `we're not ready,' but in China, that would be a face losing proposition,” he says. “We've had to work on making our China team members realize that it's acceptable to make those kinds of comments. If you do it enough times, the process takes over the cultural imperative of not identifying things that could serve to embarrass higher ups.”

Cross pollination among internal people and processes is another imperative. Acorn has instituted formal procedures for communication — English is the main language, and daily communications are replicated in e-mails, conference calls, sketches and design markup sessions. Employees also spend time in the other offices, to forge relationships and gain a sense of what the other sites do. Finally, Acorn puts a priority on promoting internal people from headquarters to serve as the remote site managers so they have inherent experience with the company's culture and values and can easily impart that knowledge to the rest of the group, Haven explains.

High-Tech Collaboration

Technology is also playing a role in helping Acorn collaborate on a global basis. The firm several months ago starting using the Windchill PDMLink Product Data Management tool from PTC to serve as a central repository for all product-related materials and CAD files, which allows anyone with access from any remote site to get at the data. Previously, the teams would perform FTP file transfers of large CAD files to share designs — a process that ate up a significant amount of time, requiring someone to manually initiate the downloads, watch for errors and restart if something went amiss.

More widespread use of PDMLink will also help Acorn facilitate continuous work across time zones, Haven says. “After 5 p.m. California time, anything we do overlaps with [China's] work day so if we want to collaborate, we have to stop work and freeze it otherwise it's not consistent,” he explains. “With Windchill [PDMLink], we'll have a lot more flexibility with sharing work.” Having a central repository for designs with revision control will also eliminate any problems that engineers have encountered working on designs without full knowledge of the history tree associated with a particular model, he adds.

To ensure the quality of the data being stored, Acorn has put a number of procedures in place, including a process called CAD check, in which multiple teams check the entire database associated with a design for parts, assembly and engineering content. “They comb through the database to make sure there are no interferences or no design errors,” he explains. “It can take a couple of days work, but in the end, it saves a lot of time in the development process.”

Having these kinds of formalized processes in place to foster collaboration on a global basis has already paid off, and Haven says more opportunity lies ahead. A recent redesign of an ultrasound medical imaging system for Siemens Medical underscores Acorn's progress. The redesign needed to be done in short order so Acorn was really looking to perform as close to 24/7 development as it could achieve. The U.S. team worked on the surfaces and models during the day and handed off to the China team at night, which then sent back their efforts by morning. By achieving close to 20-hour design days, Acorn met its deadlines and a prototype of the Siemens imaging system was ready for its trade show debut.

“Global product development is not trivial to implement because there are so many aspects to it,” Haven says. “You hear a lot about teams working around the clock, but in practice, it rarely happens. In reality, we've done that.”

Thu, 16 Jun 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.designnews.com/automation-motion-control/acorn-charts-course-global-product-development-pdm
Killexams : Market Focus: Workhorse products

One of the product categories that can be considered to make up the industrial market is those infrastructure products that support the booming electronic and telecommunications industry. This year's SPI Structural Plastics Conference and Design Competition focused on some of these interesting applications.

An eye-catching example from the industrial telecommunications perspective was the award-winning Alcoa Fujikura splice box, molded and submitted by Mack Molding (see opposite page). The part represents a metal-replacement trend in this market that's been under way for several years and is now reaching critical mass.

Outdoors
Unless you've been in a coma for the last five years, you know that the digital revolution is well underway. Baby Bells, AT&T, MCI Worldcom, Sprint, British Telecom, and a host of other mega-companies are positioning themselves to build and cash in on new and improved telephone, cable, and mobile communications networks. These networks have an infrastructure being built by the likes of Lucent, Nortel, and Motorola.

Joel Fouquart, technical manager at GE Plastics, says the Alcoa/Mack splice box is the best example of the trend occurring in the outdoor infrastructure arena. The Alcoa box replaces a diecast aluminum predecessor that weighed 65 lb and was a beast to install. But with a switch to GE's Valox PBT and structural foam molding, Alcoa suddenly had a lighter, equally durable, less expensive box that could be produced in volumes. That, says Fouquart, is the key-producing in high volumes to accommodate the new and improved networks under construction.

Indoors
Indoors, Fouquart says the central office is the scene of the most changes. Not happy producing simple computer and electronics cabinets and housings, many manufacturers are looking to plastics and injection molding to create a more striking identity, similar to the job Silicon Graphics has done with its standout colors and contours. Fouquart says many OEMs struggle to determine the break-even point between plastic and metal.

The economic advantages of plastics increase with part complexity. Plastics allow designers to incorporate unique features that are often difficult to impossible to produce in sheet metal. GE and Fouquart conducted a study using a standard 6-ft cabinet panel with moderate contours and complexity, and compared the cost of producing it via structural foam vs. metal. The sheet metal, he says, has an initial tooling cost ranging from $10,000 to $90,000, where an injection mold ranges from $100,000 to $275,000.

However, downstream welding and shaping of the metal ballooned the per part cost to $550 for metal compared to $350 for plastic. Not only that, but the break-even volume for the plastic part is 1000 units annually.

For Example
The Best Paper winner at the Structural Plastics Conference was written and presented by Michael Caropreso, who, with Hewlett-Packard, devised a system for molding plastic panels to replace a large metal door on a peripheral computer rack system. The metal door H-P was looking to replace cost $40 to make and $150 to ship because of its size, and was often damaged in transit.

The series of smaller plastic panels would prove less expensive to make, and ship, and easier to use for service personnel who need to access cabinets. But what made the project particularly interesting was the rare combination of gas-assist molding and sequential gating.

The panels are 35 inches long and 16 inches wide, with a nominal wall thickness of .140 inch, unpainted and with no visible sink marks or weld lines allowed. Two gates were used in the mold, both fed by a hot manifold system with hydraulic valves.

To establish production parameters, the mold was filled through one gate in a series of short shots that were used to determine the ram position at which the flow front reached the second gate. This position was used to trigger the second valve, which finished filling the part. This overlap in flow fronts rendered weld lines invisible.

Gas filling begins after both gates close. A series of carefully guided gas bubbles help pack out different sections of the panel, provide strength, and eliminate sinks. The entire cycle runs in just over a minute, with no secondary operations. The molder produces the parts at facilities in California and Dublin, Ireland.

Metal-to-plastic conversion takes the weigh off

Replacing its eight-part diecast aluminum predecessor, this structural foam molded splice box weighs less than half as much and greatly reduced the total part count. The splice box, manufactured for Alcoa Fujikura Ltd. by Mack Molding (Arlington, VT), is mounted on utility poles and buildings and is used to house and protect spliced fiber optic connections.

"An excellent metal replacement application, this splice box previously weighed 65 lb," says Brian Sumpter, new business development director at Mack's southern division. "We've reduced that to 29 lb, which is a tremendous relief to field service personnel who are hoisting these units up telephone poles to install them." The 10-by-30-inch box consists of two primary parts: one is a drawer in which lines are spliced; the other is the enclosure into which the drawer slides (see photo). The drawer accommodates up to 360 fiber splices and up to six individual cables of various types and sizes. The gasketed drawer can be easily opened for periodic maintenance.

Called the Opti-Guard splice box, it's high-pressure structural foam molded of Valox PBT from GE Plastics at Mack Molding's Inman, SC facility. The material was chosen to meet requirements of UV exposure, ballistic resistance, impact resistance of 100 ft-lb or more at -40F, and temperature resistance ranging from -40F to 176F. Also, Alcoa's internal tieoff system resists more than 100 lb of tension per cable.

The part was an award winner at the Structural Plastics '99 Conference and Design Competition, an annual event hosted by the Society of the Plastics Industry.

For more information:
GE Plastics, Pittsfield, MA
Phone: (800) 845-0600; Fax: (800) 433-2925
Web: www.geplastics.com

Rare-earth compound, plastic unite for speedometer part

All the plastic parts you see in this Bitorque speedometer, designed for some models of Harley Davidson motorcycles, are molded by Thomas G. Faria Corp. But the two parts below the speedometer required a special material. Called bobbins, the parts hold a pin that connects to a magnetic source on the back side of the speedometer. That magnetic source emits a varying electrical charge based on how fast the engine is running. The bobbin, connected to the pin and a meter, rotates according to that charge, thus telling the driver the vehicle's speed.

Faria needed a moldable, highly filled, high-temperature polymer that could be insert molded and then magnetized as part of the inner electrical workings of the speedometer. It hired custom compounder Foster Corp. (Dayville, CT), which developed a compound from a nylon and a rare-earth material called ferrite (an iron-based material). Specifics of the material were not released, but according to the molder, the plastic version is equal in quality to the chrome-plated, hand-finished instrument made for other Harley motorcycles.

Faria runs 40 or so injection molding machines ranging from 15 to 200 tons at its Uncasville, CT plant.

For more information:
Foster Corp., Dayville, CT
Phone: (860) 848-9271
Fax: (860) 848-2704
Web: www.fostercomp.com

Regenerative pump housing benefits from PPS

Designed to house regenerative pumps for use in soft drink dispensing systems in the U.S. and the U.K., this part is required to withstand up to 30 bar of pressure and must operate in temperatures ranging from -4F to 212F. Chemical resistance is required to withstand periodic purging with cleaners. Good surface hardness and dimensional stability are also required. Chosen to mold the part: 40 percent glass-filled Fortron PPS from Ticona.

The critical component in the housing design is the back plate. Stress analysis conducted during the design phase indicated that unacceptably high stress levels in key areas around the connecting points could cause the part to fail. A new design was submitted in which the overall wall section was increased, ensuring greater strength and dimensional stability, with cored-out sections to minimize material use.

Tests on the new design showed a reduction in strain levels around the connecting points by a factor of three. Tests also predicted that the design would be able to meet the stress requirements as well as maintain the .05 mm flatness required for the pump's impeller. The housings are made in the U.K. by Electromag-Neil, which insert molds the stainless steel threads for connecting pipes.

For more information:
Ticona, Summit, NJ
Phone: (800) 235-2637
Fax: (908) 598-4165
Web: www.ticona.com

Polypropylene wheel unit endures heavy weight

This four-caster wheel unit, called the Universal Gondola Skate, is designed to facilitate safe and easy movement of heavy, fully loaded shelves during renovation of retail stores. The wheels are placed under the shelves so that during a store's off hours, the shelves can be moved out of the way to make room for renovation and construction. Then, they can be easily rolled back to their place during regular store hours. They are designed to hold up to 2000 lb and reportedly cost up to 50 percent less than comparable products.

The idea was co-developed by Cozza Harris Design (San Diego) and Co-Mack Technology (Vista, CA). Co-Mack molds the part in a structural foam molding process on a 385-ton Battenfeld. Up to 700 wheel units can be produced in a day on the single-cavity mold. The part is made from a 10 percent glass-filled polypropylene from RheTech Inc. that doesn't have to meet tight tolerances, but must offer strength. The casters are purchased out of house and assembled at Co-Mack.

For more information:
RheTech Inc.
Whitmore Lake, MI
Phone: (734) 769-0585
Fax: (734) 769-3565

Tension knob gets lubed with switch to acetal

The knob on the Ovation 2 thermal transfer printer is used to adjust ribbon tension each time a different width label is used. The printer produces labels up to 4 inches wide and is used to make bar codes, tags, and other products. The tension knob is used intermittently, but not continuously. For Orlando-based manufacturer Datamax, this was a problem with the material used previously, which tended to bind up if the knob was not frequently used.

"The binding," says Ken Colonel, director of mechanical engineering at Datamax, "was due to the fact that the knob is a part that is not in constant operation. The lubricated material we previously used would have worked fine had this been the case. Frequent use would have brought the internal lubricants to the surface and allowed for better performance."

For help, Datamax switched to Fulton 441D, a silicone lubricated acetal composite produced by LNP Engineering Plastics. Because of the silicone's limited compatibility with the base acetal material, it migrates to the surface of the tension adjustment knob. The result is a continuous generation of silicone film, which serves as a boundary or lubricant.

For more information:
LNP Engineering Plastics
Exton, PA
Phone: (610) 363-4500;
Fax: (610) 363-4749
Web: www.lnp.com

Encapsulated solenoids endure with PET

Solenoids manufactured by Caterpillar Inc. are designed to operate hydraulic valves on heavy-duty equipment used in construction, mining, and agriculture. The key to the solenoid's durability is the encapsulation, which blocks moisture and insulates the unit from sudden temperature changes.

Previously overmolded with a thermoset or other thermoplastic, the solenoid is now encapsulated with 30 percent glass-filled Rynite PET from DuPont. More durable than previous designs, the encapsulated product meets Caterpillar's standards for resistance to heat, thermal shock, vibration, moisture penetration, fuel, and lubricants. The company rates solenoids for service at ambient temperatures from -40F to 250F. The PET is also used to mold a coil bobbin that is part of the assembly.

John Hoffman, an engineer for Caterpillar, says the new design and the switch to Rynite PET makes the new units less expensive to produce than the ones they replace. Also, the addition of an integrated electrical receptacle into the encapsulation shell saves the cost of an additional part. The solenoids are installed on bulldozers, wheel loaders, motor graders, agricultural tractors, and off-highway mining trucks.

For more information:
DuPont Engineering Polymers
Wilmington, DE
Phone: (800) 441-0575
Fax: (302) 999-2311
Web: www.dupont.com/enggpolymers

TPE rubber used in electrica plugs, connectors

Electrical products maker Leviton Mfg. in Little Neck, NY makes this watertight locking plug and connector assembly for indoor and outdoor industrial electrical applications. Called the Wetguard, the unit is used to connect two flexible cords in order to supply power to electrical appliances, tools, and machines in a safe and simple installation procedure. The guard shields the connection from threatening environmental elements, providing protection from moisture and dust.

Leviton molds the Wetguard with a Capron nylon 6 from AlliedSignal Plastics and overmolds it with a Santoprene thermoplastic elastomer from Advanced Elastomer Systems. Santoprene not only gives a tactile feel, it also provides resistance to harsh environments, insulation, and good part uniformity and sealability. Levitron specified nylon-bondable grades of Santoprene because they chemically bond well with Capron, thus eliminating any possibility for leakage in the area where the two parts meet. The combination also reportedly resists crushing, impact, and abrasion.

The plugs and connectors, which are available in 15A, 20A, and 30A Nema ratings, feature a tongue-and-groove design, meaning when the male and female parts of the plug and connector are put together, it seals itself. It also has a locking indicator that gives the user visual confirmation that a seal has been obtained.

The Wetguard enclosure consists of two parts that are insert injection molded on a 150-ton press in a two-cavity mold. Previously, enclosures for the 15A devices were designed as a two-part assembly, which, according to Leviton, was a slow operation that often provided an unsatisfactory seal.

For more information:
Advanced Elastomer Systems
Akron, OH
Phone: (330) 849-5000
Fax: (330) 849-5599
Web: www.aestpe.com

AlliedSignal Plastics
Morristown, NJ
Phone: (201) 455-5010
Fax: (201) 455-3506
Web: www.asresin.com

Multimeter features one-shot overmolding of TPU resin

Tektronix Inc. wanted to Boost the durability of its TX-DMM family of true RMS digital multimeters, and ease the manufacturing process at the same time. Handheld DMMs are the most common of all electrical and electronic test instruments. Tektronix used film insert molding to Boost the bezel and display window of the DMM but the back cover presented some design molding challenges.

The back cover, which is injection molded with Bayer's Bayblend FR110 PC/ABS resin, requires three additional parts molded with an elastomer resin: a water-resistant gasket that seals the DMM's electronics from moisture, dust and other elements; a mechanical connection that holds a metal electromagnetic interference shield inside the back cover; and four no-skid pads on the outside of the back cover. Poly-Cast (Tigard, OR), which molds the front and back covers, wanted the three parts to be molded from the same material in just one shot. It chose Bayer's Desmopan KU2-8651 TPU resin, with a 75 Shore A hardness, because it offers good flexibility, resilience, and compression-set properties.

After the Bayblend PC/ABS back covers are molded, Poly-Cast inserts them and an EMI shield into the press. The Desmopan resin is shot onto the back cover through two gates. The resin flows around the lip of the back cover to form a watertight gasket. It then continues through an opening on each side of the part's interior and flows into separate lines over the EMI shield. Finally, the resin flows through openings in the EMI shield and back cover to form four capsule-shaped feet on the outside diameter of the DMM's back cover.

According to Steve Lyford, mechanical engineer for Tektronix, it was less expensive to overmold the parts using this process than to perform a secondary operation by hand. Tektronix had previously used a custom-made gasket, but preferred the overmolding operation even though the mold was tougher to build because the resin has to run a long flow path. The complex mold was built by Bestco of Hillsboro, OR.

For more information:
Bayer Corp., Polymers Div.
Pittsburgh, PA
Phone: (800) 622-6004
Fax: (412) 777-5585
Web: www.bayer.com/polymers-usa

Wed, 06 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.plasticstoday.com/market-focus-workhorse-products
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