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Killexams : Lotus Intermediate test contents - BingNews Search results Killexams : Lotus Intermediate test contents - BingNews Killexams : The White Lotus: When does season 2 premiere?

Season two of hit show The White Lotus has landed a US premiere date.

The Emmy-nominated comedy-drama – which followed a week of misadventures of the guests and employees at a tropical resort in its debut season – will make its return with a location change.

On Wednesday (3 August), the streamer revealed that its second season will take place in Sicily and will premiere on HBO Max in the US in October.

A specific day has yet to be announced.

The forthcoming series will follow a new set of hotel employees and privileged vacationers. However, Jennifer Coolidge will reprise her role as fan favourite Tanya McQuoid.

Additional cast members include F Murray Abraham, Adam DiMarco, Tom Hollander, Michael Imperioli, Aubrey Plaza, Haley Lu Richardson, Theo James, Meghann Fahy, Will Sharpe, and Leo Woodall.

The first season of the limited anthology series received 20 Emmy nominations for the 2022 September award show for Outstanding Limited Series, Writing, Directing, and numerous acting nods.

Fred Hechinger, pictured here with Steve Zahn, plays a tech-addicted teen in ‘The White Lotus’ (Sky)

Among the nominees is Sydney Sweeney, who recently spoke out against the “lack of loyalty” in Hollywood.

Find the full list of Emmy 2022 nominations here. Read The Independent’s five-star review of the first season here.

The White Lotus season two premieres this October on HBO Max in the US, with a UK release date to follow.

Wed, 03 Aug 2022 09:30:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Welcome to Our Schools Killexams : Welcome to Our Schools
Mission StatementMessage from the Superintendent1. The BESST Reform Agenda2. General Information3. Choices for Learning4. Rights and Responsibilities

Editor's Note:
This information has been provided by the local school system. It is displayed here without editing.

To provide a quality student-centered environment that fosters maximum learning by each student, enabling each to enjoy continuous learning while becoming a productive, global citizen.Message from the Superintendent
Welcome to D.C. Public Schools. As we work to provide a quality-centered environment for all students, we are undertaking serious educational reforms. However, it is our belief that true reform cannot occur in schools until people representing all aspects of the community work together to solve the problems we face today in education.

To encourage community involvement, we support school-based management. This means allowing those individuals closest to the students -- the principals, teachers, parents, and community members -- to decide the best educational approach for students in their neighborhood schools.

In March 1994, the D.C. Board of Education officially endorsed this philosophy by approving the school system’s educational reform agenda, Bringing Educational Services to Students (BESST). In doing so, the school system embarked upon a comprehensive, systemic reform agenda designed to respond to the community’s demand for quantifiable, sustained improvement by our students and in our schools.

BESST recognizes that, internally, the school system must change the way it operates by converting from a centrally to a locally directed organization. It also reflects the idea that, externally, DCPS must form partnerships with public and private agencies and organizations to address student needs. These alliances will provide not only technical assistance and expertise in the development of educational systems, but also increased opportunities for all students.

In approving the BESST plan, the Board demonstrated its understanding that the problems facing DCPS cannot be resolved by making piecemeal changes. They must be overcome through bold, innovative steps which lead to lasting systemic reform.

Let me reinforce the point that our ability to effect positive change will be successful only with your help. "Welcome to Our Schools" is published to provide you with pertinent information. We encourage you to use it and to contact DCPS with questions, comments, or concerns about our schools. Your interest in and support for education are invaluable to us and, most importantly, to our students.

Dr. Franklin L. Smith
Superintendent of Schools
Chief State School Officer

Back to top1. The BESST Reform Agenda

Students in the District of Columbia need the skills and knowledge to compete with graduates not only from the metropolitan area, but also from around the world. They need to become quality producers, informed decision-makers, and self-directed learners. To help students achieve these outcomes, the school system has undertaken a systemic reform agenda, known as BESST (Bringing Educational Services to Students). It has five main elements:

Curriculum Revision

Technology Integration
Competency-Based Curriculum, the teaching and learning system used in DCPS since the mid-1970s, is being replaced by Performance-Based Education (PBE). PBE requires that students demonstrate what they have learned, not just through paper and pencil testing, but through more hands-on, authentic forms of assessment, such as projects, performances, products, and portfolios. With PBE, instruction becomes more rigorous and inquiry-based: Learning is connected to the real world through use of technology, community service learning, and experiences in the workplace.

Professional Development
To bring about Performance-Based Education, staff must be engaged in professional development in three critical areas:

  • using the new curriculum and focusing on content standards and foundation skills;
  • providing instruction that will engage students: cooperative learning, problem-based learning, and effective questioning strategies; and
  • applying new assessment methods with criteria that measure the level of student success.
Additionally, training focuses on creating a context for learning that emphasizes valuing the learner, understanding how children learn, and providing a caring learning environment.

Choice, Consolidation, Collaboration
Students, along with their parents and guardians, need to be able to make choices about where they attend school based upon their interests, talents, needs, and long-term goals. D.C. Public Schools is encouraging schools to design thematic programs that integrate subject areas and involve partnerships with the community. These programs may be magnets; they may serve neighborhood children; they may do both. At the high school level, these thematic programs with specialized curriculum represent pathways for students to careers.

Student Efficacy
In order to perform effectively in school, students need to be healthy; they need to feel safe and secure; and they must set goals. In collaboration with local government agencies and others, the school system is implementing a Comprehensive School Health Program; it supports conflict resolution and peer mediation training; and it is reviewing its guidance systems.

Shared Decision-Making and Accountability
Local School Restructuring Teams have been established in each school to deliver teachers, parents and other members of the local community a greater say in the decisions affecting their school. In addition, schools that apply for and receive the new "Enterprise School" status and teacher-designed School-Within-a-School Charters are given additional autonomy in making both budgeting and staffing decisions. Accordingly, these schools are more accountable for the success of their students and operations.

Goals 2000
Through BESST, the school system will realize both national and local education goals by ensuring that all DCPS students:

    Enter school ready to learn;
  • Graduate from high school;
  • Leave grades 4, 8 and 12 having demonstrated competency in challenging subject matter and having learned to use their minds well, so that they are prepared for responsible citizenship;
  • Have teachers who continuously Boost their professional skills;
  • Are first in the world in mathematics and science;
  • Become literate adults who have continuing education opportunities;
  • Learn in schools that are free of drugs and violence and that offer a disciplined environment conducive to learning;
  • Have parents who are actively involved in their children’s education; and
  • Demonstrate an appreciation for the cultural arts.
Underlying Principles
Our work is guided by certain underlying principles:
  • All students are capable of learning and there are no limits to learning.
  • The dignity of the student and respect for his/her personal circumstances, cultural and language diversity should always be affirmed. Each student learns in his/her way and at an individual pace.
  • Caring, sensitive and responsible adults heighten the student’s desire for learning and create conditions for success.
  • The school community and family must act together to support the student’s learning.
Back to top2. General Information

Entrance Requirements
Students new to the school system should register at the school they plan to attend. For further information on which school a child will attend, parents should contact the Student Services Division. Call 724-2066.

Please bring the following documents at the time of registration:

  • Proof of birth date: preferably the child’s birth certificate
  • Record of immunization: measles, mumps, rubella, polio, diphtheria, tetanus, and tuberculosis (The Department of Human Services can provide detailed information on immunizations. Call 576-7127. For health examinations and vision and hearing screening, call 576-7141.)
  • Legal proof of residence, including, but not necessarily limited to: rent receipt, proof of payment of D.C. personal income tax, unexpired lease agreement and/or all of the following bills: phone, gas, and electric
  • Record of prior school attendance: student transcript or last report card from the previous school
  • Proof of physical and dental examinations: students in grades pre-kindergarten, kindergarten, first, third, fifth, seventh, ninth, and eleventh
The Compulsory School Attendance Law of the District of Columbia requires children from age 5 up to the 18th birthday to enroll in and attend school regularly. Parents have the responsibility to comply with this legal mandate. Children entering a Montessori program, pre-kindergarten, kindergarten, or first grade must be three, four, five, or six years old respectively on or before December 31 of the year they begin school.

Excused Absences
The following are valid reasons for absence from school:

  • Illness of the student;
  • Emergency which requires the presence of the student in the home;
  • Death in the immediate family;
  • Necessity for a student to attend any judicial proceedings as a plaintiff, defendant, witness, or juror;
  • Observance of religious holy days by the members of a religious group;
  • Suspension or exclusion from school by school authorities;
  • Temporary closing of facilities or suspension of classes due to severe weather, official activities, holidays, malfunctioning equipment, unsafe, or unsanitary conditions, or other conditions requiring closing or suspension of classes;
  • Other absence(s) approved in advance by the principal upon the written request of a parent, guardian, or adult student.
  • Exclusion, by direction of the authorities of the District of Columbia, due to quarantine, contagious disease, infection, infestation, or other condition requiring separation from other students for medical or health reasons.
Written Excuses
A student is required to bring a written note from his or her parent or guardian upon returning to school from an absence. The note must state the reason for the absence and include documentation where appropriate.

Students generally attend their neighborhood school. If there is a reason why this would pose a hardship or there are other valid reasons for transferring (such as enrollment in a magnet school or academy), a request to attend another school should be made by calling 724-2066. Program application deadlines may vary from school to school.

Reporting to Parents
The schools have a responsibility to keep parents informed of the educational progress of their children. This is accomplished through a variety of ways: letters or telephone calls from teachers, parent conferences, and report cards issued every nine weeks in grades K-12. Students have the responsibility for delivering papers and other reports to their parents.

Resolving Problems
If you or your child encounter a specific problem or concern during the school year, the following steps should be taken:

  1. Contact your child’s teacher or other person with whom the problem was encountered.
  2. If the problem was not resolved in step 1, call or make an appointment with the principal.
  3. If, after talking with the principal, you feel you need further assistance, contact the Lead Principal designated for your school’s cluster.
  4. If the Lead Principal’s response is unsatisfactory, call the Ombudsman at the number below.
The Office of the Ombudsman handles problems, concerns, suggestions, and inquiries from students, parents, and the community regarding the education of students. Call 645-3620.

Pupil Services
Students having difficulty in school may receive individualized assistance provided by a pupil services team at their school. Either the student’s parents or a member of the school staff may request such services. An Individual Student Assistance Plan is developed for each of these students and implemented by the team, which may include a counselor, teacher, nurse, parent, social worker, psychologist, and speech and language pathologist. Contact your local school.

Student Government
Student government gives students a voice in the decision-making process of their education through the Student Advisory Council (SAC). The SAC includes an Upper House for secondary schools and a Lower House for elementary schools. There are thirteen citywide SAC officers. Each local school has one SAC representative and a student council/government chapter.

Students under 19 years of age needing transportation to and from school can obtain an application for reduced-fare Metrobus tokens or Metrorail farecards from their local school.

Daily bus transportation for some special needs students is provided.

Safety and Security
The school system provides safeguards for students so that they can learn and study in a hazard-free environment. To report an accident, hazardous condition, and illegal or irregular activities on the grounds of any D.C. public school building, call 645-3260 (day) or 645-3113 (evening).

Food Services
Most D.C. schools serve hot breakfasts and lunches. Many students may qualify for free or reduced-price meals, based on the size and income of the family. Contact your local school.

Visiting Instruction Service
The Visiting Instruction Service (VIS) is designed for students who are not in school due to an illness or disability which prevents regular classroom attendance. VIS services are free of charge. Call 724-6660.

Scholarships and Grants
Each year, scholarships and financial assistance are awarded to D.C. seniors who want to pursue their education or technical training beyond high school. These awards include scholarships from national sources, private and social foundations, community organizations, fraternal societies, and colleges and universities. Call 724-4934.

Title I Program
The Title 1 program provides concentrated supplementary instructional services to eligible students (eligibility based on income) in public and non-public schools in the District of Columbia. The program also emphasizes student self-esteem, professional development, and parental involvement=2E Over 15,000 students participate in the Title I program in accordance with a plan developed by a team at each eligible school. Call 541-3865.

Homeless Children and Youth
The mission of the Homeless Children and Youth Unit is to ensure free, appropriate educational opportunities for homeless children and youth and to provide technical assistance to schools, shelters, and communities. It also provides homeless parents with information and procedures necessary for enrollment in school (e.g., boundary information and educational support services). Call 727-5559.

Parents as well as community residents are encouraged to participate in the D.C. Public Schools volunteer program. Working directly with students or in a non-instructional capacity, volunteers provide services in pre-kindergarten through twelfth grade and also in the area of adult education. Contact your local school.

Corporate Involvement/ Community Resources
D.C. Public Schools seeks to involve businesses and community groups in enriching the education of District students. These groups are encouraged to play a more significant role in preparing youth for the workplace through a variety of partnership activities with individual schools. Call 724-4400.

Parent Involvement
The active participation of parents in their children’s education improves the performance of both their children and their children’s schools. D.C. Public Schools encourages such parental involvement through workshops, technical assistance to schools with parent/family resource centers, school/family partnerships, and other activities. Call 541-5929.

Each school has a parent-teacher association (PTA) or a home and school association that advises the principal on family and community concerns affecting the school. The PTA’s have a citywide organization, the D.C. Congress of Parents and Teachers, which is located in the Hamilton School. Call 543-0333.

Use of DCPS Facilities
Private groups may use facilities owned by D.C. Public Schools upon approval of an application submitted to the principal of the school sought for use. Applications are available at the school. School-related organizations may generally use facilities without charge. Other organizations must pay rental fees, provide liability insurance, and pay any overtime costs associated with use of the facilities. Call 576-8961.

Sumner School
Sumner School, originally built in 1872, reopened in 1986 to rave reviews because of the attention paid to historical authenticity and detail during its renovation. The building, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, was also the site of the first, black graduating class in 1877. Sumner houses an archives and museum on public education and provides the school system and community groups with meeting rooms, reception halls and a small theater. To make an appointment for students or the public to tour the facility, call 727-3419.

Back to top3. Choices for Learning

This section lists the various educational options that are available to D.C. public school students. Entrance requirements vary among the different programs, with some programs requiring a minimum grade point average for admission. Call the number listed with each program to receive detailed information on the program and the requirements for admission.

High School Graduation Requirements
Regardless of the academic program in which a student is enrolled, each student must successfully complete 23.5 Carnegie units in order to graduate. One Carnegie unit equals two semesters of study in a particular subject. The distribution of course requirements is listed below:

Table of Contents

D.C. Public Schools
July 1996
The Mission of D.C. Public Schools
Course Carnegie Units
Art 0.5
Career/vocational education 1.0
D.C. government and history 0.5
English 4.0
Foreign language 2.0
Health and physical education 1.5*
Mathematics (including Algebra I
or its equivalent)
Music 0.5
Science (including one year of
laboratory science)
U.S. government 0.5
U.S. history 1.0
World geography 0.5
World history 1.0
Electives 4.5
100 hours of community service 0.0
Total 23.5**

* The health and physical education requirement (1.5 Carnegie units) is waived for students receiving an evening high school diploma.

** Banneker Senior High School and Duke Ellington School of the Arts students must earn 26.0 Carnegie units.

Magnet Schools

Magnet schools offer specialized curricula designed to provide students an opportunity to explore and enhance their skills, talents, and interests in various academic areas. For more information, call 724-4099 or the magnet school of choice.

Montessori Programs: D.C. Public Schools offers Montessori programs at six elementary schools for children ages three through nine. The Montessori method uses a variety of hands-on activities and stresses the learning process over specific content. Children are encouraged to function independently and form bonds among themselves.

Montessori classes are offered at the following schools:
Woodridge Elementary School
Marshall Elementary School
Merritt Elementary School
Kimball Elementary School
Nalle Elementary School
Richardson Elementary School
Watkins Elementary School

Bilingual Programs: Bilingual programs at three sites employ two languages as a medium for instruction. Children will reach content and language proficiency in both languages. The bilingual programs are offered at:

Adams Elementary School
Oyster Elementary School
International/Bilingual School-Within-a-School Charter

Brent Museum Magnet Program: Brent Elementary School collaborates with the Smithsonian Institution to enable students to explore the vast resources of the museums of the nation’s capital. In addition, students go behind the scenes to learn how to create their own museum exhibits. Call 724-4735.

Mathematics, Science, and Technology Programs: Under a grant from the National Science Foundation, D.C. Public Schools has created three prototype mathematics, science, and technology middle schools. Students with special interest or talent in these areas will be challenged to reach their potential at one of these three sites:

Backus Middle School
Lincoln Multicultural Middle School
Roper Middle School

Stuart-Hobson Museum Magnet Program: Stuart-Hobson Middle School collaborates with the Smithsonian Institution to enable students to explore the vast resources of the museums of the nation’s capital. In addition, students go behind the scenes to learn how to create their own museum exhibits. Call 724-4758.

Banneker Academic High School: Banneker offers a rigorous academic curriculum for students pursuing post-secondary education. To graduate, students must earn 26 Carnegie units and participate in the school’s Community Laboratory Project, which requires 270 hours of community service. Call 673-7322.

Ellington School of the Arts: Ellington is a college preparatory high school offering specialized pre-professional training in music, theater, dance, visual and literary media, and museum studies. Enrollment is through audition only. Call 282-0123.

School Without Walls: School Without Walls is a demanding, alternative college preparatory program that seeks to foster independence and creativity. Academic opportunities include internships, apprenticeships, and independent study, often in conjunction with the adjacent George Washington University. Call 724-4889.

Magnet Programs Within Schools

Fillmore Arts Center - Visual and Performing Arts Program: A nationally recognized model program for delivering arts education, the Fillmore Arts Center provides child-centered, in-depth arts and physical education to students from the Six School Complex (Fillmore ES, Hardy MS, Hyde ES, Key ES, Mann ES, Stoddert ES). Classes, taught by artist-teachers, are available in dance, drama, music, film, photography, visual arts and writing. Call 282-0167.

Visual and Performing Arts Program at Houston: This program develops and broadens students’ interests in the arts, strengthens and builds upon their talents, and fosters student creativity through specialized training in art, dance, drama, vocal music, and piano and other instrumental music. Call 724-4622.

Senior High Thematic Programs
Humanities at Coolidge: This is a four-year, interdisciplinary course of study in language and literature, art, music and social studies, theater, speech, journalism, and debate. The resources of area institutions, such as the Kennedy Center, Arena Stage, and the Folger Shakespeare Theater, are utilized. Call 576-6143.

Mathematics, Science, and Technology Program at Coolidge: Students who enroll in this program participate in intensive, accelerated academic study concentrating on mathematics, science, and technology with a goal of post-secondary education in those fields. The program integrates the arts so that students have well-rounded preparation and background. Call 576-6143.

Senior High Academies

The academy concept is based on the premise that students will perform better academically when the educational program relates to real world experiences. The curriculum is tailored to career fields, an approach designed to further motivate students. For more information, call 576-6308 or the school of choice.

Culinary Arts at M.M. Washington: This is a three-year program for students interested in a professional cooking career. The program focuses on culinary skills training with hands-on experiences. Call 673-2371.

Communications at McKinley: This program begins to prepare students for careers in public relations, marketing, advertising, graphic design, photography, print journalism and video production. It focuses on the development of essential communications skills as well as skills in keyboarding, word processing and computer languages. Call 576-6011.

Integrated Design and Electronics (IDEA) at Phelps: IDEA combines academic courses, leadership development, and vocational training in a program specifically designed to prepare students for post-secondary training at the University of the District of Columbia. The program is open to students enrolled in the school’s Junior Reserve Office Training Cadet (JROTC) program. Call 724-4516.

International Studies at Wilson: The international studies program offers intensive training in social studies and foreign language courses. In addition, the program provides work-study internships and possibilities for foreign exchange language study: Call 282-0120.

Law, Justice & Security at Anacostia: This academy is a consolidation of two former programs: Public Safety at McKinley Senior High School and the Academy of Justice and Security at Spingarn Senior High School. It was established to Boost police-community relations and recruit D.C. high school students for area law enforcement and legal positions. The Law Academy at Eastern High School operates as a satellite program. Call 645-3000.

Pre-Architecture, Interior Design, and Landscape Architecture at Spingarn: This program includes computer-assisted design and a strong business component to prepare students for careers in architecture, interior design and landscape architecture. It includes internships, field trips, and design-focused workshops. Call 724-4525.

Public Service at Anacostia: The emphasis at this academy is on local, state and national government, community and environmental awareness, and career opportunities within the government and non-profit organizations. Students develop skills that are required for entrance into a post-secondary institution and the work sector. Call 645-3000.

Teaching Professions at Coolidge: The teaching professions program is a four-year college preparatory program for students interested in careers in education. Students gain experience working with teachers in child development centers at local elementary schools. Call 576-6143.

Transportation Technology at Cardozo: The focus of this academy is pre-career training for students interested in the field of transportation technology. Oral and written communication and employability skills are emphasized. Students learn about, visit, and work in various segments of the transportation industry. Call 673-7385.

Travel and Tourism at Roosevelt: This program prepares students for advanced post-secondary studies and careers in travel and tourism, including hotel management and food and beverage management. Students receive hands-on experience through participation in conferences, industry shows, and seminars. Call 576-6130.

Specialized Training Programs

Vocational education combines skills training, knowledge and the development of appropriate traits and attitudes to prepare students to meet employer expectations and requirements.

The career-focused senior high schools in this section provide students with training programs that lead to a wide variety of careers. Students attending these senior high schools receive both vocational and academic instruction. Call 576-6308 or the school of choice.

Manufacturing and Service Industries at Bell Multicultural: Training is offered in business, home economics, manufacturing services, marketing, personal services, and entrepreneurial training (below) in a multicultural environment. Call 673-7314.

Entrepreneurial Training at Bell Multicultural: The Inter-High Connection Gift Shop at the Frank D. Reeves Center for Municipal Affairs, 14th and U Streets, N.W., is managed and operated by students who develop marketing, merchandising, entrepreneurial, and management skills. The shop specializes in floral designs, jewelry, fashions, souvenirs, and gifts. Call 328-7722.

2+2 Tech-Prep Program at Bell Multicultural and Phelps: Tech Prep is a course of study, and a joint venture between DCPS and the University of the District of Columbia, that combines technical education and college preparatory academics. It is designed to lead to an associate degree, with the option of pursuing employment or further education upon completion of the program. Programs are operational at Bell Multicultural Senior High School in computer science and electronics and at the Integrated Design and Electronics Academy at Phelps Career Senior High School. Call Bell at 673-7314 or Phelps at 724-4516.

Information Processing, Cosmetology and Computer Repair at Roosevelt: Training is offered in business, home economics, and personal services toward careers as barbers, computer repair persons, and cosmetologists. This program was formerly located at Burdick Career Development Center, which is now closed. Call 576-6130.

Business and Office Education at Spingarn: Training is offered in business-related services, manufacturing services, marketing, and personal services toward careers as cosmetologists, barbers, secretaries, entrepreneurs, and watch, shoe, and office machine repair persons. This program was formerly located at Chamberlain Senior High School, which is now closed. Call 724-4525.

Agribusiness, Construction and Transportation at Phelps: Training is offered in floriculture, agri-business, construction, and transportation for careers as greenhouse operators, landscapers, carpenters, brick masons, electricians, plumbers, draftpersons, electronic technicians, welders, and automotive repair persons. Call 724-4516.

Health Careers at M.M. Washington: Training is offered in health care, business-medical fields, and the culinary arts for careers as licensed practical nurses, dental laboratory technicians, dental assistants, nursing assistants, physical therapy aides, medical records technicians, medical clerks and secretaries, and food service workers. Applied academic courses compliment the career training courses. Call 673-7224.

Emergency Medical Services Cadet Program at M.M. Washington: This program provides training by the District’s Emergency Medical Services Unit toward becoming an emergency medical technician (EMT). Entry is limited to seniors. Following high school graduation, participants enroll full-time in the EMT training program. Call 673-7224.

School-Within-a-School Charters

School-Within-a-School Charters (SWSCs) are small, teacher-led programs utilizing a variety of innovative and thematic educational strategies. Although housed in pre-existing comprehensive schools, SWSCs are largely self-contained. These programs are a direct outgrowth of the B.E.S.S.T. educational initiative.

African-Centered SWSC: This program, housed at Webb Elementary School, offers a K - 8 program that teaches traditional curriculum content through East African classroom practices and educational principles. Call 724-3824.

International Bilingual SWSC: Learning takes on an international focus in this program that includes the study of different cultures. Central to this program is the mastery of a second language through a two-way, bilingual approach in multi-level student groupings. Call 724-2406 for the new location of this program.

Lotus Center SWSC: The program, housed at Hendley Elementary School, for grades K - 3 is based on the Soka Educational System in Japan, emphasizing hands-on methods of learning and the ability to apply lessons to real world problems. Call 645-3457.

Montessori SWSC: This program, housed at Merritt Elementary School, for primary students stresses the process of learning through individual initiative and exploration rather than a given product. Hands-on activities using specially designed materials are encouraged. Call 724-4618.

Nongraded SWSC: This PreK - 3 program, housed at Truesdell Elementary School, offers individualized and hands-on learning in multi-aged classes in which students remain for two years. Students are permitted to progress at their own pace, and parental involvement is encouraged. Call 541-3808.

PEACE Academy SWSC: This program, housed at Birney Elementary School, is for intermediate, non-graded students who have not been performing near their academic potential. Hands-on learning, critical thinking, and problem solving are encouraged. Students also maintain journals to Boost communication and writing skills. Call 645-3680.

Reggio Emilia Preschool SWSC: This program, housed at Peabody Elementary School, for pre-K and kindergarten students is modeled after the Reggio Emilia preschools in Italy. Each child’s time and rhythms are considered in the development of their individual identity and capabilities. Verbal skills, artistic expression, and problem solving are stressed. Call 724-4683.

Junior High
Media Technology and Social Research Academy SWSC: The curriculum for this program, housed at Kelly Miller Junior High School, promotes research and problem solving skills through collaborative projects. Students are taught how to use various types of media technology and are taught through team teaching and parental involvement. Call 724-4611.

Senior High
Business and Finance Academy SWSC: This program, housed at Woodson Senior High School, is designed to prepare students for careers in business, finance and management. Students are introduced to the field through a variety of experiences, including internships, field trips, special lectures and workshops conducted by industry personnel. Call 724-4512.

Health and Human Services Academy SWSC: This academy, housed at Eastern Senior High School, focuses on the areas of health, science, medical and human services. Students are prepared, through seminars, career fairs, job skills training, expanded curriculum and other experiences, to enter these fields immediately upon graduation from high school or to pursue post-secondary education. Participants are required to have 200 hours of community service. Call 724-8737.

Mathematics, Science and Technology Academy SWSC: This program, housed at Ballou Senior High School, provides innovative courses and an academically rigorous curriculum in mathematics, science, computer science, foreign languages and communications skills to prepare students for post-secondary education or employment upon graduation. Students participate in local and national programs and special pre-college summer programs related to coursework. Call 645-3365.

Pre-Engineering SWSC: This pre-engineering program, housed at Dunbar Senior High School, prepares students for careers in engineering, technology, and applied science by providing them with hands-on activities, technical labs and career mentors from business partners. Students participate in career-focused internships, college courses and field trips. Call 673-7233.

Alternative Instruction

D.C. Street Academy
The academy provides a second chance in an alternative academic setting for students 16 to 23 years old. Courses leading to both a high school diploma and a General Educational Development (GED) certificate are offered. Students may transfer into the academy from other schools or enroll after having previously dropped out of school. The academy also offers strong mentoring, internship, and counseling programs.

Spingarn STAY
Spingarn STAY is an alternative career and academic program offering classes between 4:00 and 10:00 p.m. It is designed for students between 16 and 21 years of age who are returning to school. In addition to regular classroom work, students receive individualized computer-assisted instruction in basic and career preparatory skills. Child care services are available. Call 724-4538.

Ballou STAY
Ballou STAY is designed for students 18 years and older who have dropped out of school. Classes toward either a high school diploma or a General Educational Development (GED) certificate are offered from 10:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m. on a schedule that enables students to complete their degree in half the normal time. In addition, developmental studying and basic mathematics, as well as a variety of vocational classes, are offered. Call 645-3390.

Hamilton Midlevel Alternative School
Hamilton provides an alternative education model for non-court involved students who are 13-15 years old and over-age for their grade level. It addresses the individual needs of each student by providing techniques for social, intellectual and personal success. Students develop behavioral and academic skills that enable them to move to the next level of education and function as responsible and useful citizens. Call 724-4562.

Programs for students under court supervision or long-term suspension D.C. Public Schools has several programs, including the career diversion programs and the Educational Learning Center, that provide instruction to students under court supervision or long-term suspension from a regular DCPS academic program.

Special Programs

Special Education
Public Law 101-478, the Individuals with Disabilities Act, guarantees a "free and appropriate public education" for all children and youth with disabilities. The District of Columbia ensures that all residents with disabilities, from birth through age 21, are located, identified, and evaluated, and have available a free and appropriate public education. It is the responsibility of the D.C. Department of Human Services to provide services to children from birth to three years of age. The D.C. Public Schools provides services to individuals from ages 3 through 21.

The Special Education Branch provides assessment and evaluation of students suspected of being disabled, instructional programming and related services for special education students, and technical support and professional development for staff.

In addition to local schools, two special education centers, located at MacFarland MS and Moten ES, offer assessment and testing. These sites also house parent centers to assist parents in becoming more involved in the educational planning for children with special needs. Call 724-4800.

Language Minority Students
In compliance with Federal mandates, the Language Minority Affairs Branch provides bilingual and English as a Second Language (ESL) programs to students whose primary language is other than English. These programs, offered in over 80 elementary and secondary schools throughout the city, are designed to facilitate the transfer of concepts from one language to another while sustaining academic growth.

Staff at the Language Minority Intake Center assess and evaluate the English language proficiency of all culturally and linguistically diverse students and make appropriate recommendations. Call 576-8850.

Adult, Continuing and Community Education
A variety of programs are offered throughout the city for adults seeking to complete their education or to gain skills in a specific area. Classes and skills training programs are offered through the adult education centers, adult education evening centers, skills training programs, community schools, and community-based organizations. Community education courses vary from after-school programs for youth to adult basic education, General Educational Development (GED) certificate preparation, English as a Second Language instruction, and continuing education. Call 576-6308.

General Educational Development (GED) Certificate
The test to obtain a GED, or high school equivalency, certificate is scheduled monthly. For an application and information, call 576-6308.

Gifted and Talented Programs
Over 100 elementary, junior, and senior high schools provide specialized programs and services to students identified as gifted and talented using multiple criteria, including standardized tests of achievement, grades, nominations, and creativity. These programs recognize the multi-dimensional nature of gifted behaviors and seek to enhance intellectual ability, academic achievement, leadership skills, creative thinking, and talent in the visual and performing arts. Call 645-3200.

Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps
The Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (JROTC) is active in 11 senior high schools. It seeks to motivate participants to become good citizens by developing leadership skills, scholarship, and a desire to strive for personal excellence. JROTC operates in cooperation with selected branches of the armed services. Call 645-4771.

Substance Abuse Prevention Education
The Substance Abuse Prevention Education program offers information and training in self-esteem building, violence reduction, conflict resolution, decision-making, refusal skills building, peer counseling, and related topics. The office works with students, staff, and the community. Call 724-3610.

Comprehensive School Health Program
The Comprehensive School Health Program offers information, training and classroom support for Pre-K-12 comprehensive health education with a special focus on HIV/STD and teen pregnancy prevention, nutrition education, tobacco, and reducing sedentary lifestyles. This program coordinates health services in partnership with the Commission of Public Health and works with students, families, staff, community-based organizations, and universities. Call 628-1657.

High School/College Internship Program (HI/SCIP)
HI/SCIP is an accelerated academic program in which qualified high school seniors can earn college credit while taking courses at area colleges and universities. Call 724-4185.

Advanced Placement
Advanced placement courses enable students to earn college credit while still in high school. These courses are offered at senior high schools and some career high schools. The number and type of courses vary from school to school.

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4. Rights and Responsibilities

Code of Student Responsibilities and Conduct

Each student shall be responsible for providing a positive and healthy environment for others by maintaining order, self-discipline, and having consideration for the rights and property of others.

Each student shall bear the responsibility for his or her own conduct.

Each student shall be responsible for neatness and cleanliness of personal attire and hygiene.

A student shall respect other students, teachers, administrators, and other school personnel and visitors as human beings and fellow citizens of the school community.

A student shall respect the personal property of others and refrain from causing intentional damage or unnecessary wear and tear to books, facilities, school materials, school buildings and furnishings, and the personal property of others.

A student shall refrain from fighting, creating disturbances, denying others the use of school facilities or buildings, using or carrying any weapon on school grounds, intentionally injuring another person, or acting in such a manner as to expose others to risk or danger of harm or injury.

A student shall not use threats or intimidation against any other person.

A student shall respect the health and safety of others and shall refrain from using tobacco; or using, possessing, transmitting, or being under the influence of any alcoholic beverage, narcotic substances, illegal or prohibited drug or substance; or by engaging in gambling, extortion, theft, assault, excessive noise, or any other unlawful activity.

A student shall respect the educational process and learning environment of others by refraining from intentional or habitual tardiness, unexcused absences, or other activities which diminish the rights of others and the opportunity for other students to receive an education and obtain the maximum benefit from a public education.

Corporal Punishment
The use of corporal punishment in any form is strictly prohibited in the public schools. No student shall undergo corporal punishment by any teacher, other student, administrator, or other school personnel.

Grievances may be used to address or seek redress in any of the following instances:

  • If a student or group of students is being denied access to an adequate educational opportunity;
  • If the rights of students, or any individual student, are being denied or abridged;
  • If any student or group of students is being subjected to an arbitrary and unreasonable regulation, procedure, or standard of conduct;
  • If any student is being denied participation in any school activity for which the student is eligible.

Parents may attempt to resolve grievances informally or formally. Call the Hearing Office at 724-4553.

If a student faces the possibility of a major suspension from school, the parent may suggest a hearing by contacting the Hearing Office. For a complete listing of information on minor and major suspensions, see "Chapter 25: Student Discipline" in the Rules of the Board of Education. You may receive a copy from your school or by calling 724-4276.

Access to Student Records
Each parent or guardian, student, or adult student shall have the right to inspect and review all official records, files, and data maintained by the D.C. Public Schools which relate directly to a particular student.

The right to inspect and review shall include the right to obtain copies of the information at a reasonable cost.

The school system may not charge for the cost of copying if there is no significant cost to the system or if the person wanting a copy of the records shows an inability to pay. For more information on student records, see "Chapter 26: Student Records" in the Rules of the Board of Education.

Fri, 27 May 2022 18:45:00 -0500 text/html
Killexams : Porsche Boxster vs Lotus Elise S

The bond between the Porsche Boxster and Lotus Elise extends way beyond their engine layout, open-air design and affordable (okay, semi-affordable) pricing. Both were conceived in the early ’90s – troubled times for both brands – and launched to feverish acclaim within months of each other in the latter part of 1996.

Porsche openly admits the Boxster pretty much saved the company, or at least laid the fiscal foundations for the gargantuan money-making machine it has become today. By contrast the Elise’s tremendous success failed to bring long-term financial security, but it’s impossible to overstate its contribution to Lotus Cars, nor its achievement in bringing magical dynamics to the mainstream.

Their ubiquity and the horribly tempting prices of early used examples mean we’ve perhaps become a little blasé about the Boxster and Elise. It’s certainly doubtful that anything launched by either Porsche or Lotus in the foreseeable future will match the frenzy that surrounded the debut of those original models. Still, the arrival of the all-new 981-generation Boxster and a significantly revised Elise S rank amongst the more eagerly anticipated moments in evo’s 2012 calendar.

Our test starts with a trip to Porsche Cars GB’s headquarters in Reading, where a Boxster awaits collection. It’s a base 2.7-litre, 261bhp model fitted with the standard six-speed manual transmission and around £7000-worth of options. These include PASM adaptive dampers, 19in ‘S’ wheels, Porsche Torque Vectoring (PTV) with a limited-slip differential, satnav, bi-xenon headlights and a black leather interior. It’s a nice spec that equates to a smidge under £45,000 in total.

Much has already been written in evo about the raft of improvements made to this, the third-generation Boxster, so I won’t repeat it here. Suffice to say it’s lighter (despite being a bigger car), quicker, more refined and more efficient. It’s also very, very handsome thanks to a masterful mash-up of Carrera GT and 918 Spyder themes, plus a few design flourishes of its own.

The sun is out, so despite having to head straight onto the M4 motorway I decide to drop the roof. The electric hood now operates via a one-touch switch with no windscreen latches to release, so going topless is the work of a moment. The cabin, with the optional leather trim on seats, door panels and dashboard, is really appealing and very high quality. It’s a pleasingly grown-up environment and creates an ambience that punches well above its price-point.

The engine sounds sweet and spins freely, its familiar sharp response and crisp exhaust note reinforcing the sense that this is a premium sports car in every respect. The gearshift of the six-speed manual is slicker and more precise than the seven-speed found in the 991, and coupled to a light, smooth-biting clutch it makes for a car that’s easy to bond with and drive smoothly from the off.

At 1310kg the new Boxster is a useful 25kg lighter than its predecessor. This helps make the most of the 2.7-litre flat-six engine’s power and torque, but you’re immediately aware that this is a brisk rather than genuinely fast car. It makes all the right noises, but if you’re used to the snap of something like an E46 M3 or the grunt of a Focus RS, the Boxster is unlikely to blow your socks off, in a straight line at least.

Still, there’s something very satisfying about the way the base Boxster goes about its business. It has terrific polish and offers amazing levels of practicality (it swallows an incredible amount of luggage) so you really don’t feel like you have to endure any hardships to access the pleasures of a two-seater sports car.

Of course the previous Boxster was also blessed with a similar breadth of talents, but this new one adds another layer of sophistication, refinement and quality. We’ll discover whether it ups its dynamic game to the same degree tomorrow, but on the evidence of this initial drive it’s hard not to feel the Boxster is the most complete car in Porsche’s model line-up.

A decade and a half of evolution has seen the Lotus Elise draw closer to the Boxster in terms of pricing and performance, a fact evidenced by the Elise S’s basic list price of £36,200 – less than £1400 shy of the Porsche’s. That came as something of a surprise to me, but not as much as the fact that, as tested, this range-topping, supercharged Elise also comes with a further £7000-worth of options. These include a £2100 Touring Pack (comprising assorted leather trim, embroidery, carpet mats, noise insulation panels, spotlights, iPod connection, cup holder and cruise control!), the £1800 Sport Pack (featuring firmer Bilstein sports dampers, lighter forged alloy wheels and more supportive sports seats), the £550 Black Style Pack (forged wheels in black, plus a black rear diffuser), £1100 for air-conditioning and another grand or so for the snazzy orange paintwork.

There’s no more graphic demonstration of the essential difference between life with a Boxster and Elise than the first five minutes of any journey. The next morning, while Stephen Dobie wanders over to the Porsche, pops the front luggage compartment to stow his overnight bags, then jumps in and drops the electric roof while simultaneously keying Crickhowell into the satnav system, I stand next to the Elise in a bit of a quandary. It’s sunny, so I feel I really ought to remove the roof, but I’m not sure I’ve got time to disassemble it, roll it up and shove it in the rear luggage bay with my overnight bag (thereby relegating my laptop to the passenger seat) before Dobie and photographer Max Earey have left me for dust.

With no satnav (or map) I don’t fancy my chances of negotiating Cheltenham blind, so I leave the roof on, fold myself into the spartan confines of the Elise’s trademark aluminium tub and follow the red tail of the Porsche. Once in the Elise, it’s a fun place to be: more exciting and unconventional than the Boxster, and though your knees and elbows rest against sharper, less padded edges, the upside of this mild discomfort is a more intimate and sporting driving environment.

Like my first journey in the Boxster, these initial miles are hardly driving nirvana, but they are representative of real day-to-day motoring. The Elise takes them in its stride, but there’s no doubt you’d need to be made of sterner stuff than your average Boxster driver to use the Lotus on a daily basis. The unassisted steering is light once you’re on the move but requires a bit of muscle at walking pace, while the general road and wind noise levels are significantly higher. It doesn’t impede phone conversations on the move because there’s no hands-free connectivity. That in itself is not a big deal, of course, but when combined with the restricted luggage space, comparatively fiddly roof and elevated noise levels it means you need to be prepared to put your life on hold while you’re driving the Elise.

After a brief stop to finally remove the roof, we find ourselves on some quicker and more interesting roads. Here the Lotus is in its element. All the frustrations and distractions of missed phone calls and distorted music melt away, your senses instead fully engaged in the process of threading this fizzy little sports car down a twisting road draped across a spectacular landscape.

The four-cylinder Toyota engine has never been the most charismatic partner for the Elise, but this new supercharged 2ZR-FE unit boasts more torque than the old motor in the outgoing Elise SC (up from 156lb ft to 184). It uses less fuel too, trumping the Boxster’s 192g/km CO2 rating with a positively tree-hugging 175g/km. Revisions to the blower design mean it now generates a less dominant whine, so you get to enjoy more of the VTEC-style hardening of the engine note at high revs. Maximum power (217bhp) arrives at 6800rpm, so it still likes to be revved, but that ’charger also beefs up the mid-range, with peak torque achieved at just 4800rpm. Its buzz-saw bark sounds a little sweeter with the roof off and provides the perfect soundtrack for this waspish sports car.

The Elise has put on some weight in the last 15 years (haven’t we all?), but it still weighs comfortably less than a ton, so has proper get-up-and-go, cracking 60mph from a standstill in a claimed 4.2sec and punching hard in the intermediate gears. It always feels like it has the right intensity of performance, if that makes sense, with enough in-gear urgency to make it a rapid overtaking tool yet long-legged enough to hit its stride on fast, open roads.

What really stands out is the clarity of feedback you get from the car and the accuracy with which you can place it on the road, even when driving close to its limits. The Yokohama Advans generate serious grip, so in most corners you simply nudge the little steering wheel and the nose darts to your chosen trajectory. It’s an addictive process and one that encourages a neat, committed style. As you steal yourself to brake later and carry more speed into the heart of the corners, you enter that magical zone where the car seems to dance through the twists and turns, working all four corners in harmony with the road.

You rarely need to worry about oversteer, partly because there’s an excellent stability control system, but also because the balance of weight distribution, available grip and torque is so well matched. Switch the electronics off and even if you do breach traction the open diff allows the inside rear wheel to spin. That means the tail won’t be made to wag under power alone, but it can be brought into play on the brakes as a deft way of neutralising any understeer you might generate in a tighter turn.

The brakes themselves have the same Lotus hallmarks of progression and linearity, coupled with ample power and inspiring stamina. The pedals are perfectly placed for heel-and-toe downshifts, so a well-timed blip or two elicits the occasional smile-inducing pop and crackle from the exhaust. On proper driving roads like these the Elise S is sensational.

I’m still buzzing when I swap back into the Boxster. Yesterday I’d spent the hours immediately prior to my first exposure to the new Porsche driving my Fast Fleet BMW 520d. Unsurprisingly, the Porsche felt quite compact and eager after that, but now, having spent an intense few hours haring around in the Elise, the Boxster feels big.

You notice instantly how much more of the road it fills, and how this reduces your options when scribing a line through a sequence of transient curves. You also sense a slight numbness to the steering (yes, it’s electric…) that hadn’t been so apparent when stepping from a less-than-sporting machine. It’s less of an issue than it is in Power Steering Plus-equipped 991s, but still there’s a small but discernible loss of connection over the previous model’s hydraulic rack. It’s not a disaster, but it does confirm that we can no longer look to Porsche as the absolute benchmark for the very best power steering, for now at least.

That lack of immediate acceleration is also a bit of a frustration, but with time you appreciate that the Boxster builds speed deceptively, thanks to longer-legged gearing and a less shouty engine. There’s a decent spread of torque, with a peak of 206lb ft available between 4500 and 6500rpm, so as long as you keep the revs at a simmer you have access to all the Boxster’s performance. Porsche claims a 0-62mph time of 5.8sec, which feels about right, while the top speed of 164mph sounds believable.

Thanks to PASM and a supple set-up, the Porsche flows where the Lotus ducks and dives, soaks up the punishment where the Elise’s Sport Pack suspension will catch a sharp edge. That means the Boxster feels more composed and less intense, but it also means it never quite keys in to the tarmac as aggressively or connects you so completely to the action. Compared with the transparent, uncensored Elise, the Boxster filters its feedback more finely, with less ‘noise’ from bumps, cambers and coarse surfaces. It’s almost as though you’re holding the Boxster’s big steering wheel wearing a pair of thick(ish) gloves.

Both cars deliver you great confidence on challenging or unfamiliar roads, but deliver in very different ways. The Lotus thrives on commitment and raw speed, so you tend to find yourself going like the clappers for 20 minutes before easing off to catch your breath. The Boxster prefers a less banzai approach. It has tremendous poise, hugely powerful brakes and tons of mechanical grip to lean on, but unlike the Lotus you find yourself pushing to 80 per cent and staying there, not because the car won’t cope with harder driving, but because it feels more appropriate to find a spirited-yet-comfortable pace and sustain it. Much like the day-to-day practicality issues, it’s this contrasting style of delivery that will be the biggest factor in deciding which of these cars suits you best.

With PSM (Porsche Stability Managment) engaged, the Boxster is utterly benign and completely foolproof. Switch it off and it becomes a more expressive machine, allowing you to play with the balance under braking, just as you can with the Elise. It’s not quite as direct or quick-witted as the hyper-alert Lotus, but this means it has greater progression and gives you more time to make your steering and throttle inputs. On a dry road the 2.7-litre engine struggles to trouble the rear tyres, but that means the Boxster feels well within itself at all times, which will doubtless suit most owners just fine. After all, if you want a Porsche that bites, £45K will buy you a nice used 996 GT3.

As you’ve probably gathered, picking a ‘winner’ from the Elise S and the Boxster is pretty much impossible, for though they cost the same money, occupy the same sector of the market and perform brilliantly in their own ways, they deliver completely different driving experiences. Such maturity means the Boxster is a magnificent car, but its focus on all-round ability and useability inevitably means it falls short of the raw thrills, pace, involvement and excitement so readily served up by the Lotus. If you’re after an adrenalin pump, the Elise S stands head and shoulders above the Porsche, but when you’re simply driving rather than driving, the Lotus’s uncompromising character makes mundane mileage or long journeys little more than bearable.

Cars like these – perhaps more than any other – demand that you’re brutally honest about what your life and driving style require. Kidding yourself will only lead to frustration, but deliver head and heart a fair hearing and buying either of these brilliant sports cars will be one of the best purchases you’ve ever made.

Sun, 16 Aug 2020 16:17:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Lotus Elise Club Racer review

What is it?  The Lotus Elise on a diet. Lotus has managed to remove 24kg of weight from somewhere. Unlike other stripped out specials, though, because you get less, you pay less. That makes this the entry-point to Lotus ownership, costing £27,500. Technical highlights?  The engine is carried over from the cheapest Elise – a 134bhp 1.6-litre Toyota-sourced four-pot to be precise. It doesn’t sound like much on paper, or on full throttle for that matter, but with only 852kg to deal with it’s enough to make brisk progress. There’s no air-con, no stereo and for the first time on an Elise there’s a button marked ‘Sport’ which activates and intermediate setting for the stability control, somewhere between on and completely off. Weight savings come from a smaller motorsport-derived battery, deletion of noise insulation and those lightly-padded body-coloured seats, but claimed performance is identical to the standard car. What’s it like to drive?  Sublime. Our test route took in 600km of the finest Italian country roads and not at any point did we wish were driving something else. What the Elise does magnificently is carry its speed through the corners, rather than piling it on once you’re past the apex. The small steering wheel squirms in your hands but delivers to them, in minute detail, what’s going on at road level. It’s light just off-centre, but quickly loads up as you up the speed and increase the steering angle. The lack of stereo, air-con or anything else in the interior simply forces you to focus on the experience – and there’s less to go wrong of course.  How does it compare?  Unless you start looking at Caterhams and Atoms, none of the Elise’s roadster rivals, like the MX-5, can match the purity of the driving experience. The Club Racer drives home this advantage. Try something further up the Lotus range and it will seem over-complicated and expensive in comparison. Anything else I need to know?  With Lotus’ grand plans for bigger, more expensive models – beginning with the Esprit in 2013, it’s refreshing to see it still has one eye on weight reduction. The other advantage of course is that with fuel economy of 45mpg, the Club Racer will cost pennies to run.


Engine In-line 4cyl, 1.6-litre
Max power 134bhp
Max torque 118lb ft
0-60 6.4sec (est)
Top speed 127mph
Thu, 28 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Columbus Intermediate School No result found, try new keyword!Columbus Intermediate School is a public school located in Bedford, OH, which is in a large suburb setting. The student population of Columbus Intermediate School is 335 and the school serves 3-6. Thu, 25 Mar 2021 04:29:00 -0500 text/html Killexams : Chris Hemsworth personal trainer Luke Zocchi reveals his workout for Thor: Love & Thunder

EXCLUSIVE: Chris Hemsworth and Elsa Pataky's personal trainer reveals the workout secrets behind the star couple's incredible figures - and how YOU can get the same results

  • Chris Hemsworth's PT has revealed how he got into shape for latest Thor film 
  •  Luke Zocchi revealed that weight lifting is key for those hoping to lose weight 
  • Also shared that Chris ate a whopping 4,500 calories a day ahead of Marvel film
  • Added his wife Elsa Pataky used the same training program for  Interceptor

Chris Hemsworth's personal trainer has revealed how the Australian hunk and his wife, Elsa Pataky, have become super ripped by training 'smart' and avoiding endless hours at the gym. 

Luke Zocchi, who lives near the Hemsworth clan in Byron Bay, helps the superstar couple work on their physiques for blockbuster roles.

Speaking exclusively to FEMAIL, Luke said that weight lifting is key for those wanting to lose weight as well as build muscle.

Luke also shared that Elsa, 46, used the same program Chris followed for his new blockbuster, Thor: Love & Thunder, to get in shape for her role as the very ripped Captain J.J. Collins in Interceptor - which left her in 'the best shape of her life.' 

Speaking to FEMAIL, Elsa (pictured) said that it was a 'challenge' to get into shape for Interceptor but she was thrilled with the result

Luke Zocchi (right)  who lives near the Hemsworth clan in Byron Bay, works with both Chris and his wife Elsa Pataky, and often helps with shift shape for their blockbuster roles. Pictured with Chris and fellow trainer Bobby Holland Hanton

Both Elsa and Chris used the Power program - designed by Luke - on Chris' fitness app Centr.

'Everyone thinks that you can only get these sorts of results from spending endless hours at the gym which is simply not the case,' Chris told FEMAIL.

'We have expertly crafted Centr Power to be a muscle-building program that delivers the best possible results while fitting into busy lifestyles and having the convenience to be done anywhere. 

'Centr Power shares the formula we have used to get me in my best shape for over 20 movies, including the Thor franchise. 

Both Elsa and Chris used the Power programme - designed by Luke - on Chris' fitness app Centr - which saw them train five days a week. Chris is pictured in Thor

Elsa, 46, used the same programme as Chris used for Thor to get in shape for her role in Interceptor - which left her in what she describes as 'the best shape of her life'

'It is built around the key principles of muscle-building and will have you working to your max no matter how long you’ve been lifting - now super-sized for even bigger results.' 

Also speaking to FEMAIL, Elsa said that it was a 'challenge' to get into shape for Interceptor but she was thrilled with the result.

'Getting in shape for Interceptor was challenging but I was determined,' she said.

'My key goal was to build muscle mass so I turned to the Centr Power program for my training and food guides. 

'I started at the Intermediate Level and then moved to the Advanced Level… and the result had me in some of the best shape of my life.'

Here Luke explains how he got the superstar couple fighting fit.

Speaking exclusively to FEMAIL, Luke revealed that weight lifting is key for those hoping to lose weight as well as build muscle

Elsa is pictured at the premiere of Interceptor in May - which she described as 'the best shape of her life'

Chris' Thor routine    

'We would typically workout five times per week in Chris's training for Thor,' Luke explained.

'Usually one hour or so per day deliver or take. 

'Chris and I are all about training smarter rather than spending countless hours in the gym. A standard week of training for Thor over a week would look like:

  • Monday - Chest
  • Tuesday - Back
  • Wednesday - Legs
  • Thursday - Shoulders
  • Friday - Arms

'The way we picked these exercises and structure is to follow a balance in building muscle throughout the whole body and by giving the muscle time to repair and grow before your next session to avoid injury.'

Luke said that Chris (pictured) would work out five times per week in Chris's training for Thor

How to get Hemsworth arms 

To build up your biceps to look similar to the God of Thunder, Luke recommends working on your upper body for the first four to six weeks you of a new training regime.

'Keeping weights manageable for you and reps on the lower side of things,' he says.

'Then I would move to challenge yourself a little more and more each week - upping the intensity of the weights you are using and increasing reps from 6-8 to to 8-12.

'I would focus on two sessions of "push" movements and two sessions of "pull" movements to make sure you are hitting all the different muscles you are targeting.

To build up your biceps to look similar to the God of Thunder - Luke recommends working on your upper body for the first four to six weeks you of a new training regime.

4,500 calories a day  

Luke also revealed that Chris ate a whopping 4,500 calories a day while training for Thor, which was broken into 10 meals of 450 calories every two hours.

However, he warns that calorie intake comes down to an individual's 'natural size' and 'how much training they're doing'.     

'When it comes to muscle-building you need to be in a calorie surplus so your body can rebuild your muscles after training,' he said.

'People are often shocked doing the Centr Power program at how much food we recommend.

Best compound exercises 

Luke says: 'For muscle strength and muscle building the best compound exercises are squats, deadlifts, bench press and military press. 


'Diets are so personal there isn’t really a one size fits all approach.

'That said, the main rules I would stick to whether trying to build muscle or stay lean is to cut out all sugars and processed food and to eat as much wholefood as possible. 

'Eat a variety of vegetables, fruits and increase protein. 

'Find healthy food you enjoy eating and stick to those foods. Consistency is key when it comes to getting results.'

Focus on weight training

Luke said it's best to focus on quality over quantity when building muscle or losing fat. 

'I would always recommend a minimum of three training sessions per week and ideally build to five or so,' he said. 

'If you're training smart and at the right intensity each session should be between 20-40 minutes for fat loss and 30-60 minutes for muscle gain. 

'I would recommend sticking to compound movements where you are recruiting more muscle which in turn is going to burn more calories. 

'And as your lean muscle mass increases so does your metabolic rate meaning you are burning more calories naturally - muscle burns close to double the calories as fat in a resting state so the math is easy.'

Fit: Elsa's role in the action film Interceptor sees her playing no-nonsense army lieutenant JJ Collins, who must save the world when 16 nuclear missiles are launched in the United States. Elsa and Chris both like to do HIIT training because of its efficiency. 

Try 60 per cent weight and 40 per cent cardio 

To build muscle, Luke said to spent 60 per cent of your time weight training, and 40 per cent cardio.

Features of Centr power 

  • Progressive full gym or at-home program with self-guided workouts
  • Moves and weights that increase in complexity through the training levels
  • Levels split into four 3-week phases, plus 1 deload week, to ensure results without a plateau
  • Level up your gains with an in-app rep and weight-tracking functionality
  • Recovery days and functional workouts to help maintain mobility and muscle rehabilitation
  • Specialised nutrition handbooks, meal plans and recipes to maximize results
  • Exercise tutorials, active rest and stretching sessions to get you moving at your best



'As far as cardio, Elsa and Chris both like to do HIIT training because of its efficiency. 

'If you are training smart and efficiently you can get the same results from a 20 minute HIIT workout as you might spending hours and hours on a treadmill.' 

Make sure to rest

Luke said that the importance of rest days couldn't be underestimated. 

'Recovery is key - without proper recovery you risk injury and then all your efforts can be for nothing if you are wiped out from training for weeks or months at a time. 

'While not going too easy, listen to your body and take rest when you feel you need but I would always recommend at least two rest days per week. 

'On rest days we would always still move but take the pressure off. 

'Chris loves to surf with his kids, Elsa does a lot of yoga... it's really up to the individual but make sure its more about fun and mental health rather than intense training on these days.'

How to try it yourself  

Luke said people could easily tailor the Centr Power program to their needs.

'The Centr Power program is based exactly on how we train Chris for Thor but broken down into Beginner, Intermediate and Advanced - with each level getting more challenging as the weeks progress. 

'The three-month Advanced program is almost exactly what Chris and I do in the lead up months prior to filming Thor.'

Members can select from beginner, intermediate or advanced based on their lifting experience and every week the program intensifies to build maximum strength and size. 

From July 2022, the original in-gym Centr Power program now comes with an additional three-week phase to keep your muscle-building journey rolling - including tougher lifts, equipment alternatives plus low-impact modifications for functional exercises.

Luke also revealed that Chris ate a whopping 4,500 calories a day while training for Thor, which was broken into ten meals of 450 calories every two hours.

Elsa said that it was a 'challenge' to get into shape for her latest role (pictured working out at home)

Sat, 23 Jul 2022 04:19:00 -0500 text/html
Killexams : Optimal Regulation and the Law of International Trade

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Mon, 02 Apr 2018 11:43:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Putin says ‘there can be no winners in nuclear war, it should never be started’

Putin says ‘there can be no winners in nuclear war, it should never be started’

  • UN head Antonio Guterres warned on the same day that humanity was 'just one miscalculation away from nuclear annihilation'
  • The Russian president put Russia's nuclear arsenal on high alert in February
  • State-TV pundits in Russia suggested using nuclear weapons against the UK

Vladimir Putin has said a nuclear war must 'never be started' following heightened tension between Moscow and NATO in light of Russia's invasion of Ukraine.

'As a state party to the Non-Proliferation Treaty and one of its depositaries, Russia is consistently complying with the letter and the spirit of the Treaty,' Putin said in a letter to participants of a conference on the treaty in New York.

'We proceed from the fact that there can be no winners in a nuclear war and it should never be unleashed, and we stand for equal and indivisible security for all members of the world community.'

UN head Antonio Guterres warned on the same day that humanity was 'just one miscalculation away from nuclear annihilation,' with the world facing a threat 'not seen since the height of the Cold War.'

Putin said Monday: 'There can be no winners in nuclear war, it should never be started'

Vladimir Putin previously announced a major new test of Sarmat intercontinental ballistic missile

The Sarmat missile test launch on April 20, 2022. Putin has hinted at the possibility of a nuclear exchange with the West, though most experts agree the Russian president is unlikely to use the weapons against civilian targets

'We have been extraordinarily lucky so far. But luck is not a strategy. Nor is it a shield from geopolitical tensions boiling over into nuclear conflict,' Guterres said at the start of a conference of countries belonging to the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.

China, Russia, Britain, the United States and France have agreed that a further spread of nuclear arms and a nuclear war should be avoided, according to a joint statement by the five nuclear states on the UN Security Council, published by the Kremlin on Monday.

The United States and its nuclear allies also rebuked Russia for 'irresponsible and dangerous' talk about possibly deploying nuclear weapons as a review of the keystone nuclear treaty opened at the United Nations.

'Following Russia's unprovoked and unlawful war of aggression against Ukraine, we call on Russia to cease its irresponsible and dangerous nuclear rhetoric and behavior, to uphold its international commitments,' said the United States, France and Britain in a statement.

'Nuclear weapons, for as long as they exist, should serve defensive purposes, deter aggression, and prevent war. We condemn those who would use or threaten to use nuclear weapons for military coercion, intimidation, and blackmail,' they said.

United Nations Secretary General Antonio Guterres speaks during the 2022 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons at the United Nations in New York City on August 1, 2022

The call was issued as leaders met at the United Nations in New York for the 10th review conference of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), which came into force in 1970.

It comes as concerns are rising about the spread of nuclear technology, especially in Iran and North Korea, and China's rapid expansion of its nuclear arsenal.

While five leading nuclear powers are among the 191 states party to the pact, India, Pakistan, Israel and North Korea are not.

'The NPT has reduced the risk of a devastating nuclear war, and further reduction of that risk must be a priority for all NPT states parties and for this Review Conference,' the US-France-Britain statement said.

Vladimir Putin has staged nuclear drills with his road-launched intercontinental Yars missiles in a forest in western Siberia

The 7,500 mile range of the missiles means they would be capable of striking Britain or anywhere in Europe

They said that Iran, currently in negotiations to limit its nuclear development, 'must never develop a nuclear weapon,' and called on North Korea to halt its nuclear-related tests and launches.

In a separate statement US President Joe Biden called on Russia and China to demonstrate their commitment to limiting nuclear arms.

Russia should demonstrate its willingness to renew a separate bilateral nuclear arms reduction pact, the New START Treaty, when it expires in 2026, Biden said.

'My administration is ready to expeditiously negotiate a new arms control framework to replace New START,' he said.

'But negotiation requires a willing partner operating in good faith. And Russia's brutal and unprovoked aggression in Ukraine has shattered peace in Europe and constitutes an attack on fundamental tenets of international order.'

Head of Russian space agency Roscosmos Dmitry Rogozin with Vladimir Putin at Vostochny cosmodrome on April 12 

Biden said China meanwhile has a responsibility 'to engage in talks that will reduce the risk of miscalculation and address destabilizing military dynamics.'

'There is no benefit to any of our nations, or for the world, to resist substantive engagement on arms control and nuclear non-proliferation,' Biden said.

'The health of the NPT has always rested on meaningful, reciprocal arms limits between the United States and Russian Federation. Even at the height of the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union were able to work together to uphold our shared responsibility to ensure strategic stability,' Biden said.

'The world can be confident that my administration will continue to support the NPT and seek to strengthen the nonproliferation architecture that protects people everywhere.'

Russian TV presenter Vladimir Solovyov, who threatens England with nukes, is pictured left

Putin's 'propagandist-in-chief' Dmitry Kiselyov previously threatened to drown Britain twice in a radioactive tidal wave using Satan-2 missile

The news comes after the Russian president put Russia's nuclear arsenal on high alert in February, and state-TV pundits in Russia suggested using nuclear weapons against the United Kingdom.

Earlier in the month, Putin's chief TV propagandist Vladimir Solovyov threatened to destroy England with a giant Satan-2 rocket, but leave Scotland, Wales and the island of Ireland unharmed. 

Solovyov has previously threatened to destroy Great Britain with one hypersonic Sarmat, known in the West as Satan-2, a 15,880mph intercontinental nuclear-capable ballistic missile.

Earlier, Putin staged nuclear drills with his road-launched intercontinental Yars missiles in a forest in western Siberia.

The 7,500-mile range of the missiles are capable of striking Britain or anywhere in Europe.

Head of the Security Council, Dmitry Medvedev, issued the Kremlin's nuclear threat, warning of of the end of the 'existence of mankind' after warning the International Criminal Court (ICC) not to act against Russia.

Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko said in mid-July that Russia, Ukraine and the West must all agree to halt the conflict in Ukraine to avoid the 'abyss of nuclear war.' 

Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko said Thursday that Russia, Ukraine and the West must all agree to halt the conflict in Ukraine to avoid the 'abyss of nuclear war'

'We must stop, reach an agreement, end this mess, operation and war in Ukraine,' Lukashenko, Russian President Vladimir Putin's top ally, told AFP in an exclusive interview in Minsk.

'Let's stop and then we will figure out how to go on living... There's no need to go further. Further lies the abyss of nuclear war. There's no need to go there.'

Belarus has served as a staging ground for Russia's intervention in Ukraine, but Lukashenko has so far avoided becoming a party to the conflict.

Analysts say that he is keenly aware of the fact that most Belarusians do not support sending troops into Ukraine.

The 67-year-old leader, who has ruled Belarus for nearly three decades, insisted that Kyiv authorities can end the war if they re-start talks with Moscow and accept its demands.

He urged Kyiv authorities to 'sit down at the negotiating table and agree that they will never threaten Russia.'

Talks between Russia and Ukraine largely ground to a halt in mid-April.

Russia has claimed its most potent nuclear missile, the 16,000mph hypersonic 'Satan-2', can destroy the UK

Are there any defences against intercontinental ballistic missiles?

A number of countries maintain anti-missile systems which aim to shoot down or destroy missiles before the are able to reach their intended targets.

But these systems are typically only effective against small numbers of missiles, travelling well below hypersonic speeds.

The advent of hypersonic missile technology and long-range ICBMs, such as Russia's latest Sarmat missile, have made anti-missile systems largely redundant.

The U.S.' Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation said that 'despite decades of research, development, and testing, there remains no reliably effective anti-missile system to counter intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs)'.

Existing missile defence systems, such as the U.S. Patriot system, can target incoming short-, medium- and intermediate-range ballistic missiles whose threat is localised to one region, but cannot effectively protect against nuclear-capable ICBMs such as the Sarmat that can deploy warheads across vast areas.

According to former Assistant Secretary of Defense and U.S. chief weapons evaluator Philip Coyle: 'All missile defense systems can be overwhelmed... It is only if the attack is limited that the defense can have a hope of not being overwhelmed.' 

In the early 2000s, the U.S. began work on developing a specialised system designed to intercept ICBMs, known as the Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) system.

This aims to use a range of sensors and radars, based in locations around the world and in space, to detect ICBM launches and destroy them out of the Earth's atmosphere, before the warheads have a chance to re-enter and hit their targets. 

But the programme is wildly expensive and has returned extremely poor results, even in scripted tests in perfect conditions.

Mon, 01 Aug 2022 04:17:00 -0500 text/html
Killexams : 2000 Toyota Tundra Review

A smooth, powerful full-sized pickup.


Based on a drive over lava-strewn terrain and undulating highways, Toyota's new Tundra has the size and power to compete with the Ford F-150, Dodge Ram, Chevrolet Silverado and GMC Sierra. It is the first full-sized pickup truck ever sold by an import-brand automaker. 

The Toyota Tundra offers an optional double overhead-cam V8 engine that gives it more than enough power to compete with the big dogs. The Tundra accelerates quicker than base V8 versions of the Ford F-150, Dodge Ram, Chevrolet Silverado and GMC Sierra -- even when a trailer is attached. This new Toyota pickup can tow a 7,200-pound trailer or haul more than 2,000 pounds in its 8-foot bed. It offers excellent handling on the highway and over rough terrain. It sports a comfortable cab and delivers a quiet ride. 

In a field of great full-sized, half-ton pickup trucks, the Toyota Tundra is among the best. 


The Tundra replaces Toyota's T100, an intermediate, Dodge Dakota-sized truck available only with a V6. Though it was a high-quality, durable truck, the T100 failed to attract large numbers of American pickup buyers who wanted a V8 engine and a roomier cab. Out with the T100, in with the Tundra. 

The Tundra offers two engines, but Toyota expects nearly 95 percent of its buyers will opt for the V8. The 4.7-liter engine will be the first double overhead-cam, 32-valve V8 engine offered for a full-size pickup truck. Lifted from the Toyota Land Cruiser, this V8 produces 245 horsepower and 315 foot-pounds of torque. All V8 models come with 4-speed automatic transmissions. 

The standard engine is a 3.4-liter double overhead-cam V6 rated at 190 horsepower and 220 foot-pounds of torque. It comes with a choice of 4-speed automatic or 5-speed manual transmission. 

Built at Toyota's brand-new assembly plant in Indiana, the Tundra is available as a two-door regular cab or four-door Access Cab. Two- and four-wheel drive versions are available, which employ similar suspensions and bed heights. 

Though attractive, Tundra's styling is bland when compared with the stylish Dodge Ram and Ford F-150 trucks. It shares that Toyota look with the Tacoma compact- and T100 intermediate-sized pickups. Curving lines deliver it a sporty look, while bulging fenders make it appear ready to go off road. 

Access Cab extended cab models come with four doors. The rear doors open in the opposite direction -- they called these suicide doors in the old days. These doors will crash into one another if you close the front door before closing the rear door. Fortunately, the inside of the rear door is padded, so it isn't a big problem. 

The pickup bed measures 8 feet on the regular cab; it's 6-foot, three-inches long on the Access Cab, which is about 2 inches shorter than the bed of a Ford F-150. Toyota's bed is also a little shallower than Ford's. 


This is a comfortable truck with a friendly interior. Control switches are concentrated in the center cluster for easy operation. Instruments are straightforward with a big tachometer that's optional. A center console box comes with optional captain's chairs that provides storage space and cupholders. Climbing in is easy. 

The Tundra offers more front legroom than any of the domestic pickups. Overall, however, the domestic trucks offer more room in the front seats. An advanced seatbelt system with pretensioners and force limiters add safety to dual front airbags and side-impact beams. The passenger-side airbag can be switched off with the key when babies or children are aboard. 

Access Cab models add interior storage space and the ability to carry two more passengers. In terms of carrying passengers, the rear seat is mostly a short-term affair, however. First, the Tundra does not offer nearly as much space in the rear half of the extended cab as the Chevy, GMC, Ford and Dodge pickups. Second, the rear seatback is vertical, causing the occupant to sit bolt upright, which is uncomfortable for traveling any farther than the neighborhood restaurant. A far better use for the extended cab is to use it for carrying dry cleaning, groceries or briefcases. 

Driving Impression

The four-wheel-drive Tundra seems as quiet as a luxury sedan. The engine is smooth and quiet and there's little wind noise or road noise. 

The V8 engine provides excellent acceleration performance in the 45-mph range. It allowed us to pass Hawaii's slower drivers on winding two-lane roads with no drama. 

Toyota's V8 is a marvel of balance. Not only is it smooth and powerful, but it sounds great. Stand behind this pickup when it is started, revved, or even idling, and you're treated to a classic V8 burble that's pleasant to American ears. Yet, it's super quiet when sitting in the truck. 

V8 engines with twin cams and four valves per cylinder are usually associated with imported luxury sports sedans. Toyota perfected this design in its Land Cruiser SUV and Lexus luxury cars. With distributorless ignition and other state-of-the-art features, it produces nearly 200 foot-pounds of torque starting at just 2000 rpm. It will be the first V8 in the segment to qualify as a low-emission vehicle, or LEV, by the government. 

We loaded 300 pounds of fertilizer into a two-axle horse trailer and pulled it up a steep grade with a two-wheel-drive Tundra Limited model. Starting from a dead stop, the Tundra easily accelerated up a long hill with the 3,000-pound trailer. This rig was stable going around sweeping turns, braking from high speeds on steep downhill sections and bouncing over a rough lava-covered dirt road. There was none of the porpoising some trucks exhibit when their front suspensions aren't up to balancing weight on the rear tongue. We could have easily pulled that trailer to Montana -- except for the logistical problems of getting off of Hawaii. Transmission and engine oil coolers are standard. 

Ride quality is, for the most part, excellent. Hawaii's Big Island highways are fairly new and the pavement is in excellent condition, but they are not perfectly smooth because they were laid down on a bed of rough lava. The Tundra's suspension transmitted some of this unevenness to the occupants. This roughness was subtle, however, and a light load in the bed would probably eliminate it completely. 

On rough pavement and bumpy dirt roads, the Tundra's suspension really shined. It damped out unwanted vibration and harshness and controlled the movement of the wheels precisely, keeping the tires in contact with the road surface for excellent grip and handling. We bounced up a steep mountain trail -- barely a path -- into an area that looked like Southeast Asia, where the Tundra's suspension performed amazingly well. Bounding over harsh dips and humps, the suspension offered impressive travel and damping performance. It was easy to control the truck over this rough terrain in spite of our rapid pace up the steep mountain trail. The suspension never bottomed on the bump stops in spite of our efforts to beat it up. 

Toyota off-road racing legend Ivan 'Ironman' Stewart helped Toyota Racing Development tune a TRD model with Bilstein shocks and special progressive-rate springs. Its suspension is designed for performance in extreme off-road conditions and reportedly rides better on rough road surfaces. 

The brakes felt great to us and Toyota claims the Tundra can stop quicker than the domestic pickups. 

While bouncing over the moguls, we noticed that neither the cowl nor the front hood shook. The Tundra's chassis is highly rigid with boxed front frame rails. Toyota also claims this truck offers a class-leading ground clearance and everything underneath is tucked above the frame rails. 

A limited-slip rear differential is not available, so the inside rear wheel will scramble for traction when you accelerate around a tight gravel corner. 


Toyota now offers a full-sized pickup that can compete with the domestic trucks. It's smooth and quiet. It offers lots of power for passing or towing. And it comes with a suspension that handles winding roads and moonscapes brilliantly. 

All of this, wrapped up with Toyota's renowned quality, durability and reliability, make the Tundra an excellent choice among pickup trucks. 

Model Lineup

Tundra SR-5 4x4 Access Cab. 

Assembled In

Princeton, Indiana. 

Wed, 30 Mar 2022 18:22:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : When Will Gas Prices Come Down to Earth? You May Not Like the Answer
  • First, the good news: despite a lot of nerve-racking volatility, the price of crude oil is expected to go on a downward trend, reversing the record levels we've seen so far this year.
  • The bad news: That isn't likely before 2023, and anything can happen between now and then.
  • Don't blame gas station owners or the president. They have less control over the situation than we'd like to think. It's a complex global landscape out there.

You may have felt a slight tingle if you visited a gas station after July 4. Whatever libations you may have consumed during the fireworks or the tinnitus that came after is not our concern. It's gas prices: They went down for the first week in months. But are they on a downward trend that will get us back to pre-pandemic levels? The answer is no, not this year.

Republicans blame Joe Biden, Democrats blame Big Oil, the Greens would like us to convert to bicycles, and in northern Connecticut, Ralph Nader is laughing at everyone. What's happening with record-high gas prices is simple and yet so complex that not one single actor deserves all the blame. Let's dive into the crude world of gasoline.

A Non-Political Explanation of Crude Oil Prices

In North America, we track oil prices using West Texas Intermediate (WTI), a crude blend sourced primarily from Texas that serves as one of several global benchmarks for oil futures, or the contracts that buyers agree to pay oil producers for a barrel of crude at a specified future date. The WTI price you see quoted in the news is what's called a "front month," which refers to the futures contracts that expire closest to the current date. At present, WTI closely mirrors Brent crude, which makes up the majority of European and global oil futures.

WTI prices for a barrel of crude dipped below $100 this week for the first time since May 10, according to the Wall Street Journal's price chart. Oil began trading above $100 in the week after the Russian invasion of Ukraine began in late February, when investors thinking that Russia's lucrative oil reserves could be upset with potential economic sanctions. But oil prices were already rising before the war, in sync with the general uptick of the global economy since the 2020 shutdown when WTI briefly traded negative and barely rose above $40. With resurgent demand and economic activity in 2021, WTI rose into the $60s, $70s, and low $80s. It climbed again during the first quarter of 2022 and reached into the high $80s and low $90s during the weeks and days before the invasion. Crude is a huge portion of every gallon of retail gasoline—nearly 60 percent, according to the Energy Information Administration.

Retail gas prices and crude prices go hand in hand, as everyone has watched since a gallon of regular-grade gas sank to a low of $1.77 in April 2020 and then rose to $2.85 by the end of March 2021, according to EIA records. Average prices rose past $3 last July, mirroring the rise in crude, and matched the crude spike in early March 2022 when prices soared past $4—and never went back. Gas reached a record $5 on June 13, only to trickle down to $4.77 on July 4, according to the EIA. The last time gas was this expensive (when it was $4 during July 2008), crude prices had peaked just as high as they have this year.

Crude oil has been especially volatile for the past four months. WTI prices shot past $120 early in the Russian invasion and after European sanctions blocking all Russian oil took effect on June 1. In this same time span, crude fell to the mid-$100s only to rise days or weeks later. Final closing prices on July 5 and July 6 dipped below $100, yes, but this happened at least nine times since the first spike in March. The war, record-high inflation, surging interest rates, the worry over slumping global demand from the high shipping costs that high oil prices cause and trickle into equally high consumer prices—it has been another unpredictable year, to put it lightly.

This past week, the Biden administration floated the idea of a cap on Russian oil prices, which make up close to 10 percent of the global supply. The New York Times called it a "novel and untested effort to force Russia to sell its oil to the world at a steep discount" that could "starve Moscow's oil-rich war machine of funding and . . . relieve pressure on energy consumers." It's too soon to know whether other countries will agree to such a plan.

Meanwhile, its latest forecast, the EIA predicts WTI prices will remain around $102 and then dip to $93 sometime in 2023. Futures contracts seem to agree, with contracts expiring as far out as April 2023 trading in the mid-$80s, according to Barron's. But literally anything can happen between now and then to shift that trajectory.

U.S. Energy Information Administration

The Added Costs of Federal Regulations

There's competition for crude. While gasoline and diesel are the main product that comes out of U.S. refineries, the same barrel of crude goes to making kerosene, jet fuel, heating oil, asphalt, solvents, and other petroleum products like waxes and lubricants. There is product overlap among the various companies that sell these products, and yet they are all diverse industries with differing demands.

Beyond the huge conglomerates that still have to import foreign oil to meet demand across the entire country, factor in the 9000 smaller oil producers in the U.S., which operate in very different markets with varying state regulatory mandates. Now consider how the Environmental Protection Agency regulates smog by requiring at least 14 summer gasoline blends tailored to specific regions (which many, consequently, have to switch to winter blends).

Then there's the Renewable Fuel Standard Program, which requires more ethanol and biodiesel blends than the industry can feasibly produce. The industry publication Fuels Market News noted that the 2022 targets "were deliberately set at a high level to facilitate investments in E15 and E85 infrastructure." These targets have contributed to high ethanol credit prices that refiners must buy to stay in compliance (similar to California's zero-emissions credits). Ultra-low-sulfur diesel is costlier than the soot-burning diesel of years past, and it's not getting cheaper. Producing premium and mid-grade gasoline requires special additives that are costly to make, too—higher octane doesn’t come cheap. None of these costs are insignificant, and they're all reflected at the pump.

Shocker: President Can't Command Oil Industry to Lower Prices

Over the July 4 weekend, President Biden tweeted this: "My message to the companies running gas stations and setting prices at the pump is simple: this is a time of war and global peril. Bring down the price you are charging at the pump to reflect the cost you're paying for the product. And do it now."

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He's right to some degree, as margins between the price of Brent crude and the wholesale price of gasoline—the price gas stations pay before adding their costs, profit, and state taxes—have reached record highs at gasoline stations. The EIA reports that those margins were $1.17 per gallon in May. But even with diesel hitting $6 in many places, are gas stations really out to destroy America? The Association for Convenience and Fuel Retailing, an industry lobby, reports that individual gas stations—more than half of which are run by independent owners that franchise with large brands—typically make only 10 cents a gallon after all costs and fees. Believe that or not, but most gas station owners make more money from in-store sales than pump sales. We all know how far we're willing to drive for even a five-cent drop in prices.

As we've described, oil companies and gas stations play on a national and global market and can't control what independent U.S. oil producers do or what Middle Eastern countries in OPEC choose to do. OPEC has agreed to increase oil production and President Biden has been begging Venezuela and Saudi Arabia to increase production—both of which would not reduce gas prices any more than his canceling of the Canadian Keystone XL pipeline would raise them. As the New York Times reported, Keystone XL was only 8 percent complete and was a planned extension to an already hefty pipeline. Neither situation would be a game changer at the pump.

Biden has demanded that oil companies increase production, but they physically can't. While the shale boom has more than doubled domestic oil and gas production since 2008, the nation's 125 refineries are operating at or near max capacity just as they were before the pandemic. As of January 1, the U.S. was refining 17.8 million petroleum barrels a day—again, for all petroleum products, not just gasoline and diesel—compared to the 18.5 million barrels as of January 1, 2020. Crude production from U.S. oil fields is down from its 2019 peak, but at 11.6 million barrels per day as of April, the oil industry is sucking more dino juice out of the ground than ever—it's more than double the amount they barreled in 2008.

Biden also said that there are 9000 approved permits for oil producers who he claimed "could be drilling right now, yesterday, last week, last year," except the Poynter Institute says it's standard practice to have thousands of unused permits in any presidency and that it's economically unviable to rush on a permitted land. Drilling—a huge investment with huge potential losses—takes a lot of careful measurements. It's not a stick-it-in-the-ground operation by any means.

Biden has proposed a federal gas tax holiday, but longer relief would be felt if the EPA could relax the Renewable Fuel Standard Program and temporarily suspend the regional requirements to formulate summer gasoline. Even so, the oil market goes beyond what Congress or a president can attempt to influence. Right now, we're just stuck with high prices.

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