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Exam Code: XK0-004 Practice test 2022 by Killexams.com team
XK0-004 CompTIA Linux+ Certification Exam

Exam Description : CompTIA Linux+ validates the skills of IT professionals with hands-on experience configuring, monitoring, and supporting servers running the Linux operating system. The new test has an increased focus on the following topics: security, kernel modules, storage & visualization, device management at an enterprise level, git & automation, networking & firewalls, server side & command line, server (vs. client-based) coverage, troubleshooting and SELinux.
Number of Questions Maximum of 90 questions
Type of Questions Performance-based, Multiple Choice (Single Response), Multiple Response and Fill-in-the-Blank
Length of Test 90 Minutes
Passing Score 720 (on a scale of 100 to 900)
Recommended Experience CompTIA A+, CompTIA Network+ and 12 months of Linux admin experience

XK0-004 test Syllabus

1. Boot loaders
GRUB
GRUB2

2. Boot options
UEFI/EFI
PXE
NFS
Boot from ISO
Boot from HTTP/FTP

2. File locations
/etc/default/grub
/etc/grub2.cfg
/boot
/boot/grub
/boot/grub2
/boot/ef

3. Boot modules and files
Commands
mkinitrd
dracut
grub2-install
grub2-mkconfig
initramfs
efi files
vmlinuz
vmlinux

4. Kernel panic
Given a scenario, install, configure, and monitor kernel modules.
1. Commands
lsmod
insmod
modprobe
modinfo
dmesg
rmmod
depmod

2. Locations
/usr/lib/modules/[kernelversion]
/usr/lib/modules
/etc/modprobe.conf
/etc/modprobe.d/

Given a scenario, configure and verify network connection parameters.
1. Diagnostic tools
ping
netstat
nslookup
dig
host
route
ip
ethtool
ss
iwconfig
nmcli
brctl
nmtui

2. Configuration files
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/
/etc/sysconfig/network
/etc/hosts
/etc/network
/etc/nsswitch.conf
/etc/resolv.conf
/etc/netplan
/etc/sysctl.conf
/etc/dhcp/dhclient.conf

3. Bonding
Aggregation
Active/passive
Load balancing

Given a scenario, manage storage in a Linux environment.
1. Basic partitions
Raw devices
GPT
MBR

2. File system hierarchy
Real file systems
Virtual file systems
Relative paths
Absolute paths

3. Device mapper
LVM
mdadm
Multipath

4. Tools
XFS tools
LVM tools
EXT tools
Commands
mdadm
fdisk
parted
mkfs
iostat
df
du
mount
umount
lsblk
blkid
dumpe2fs
resize2fs
fsck
tune2fs
e2label

5. Location
/etc/fstab
/etc/crypttab
/dev/
/dev/mapper
/dev/disk/by-id
uuid
path
multipath
/etc/mtab
/sys/block
/proc/partitions
/proc/mounts

6. File system types
ext3
ext4
xfs
nfs
smb
cifs
ntfs

Compare and contrast cloud and virtualization concepts and technologies.
1. Templates
VM
OVA
OVF
JSON
YAML
Container images

2. Bootstrapping
Cloud-init
Anaconda
Kickstart

3. Storage
Thin vs. thick provisioning
Persistent volumes
Blob
Block
4. Network considerations
Bridging
Overlay networks
NAT
Local
Dual-homed

5. Types of hypervisors

6. Tools
libvirt
virsh
vmm

Given a scenario, configure localization options.
1. File locations
/etc/timezone
/usr/share/zoneinfo

2. Commands
localectl
timedatectl
date
hwclock

3. Environment variables
LC_*
LC_ALL
LANG
TZ

4. Character sets
UTF-8
ASCII
Unicode
Systems Operation and Maintenance 26%

Given a scenario, conduct software installations, configurations, updates, and removals.
1. Package types
.rpm
.deb
.tar
.tgz
.gz

2. Installation tools
RPM
Dpkg
APT
YUM
DNF
Zypper

3. Build tools
Commands
Compilers
Shared libraries

4. Repositories
Configuration
Creation
Syncing
Locations

5. Acquisition commands
wget
curl
Given a scenario, manage users and groups.
1. Creation
useradd
groupadd

2. Modification
usermod
groupmod
passwd
chage

3. Deletion
userdel
groupdel

4. Queries
id
whoami
who
w
last

5. Quotas
User quota
Group quota

6. Profiles
Bash parameters
Global entries

7. Important files and file contents
/etc/passwd
/etc/group
/etc/shadow
Given a scenario, create, modify, and redirect files.
1. Text editors
nano
vi

2. File readers
grep
cat
tail
head
less
more

3. Output redirection
<
>
|
<<
>>
2>
&>
stdin
stdout
stderr
/dev/null
/dev/tty
xargs
tee
Here documents

4. Text processing
grep
tr
echo
sort
awk
sed
cut
printf
egrep
wc
paste

5. File and directory operations
touch
mv
cp
rm
scp
ls
rsync
mkdir
rmdir
ln
Symbolic (soft)
Hard
unlink
inodes
find
locate
grep
which
whereis
diff
updatedb
Given a scenario, manage services.
1. Systemd management
Systemctl
Enabled
Disabled
Start
Stop
Mask
Restart
Status
Daemon-reload
Systemd-analyze blame
Unit files
Directory locations
Environment parameters
Targets
Hostnamectl
Automount

2. SysVinit
chkconfig
on
off
level
Runlevels
Definitions of 0–6
/etc/init.d
/etc/rc.d
/etc/rc.local
/etc/inittab
Commands
- runlevel
- telinit
Service
Restart
Status
Stop
Start
Reload

Summarize and explain server roles.
1. NTP
2. SSH
3. Web
4. Certificate authority
5. Name server
6. DHCP
7. File servers
8. Authentication server
9. Proxy
10. Logging
11. Containers
12. VPN
13. Monitoring
14. Database
15. Print server
16. Mail server
17. Load balancer
18. Clustering

Given a scenario, automate and schedule jobs.
1. cron
2. at
3. crontab
4. fg
5. bg
6. &
7. kill
8. Ctrl+c
9. Ctrl+z
10. nohup

Explain the use and operation of Linux devices.
1. Types of devices
Client devices
Bluetooth
WiFi
USB
Monitors
GPIO
Network adapters
PCI
HBA
SATA
SCSI
Printers
Video
Audio

2. Monitoring and configuration tools
lsdev
lsusb
lspci
lsblk
dmesg
lpr
lpq
abrt
CUPS
udevadm
add
reload-rules
control
trigger

3. File locations
/proc
/sys
/dev
/dev/mapper
/etc/X11

4. Hot pluggable devices
/usr/lib/udev/rules.d (System rules - Lowest priority)
/run/udev/rules.d (Volatile Rules)
/etc/udev/rules.d (Local Administration - Highest priority)
/etc/udev/rules.d
Compare and contrast Linux graphical user interfaces.
1. Servers
Wayland
X11

2. GUI
Gnome
Unity
Cinnamon
MATE
KDE

3. Remote desktop
VNC
XRDP
NX
Spice

4. Console redirection
SSH port forwarding
Local
Remote
X11 forwarding
VNC

5. Accessibility
Security 19%
Given a scenario, apply or acquire the appropriate user and/or group permissions and ownership.
1. File and directory permissions
Read, write, execute
User, group, other
SUID
Octal notation
umask
Sticky bit
SGID
Inheritance
Utilities
chmod
chown
chgrp
getfacl
setfacl
ls
ulimit
chage

2. Context-based permissions
SELinux configurations
disabled
permissive
enforcing
SELinux policy
targeted
SELinux tools
setenforce
getenforce
sestatus
setsebool
getsebool
chcon
restorecon
ls -Z
ps -Z
AppArmor
aa-disable
aa-complain
aa-unconfined
/etc/apparmor.d/
/etc/apparmor.d/tunables

3. Privilege escalation
su
sudo
wheel
visudo
sudoedit

4. User types
Root
Standard
Service
Given a scenario, configure and implement appropriate access and authentication methods.
1. PAM
Password policies
LDAP integration
User lockouts
Required, optional, or sufficient
/etc/pam.d/
pam_tally2
faillock

2. SSH
~/.ssh/
known_hosts
authorized_keys
config
id_rsa
id_rsa.pub
User-specific access
TCP wrappers
/etc/ssh/
ssh_config
sshd_config
ssh-copy-id
ssh-keygen
ssh-add

3. TTYs
/etc/securetty
/dev/tty#

4. PTYs

5. PKI
Self-signed
Private keys
Public keys
Hashing
Digital signatures
Message digest

6. VPN as a client
SSL/TLS
Transport mode
Tunnel mode
IPSec
DTLS
Summarize security best practices in a Linux environment.
1. Boot security
Boot loader password
UEFI/BIOS password

2. Additional authentication methods
Multifactor authentication
Tokens
- Hardware
- Software
OTP
Biometrics
RADIUS
TACACS+
LDAP
Kerberos
kinit
klist

3. Importance of disabling root login via SSH

4. Password-less login
Enforce use of PKI

5. Chroot jail services
6. No shared IDs
7. Importance of denying hosts
8. Separation of OS data from application data
Disk partition to maximize system availability

9. Change default ports
10. Importance of disabling or uninstalling unused and unsecure services
FTP
Telnet
Finger
Sendmail
Postfix

11. Importance of enabling SSL/TLS
12. Importance of enabling auditd
13. CVE monitoring
14. Discouraging use of USB devices
15. Disk encryption
LUKS

16. Restrict cron access
17. Disable Ctrl+Alt+Del
18. Add banner
19. MOTD

Given a scenario, implement logging services.
1. Key file locations
/var/log/secure
/var/log/messages
/var/log/[application]
/var/log/kern.log

2. Log management
Third-party agents
logrotate
/etc/rsyslog.conf
journald
journalctl

3. lastb
Given a scenario, implement and configure Linux firewalls.
1. Access control lists
Source
Destination
Ports
Protocol
Logging
Stateful vs. stateless
Accept
Reject
Drop
Log

2. Technologies
firewalld
Zones
Run time
iptables
Persistency
Chains
ufw
/etc/default/ufw
/etc/ufw/
Netfilter

3. IP forwarding
/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
/proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/all/forwarding

4. Dynamic rule sets
DenyHosts
Fail2ban
IPset

5. Common application firewall configurations
/etc/services
Privileged ports
Given a scenario, backup, restore, and compress files.
1. Archive and restore utilities
tar
cpio
dd

2. Compression
gzip
xz
bzip2
zip

3. Backup types
Incremental
Full
Snapshot clones
Differential
Image

4. Off-site/off-system storage
SFTP
SCP
rsync

5. Integrity checks
MD5
SHA
Linux Troubleshooting and Diagnostics 20%
Given a scenario, analyze system properties and remediate accordingly.
1. Network monitoring and configuration
Latency
Bandwidth
Throughput
Routing
Saturation
Packet drop
Timeouts
Name resolution
Localhost vs. Unix socket
Adapters
RDMA drivers
Interface configurations
Commands
nmap
netstat
iftop
route
iperf
tcpdump
ipset
Wireshark
tshark
netcat
traceroute
mtr
arp
nslookup
dig
host
whois
ping
nmcli
ip
tracepath

2. Storage monitoring and configuration
iostat
ioping
IO scheduling
cfq
noop
deadline
du
df
LVM tools
fsck
partprobe

3. CPU monitoring and configuration
/proc/cpuinfo
uptime
loadaverage
sar
sysctl

4. Memory monitoring and configuration
swapon
swapoff
mkswap
vmstat
Out of memory killer
free
/proc/meminfo
Buffer cache output

5. Lost root password
Single user mode
Given a scenario, analyze system processes in order to optimize performance. 1. Process management
Process states
Zombie
Uninterruptible sleep
Interruptible sleep
Running
Priorities
Kill signals
Commands
nice
renice
top
time
ps
lsof
pgrep
pkill
PIDs
Given a scenario, analyze and troubleshoot user issues.
1. Permissions
File
Directory

2. Access
Local
Remote

3. Authentication
Local
External
Policy violations

4. File creation
Quotas
Storage
Inode exhaustion
Immutable files

5. Insufficient privileges for authorization
SELinux violations

6. Environment and shell issues
Given a scenario, analyze and troubleshoot application and hardware issues.
1. SELinux context violations

2. Storage
Degraded storage
Missing devices
Missing volumes
Missing mount point
Performance issues
Resource exhaustion
Adapters
SCSI
RAID
SATA
HBA
/sys/class/scsi_host/host#/scan
Storage integrity
Bad blocks

3. Firewall
Restrictive ACLs
Blocked ports
Blocked protocols

4. Permission
Ownership
Executables
Inheritance
Service accounts
Group memberships

5. Dependencies
Patching
Update issues
Versioning
Libraries
Environment variables
GCC compatibility
Repositories

6. Troubleshooting additional hardware issues
Memory
Printers
Video
GPU drivers
Communications ports
USB
Keyboard mapping
Hardware or software compatibility issues
Commands
dmidecode
lshw
Automation and Scripting 14%
Given a scenario, deploy and execute basic BASH scripts.
1. Shell environments and shell variables
PATH
Global
Local
export
env
set
printenv
echo

2. #!/bin/bash
3. Sourcing scripts
4. Directory and file permissions
chmod

5. Extensions
6. Commenting
#

7. File globbing
8. Shell expansions
${}
$()
` `
8. Redirection and piping
9. Exit codes
stderr
stdin
stdout
10. Metacharacters
11. Positional parameters
12. Looping constructs
while
for
until

13. Conditional statements
if
case

14. Escaping characters
Given a scenario, carry out version control using Git.
1. Arguments
clone
push
pull
commit
merge
branch
log
init
config

2. Files
gitignore
.git/

Summarize orchestration processes and concepts.
1. Agent
2. Agentless
3. Procedures
4. Attributes
5. Infrastructure automation
6. Infrastructure as code
7. Inventory
8. Automated configuration management
9. Build automation

CompTIA Linux+ Certification Exam
CompTIA Certification information source
Killexams : CompTIA Certification information source - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/XK0-004 Search results Killexams : CompTIA Certification information source - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/XK0-004 https://killexams.com/exam_list/CompTIA Killexams : CompTIA CEO outlines bold initiative to create the preeminent destination to start, build and 'supercharge' a career in tech

Todd Thibodeaux uses ChannelCon 2022 state of the industry remarks to unveil CompTIA's Project Agora; invites broad industry participation in the effort to fight for tech talent

CHICAGO, Aug. 3, 2022 /PRNewswire/ -- CompTIA, the nonprofit association for the information technology (IT) industry and workforce, is undertaking an expansive effort to create the most resource-rich source of information and support for anyone interested in starting, staying and succeeding in a career in technology.

CompTIA is the voice of the world's information technology industry. (PRNewsFoto/CompTIA)

"The goal of Project Agora is to create the most respected place to start, build and supercharge your tech career."

CompTIA President and CEO Todd Thibodeaux revealed the association's Project Agora during his state of the industry remarks at ChannelCon 2022.

"The goal of Project Agora is to create the most respected place to start, build and supercharge your tech career," he said. "With amazing resources and broad support from our members, partners and industry Project Agora will help people find success in the tech workforce."

The labor market is in a period of unprecedented transition, characterized in large part by the volume of frictional unemployment as individuals search for, or transition from one job to another. One in four US workers were actively seeking a new job or pursuing other career options during Q2 2022, CompTIA research reveals.1 While tech is among the top five industries job seekers were considering, it ranked behind several other sectors, including sales, real estate, healthcare, hospitality and finance. A lack of confidence in technical skills, concerns about the cost and the time it will take to learn those skills and perceptions about the tech industry culture are factors that contribute to reluctance to consider tech as a career option.

"Our challenge is to convert more career intent people to tech intent," Thibodeaux said. "We need to tell better stories, more consistently, about how truly great it is to work in tech. The way we get the talent we need is by fighting for it."

Project Agora will help in that effort, first by enabling individuals to explore in great depth tech jobs and careers. CompTIA has identified 30 different job roles covering 90% of tech employment. The next step is creating resources to engage users and convert them from career intent to tech intent. Thibodeaux issued a call to action for the industry to get involved in this effort to build the best, most comprehensive collection of tech career resources available anywhere.

"Confidence gaps, career transition gaps and reskilling gaps are not insurmountable barriers but rather opportunities to chart a new course for individuals and the companies that employ them," Thibodeaux concluded. "Project Agora is all about unlocking potential, for the industry, and for millions of people we want and need working in it,"

Organizations interested in getting involved in Project Agora can contact CompTIA at [email protected]

About CompTIA

The Computing Technology Industry Association (CompTIA) is a leading voice and advocate for the $5 trillion global information technology ecosystem; and the estimated 75 million industry and tech professionals who design, implement, manage, and safeguard the technology that powers the world's economy. Through education, training, certifications, advocacy, philanthropy, and market research, CompTIA is the hub for unlocking the potential of the tech industry and its workforce. https://www.comptia.org/


1 This encompasses those currently employed plus those actively looking (classified as part of the labor market by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics). Job Seeker Trends, July 2022.


Media Contact
Steven Ostrowski
CompTIA 
[email protected]  
+1 630-678-8468

Cision View original content to download multimedia:https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/comptia-ceo-outlines-bold-initiative-to-create-the-preeminent-destination-to-start-build-and-supercharge-a-career-in-tech-301598916.html

SOURCE CompTIA

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Killexams : CompTIA CEO outlines bold initiative to create the preeminent destination to start, build and 'supercharge' a career in tech

Todd Thibodeaux uses ChannelCon 2022 state of the industry remarks to unveil CompTIA's Project Agora; invites broad industry participation in the effort to fight for tech talent

CHICAGO, Aug. 3, 2022 /PRNewswire/ -- CompTIA, the nonprofit association for the information technology (IT) industry and workforce, is undertaking an expansive effort to create the most resource-rich source of information and support for anyone interested in starting, staying and succeeding in a career in technology.

CompTIA is the voice of the world's information technology industry. (PRNewsFoto/CompTIA)

"The goal of Project Agora is to create the most respected place to start, build and supercharge your tech career."

CompTIA President and CEO Todd Thibodeaux revealed the association's Project Agora during his state of the industry remarks at ChannelCon 2022.

"The goal of Project Agora is to create the most respected place to start, build and supercharge your tech career," he said. "With amazing resources and broad support from our members, partners and industry Project Agora will help people find success in the tech workforce."

The labor market is in a period of unprecedented transition, characterized in large part by the volume of frictional unemployment as individuals search for, or transition from one job to another. One in four US workers were actively seeking a new job or pursuing other career options during Q2 2022, CompTIA research reveals.1 While tech is among the top five industries job seekers were considering, it ranked behind several other sectors, including sales, real estate, healthcare, hospitality and finance. A lack of confidence in technical skills, concerns about the cost and the time it will take to learn those skills and perceptions about the tech industry culture are factors that contribute to reluctance to consider tech as a career option.

"Our challenge is to convert more career intent people to tech intent," Thibodeaux said. "We need to tell better stories, more consistently, about how truly great it is to work in tech. The way we get the talent we need is by fighting for it."

Project Agora will help in that effort, first by enabling individuals to explore in great depth tech jobs and careers. CompTIA has identified 30 different job roles covering 90% of tech employment. The next step is creating resources to engage users and convert them from career intent to tech intent. Thibodeaux issued a call to action for the industry to get involved in this effort to build the best, most comprehensive collection of tech career resources available anywhere.

"Confidence gaps, career transition gaps and reskilling gaps are not insurmountable barriers but rather opportunities to chart a new course for individuals and the companies that employ them," Thibodeaux concluded. "Project Agora is all about unlocking potential, for the industry, and for millions of people we want and need working in it,"

Organizations interested in getting involved in Project Agora can contact CompTIA at action5@comptia.org

About CompTIA

The Computing Technology Industry Association (CompTIA) is a leading voice and advocate for the $5 trillion global information technology ecosystem; and the estimated 75 million industry and tech professionals who design, implement, manage, and safeguard the technology that powers the world's economy. Through education, training, certifications, advocacy, philanthropy, and market research, CompTIA is the hub for unlocking the potential of the tech industry and its workforce. https://www.comptia.org/


1 This encompasses those currently employed plus those actively looking (classified as part of the labor market by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics). Job Seeker Trends, July 2022.

Media Contact
Steven Ostrowski
CompTIA 
sostrowski@comptia.org  
+1 630-678-8468

Cision View original content to download multimedia:https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/comptia-ceo-outlines-bold-initiative-to-create-the-preeminent-destination-to-start-build-and-supercharge-a-career-in-tech-301598916.html

SOURCE CompTIA

Wed, 03 Aug 2022 02:39:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.abc27.com/business/press-releases/cision/20220803DC35073/comptia-ceo-outlines-bold-initiative-to-create-the-preeminent-destination-to-start-build-and-supercharge-a-career-in-tech/
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