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Exam Code: ST0-303 Practice test 2022 by Killexams.com team
Symantec Data Center Security: Server Advanced 6.0 Technical Assessment
Symantec Assessment test
Killexams : Symantec Assessment test - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/ST0-303 Search results Killexams : Symantec Assessment test - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/ST0-303 https://killexams.com/exam_list/Symantec Killexams : The COPD Assessment Test in the Evaluation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations

Abstract and Introduction


The health status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently being assessed using several different questionnaires. One of them is the COPD Assessment Test (CAT), which is a quick and easy test for patients to complete and provides a score that indicates the impact of the disease on their health status. There is increasing evidence that the CAT is a promising tool to quantify COPD exacerbations. Accordingly, the CAT score can be a useful marker in clinical trials that evaluate the effectiveness of treatments in prevention or management of COPD exacerbations, or that investigate the disease progression over time. In the future, the CAT score could also be used as an outcome measure in clinical practice to track changes in patients' overall health status and to Strengthen communication between patients and healthcare professionals.


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common inflammatory disease characterized by persistent airflow limitations, which cause chronic cough, breathlessness and exercise intolerance.[101] Given the remarkable burden of symptoms, patients with COPD may experience a considerable restriction in many everyday activities and consequently a poor quality of life.[1] Importantly, international guidelines recommend assessing the impact of the severity of the disease on the patient's health status in order to guide therapy.[101]

Several questionnaires assessing the health status of COPD patients are currently used both in clinical and research settings. Among them, the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) is an eight-item questionnaire designed to quantify the impact of COPD symptoms on the health status of patients.[2] The CAT is quick and easy for patients to complete and, without complex calculations, provides a score of 0–40 to indicate the impact of disease. In clinically stable COPD patients, the CAT was found to be closely related to the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire.[2]

The clinical course of COPD is chronically progressive with exacerbations, which are episodes of acute worsening of symptoms and lung function. COPD exacerbations increase the risk of cardiovascular events[3] and contribute to the overall severity in individual patients.[101] The rate at which COPD exacerbations occur appears to reflect an independent susceptibility phenotype.[4] Currently, there is no standardized method for assessing the severity of symptoms of exacerbating COPD.

In their article, Mackay et al.[5] hypothesized that a high CAT score at COPD exacerbation relates to its severity, and that CAT scores can be used to model recovery. Therefore, the authors prospectively assessed COPD patients using the CAT at stable baseline conditions, upon exacerbation onset and during the recovery period.

Fri, 14 Oct 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/771132
Killexams : Here's the Secret to Passing Military Fitness Tests

We all have heard not to "train for the test" when it comes to tactical fitness, and this statement is true. However, the results of a test will determine whether you get into the military as a recruit, stay in the military or advance to more selective training (special ops, Officer Candidate School (OCS), ROTC, service academy).

These tests matter significantly to your future. While it is true that training for the fitness test that includes push-ups, sit-ups, and a 1.5-mile run is only preparing you for the test and perhaps not the genuine demands of a military job, there is a time when training specifically for the test is necessary.

The acronym used to describe an ideal fitness program is FITT, which stands for frequency, intensity, time and type. The secret to passing any fitness test is found in this acronym.


You must practice consistently to see results. This schedule can be every other day on a regular basis for several weeks, months or daily, depending on your preference and abilities. If you're looking to pass a fitness test, this would mean to do your testing events every other day if upper-body calisthenics and running are on the test.

If you needed to limit your overall volume of running, you could do your calisthenics, followed by a run of test length on Monday, Wednesday and Friday. On the days in between, you could mix in some non-impact cardio and leg calisthenics (squat, lunges) to aid in preparing the legs and lungs for the running event, minus the impact.


When you practice running and calisthenics for a fitness test, intensity also matters. Get used to running and doing higher-repetition calisthenics at a goal pace well above the minimum standards. Time spent doing longer, slower distances may not be the best option if you need to run a short and fast pace in order to pass a PT test.

For both the calisthenics and the cardio events of a PT test, moving with a purposeful pace is the key to your success. If you need to do 80 sit-ups in two minutes, you need to work on a pace of 20 sit-ups in 30 seconds and build up to two minutes.

The same goes for the run pace. If you need to run a seven-minute mile, you need to practice the pace of 1:45 for 400 yards and 3:30 for 800 yards to eventually do a seven-minute mile pace for the distance of your PT Test.


The amount of time each day you devote to the test is also important, but it does not have to be hours. In fact, you can block out 15 minutes of calisthenics workouts in the morning and 15 minutes of running in the afternoon if time is tight for you on any given day.

The time you spend each day (or every other day) on fitness can be molded to fit into your schedule. After all, most fitness tests in the military take from less than 15 minutes to 30 minutes of genuine exertion time as they advance.

The most important factor of time is consistency and frequency of your training. You will typically need a four- to eight-week phase of training before your test for best results.

Type (Specifics)

This is the key. No matter what you are testing, your workouts must be specific to the exercises being tested if you want to Strengthen those test scores. If it is the events of the Army Combat Fitness Test (ACFT), then get in the weight room and mix lifting (deadlift) with calisthenics, shuttle runs with weight and two-mile run workouts.

If it is simply calisthenics (push-ups, pull-ups, sit-ups or plank, and run), then you can do more with less equipment as you specifically train for the test.

Your success with this type of training also depends on your technique and how you efficiently perform the exercises. Practice is needed, but perfect practice is preferred.

You do not want to spend your entire year training specifically for a test, though the newer tactical fitness tests like the ACFT represent better models of training that force practicing strength, power, speed and agility, as well as the standard muscle stamina and cardio endurance (basic calisthenics and cardio PT tests).

Depending on your job and your future goals, your ability to get good at all the tactical elements of fitness may be required. Do not neglect training specifically for objective graded events as well as the more all-encompassing physical challenges of the day-to-day activities in the profession.

Stew Smith is a former Navy SEAL and fitness author certified as a Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS) with the National Strength and Conditioning Association. Visit his Fitness eBook store if you're looking to start a workout program to create a healthy lifestyle. Send your fitness questions to stew@stewsmith.com.

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Fri, 16 Sep 2022 07:55:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.military.com/military-fitness/heres-secret-passing-military-fitness-tests
Killexams : Are you smarter than an 8th grader? See if you could pass a real assessment test!

Eighth grade is generally a time we'd rather forget. As we enter our teenage years, hormones are going wild, there's peer pressure to fit in while somehow standing out, and we're exposed to more and more of what the world is actually like. Then there's perhaps the most repressed experience of all: the beginning of the eventual onslaught of standardized testing. Standardized testing usually only affects your own educational outcome; for some kids in the fourth, eighth, and twelfth grades, their scores affect the standing of the entire nation.

Since 1969, the National Center for Education Statistics has administered a nationwide test, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) or "Nation's Report Card," to determine how American public and private school students score on a variety of metrics beyond just reading, 'riting, and 'rithmetic. Other subjects include geography, science, economics, arts, U.S. history, and even technology and engineering literacy. This test provides a valuable function; with 50 states, we have 50 different educational systems, and keeping track of the achievements across the country requires acute testing and careful data work.

America's students lag behind many other countries in simple score comparisons in common subjects. This reflects many factors, such as differing levels of school funding, disparities between the schools in different states, and a large culture of extracurricular activities. There's one question that's not commonly asked though (unless you're an avid game show watcher): How would adults do on those same assessment tests?

To find out, we've compiled 25 demo questions from real NAEP eighth grade tests across a variety of subjects. It's surprisingly difficult; perhaps that's a reflection of how little we learn in grade school translates to our eventual jobs, or else it's an indictment of the strength of our memories. If you're struggling, grab a nearby teen—they may be able to help.

You may also like: How many of these 50 GED test questions can you get right?

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Tue, 30 Aug 2022 08:23:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.msn.com/en-us/health/wellness/are-you-smarter-than-an-8th-grader-see-if-you-could-pass-a-real-assessment-test/ss-AA11hKq9
Killexams : Do career tests work?

Editor's note: CNN.com has a business partnership with CareerBuilder.com, which serves as the exclusive provider of job listings and services to CNN.com.

(CareerBuilder.com) -- As a child, you were sure you were going to grow up to be a cowboy, but somewhere between waking up for Saturday morning cartoons and staying up for Conan, however, you traded in your cowboy hat for a briefcase.

While it's fine that you never became a cowboy, you can't say that you've ever pursued anything with the same passion you once had for life on the open range.

For whatever reason, you sort of just "fell" into the job you have today, and honestly, you're less than thrilled. So why stay?

If you've ever considered changing jobs or careers, you're not alone.

Results from a exact CareerBuilder.com survey indicate that three quarters of American workers have changed career paths at least once, and one third of American workers are interested in changing careers right now.

With one in five workers having utilized them, career assessment tests ranked among the most popular methods respondents used to research a new job (in addition to exploring web sites and consulting with friends and family, former co-workers and others in the industry).

Despite their popularity, however, how effective are career assessment tests in helping people find jobs that they're not only good at, but passionate about as well?

"An assessment can be very useful in conjunction with other activities to help a person find or create the best path," says Gayle Lantz, an organizational development consultant who specializes in leadership and career development.

She says there are a variety of career assessments in the marketplace, some more helpful than others; however, the majority of the problem people encounter with career assessments is not the tests themselves, but how people use them.

Andrea Kay, career consultant and author of Life's a Bitch and Then You Change Careers: 9 Steps to Get Out of Your Funk and on to Your Future, agrees.

"Most people are looking for short-cuts to find just the right career and are hoping that a test will be their answer," she says.

Approaching a test in this manner, however, will only lead to disappointment. In her experience, tests don't deliver people the necessary information needed to make a wise career decision.

But while they might not be a magic bullet, Kay admits that tests can be effective in giving people ideas of possible careers that might match their skills and interests, get them thinking about how well-suited they might be for a particular career, and measure their interests, skills or values.

Steve Boller, the director and head career coach of the career guidance program The Oxford Program, offers the following tips to help people make the best use of career assessment tests.

Don't expect a career assessment to point you to your dream job. Most career tests measure one aspect of a person, such as interests, personality or aptitude, and the results are merely suggestions based on that one area of assessment.

Just because a person has an interest in marine biology doesn't mean he or she has the natural abilities for the work.

Do make sure the test meets the two primary criteria: valid and reliable.

Validity indicates how well the test measures what it says it measures, and if a test is reliable, the results of the test will be consistent if taken multiple times.

Do deliver honest answers. If an individual consciously or subconsciously answers questions to fit an outcome he or she has in mind, the results will not be very useful.

While realizing your dream job may be more than just a filled-out Scantron sheet away, career assessment tests can be extremely valuable in giving people a jump start in choosing career paths that fit their interests, best utilize their skills or match their personalities.

According to Lantz, "What is most important is making sure you understand the purpose of the assessment and work with a professional who is skilled in helping interpret results." E-mail to a friend E-mail to a friend

Copyright CareerBuilder.com 2009. All rights reserved. The information contained in this article may not be published, broadcast or otherwise distributed without the prior written authority

Fri, 21 Sep 2007 00:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://edition.cnn.com/2007/LIVING/worklife/09/21/cb.career.tests/
Killexams : How Useful Are Personality Tests?

In our search for self-knowledge, we’ve all likely taken one (or several) personality tests. The goal is to gain insights about ourselves—why we are the way we are. But are these tests any good? Do they accurately measure personality? Are they actually helpful for self-understanding? The answers are complex.

Let me focus on three of the most popular personality tests: The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the Enneagram, and the Big Five.

The Myers-Briggs is the most widely administered psychological test. It is based on Carl Jung’s theory of psychological types. It was constructed by the mother and daughter team of Katherine Cook Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers. Katherine Briggs used Jungian notions of personality to analyze characters in literature. Although the MBTI is based on Jungian theory, it was really Isabel Myers’ interpretation of that theory that lies beneath the test’s construction. The MBTI has four dimensions (Introversion-Extraversion; INtuition-Sensing; Thinking-Feeling; Judging-Perceiving). Combinations yield 16 personality types, and users get to know their four-letter “type” (e.g., ESTJ; INFP).

The Enneagram has ancient roots, derived from Babylonian and Sufi traditions. It yields nine types, represented numerically. The types have descriptive labels (e.g., “The Reformer,” “The Achiever,” “The Peacemaker,”). Unlike the MBTI, whose “official” test is published by the Myers-Briggs Corporation, there are various tests for assessing the Enneagram.

The Big Five was primarily developed as a research tool to help understand how personality relates to a variety of outcomes, from well-being to academic success, to potential as an employee. It consists of five dimensions: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness. Although there are various measures to assess the Big Five the most common is the "NEO," so named for the first 3 dimensions.

Is This Test Any Good?

A first concern is the underlying theory behind the test. As mentioned, the MBTI was based loosely on Jung’s theory. The Enneagram theory pre-dates the field of psychology and is an interpretation of ancient traditions regarding personality types. The Big Five evolved after decades of research on different personality traits and was the result of reducing dozens of proposed traits into five core, stable, “higher-order” traits.

Any good test needs to demonstrate good validity, measuring what it’s supposed to measure, and reliability (i.e., stability, so that you don’t get different scores for the same person at different times).

Both the MBTI and the Enneagram have been criticized by personality psychologists for a lack of solid evidence of validity and reliability. For example, the forced-choice format of the self-report MBTI might lead to a change from an Extravert to an Introvert because the test-taker changed their responses to a couple of items, suggesting problems with test reliability. In addition, typologies suffer from the fact that the test-taker is put into a category. For example, you may be labeled an Extravert (“E”) or an “Introvert” (I) and that is your type. In actuality, personality dimensions are continuous, with persons being more or less introverted or extraverted, and the typology doesn’t differentiate strong introverts from relatively weak introverts.

On the other hand, the Big Five measures, such as the NEO, have been extensively validated. They offer continuous scores on each of the five personality traits, so the user can tell if they are strong or weak on each trait. The Big Five measures, however, are mostly used for research and don’t typically offer the detailed interpretations characteristic of the other two measures.

In addition to these well-known personality measures, there are a lot of so-called personality tests out there on the Internet. One should be especially concerned about the interpretation of personality test results.

The Barnum Effect

Named for P.T. Barnum, who famously said, “there’s a sucker born every minute,” the Barnum Effect occurs when people are given vague interpretations of their personality test scores that could fit just about anyone. This is the effect that horoscopes, fortune tellers, and charlatans create when they suggest the information they provide applies to an individual when it could really apply to almost anyone (e.g., “Sometimes you can be loud, outgoing, and a people person, but other times you can be quiet, shy, and reserved.”) Be wary. Many online “personality tests” deliver these vague interpretations that could apply to just about anyone (and some of the MBTI and Enneagram type descriptions seem a bit “Barnumy” to me.)

Personality Tests: What Are They Good For?

Personality tests were originally developed as research tools to better understand individual differences in people. Later, they were used for multiple purposes. Some personality tests, such as the MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory), are used to diagnose different psychological disorders. Other personality tests, such as the Hogan Assessments, are used for personnel selection and for developing employees and managers.

What about tests that individuals take for self-exploration: the MBTI, Enneagram, and the Big Five? Simply put, they should be “taken with a grain of salt.” Realize that these only deliver you some indication of the personality traits that you may possess, but they are not exact and can be totally wrong. Any one test result could be affected by the test-taker, who might try to “second guess” the test, or answer in a socially-desirable way.

Remember too, that personality is not destiny. Possessing certain desirable (or undesirable) traits doesn’t mean that you are locked into certain behavioral patterns. Traits represent tendencies—patterns of behavior—and we can break out of tendencies. Moreover, the situation also comes into play. For example, an introvert might, in certain situations, behave more like an extravert, and vice versa.

In short, don’t get too hung up on the results of your personality tests.

Fri, 09 Sep 2022 08:26:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/cutting-edge-leadership/202209/how-useful-are-personality-tests
Killexams : Why have assessment tests become so widely used?

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Tue, 20 Sep 2022 02:06:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.jpost.com/special-content/why-have-assessment-tests-have-become-so-widely-used-717615
Killexams : Experts share the 5 best pregnancy tests of 2022 and where to buy them

Let’s face it. You either landed on this page because you’re crossing your fingers for a little bundle of joy, or you’re praying for anything but that. Nonetheless, you’re here, and we want to say it’ll all be okay.

But who better to talk about all things pregnancy than a doctor? Enter Dr. Kenosha Gleaton, board certified doctor in gynecology and obstetrics and medical director of Natalist — a women’s health startup that provides products and resources for fertility and pregnancy.

We spoke with Dr. Kenosha about the best pregnancy tests out there, when to take a test, how soon you can take one and more.

While we gathered expert insight, we still recommend reaching out to your doctor for full assurance.

FAQs with Dr. Kenosha

How do pregnancy tests work?

“Pregnancy tests detect a hormone called human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG), which can be detected in urine or blood after an embryo implants itself into your uterine wall,” Dr. Kenosha told The New York Post. “hCG is the first detectable sign of pregnancy, and home tests (like the Natalist Pregnancy Test and Natalist Early Pregnancy Test Strips) are an easy and reliable way to determine if you’re pregnant.”

When should you take a pregnancy test?

Dr. Kenosha explained that testing first thing in the morning before your expected period is usually your best bet, as your urine “has a higher concentration of hCG” at that time Though, you can test at any time of the day.

Dr. Kenosha also notes that “drinking lots of liquids in the few hours before testing can dilute your urine and cause a false negative result.” This meaning you could be pregnant, but the test will show you’re not.

Furthermore, “14% to 25% of women have irregular menstrual cycles, which can make it harder to predict when to test,” said Dr. Kenosha. “If this is you, try counting at least 14 days from when you had sex. If your test says you’re not pregnant and you think you might be, test again the next day or in a few days.”

All of this to say, it can be tricky to know exactly when to test, but there are a few methods that can help out.

How soon can you take a pregnancy test?

Taking a pregnancy test too soon is a thing, though, “it varies based on a test’s sensitivity rate so be sure to read the directions thoroughly,” explained Dr. Kenosha.

“You can use most pregnancy tests starting five days before you expect your period to start,” she continued. “If you get a negative result and are testing more than three days before your expected period, you could still be pregnant and should take another test in a few days.”

The reason for this is that you could be early in your pregnancy, meaning “you may not have enough hCG for the test to detect yet,” Dr. Kenosha told The Post. Though, in just two days, your hCG levels will usually double, meaning the more likely it is to get a positive result.

How accurate are pregnancy tests?

“Pregnancy tests are more than 99% accurate in clinical studies when used on the day of your expected period,” shared Dr. Kenosha. Still, false negatives are a thing. This means hCG was not detected in your urine, though you actually are pregnant.

Dr. Kenosha says false negatives happen for two reasons. First, “your urine was too diluted” or “it’s too early to detect a pregnancy.”

Truth be told, false positives are a thing too, though they’re more unlikely.

To avoid false test results, Dr. Kenosha recommends seeing your doctor to confirm your outcome.

Best pregnancy tests

1. Best pregnancy test strips: Natalist Early Pregnancy Test Strips, $16

Best pregnancy tests

Both reliable and affordable, these early pregnancy test strips deliver you peace of mind ASAP. Proven to be over 99% accurate and ringing in as low as 85 cents per test, these Natalist test strips are a fan favorite. Not to mention, Natalist doesn’t produce electronic waste from batteries or other components found in many digital pregnancy tests.

2. Best early response pregnancy test: First Response Early Result Pregnancy Test, 3 Count, $13, original price: $20

Best pregnancy tests

In just three minutes, you will have an answer as to whether you are pregnant or not — even if it’s six days sooner than your missed period. Pair these tests with the EasyRead App which is over 99% accurate for full assurance.

3. Best digital pregnancy test: Clearblue Pregnancy Test Combo Pack, $10

Best pregnancy tests

Say goodbye to confusing lines and markings with this digital pregnancy test. It will clearly display your results by either practicing “Pregnant” or “Not Pregnant.” In the pack is also a Clearblue Rapid Detection Pregnancy Test that will offer you positive (+) or negative (-) results.

4. Best pregnancy test subscription: Stix Pregnancy Tests, $12 every four weeks

Best pregnancy tests

Always have a test on hand with this Stix pregnancy test subscription service. You will be able to know whether you’re pregnant up to three days before your missed period.

5. Best First Response Triple Check Pregnancy Test Kit, $15

Best pregnancy tests

Tripple-check your results with this pack of three First Response tests. This pack provides you with three different ways to test.

Check out New York Post Shopping for more content.

Thu, 22 Sep 2022 03:56:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://nypost.com/article/best-pregnancy-tests-per-experts/
Killexams : Risk Assessment in Pharmaceutical Production

Environmental contamination control is a crucial aspect of sterile pharmaceutical manufacturing, and risk management is needed to certain that the necessary control procedures are in place.

The risk management process involves a series of steps, such as risk assessment, which ensures a deeper understanding of the manufacturing environment.

The result of such an assessment may be to reduce, remove, or monitor some of the activities that are associated with a process or product to mitigate risk.

This qualitative risk assessment can be turned into a more quantitative evaluation by making use of contemporary risk assessment tools and procedures; these tools deliver the fully documented rationale behind the chosen path.

Risk management is considered an acceptable technique for guaranteeing the quality of a process in the recently released draft of EU GMP Annex 1, Revision 12.

The draft strongly recommends risk management for additional product types, particularly where control of microbiological, particle, and pyrogen contamination is necessary (e.g., certain liquids, creams, ointments, and low bacterial intermediates), and is explicit about the importance of risk management for manufacturers of sterile drugs.1

There is always a certain danger involved in the creation, administration, and distribution of drugs (medicines) and their constituent parts. It is critical to realize that product quality must be preserved for the duration of its service life.

This ensures that the Critical Quality Attributes, which are crucial to the drug’s quality, are maintained throughout the drug’s research and production phases. According to ICH Q6A, the appropriateness of a drug substance or drug product for its intended purpose is referred to as drug quality.5

A risk management procedure, generally speaking, concentrates on examining each step of the product life cycle with the goal of doing an assessment, mitigating the risks, and periodically reviewing the risks. Risk assessment, as it is described in ICH Q9, is a systematic method of gathering data to support risk decisions that are made as part of a risk management process.2

The word “process” has a variety of connotations when referring to pharmaceutical quality. Any stage of development, production, testing, inspection, and distribution, all the way up to and including drug delivery, can be included.

It can also involve the design, qualification, and validation of tools, facilities, and equipment. Therefore, a process is any action that has the potential to either directly or indirectly influence the final quality of the product.

The scope of pharmaceutical quality risk management is thus very extensive.

There are a few key distinctions that should be considered before diving into risk management processes, starting with the difference between hazards and problems.

A hazard is defined as an intrinsic trait or attribute that has the potential to harm the process and, as a result, the end user, whereas problems are more related to how a process is perceived or implemented.4

As a result, risk is a probabilistic term; it is the combination of the ability of this event to cause damage and the probability of a certain event occurring. The inability to identify this risk before it manifests complicates the situation even further.

Technically speaking, the risk is the result of probability and severity,2 where detectability, if introduced, should take into account the risk that the detection system will fail. Thus, the idea of risk implies the existence of a source of danger and the potential of it transforming into harm.3

The problem is effectively actualized and turned into something scientific and documented at this point in the analysis of risk management. The risk assessment tests and evaluations must now be converted into visual and quantitative data so that both the source of the risk and the capacity to manage the risk can be externally understood.

The identification of hazards and the scientific investigation and evaluation of the risks related to exposure to them serve as the ultimate risk assessment instrument. This covers the seriousness of the risk to health or logistical damage that could come from a reduction in product quality or availability.

To decrease the risks to product quality, patient safety, and brand reputation, it is crucial to have both a strong quality management system and solid production practices in place.

When it comes to effective risk management, there are two main principles that must be adhered to:

  • The quality risk management approach should be as formal, committed, and documented as the amount of risk warrants
  • Risk assessments ought to be grounded in science and motivated by patient safety

Risk Assessment

Various processes make up the risk assessment process, from the identification of hazards to the investigation and evaluation of the risks posed by exposure to these hazards. The stages created during the study are shown in Figure 1.

Steps for risk identification and analysis.

Figure 1. Steps for risk identification and analysis. Image Credit: Particle Measuring Systems

The process of identifying risks entails the methodical use of data to pinpoint potential dangers (hazards) and possible repercussions (impact/effect). Historical information, theoretical analysis, educated viewpoints, stakeholder concerns, brainstorming sessions, etc., are all used to identify these harms and consequences.

This information is necessary in order to truly understand the processes.

To more accurately define risk, three fundamental questions are often helpful:

  1. What could go wrong and not go as planned?
  2. What is the probability (likelihood) of it going differently than anticipated?
  3. What are the consequences (severity)?

Risk analysis is the assessment of the risk associated with the identified hazards. It is a quantitative or qualitative process of linking the severity and probability of harm (severity being a measure of the possible consequences of a hazard) by evaluating the design/measures that have control over their occurrence and detection.2

The right tools or activities for managing the risk over time are determined by analyzing the level of risk. The ability to detect damage (detectability) could also be taken into account as a factor impacting the overall risk assessment using some risk management methods.

The next step in risk assessment is to compare the estimated risk against a set of risk criteria. This is accomplished using a quantitative or qualitative scale that establishes its relevance and subsequently establishes an acceptable threshold.

A numerical probability is used to express risk quantitatively. Alternatives to using quantitative adjectives like “high,” “medium,” or “low” include utilizing qualitative descriptors, which should be defined in as much detail as possible. The goal of risk control is to lower the risk to a predetermined, acceptable level.

Therefore, the assessment should lead to either a reduction of the risk if it is not an acceptable level or an acceptance of the risk itself (risk control) if the level is acceptable.

The risk control process involves the following steps:

  • Reduce the likelihood that the indicated risks and hazards may materialize
  • Minimize the risks and dangers that have been identified
  • Make the identified risks and hazards more visible for detection

It is important to note that implementing risk reduction strategies could result in the system experiencing new hazards (induced risk) or making current risks more significant (correlated risk).

To detect and assess any potential changes, it might be appropriate to review the evaluation after the implementation of a risk reduction approach. The frequency at which a review occurs should be based on the level of risk. The risk review may include reconsideration of risk acceptance decisions.2, 4

Acceptance is only achievable once it has been established scientifically that the recognized or residual risk has no significant adverse impact on the process’ final level of quality. Even the highest caliber risk management techniques may not completely remove the risk for some types of damage.

Applying an effective risk management strategy in these situations lowers the risk to quality to a predetermined (acceptable) level. This appropriate threshold should be determined on a case-by-case basis and will be based on a variety of factors.

The appropriate amount of risk control can be determined using a range of different methods, such as a cost-benefit analysis, while always adhering to regulatory and normative standards.2

Risk Management and Possible Approaches

Currently, risk analysis can be done using a variety of scientific techniques. To achieve the most beneficial results, these can be utilized separately or in combination with one another.

For instance, adopting the HACCP approach in conjunction with FMEA could result in the creation of documents that are more comprehensive than each method on its own. Three of these methods are outlined in detail below.


The HACCP approach is a methodical, proactive, and preventive tool for guaranteeing the quality, dependability, and safety of products.7 The HACCP approach permits the identification of critical and non-essential regions of the process under examination based on the creation of a “Decision Tree.”


The FMEA approach is a methodical examination of possible failure modes with the goal of avoiding failures. It is a process of preventive action that is introduced before new products, modifications, or processes are introduced.

FMEA assessments are best carried out during the process/product design or development stages, but they can also be helpful when used on already-existing goods and procedures. This strategy can be used in many contexts, including pharmaceutical manufacturing and assembly.

It entails a number of steps, including reviewing the process, identifying potential error modes, listing the potential effects of each error mode, determining the severity/occurrence and detection of each effect, and calculating the Risk Priority Number (RPN) to rank the importance of risk-mitigation measures.

Risk Priority Number (RPN)

The evaluation of three parameters — “Severity” (the level of risk), “Detection” (the capacity to identify risk), and “Occurrence” — results in the determination of the risk priority number (the probability that risk may occur and recur within the process under analysis).

Variables are evaluated for each of these parameters before being multiplied to produce the final evaluation. RPN is defined as Severity × Detection × Occurrence.6 The ranges can be derived using the maximum and minimum scores after the variables for each individual parameter have been set.

If the score value falls within the lowest range, “low” would be assigned as the risk value, “medium” would be applied if it falls within the middle range, and “high” would be used if the RPN value falls within the highest range. The division into different risk ranges is necessary for the completion of the next risk control step.

The decision to accept or reduce risk is influenced by assigning a risk value to one range as opposed to another. Applying corrective or preventative risk control measures to the process will help lessen the value of the risk if it is medium or high overall (i.e., risk of impact on quality).

Wherever possible, the risk value should also be decreased to a threshold that is considered acceptable. When a risk is considered to be in the “low” range, it means that it is considered to be below a predetermined acceptable level and does not call for any corrective or preventive action since it is already under control.

Take the fill and finishing of a product as an example. A good strategy for preventing environmental contamination of the sterile production process becomes essential in ensuring the quality of the finished product.

Therefore, the risk assessment, together with the equipment used to realistically carry out what is theoretically appraised, is a crucial and important tool that pharmaceutical businesses should employ to boost the quality assurance process.

The risk control and review process can be facilitated by taking into account criteria like good data historicization and suitable data representation.

The company’s responsibility to adhere to regulatory standards can be facilitated (but not eliminated) by the effective application of quality risk management.2


By providing a proactive way to identify and control potential quality issues during drug development and manufacturing, an effective risk management strategy can further ensure the delivery of a high-quality drug or medicine to the patient.

The protection of the product’s end-user should be the primary objective of any risk management strategy, and the success of a quality risk strategy that recognizes and upholds the end-safety users can only be determined by the product’s quality.

Pharmaceutical companies can receive high-quality products and adhere to regulatory standards and guidelines by conducting a completely documented risk assessment.

According to a predetermined monitoring plan, ongoing product quality management is guaranteed by microbiological and particulate control of air and surfaces. The connection between risk management and risk assessment strategies must also be kept in mind.

It could be beneficial to seek advice from external organizations. By sharing information that has been obtained in a structured and organized manner, these certified can assist the organization in defining and managing its risks.

The information exchanged throughout the interaction could relate to the existence, nature, form, likelihood, severity, acceptability, control, treatment, detectability, or other required elements of the quality risks.


  1. EudraLex - Volume 4 - Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) guidelines – Annex I
  2. ICH Q9 Quality risk management
  3. art. 2, lettera s, D. Lgs. 81/08
  4. ISO/IEC Guide 51:1999 - Safety Aspects - Guideline for their inclusion in standards
  5. ICH Q6A
  6. The Basics of FMEA, Robin McDermott, Raymond J. Mikulak, Michael R. Beauregard 1996, ISBN 0527763209.
  7. WHO Technical Report Series No 908, 2003 Annex 7

This information has been sourced, reviewed and adapted from materials provided by Particle Measuring Systems.

For more information on this source, please visit Particle Measuring Systems.

Wed, 12 Oct 2022 03:02:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.azonano.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=6283
Killexams : IDC MarketScape: Worldwide Unified Endpoint Management Software 2019–2020 Vendor Assessment

IDC MarketScape: Worldwide Unified Endpoint Management Software 2019–2020 Vendor Assessment

VMware has been named a Leader in the IDC MarketScape: Worldwide Unified Endpoint Management Software 2019-2020 Vendor Assessment. get an excerpt of the report to see why we believe VMware is uniquely positioned to help you Strengthen cost savings, security, and user experience with Workspace ONE Unified Endpoint Management (UEM).

Sun, 18 Sep 2022 15:42:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://virtualizationreview.com/whitepapers/2020/02/vmware-idc-marketscape.aspx?admgarea=symantec&tc=page0
Killexams : Witchetty hackers hide backdoor malware in a Windows logo

Symantec warns of new Chinese hacking campaign

The 'Witchetty' hacking group, which uses steganography to hide a backdoor malware in a Windows logo.

Symantec reports that the threat group is operating a new cyberespionage campaign launched in February 2022 that targeted two governments in the Middle East and a stock exchange in Africa.

The hackers refreshed their toolkit to target different vulnerabilities and used steganography to hide their malicious payload from antivirus software.

For those who came in late steganography is the act of hiding data within other non-secret, public information or computer files, such as an image, to evade detection. Symantec found Witchetty is using steganography to hide an XOR-encrypted backdoor malware in an old Windows logo bitmap image.

The file is hosted on a trusted cloud service instead of the threat actor's command and control (C2) server, so the chances of raising security alarms while fetching it are minimised.

The attack begins with the threat actors gaining initial access to a network by exploiting the Microsoft Exchange ProxyShell (CVE-2021-34473, CVE-2021-34523, and CVE-2021-31207) and ProxyLogon (CVE-2021-26855 and CVE-2021-27065) attack chains to drop webshells on vulnerable servers.

Witchetty uses standard utilities like Mimikatzand to dump credentials from LSASS and abuses "lolbins" on the host, like CMD, WMIC, and PowerShell.

The hackers rely on exploiting last year's vulnerabilities to breach the target network, taking advantage of the poor administration of publicly exposed servers so if you want to fight it off upgrade your system.

Sun, 02 Oct 2022 21:11:00 -0500 Nick Farrell en-gb text/html https://fudzilla.com/news/55585-witchetty-hackers-hide-backdoor-malware-in-a-windows-logo
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