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By Philip Afaha Protocol I bring you warm compliments from the staff and students of the Department of History and Diplomatic Studies, University of Abuja, and I want to thank the organizers of this event for inviting me to this great university.

The Veritas University is truly a bastion of scholarship. Your pedigree is known to history, yours, unlike other fledgling private universities in Nigeria, is grounded on an enviable catholic tradition.

History has it that the colonial authority was not too enthusiastic about education of her Nigerian colonies. Through a series of manipulations involving refusal of financial assistance or denial of approval to open a new school, the colonial administration ensured that education was provided in such a dosage that it would not bring about the end of colonialism.

It was in response to this scenario that the catholic mission, alongside other Christian missions, embarked on establishment of schools to fill the vacuum created by the British colonial policy on education. To historians, when the Veritas Catholic University came on board about a decade ago, there was a strong expectation that it will be a flagship of a non-governmental university in Nigeria.

I ‘am happy to observe that the dream citadel of scholarship in Abuja has been achieved. I want to sincerely congratulate the management, staff and students of this beautiful university for keeping your heads high. The greatest challenge of any history teacher is not teaching history itself but in articulating its relevance. It is in explaining its importance and convincing an audience or students who are struggling to situate themselves in an old story that occurred long before they were born that is the real meat of history as a branch of knowledge.

Thus when I got the invitation from the students historical society of Nigeria of this university to speak on the search for the relevance of history, I was choked with double feelings; the first was the excitement to communicate history as usual, and second feeling was a disturbing inner challenge to convince a young audience to keep learning an old craft. The question as to what makes history relevant in the 21st century is akin to one staring at a mirror and asking himself his own name. When I was a university student, I struggled to come to terms as to why I was offering History as a major. I would have loved to read law, accountancy, engineering or any other courses that promised instant job in the oil companies of the 90s but I was stuck with History.

I entertained queries after queries of “what will you do with History?”. I endured the sarcasms of my friends and relations over my choice of discipline throughout my university days. If you have experience such trauma ever since you arrived at this university, I have good news for you; enduring sarcasms is a first ritual of becoming a historian, and it is that which will provoke the best in you after your studies. By the time I returned from my national service I became one of the few to land a dream job with UACN, then the biggest conglomerate in Africa.

I have landed several other jobs ever since because I posses a rare skill – the skill of a historian. I tell this story because I suspect that the thrust of my presentation, History: A Search For Relevance In The 21st Century, may have been provoked by the kind of inner trauma I called the ritual of becoming a historian. However, when you are able to walk through those psychological bashings, you become mentally toughened to be the best and dominate your intellectual space.

You probe with pride, analyze and exercise command over logic and letters, and you become a respected member of the human society, you become their voice – that`s the audacity of history. A history degree doesn’t narrow your opportunities after graduation. Instead, the history major opens a world of possibilities for your future.

Federal government data show the variety of exciting career paths you can penetrate with your degree in history; currently we have the chief of army staff, the comptroller general of immigration, a Director of the central bank, a deputy inspector general of police, the comptroller of prison services, top diplomats and bureaucrats, prominent legislators, school administrators, and most recently the Director general of NYSC who possess the same history certificates you are here to pursue. I also have numerous of history graduates plying their trade in banks, international organizations, the media, multinational firms and in private businesses. With their hindsight of the past and capacity for critical thinking, historians are making waves all over the world and employers are increasingly searching for those who are trained to understand trends, who can reconstruct thoughts, who can relate current scenario with the past, and who can adequately capture in writing their daily experiences.

The closest illustration of this fact is when you walk in to any bank in Abuja, you observe that majority of the workforce neither read banking nor accounting. A history graduate is far ahead of others both in cognitive ability and analyzing capacity. The very discipline of history and study of history activates the hippocampus – the brain compartment responsible for processing memory and intelligence. Meaning Before we delve into its relevance, I will pretend you have forgotten the definition of history and as expected of every teacher, I will scramble a reminder here. History is the art and science of memory and memory is the wine of human knowledge. It facilitates memory and teaches people to remember, and to think critically.

We believe that history is central to knowledge as nothing is worth knowing if it cannot be remembered. History prides itself as the fulcrum on which basic knowledge evolves., and as the sayings go “History is about everything and everything is about history; “History orientates man, locates him in time and space” it asks questions about things done by man in time and space; it is rational, provides answers based on evidence and links the past with the present and the future. The most common definition of history and perhaps the one loved most by students is E H Carr submission that history is a continuous dialogue between the historian and his facts,… and between the present and the past. Mankind must therefore confront and accept the past in order to create a present and a future for itself.

The centrality of history in practical life cannot be overdramatized, as “All Knowledge is history”. That explains the study of history of everything, including man`s search for God. We cannot completely know God without history; every religion is anchored on history and faith. That is why the Holy Bible begins with Genesis- which is the history of creation and the relationship between God and man. Thus we have History of Religion, History of Science and Technology, Constitutional History; History of Volcanic eruptions and other human disasters; History of ideas, History of Philosophy and, of course, History of History. History is society`s collective memory, but sometimes, as Wole Soyinka puts it while criticizing those who expunged history from Nigerian school curriculum; “history is a burden and that is why most people avoid it”.

To Soyinka, the successive Nigerian leaders would not accommodate the revealing nature of history due to their despicable conducts while in power. He quipped angrily that “those who expunged such a discipline from our school should be expunged from history altogether.”(I disagree with the distinguished laureate here. History doesn’t discriminate). Nevertheless, such angst appear to rhyme with that of American philosopher George Santayana who submitted that “a country without memory is a country of madmen”. I hope, Mr. Vice Chancellor, you are making conscious effort to write down the history of Veritas University. I bet you`ve got a wonderful history to tell. Limitations However, it must be admitted that history has its limitations. It doesn’t offer a utopia for knowledge as some people would believe.

The paramount limitation of history becomes clearer when the very processes of historical reconstruction is appraised. Indeed, the historians’ task is as daunting as a puzzle. Unlike the scientist who can experiment directly with tangible objects, the historian is most times removed from the events under his investigation, and his facts are as contained in surviving records, and a large chunk of events were not recorded at all, and most records are either inaccessible or have been destroyed. Indeed, Gottschalk aptly summarized this lacuna when he remarked; “Only a part of what was observed in the past was remembered by those who observed it; only a part of what was remembered was recorded; only a part of what was recorded has survived; only a part of what has survived has come to the historian`s attention; only a part of what has come to their attention is credible; only a part of what is credible has been grasped; and only a part of what has been grasped can be expounded or narrated by the historian…..Before the past is set forth by the historian, it is likely to have gone through eight separate steps at each of which some of it has been lost; and there is no ensure that what remains is the most important, the largest, the most valuable, the most representative, or the most enduring part.” Apart from the above shortcoming, the historian himself is a factor in the equation. Not only is the historian fallible and capable of error, but personal biases, political beliefs, economic status, religious persuasion, and idiosyncrasies can subtly and unconsciously influence the way historical sources are interpreted. Nevertheless, We don’t have to know much history to recognize that truly horrible events occurred in the past; we must therefore assume that there will be more horrors in the future unless we develop ways to prevent them.

Studying past horrors is perhaps the first step towards preventing future recurrences, because we can begin searching for effective means of prevention and mitigation. History offers us much encouragement in thinking that serious efforts to safeguard the future world from nightmares can be very worthwhile even if not a hundred percent effective. If we cannot completely prevent a disaster, perhaps we can deploy our lessons of history to reduce its likelihood and also the pain it causes. History is change, or a study of changes. It is a significant change in the related interconnectedness of the past, present and future. However, change in history is not only in magnitude e.g. wars, depression, and drought, but also in the weight of influence on the future. Thus if we agree that the future is a product of change(s), then it follows that history, the study of changes, is relevant to the 21st century. Relevance Now permit me to tell a little familiar story before I go into the relevance of history in the 21st century.

We enjoy history more when it is cast as stories. One of the fallouts of the 2019 general elections that have caught the nation gasping has been the debate of who a Nigerian citizen is. There are stories of a man from Sudan which has served an excellent comic relief all over the social media. Another, and indeed the ones that has found its way to the elections tribunal is the counter-petitions over Mohammadu Buhari`s school certificate and Atiku Abubakar`s claim to being a Nigerian citizen. The petitions questions the duo`s eligibility to contest for the office of the president as the electoral act stipulates the qualification for such office to include among other extremely simple and laughable things as citizenship by birth and a school testimonial. The twin saga has exposed Nigeria`s fault lines, which, like the incubus, has weighed down the country since the Europeans left. These fault lines manifested in the lost and found drama over Mr. president`s certificate which can be attributed to Nigeria`s poor records and data management on one hand, and the apparent ahistorical disposition of the 1999 constitution on the sensitive question of citizenship.

These fault lines could have been resolved if Nigeria paid attention to history. While history teaches us to safely keep and manage our records for future use, it also teaches us to always factor in the events of the past in maneuvering the present and the future. The current hullaballoo reveals that the writer of the 1999 constitution were ignorant of the 1961 plebiscite in the British Cameroun that automatically conveys on people like Atiku Abubakar Nigerian citizens by birth. It is sad that the highest judges and policy makers in the land are drifting into history amnesia; they have to be reminded of legal precedence by the public. When I was invited to speak on these issues by several media stations I had submitted for the umpteenth time that the nation is in dire need of her history if she is to swim through this murky period of her existence.

As a country we`ve been groping in the dark; we can’t power our homes and industries, we can’t provide water for our basic needs, we can’t construct roads to drive on, we can’t run an airline as a country, we can’t employ our graduates, we can’t count ourselves but depend on others for our population figures, we can’t defend, feed or even rule ourselves.

This list of our shortcomings and weaknesses as a country is overwhelming and we can only get around these issues if we start asking ourselves where we got it wrong, and how we can leverage on history to reclaim our glorious past. This realization puts pressure on the 21st century historians to do beyond research and writing, but to seek how to engage in shaping the present and the future. The days of docility are over. Historians can no longer sit back to reconstruct ancient history but to engage more in a dynamic world.

This mindset, apart from the imperative to make the discipline of history more marketable in the dark era when history was jettisoned by the Nigerian government, was responsible for the change in nomenclature and curriculum in most universities in Nigeria. Thus you have History and international relations in Veritas University, and History and Diplomatic Studies in my University of Abuja. It must be noted that international relations or Diplomacy component are not new strands of history,(they have always been there), but the rebranding was geared to re-emphasize the relevance of the discipline of history to the Nigerian audience and in the international system.

The real world is experiencing torrents of rapidly changing events and historians can no longer afford to think outside or behind the theatre, but within it in order to fully understand the new system that is evolving. A fortnight ago we facilitated the visitation of the President of the UN General Assembly, Maria Fernandez Espinosa to my university. During the interactive session history students distinguished themselves with deep and penetrating questions to the astonishment of the diplomat.

A 300 level history student Brenda Etta, dazed the diplomat by demanding to know any global initiative to rescue the boy child especially in a country like Nigeria where, unlike the girl-child interventions, are most traumatized and degraded as almajiris, child soldiers, school drop-outs and street hawkers. It was admitted by the top diplomat that if not for anything, her observation has deepened the conversation on gender mainstreaming. That visit of the ranking world leader and her interaction with history students is a loud validation of the relevance of history. Ranke and other positivist theorists argue that “the historian needs not only mere standard knowledge of how people do behave in different situation, but also a conception of how they ought to behave”.

Historians, in the 21st century must not only chronicle but are critical of societies in which they live; indeed, they are gadflies, questioning morality and ethical values of the people; they shake and bite them hard in order to electrify them from their moral decadence and slumber. The 21st century historians, especially Nigerian historians must, and always, not only reconstruct but question the status quo for a greater and deeper understanding of existing conditions in order to attain a better tomorrow. For example, G.M. Trevelyan, the historian found that during one practical examination at Oxford University, a candidate was requested to answer just two questions: “What is the Hebrew for the place of skull” and “Who founded the University College?”.

On pronouncing ‘Golgotha’ and ‘King Alfred’, he was declared a graduate of Hebrew and History. This criticism brought to the public domain the charade of exams at Oxford and Cambridge!, it was the strident voice of historians that brought about reforms in Cambridge and Oxford, and today, the two institutions are better off as sanctuaries of knowledge. The 21st century is an increasingly fluid, interconnected, and complex world. Science and technology allows for 24/7 access to information (including histories), constant social interaction, and easily created and shared digital content. It is the century of fast internet and computers, massive data and globalization.

The quantum of data available in the 21st century is overwhelming, and this leaves the craft of history with a herculean challenge of processing and objective interpretation. But how relevant is history and its study in this dynamic century?, the answer is simple; for us to really understand the fast changes we are seeing today and interpret them, we need to establish the interconnectivities between the receding past, the present and the rapidly emerging future. In both science and technology, every new invention or innovation is built on past inventions and theories, new developments are built on old ones, and new super structures are but improvements of the old ones. Apart from leveraging on memory to Improve or upgrade human experiences, History gives us insight into what can happen in the future. It can help us predict outcomes on current events, define our identities, provide us a better understanding of different cultures, understand change, combat ignorance, open doors, and inform our work experiences.

There`s no occupation that doesn’t deploy history for its sophistication. No physician treats without a medical history, no jury passes judgment without a history of a case, no engineer or scientist sets to work without the spur of past theory or experiment, no responsible government (except those in Africa) initiates a policy or programme without first consulting her history or at least rely on the historical experiences of other countries. There`s no gainsaying the fact that most of the clatter and fury of the 21st century could be resolved if humankind listens to its history and if it is deployed to guide the conduct of governance. History is not only relevant in the 21st century; this century can’t survive without history.

Mr Vice Chancellor, staff and distinguished students, I want to conclude by stating the obvious; history is not just the fulcrum, indeed, there is no knowledge without history. Thank you. * Being the full text of a Public Lecture delivered by Dr. Philip Afaha, Head, Department of History and Diplomatic Studies, University of Abuja, at the Multi-Purpose Hall, The Veritas University, Abuja recently

Thu, 07 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2019/06/21/history-a-search-for-relevance-in-the-21st-century/
Killexams : Engineering and Management

The engineering and management program consists of 32 credit hours in engineering and management, 31 credit hours in mathematics and science, 18 credit hours in electrical science, and 18 credit hours in other courses. 3 credit hours are in free electives.

All courses are 3 credits unless noted.

Clarkson Common Experience

The following courses are required for all students, irrespective of their program of study. These courses are offered during the fall semester, with FY100 First-Year Seminar being required of only first-year students. Both FY100 and UNIV190 are typically taken during the fall semester of the first year at Clarkson.
FY100 First-Year Seminar (1 credit)
UNIV190 The Clarkson Seminar (3 credits)

Engineering and Management Core Requirements

Students are required to complete the following courses:

Engineering and Management

  • EM120 Team-based Design & Innovation 
  • EM121 Technological Entrepreneurship (2 credits)
  • EM205 Introduction to Financial & Managerial Accounting 
  • EM286 Organizational Behavior I
  • EM313 Professional Communication 
  • EM331 Operations & Supply Chain Management 
  • EM333 Elements of Operations Research 
  • EM380 Project Management 
  • EM451 Quality Management & Lean Enterprise 
  • EM432 Organizational Policy & Strategy
  • EM456 Process Engineering & Design

Professional Experience

Students are required to complete the following Professional Experience:
Internship, co-op, or directed research related to the student's professional goals

 

Math and Science Courses for Engineering and Management

Students must complete the following courses:

Mathematics/Statistics

  • MA131 Calculus I 
  • MA132 Calculus II 
  • MA231 Calculus III 
  • MA232 Elementary Differential Equations
  • STAT383 Probability & Statistics 

Chemistry/Physics

  • CM131 General Chemistry I (4 credits)
  • CM132 General Chemistry II (4 credits)
  • PH131 Physics I (4 credits)
  • PH132 Physics II (4 credits)

 

Engineering Science Courses for Engineering and Management

Students must complete the following courses:

  • ES220 Statics 
  • ES250 Electrical Science 
  • ES330 Fluid Mechanics 
  • ES340 Thermodynamics

Students must choose one of the following courses:

  • ES222 Strength of Materials
  • ES260 Materials Science & Engineering
  • EE264 Digital Design

Business Courses for Engineering and Management

Students must complete the following courses:

  • COMM217 Introduction to Public Speaking 
  • EC350 Economic Principles & Engineering Economics 
  • FN361 Financial Management
  • IS110 Introduction to Business Intelligence and Data Analytics
  • LW270 Law & Society 
  • MK320 Principles of Marketing 

Professional Elective

A professional elective in E&M is a 3-credit course (or equivalent) that predominantly covers engineering or engineering management knowledge. Examples of such courses include any sophomore-, junior- or senior-level course in engineering; any junior- or senior-level course in a topical knowledge area(s) in the Guide to the Engineering Management Body of Knowledge, 3rd edition, ASEM, 2013; or courses focused on information technology.

Knowledge Area/University Course Electives

Students will have at least 15 credit hours available to use toward Knowledge Area and/or University Course electives to satisfy the Clarkson Common Experience requirements.

Free Electives

Students will have approximately 3 credit hours available to use toward courses of their choice.

Fri, 27 May 2022 16:52:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.clarkson.edu/undergraduate/engineering-and-management
Killexams : House Profiles

A Foreword to Freshmen

In this section, the CRIMSON, with the freshman class in mind, has assembled short sketches of the College's nine Houses and of Claverly Hall. Each sketch is written by an editor devoted to the House he depicts, yet hopefully not blind to its flaws.

Reading through them you will probably be as conscious of the similarities among the Houses as to the differences between them. This is as it should be. For despite a healthy variety of personalities and facilities, all Houses are of the same basic mold. In no House is dissatisfaction rampant; happiness, although general, undestandably is not universal. And, to repeat a common-place which has been drummed into you elsewhere, all types of students are found in all of the Houses.

Further, the most important elements of a satisfying House life will not be discussed in this short guide. They are a man's room-mates and friends, the relations he develops with Faculty in the House, and the accommodation he makes to the academic, social and extracurricular demands of the College. These adjustments are personal; with very few exceptions, they can be made no better in one House than in any other.

If the Houses are basically similar, then why bother writing separately about them at all? In the first place, the University wants you to have a preference, and does take it seriously into account when assigning you to a House. Although the number of men getting into their first-choice House has declined steeply since the construction of Quincy and the Leverett Towers, last year 55.7 percent of of the Class of 1965 did go where they most wanted to go. Another 12 percent were assigned to their second choice House, and 11.6 per cent received their third choice. Thus, 80 per cent entered a House of their own choosing. And it is probably best to make this choice on the basis of some knowledge, although an outsider's knowledge is necessarily limited.

Furthermore, this guide is to some extent a report on what each House has done and in what ways it has changed during the past year. This does differ among the Houses and should be of interests to freshmen trying to select a House intelligently.

Finally, a word of caution. Each article is written by one House member only. Although they have been urged to be candid and objective, their views are impressionistic.

Adams

Size of House: 341

Vacancies for Freshmen: 113

Rooms available: mostly doubles and triples; a few adjoining suites

There are four parts to Adams House; three of them are attractive, comfortable--relics of an era when the function of a building was still good living. Two of the three are Westmorly Court and Randolph Hall, the former quietly Tudor, the latter faintly Gothic, both of them built around the turn of the century to provide elegant Gold Coast young gentlemen with elegant young apartments (F. D. Roosevelt '04 lived appropriately in Westmorly South, now B-entry). The third part is Apthorp House, Master Reuben A. Brower's official home, where he entertains and serves tea to students, guests, and girls from Radcliffe on Friday afternoons.

The fourth part, which went up when Adams House was formed in 1932, is called only C-entry and houses all the official components of the House: library, dining hall, kitchen, House offices, superintendent's office, common rooms; as well as a number of small student suites and an entrance hall, known, grandly, as the Gold Room. C-entry makes Adams House respectable; most people, Master Brower among them, avoid it.

The Master, in fact, prefers to leave people and events to their own devices, and his attitude offsets the House's respectability and gives it a certain raffish attractiveness. Rules are rarely enforced; most House activities must struggle to stay alive (the bulletin board lists of sports teams are always undersubscribed; the Adams House Journal of the Social Sciences, the only House publication of any regularity, congratulates itself if it publishes twice in one year); and the students themselves refuse to shamble with the herd, affect oddities of dress, and show as much interest in Frederic A. Pennington as they do in John Sparrow, Warden of All Soul's.

Two House activities that have always managed to flourish, perhaps because of their noncompulsive nature, are the Drama Society and the Music Society: the first is notable for the gusto of its annual Shakespeare productions, the second for the variety and scope (and general excellence) of its recitals and chamber concerts.

The food, however, does not flourish, hopeful legend to the contrary notwithstanding. Adams House has its own kitchen, and its own menu, but the dishes served are undistinguishable and, generally speaking, undistinguishable from Central Kitchen fare. The dining room, sun-lit for the first two meals of the day, is gloomy and brooding after dark--but then it is a part of C-entry.

Adams House also boasts, in modest terms, its own swimming pool (it is a very small pool) and its own pool table (it is deep under-ground.) The swimming pool is in Westmorly; the pool table in Randolph. Naturally.

Dudley

Size of House: 322, including 103 places for residents

Dudley House, to many students at Harvard, exists solely as a gathering and eating place for commuters, whose relation with the rest of the undergraduate body is peripheral. In truth, at least one-third of its members are fully residential, and the House has all the facilities offered by the other eight.

There are no picture windows, built-in iceboxes, or river banks at Dudley, but the House has its own advantages for both the University and the student. First of all, Dudley is more than a common room for commuters who arrive by MTA. Although it differs from the other Houses in the provision which it makes for non-residents, it is no less a part of the House system for that reason.

For students hard-pressed by mounting expenses (watch for a possible tuition rise in 1964-65) Dudley offers 103 low-cost residencies. Sixteen men live on the fifth floor of Apley Court (16 Holyoke St.) at $185 per term; 44 men save $450 to $500 a year living in the co-operatives at 3 Sacramento St. and 1705 Mass. Ave.; and 43 men live in four entries of Wigglesworth Hall (H-K) and are relieved from paying the full board charge as are the residents of Apley Court.

Preference in assigning students to Wigglesworth is given to local commuters with financial need, local commuters, students with financial need, and others. Less than 50 per cent of the men living in the co-operatives are local students.

Dudley Hall and Apley Court are scheduled for demolition by July 1964, to make way for the expanding Holyoke Center. University officials have indicated that Lehman Hall may be remodeled to serve as the new center for House activities. Lehman Hall may also become the location for a student union, making the House center itself more attractive.

Dudley men are proud of their House, and have a House spirit and friendliness unmatched at some of the preppier or isolationist Houses. Despite the time Dudley men spend commuting or holding down part-time jobs, participation in athletics and extra-curricular activities is high.

Commuters say they know more members of Dudley than resident students do in their Houses; and the House Committee is especially energetic and has a close relation with House members. Providing much of the inspiration for the many student activities at Dudley is Delmar Leighton '19, its Master.

Leighton has persisted in maintaining the special role of Dudley in Harvard's housing system, and points to both the intangible values of Dudley's flexibility and variety and the very tangible savings in cost it passes on to students through low-cost rooms and the co-operatives. This year Leighton, who is retiring after 40 years as a Harvard administrator, will be succeeded by Thomas E. Crooks '49, dean of special students and director of the summer school.

Crooks will undoubtedly continue the traditions of Dudley, and freshmen should not pass by the House without taking a look at its facilities and advantages.

Dunster

Size of House: about 345

Vacancies for freshmen: about 135

Rooms available: Doubles and triples, several of which adjoin

Times have changed at Dunster House--Gone is the Era of Unrestrained Conviviality and Unabashed Enthusiasm. A different wind blows through the picturesque Dunster courtyard, a cooler and quieter wind.

But this change does not necessarily make the House unattractive. Like Harvard itself, Dunster has become more restrained, less gung-ho, and more serious than a few years ago. Although you won't find many peo- ple wearing "I'm gung-ho Dunster" tags anymore, there aren't many recluses in the House either. Dunster is still perhaps, the friendliest House in the College, and its warmth and openness are not at all obnoxious.

While offering one of the largest and widest activities program of any House, Dunster vigorously maintains its tradition of "availability without compulsion." No one will come to your room, smash down your door to drag you to a House seminar or athletic event, but if you want to go you are always welcome.

Central planner and coordinator of the diversified activity program is the Dunster House Committee. While famed for vigorously and unexpectedly prosecuting all-College targets such as the old student council and the HSA, the Committee spends most of its time quietly providing a diversified program for the House. Dunster's Spring and Christmas week-ends are usually the best in the College and are free to House members. Dunster Cabaret's have been widely imitated.

Tutors in Dunster have a tradition of actively assisting intellectual programs in the House, although the initiative is usually left to the students. History, economics, Chinese, Spanish, and French tables meet regularly, offering wine and East House girls as added attractions. A play studying group holds frequent sessions, and in the handsome wood-paneled House library enliven many Sunday afternoons. Two House publications the Dunster Drama Review and the Fergus, a literary magazine appear sporadically throughout the year.

Dunster athletic teams are usually among the best in the League and draw large numbers of House members into competition.

One of the finest features of the House is the Junior Common room.

It may sound corny, but on a winter night with a Cambridge snow-storm isolating the House from the outside world, the roaring flames in the fireplace and the warmth of the conversation with tutors and students provide lasting memories.

Another strong point is the physical plant in general. Although the rooms are sometimes tagged as closets, Dunster has the advantages of a single building, its own kitchen (which offers victuals a large cut above Central Kitchen standards), an extremely well-stocked library, squash courts, music rooms, a dark rooms, a workshop, and abundant storage space. While some Freshmen may object to Dunster's location, seniors in the House often feel the isolation and separateness are positive advantages. There is no question about the delights of "Dunster Beach." The House fronts the Charles River, and in the spring and fall the banks are filled with couples and touch football games. During Spring studying Period there is no more pleasant way to study than camped by the river with a six pack, a girl, and, of course, a book.

But as noted at the beginning of this travellog, Dunster is changing. Although a new master and new tutors inevitably bring change, Master Pappenheimer has no firm blueprint for the House and is responsive to suggestion. The ideas of entering sophomores should be important in shaping the future of Dunster.

Eliot

Size of House: about 430

Vacancies for freshmen: 125

Rooms available: mostly converted triples: some doubles and quads

Eliot House, a large Georgian polygon bordered by Boyston St. and Memorial Drive, has the best formed image of any Harvard house. Supposedly the domain of "Preppies," the House appears somewhat exclusive and detached from the rest of the University. This detachment is enhanced by its location; with the exception of Dunster, Eliot is farther away from the Yard than any other House. Built around a small courtyard which is used as an athletic field in the fall and winter, the House is composed of converted doubles intermixed with larger complexes. Master Finley has created a number of consolidated suites, usually consisting of a triple and deconverted double. In addition Eliot has one of the largest and most useful house libraries and contains its own grill.

Although the Deans have ensured that Eliot has approximately the same proportion of public and private school boys as the other houses, the House has attracted boys whose whose temperaments and tastes are usually associated with a private school background. Its members tend to take life less seriously than those in other houses and, although anxious to thrust ahead, do not like to express this anxiety too openly. They form a congenial, closely knit group and participate faithfully in house activities--this year Eliot is a leading contender for the Strauss trophy that goes to the over-all leader in the Interhouse athletic leagues. Although the average academic performance of its members is lower than in some other houses, Eliot men have won 19 Rhodes Scholarships since the Second World War and last year won two Henrys, two Knoxes, a Shaw, and a Marshall. The House boasts of many fine athletes including Scotty Harshbarger, Louis Williams, and Chris Ohiri.

The composition of the House is largely the result of the personal philosophy of its master, John H. Finley. Scholar, aristocrat, and amateur, Master Finley has sought out boys who combine excellence in specific areas with broad interests and social grace. He is among the few masters who know every boy in their houses by name. Leaving organized activities to undergraduates, Master Finley devotes most of his time to individual members of the House and his recommendations have helped many of them to get into graduate schools and to obtain jobs. An urbane after-dinner speaker, Finley annually organizes a series of house dinners to which Dean Acheson, James Reston, and McGeorge Bundy have recently come as guests. To a large degree he has earned for the House the devotion felt for it by the past and present members.

Kirkland

Size of House: about 360

Vacancies for freshmen: 96

Rooms available: mostly triples and doubles, a very few singles and quads.

On the surface, Kirkland House is drab. Its Georgian architecture seems to have been designed by an unconvinced Puritan, and, if anything has happened there recently, few outsiders remember hearing of it.

To insiders, however, the House is enjoyable. Its buildings, constructed before the adoption of the House plan, have an unintentional disunity, charming and never obtrusive. Hicks House, the library, provides calm privacy in the ten rooms of an eighteenth-century home, with a wide selection of books that ranks second among the Houses in size. Bryan Hall, "the Annex," is entered through a pleasantly secluded pathway. And in the basement of Smith Halls, the two buildings that form the quiet main courtyard, there are pool rooms, music rooms, washing machines, and, for those who fear fall-out, the Central Kitchen food supply.

Kirkland's staff is hardly drab. Master Charles H. Taylor, a medieval scholar, has a strong interest in intramural athletics and serves on the Faculty Committee on Athletic Sports. Ernest R. May, associate professor of History and the Kirkland House billiards champion, is senior tutor. William Alfred, lecturer in English 10 and Hum 2, eats lunch frequently in Kirkland at tables filled with undergraduates.

The tutors, many of them historians, definitely are not recluses from the graduate schools.

Among its students Kirkland House has had enough athletes to win the Straus trophy for six consecutive years and usually enough musicians to dominate College-wide groups and keep the common room pianos constantly in use. Both original student productions performed on the main stage of the Loeb this year were written by Kirkland men.

But football players, violinsts, and playwrights together form only a notable minority in a House which truly is a cross-section of Harvard.

The house committee sponsors cartoon shows and wild annual Bierstube; the music committee presents student and professional concerts; the Ford Foundation fund supports a wide variety of dinner guests and speakers; and from a variety of sources comes the boar's head ceremony and ribald play after the Christmas dinner.

In its unobtrusive way, Kirkland House surrounds its students, staff, and activities with a pleasant and stimulating atmosphere.

Lowell

Size of House: about 425

Vacancies for freshmen: about 135

Rooms available: doubles and triples

In 1940, Julian Lowell Coolidge 95 retired as Master of Lowell House and was replaced by a young instructor in English history named Elliott Perkins. At the time the College wondered what changes Perkins would make in the House; and specifically, whether he would abandon what the CRIMSON called, two days before his appointment, "Lowell's traditional style of life, modeled on life at Oxbridge." In twenty-three years in the House, Perk has decisively laid such doubts to rest. And as he retires this year from the Mastership, he leaves a House whose own traditions, and whose sense of tradition, he has kept burning brightly--like the flame of the Yule log and the light of the High Table candles--against the unseasonable winds of change.

Today the College is curious about what changes Master Zeph Stewart will make; we will hazard no guesses, and advise Freshman thinking of applying to Lowell not to try either. But certain negative predictions are possible: Master Stewart will not (alas) be able to rid the House of the infernal bells, which make Sunday mornings such a horror; and he will probably fail in any attempt to Improve the food, than which there is no worse (except in Eliot, Kirkland, Winthrop and Leverett).

And no doubt Lowell under the Stewarts will remain a place in which the Tutors are as interested in staving in the dining hall after meals making good talk as in scurrying back to their rooms to write another page of their dissertations. Lowell men nourish themselves on intelligent conversation. They work off the Central Kitchens' starchy fare by hard study: Lowell consistently houses a high percentage of the College's most distinguished scholars. And if a student is having difficulties, and needs help or advice, he could find no more simpatico person to talk to than Lowell's Senior Tutor, Richard Ullman '55.

If Lowell is distinguished for its members' academic and informal intellectuality, it is not lacking in the more mundane attractions offered by other Houses: it has an active drama group, an Opera Society, a struggling poetry magazine for struggling poets (Pharetra), and seven squash courts (sorry, no swimming pool). It also has two television sets.

Finally, what of Lowell's relations with the outside world? Well, Lowell men have extraordinarily easy access to many great men and women. Literally dozens of them visit the House each year, to read their poetry, or describe their last electoral campaign, or explain their ideas; guests this year have included poets Marianne Moore and Robert Lowell, Sen. Maureen Neuberger, New York's Mayor Wagner, and art collector Maxim Karolik. Almost every student in the House will have dinner with a great light such as these in the course of a year, and the food at these gatherings, thoughtfully paid for by the Ford Foundation, is heart-breakingly good.

The House Office next year will be a changed place; not only Master Perkins, but also the charming Avis DeVoto, widow of historian Bernard DeVoto, will depart in June. But one of Lowell's greatest attractions will remain, which Freshman ought to consider before choosing a House: Miss Eleanor Hess, the Senior Tutor's secretary, is surely an important part of Lowell's claim to greatness.

Leverett

Size of House: about 445

Vacancies for freshmen: 157

Rooms available: mostly doubles, triples, and quads, many of which adjoin to form larger units, in both the Towers and McKiniock.

Leverett has much to offer besides the advantages of modern living at reasonable prices. If you are thinking of Leverett only because you hope to command a breathtaking view of Cambridge and Boston, forget it; you have missed the objective of House life. Leverett's living arrangements are just fringe benefits tacked onto the other advantages of the House.

The rooms in the Towers are nice, to be sure, but those in McKinlock which are spacious and offer fireplaces like other Houses, are just as attractive to some Leverett members. Incoming sophomores are distributed in both sections of Leverett, preventing the illusion of a "house divided." And the dining hall brings all members of the house together amid the luxury of tapestries and chandeliers.

You have probably heard that each House has some sort of stereotype. Leverett is proud of the fact that it is not branded; the heterogeneous nature of its members provides a varied and interesting atmosphere. Besides having a large number of leaders and participants in extra-curricular activities both intellectual and athletic, the House boasts a vigorous internal life. Leverett is currently a serious contender for the Straus Trophy (the award for excellence in intramural athletics) for the first time in many years. It also has the only House radio station (WLHR), a drama society, a French table, a winetasting society, a Sunday Night Movie series, a House newspaper, and occasional mixers and smokers sponsored by the Social Committee. Every spring, the big activity is the Art Festival.

Next year Leverett will have a new Master, Richard T. Gill '48, the present Senior Tutor, mentor of Ec. 1, and master designer of the now College-wide tutorial-for-all program. One of Gill's projects for the future is to develop an even closer relation between students, junior staff (tutors), and senior staff (House associates).

Quincy

Size of House: 415

Vacancies for Freshmen: 160

Rooms available: Mostly triples and doubles, many of which adjoin. A few single spaces are available.

With the graduation of the class of 1963 in June, Quincy House will lose the generation of organizers, agitators, and manipulators that made it the political center of the College. No longer will the third floor of its new building be one of the greatest smoke-filled corridors in American politics.

At one time Quincy held the leaders of Tocsin and YAF, the Young Democrats and Young Republicans, the Liberal Union and the HCUA.

But these activitists are leaving, and Quincy, now four years of age, once more is seeking an identity.

Possibly the House will find a partial one in music; it sends more personnel to the HRO than any other House; its notable music society celebrated Mozart's birthday with dinner music and dominates this year's Arts Festival.

Quincy also received an infusion of varsity athletes last fall, but with the exception of its soccer team it remains near the bottom of the inter-House athletic leagues. And, after several years somnolescence the House Committee is flourishing, particularly its social committee which flamboyantly promotes sociability with beer blasts, mixers, and dances.

Coincidentally with the fall from prominance of Quincy's politicians came the departure of its first senior tutor, Paul E. Sigmund, Jr., who left last month to become an Associate Professor of Politics at Princeton. Sigmund's successor, Larry D. Benson, like Master John M. Bullitt '43, is a member of the English department, a fact that may hasten the House's reorientation. Further, there will soon be a heavy turnover among Quincy's large staff of resident tutors which may reduce the present over-representation of the social sciences.

Yet, some aspects of the political Quincy will remain. The Africa Table, a forum for African nationalists and Africanist professors, will continue to draw foreign students and Africa buffs from throughout the College and the 'Cliffe. The Debate Council, lodged with its trophies in Quincy's basement, will continue to be dominated by Quincy men. The East Asia Table will continue to lure scholars and politicians.

Indeed, Quincy has an extraordinary number of specialized tables, that offer good food (prepared in the House's independent kitchen) and good wine, to participants speaking Spanish, German, Hebrew, or French; discussing social relations or sciences; or surrounding House Fellows Henry Kissinger and David Riesman. The dining hall generally is lively--and warm, despite Nivola's perplexing graffito and the all-encompassing plate glass.

Upstairs, the House, as advertised, is the Quincy-Hilton. Its quads are split-level with built-in refrigerator, four ample bed rooms, and a picture windowed living room. But, halt. Only a handful of unattached sophomores enter this updated paradise. Most spend either a year in Claverly or a year or two in Mather. But this need not spell tragedy. Claverly is rhapsodically described elsewhere in this supplement, and Mather, although its rooms are smaller, differs little from Harvard's other Georgian halls.

Besides, Mather and Claverly residents use the common facilities of the Big House--its convivial grill, semi-detached library, photo dark room, music listening room, practice pianos, pool table, two recreation rooms, gymnasium, tool room, and art studio.

Winthrop

Size of House: about 370.

Vacancies for Freshmen: about 125

Rooms available: No singles; approximately equal numbers of doubles, triples, and quads.

At the curve of Holyoke Street, flanking Eliot and Lowell, there is Winthrop. Lacking a white tower, a solitudinous quadrangle, bushy lumps of ivy, and a Great Panoramic View of the environs a slightly threadbare Winthrop allots itself between the two halls of Gore and Standish. The House, though, has its quota of Veritas chairs. And a coat of arms. And lots of people.

The leading person of Winthrop is unquestionably Master David Owen, and his distinction is not a formality of rank. Owen welcomes the sophomores as if they were moderately important personages, and knows the name of each on sight.

Winthrop House also possesses a tutorial staff that is conspicuous for its accessibility and competency. Its tutors are seen and they are heard.

By general consent the House's baronial dining hall, famous for its intangibles, needs a bit of refurbishment. But, shabbiness aside, it's a simple place of loud voices, the physical and psychological core of the House.

Off in one partitioned corner, Winthrop's various tables meet on a regular basis. They are the House's metaacademic expression of interest in things general--informal, lively affairs usually held during the lunch hour. John Kenneth Galbraith, upon his return in September, is expected to dominate the Thursday Economics Table once again; Frank Freidel will chair the Friday History and Government Table.

Winthrop is old by comparison with most of the other Houses; both Standish and Gore were built as freshman dormitories in 1914 and converted to the present arrangement in 1931. In their day these buildings knew a President and a youthful Senator. In various subterranean shelters, one finds space for billiards, television, photography, and pingpong. The library, once a freshman dining hall, contains a famous telescope of John Winthrop (second Hollis Professor of Mathematics), has a good atmosphere for study.

Winthrop's physical simplicity (some say degeneracy)--not unlike the Yard's slightly stoic animus--may be to some upperclassmen a subtle stimulous to introspection. But the House, under the present Master, maintains its tradition of laissez faire good-fellowship. The freshman who has not looked behind the chipped plaster, has not seen Winthrop.

Claverly

Quincy House, Leverett Towers, Holyoke Center--like giant fungi they have pushed their evil shapes above the once lovely surface of Cambridge. They scatter their deadly spores over all of Harvard, and those that take root threaten the existence of all the familiar buildings of the University.

Only three dormitories have completely resisted the changes overcoming Harvard: Randolph and Westmorly of Adams House, and Claverly Hall--the old Gold Coast. Of the three, only Claverly preserves the spirit of an older, happier Harvard, where one actually had to be elected to live in its stately rooms.

Claverly is admittedly not what it once was. The swimming pool and squash court are no longer used; shoes left outside one's door at night are no longer shined by morning as they were when George Santayana was a resident, and although the famous elevator is kept in good repair, the building in general has been allowed to get a bit shabby.

But, equally, assignment to Claverly is not the misfortune most freshmen imagine. In fact, many of Claverly's occupants would vigorously defend the proposition that their rooms are the most pleasant to be found in Cambridge. The rooms are certainly among the largest around, with high ceilings, paneled walls, and handsome fireplaces that can be used, not just looked at.LEVERETT HOUSE LIBRARY

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Killexams : Patristic Theories of Biblical Interpretation

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Killexams : Matthews wins Democratic US Senate nod in South Carolina

COLUMBIA, S.C. (AP) — State Rep. Krystle Matthews on Tuesday won the Democratic nomination to challenge Republican U.S. Sen. Tim Scott of South Carolina, a general election campaign that could begin under the cloud of a possible ethics investigation.

Matthews, the second-place finisher in a June 14 primary, defeated author and preservationist Catherine Fleming Bruce in the runoff.

Matthews has said she wants to change a toxic culture she says leads senators and others in power to strip away the rights of minorities and those who are in the most need of protection.

Over the weekend, conservative activist group Project Veritas published leaked audio of Matthews speaking to an inmate about funding her campaign with “dope boy money” and having Democrats run as Republicans, saying “secret sleepers” represent “the only way you’re gonna change the dynamics in South Carolina.”

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On Tuesday, Matthews confirmed to The Associated Press that it was her voice on the tape but said the edited audio of a “tongue-in-cheek” exchange didn’t reflect the full picture.

“That’s the problem, when you have a private conversation, where people don’t have any context,” she said. “I am not advocating for any illegal activity in campaigns.”

Officials with the state House Ethics Committee said Tuesday they could launch a probe based off the audio leak, about which Matthews said she was “not worried.”

“People of South Carolina want somebody authentic and real,” Matthews told AP. “They are tired of people posing to be caring, posing to be intelligent, posing to be kind, and then finding out later on down the road that these people don’t even show up for them.”

Matthews also will run in November for a third state House term if she loses the U.S. Senate race.

In an emailed statement, state GOP Chairman Drew McKissick congratulated the “radical Democrat” Matthews, adding that Republicans “can't wait to demonstrate her stark differences” from Scott.

The incumbent, who has been one of South Carolina’s more popular politicians, had no primary opposition and has raised $44 million for his pursuit of a second full six-year term.

Bruce and Matthews have raised a combined $131,000, according to federal fundraising data.

Scott, the Senate’s sole Black Republican, has said this will be his last term if he is reelected. He won a 2014 special election and his 2016 regular term by more than 60% of the vote.

One of the GOP’s go-to standouts particularly on race and policing issues, Scott has faced a Black opponent in each of his three campaigns. He was a congressman when then-Gov. Nikki Haley appointed him to the Senate seat left open when Jim DeMint resigned in 2012.

Scott is also being touted by some as a potential 2024 presidential candidate, although he has not mentioned it himself.

Scott received former President Donald Trump's “complete and total endorsement” last year. In the Senate, Scott often aligned with Trump, voting with him nearly 91% of the time, according to FiveThirtyEight.

Scott's launch video featured plaudits from former Trump administration officials who could potentially be part of a GOP presidential field with Scott, including former Haley — who served as Trump's U.N. Ambassador — former Vice President Mike Pence and former Secretary of State Mike Pompeo.

Scott touts his conservative credentials and got a primetime speech at the 2020 Republican National Convention. But he has also noted his work with Democrats on police reform legislation.

Meg Kinnard can be reached at: http://twitter.com/MegKinnardAP.

Copyright 2022 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without permission.

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Killexams : Resurrection of NIIA: A Review and Agenda Setting for Nigeria’s Foreign Policy

The Nigerian Institute of International Affairs (NIIA) held a two-day Virtual Roundtable on Nigeria’s Foreign Policy on Monday, 12th and Tuesday, July 13, 2021. The theme of the Roundtable was ‘’Looking Back, Going Forward: Setting the Agenda for Nigeria’s Foreign Policy.’’ The methodological implication of the theme is not far-fetched: the need to draw lessons from the past using the present to define the new way forward. It also requires a holistic approach in the choice of which past issues to draw lessons from. And perhaps more significantly, it requires the articulation of which type of future is to be desired and which type of agenda will be good enough to enable the Government of Nigeria respond to the current challenges of a changing world of globalisation.

And true enough, the Roundtable was not simply a platform for academic reflections but, most significantly, a platform for the resurrection of the NIIA, which suffered an academic thrombosis inflicted on it by the NIIA Governing Council, chaired by General Ike Omar Nwachukwu. The NIIA slumbered, not to say dead, as a result of the thrombosis, but was brought back to life by the new Director General, Professor Eghosa Osaghae. The NIIA is gradually becoming again a living institution. It was under this recovery effort that the NIIA held the Roundtable and also an Ambassadorial Forum on Nigeria-Bangladesh Relations on July 26, 2021. The quality of the Roundtable, in terms of paper contributions, methodological approaches, theoretical analyses, and conjectural submissions, lend much credence to a new NIIA in the making.

The virtual Roundtable was structured into four main parts which were organised into two sessions per day: morning and afternoon. Twelve papers were scheduled for presentation on the first day, but eleven papers were actually presented. The ten papers were scheduled for presentation on the second day. This report focuses on some papers that bother more on the use of foreign policy as an instrument of national security, national development, national integration, and particularly for policy-making and implementation.

Some Problems of the Past

Professor Hassan A. Saliu gave an overview of the structures, processes, outcomes and reviews of Nigeria’s foreign policy since 1960 and noted that ‘the Presidency has, more or less, become the only face of Nigeria’s foreign policy and that the role of the unoffficial channels is diminishing by the day. Ditto for the research arms. The existence of these structures has not guaranteed much coordination of the foreign policy.’

More important, Prof. Saliu said the Nigerian Diaspora Commission ‘invades the policy environment without proper synergy with the Ministry of foreign Affairs,’ which still makes policy briefs, but its views under the current Republic, are sometimes not considered and (are) kept in (the) dark on some issues. Attendance at international fora has proven the point on lack of coordination in Nigerian foreign policy.’ On the way forward, he suggested doing away with ad hoc approaches to foreign policy, making greater efforts to resolve domestic problems, embarking on a comprehensive review of Nigeria’s foreign policy and paying more attention to Nigeria’s relations with the Western world.

‘’Nigeria and the Emerging Economies: China and India,’’ was the focus of the paper of Dr. Efem N. Ubi, the Director of Research and Studies at the NIIA. He began his presentation with a quotation that ‘the striking thing about the global economy is how little it relies on the United States as the main engine of growth. Since 2007, China’s rapidly expanding economy has provided the largest contribution to global growth, while half of the world’s expansion over the past year has come from three countries: China, India and Russia.’

In his analysis of Nigeria’s relations with China and India, Dr. Ubi noted at the level of India that India is Nigeria’s largest trading partner and Nigeria is also India’s largest trading partner in Africa. As he put it, ‘total bilateral trade between India and Nigeria during the year 2019-20 registered US $13.82bn, as against US $13.89b recorded during the year 2018-19.’

On relations with China, Dr. Ubi had it that ‘the turn of the Millennium saw a stronger Nigeria-China relation in socio-political and economic terms, especially in terms of the Nigeria-China strategic Partnership agreement, done in 2006 and which underscored the need for expansion of trade; investments in agriculture; telecommunications, energy; and infrastructure development. In this regard, Dr. Ubi strongly believed that Nigeria should harness its relationship with the Emerging Economies for its development.

As regards Dr. Tola Ilesanmi’s ‘’Gender and Nigeria’s Foreign Policy,’’ she provided an exegesis of the problems of policy making and implementation. Considering that Nigeria currently ranks number 139 out of 156 countries on the 2021 Global Gender Gap Report (vide World Economic Forum, 2021), she suggested a pro-gender approach in which more women are appointed into leadership positions within the foreign and security services; adoption of explicit gender equality policies, especially within the framework of the National Action Plans (NAPS on Women, Peace and Security; and the elevation of ‘gender equality to a foreign policy priority by establishing dedicated budget and stand-alone funds for women’s rights programs and organisations.’

She also placed a particular emphasis on the need for Nigeria to domesticate the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 which requires UN Member States ‘to ensure increased participation of women in peace keeping missions and in the security sectors.’ A basis for domestication can begin with the adoption of the First (2013) and Second (2017) National Action Plan as basis of implementation of the UNSCR 1325.

Dr. Habu Mohammed of the Political Science Department of Bayero University, Kano, noted in his own paper, ‘Economic Diplomacy and Nigeria’s Foreign Policy,’ that Nigeria adopted economic diplomacy in 1988 as a new direction to hasten economic revival and sustainable development, but under subsequent administrations, the policy ‘was either relegated to the background or its vigorous implementation reduced to near oblivion until its resurgence as a foreign policy framework of the new civilian administration in 1999.

The paper investigated what the changes and continuities in the conduct of Nigeria’s international economic relations were, with emphasis on the challenges and prospects in the current unipolar world. He observed that the introduction of economic diplomacy in Nigeria is a shift in the direction of the country’s foreign policy from its traditional posture of afrocentricism and that the shuttle diplomacy embarked upon by Foreign Minister Ike Nwachukwu ‘was more of a declaration of intent’ to the outside world, that investment opportunities abound in Nigeria, but ‘the gesture was rarely responded (to) by host countries largely because of the climate of the domestic environment.’

In his examination of ‘Nigeria and the European Union: the Cotonou Years and Beyond’, Professor Victor Adetula of the University of Jos, observed that ‘despite some critical remarks on Nigeria-EU relations, there are some positive aspects of the relationship, mainly traceable to the period of the Lomé Conventions. However, the benefits from the Cotonou Partnership Agreement and its impact on national development are negligible.’ He also noted the likelihood of the expired Cotonou Agreement being renewed and defined by the international system ‘which has become increasingly less charitable and characterised mainly by rising nationalism, a decline of multilateralism, and the continued fragmentation of global governance architecture and international regulation.’ Consequently, he submitted that the Nigerian government must pay more attention, reappraise its capabilities against its values and interests, and advance its interests in the international system. For instance, while the relationship with the EU is desirable, Nigeria needs to critically assess its membership of the Organisation of African, Caribbean and Pacific States (OACPS) and its relevance to its development needs and priorities.

Dr. Willie Aziegbe Eselebor wrote on ‘Border Security in Nigeria: a Strategic Variable in Foreign Policy,’ and noted that ‘border security remains a variable because an open (borderless) border or globalised border, without control cannot ensure peace, security and development.’ Therefore he opined that Nigeria should ‘do a scenario analysis to determine what Nigeria realistically wants to do with its borders. He also submitted that what Nigeria ‘should address in agenda setting is how to … engage with UN-AU-ECOWAS in relation to peace and security; and/or the role of European Union and especially, France when it comes to the G-5 Sahel and in the Lake Chad Basin Commission. Nigeria must aim to play active roles through foreign policy making in AU and other regional blocks.’

Professor Alaba Ogunsanwo of the Center for Diplomatic Studies and Public Affairs, Lead City University, Ibadan, spoke on “National Values, Interests and Nigeria’s Foreign Policy in the 21st century,’ and drew attention to the fact that most countries have their values: Equality, Liberty and Fraternity for France; Harmony, Benevolence, Righteousness, Courtesy, Wisdom, Honesty, Loyalty and Piety for China; Life, Liberty and pursuit of Happiness, Common Good and Justice for the United states; Justice, Liberty, Equality, Fraternity for India; Protection of Human Dignity, Human Rights and Democracy for Germany, etc. Professor Ogunsanwo noted that these values are mostly aspirational and not necessarily respected by all citizens.

On the basis of the December 2019 document on National Security Strategy, Nigeria’s values are ideals of freedom; equality and justice; sanctity of human life; human dignity; democracy; rule of law; free enterprise; respect for human rights; and equal opportunity and access to justice. These are in addition to the values of respect for elders, honesty and accountability, cooperation, industry, discipline, self-confidence and moral courage articulated in the 2014 National Economic Empowerment Development Strategy (NEEDS).

Additionally, he differentiated between and among vital national interests, which are hinged on national survival and require that all resources be deployed; strategic national interests that are also important, but less than vital; and peripheral interests. As he put it, ‘regional security by way of combating terrorism, insurgency and other transnational crimes, also fall under this category of strategic interests. The defence of these interests will enhance the protection of Nigeria’s vital interests. Peripheral interests deal with Nigeria’s international obligations, assisting in humanitarian operations, etc.

Agenda Setting and Quo Vadis

In terms of agenda setting and way forward, in addition to the various recommendations noted above, Professor Ogunsanwo believes that the future of Nigeria’s foreign policy depends ‘to a large extent on the success or failure of present efforts to transform the economy, industry, energy, infrastructure and digitalisation.’ And perhaps, most notably, he said ‘it will be share hypocrisy to pretend that you can promote abroad values such as respect of human life and the rule of law when no such exists in Nigeria. Where there is selected criminal administration of justice and thousands of Nigerians in farming communities all over the country are killed with the government unable or unwilling to do anything, we cannot talk about promoting justice and the respect for lives and property abroad. He who goes to equity must go with clean hands. We should learn to do just that with our domestic affairs.’

From the perspective of Professor Femi Otubanjo, whose paper is entitled ‘’Is there a Doctrine and Orientation in Nigeria’s Foreign Policy?’’, it is argued that in the 60 years of Nigeria’s independence, ‘there have been as many doctrines as there have been regimes, but there has been only one significant change of orientation.’ A doctrine ‘is the articulation of a country’s vision of its preferred role and priorities in its relations with other countries or the general international system,’ while ‘foreign policy orientation is the predictable disposition of a state in its relationship with others and its preferences in the international system. It is the axis from which all policy choices and even, instruments radiate. Orientation is very much like a paradigm from which theories, hypothesis, doctrines and choices flow.’

In sum, Professor Otubanjo said ‘doctrines have been ephemeral in Nigeria, the orientation of Nigeria’s foreign policy has changed only once: from Balewa’s pro-western inclination to Gowon’s broadening of relations with the Eastern Bloc as a result of military necessity. All the attempts at doctrinal postulations, since then, have been based on the presumption of Nigeria’s robust relations with all nations and regions of the world.’

It is noteworthy that the submission of Professor Otubanjo is quite interesting and right on the basis of the good distinction made between a foreign policy doctrine and a foreign policy orientation. However, when he noted in his paper that ‘in spite of the grand declaration of non-partisanship in East-West ideological disputes, Balewa could not untie Nigeria from the umbilical cord of Nigeria’s colonial master and her allies,’ Professor Otubanjo is simply implying that the Balewa government was aligned contrary to the official policy of non-alignment. We hold a different understanding of the subject-matter.

In this regard, it cannot be rightly argued that the Balewa government was aligned or partisan without having factored into the partisanship Nigeria’s national interests. Nigeria’s policy of non-alignment does not and never meant that the Government of Nigeria could not or cannot align. What is noteworthy about the policy of non-alignment is that the decision to align or not to do so must be a direct and free decision of the Government of Nigeria, without foreign intrusions. It must not be by intimidation or pressure. The decision to align must be a resultant from, and a reflection of, the national interest. More importantly, the alignment must not be routine in character.

As explained by Tafawa Balewa, ‘it is better to state briefly the principles which we accepted as the basis of our policies in international relations. First, it is the desire of Nigeria… to remain on friendly terms with all nations and to participate actively in the work of the UNO… Africa must not be allowed to become a battleground in the ideology struggle. For this reason, the Congo situation must be a matter to be dealt with primarily by African States at the political level…’ Additionally, he noted that Nigerians ‘are willing to learn before we rush into the field of international politics, but we are totally unwilling to be diverted from the ideals which we think to be true. That is the reason we in Nigeria will not be found to align ourselves as a matter of routine, with any particular bloc. Indeed, I hate the very ideas of blocs existing at all in the United Nations.’ The implication of no routine alignment is that there would be alignment but not routinely. Consequently, Nigeria’s non-alignment policy is about the sovereign freedom to determine when to align and Prime Minister Balewa essentially did not breach Nigeria’s policy of non-alignment.

In his paper on ‘Imaging Nigeria’s Foreign Policy: pinpointing the Ever Missing Link,’ Onoja Adagbo of the Department of Political Science of the Veritas University argued that ‘the fundamental crisis of Nigerian foreign policy is its crisis of representation practice of power in relation to hegemony in a world of States. In other words, it is not lack of industrialisation, military capability or a better organised Ministry of Foreign Affairs that are blocking Nigeria from being a case study in active, credible, influential and responsible state actor as much as the poverty of Nigeria’s representational practices and her subsequent low score in structural, institutional and coercive power in world politics.’

In addressing these problems, he made a number of recommendations: Government should not leave the framing of every foreign policy to chance; elaboration of training in discursive capability for Nigerians; organisation of the cultural domain; establishing a 24-hour global channel that is global technologically, coverage and narratives; integration of foreign policy instruments for the purposes of representational praxis in power politics, etc. Speaking, grosso modo and in evaluative terms, the Roundtable was a good development. It woke up the NIIA Research Fellows from their long academic slumber and also provided a renewal of opportunities for their peers in other institutions to share ideas with them on foreign policy. The major challenge, however, is the environmental conditioning of foreign policy agenda setting, which was only tangentially discussed by Professor Eghosa Osaghae and Professor Alaba Ogunsanwo. The Roundtable had little discussions on the dilemma of the domestic setting which has made intellectual activities very difficult. There is the need for agenda setting, for foreign policy, which is really not the problem. Agenda setting should, lato sensu, be for the foreign policy makers, as they are the noisome problems. Put interrogatively, what type of agenda setting can be helpful to Nigeria’s international image if there is selected criminal administration of justice, if thousands of farmers ‘all over the country are killed with the government unable or unwilling to do anything’ to borrow the words of Professor Ogunsanwo? What type of agenda setting is required when foreign policy institutions are being bastardised even by the Governing Councils and Foreign Ministry meant to be a supervisor and a guide?

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