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Strom-Gottfried, K. 2002 Assessing intrapersonal and environmental systems Direct Social Work Practice: Theory and Skills Hepworth, D. H. Rooney, R. H. Larsen, J. A. Pacific Grove CA Brooks/Cole

Taylor, C. White, S. 2000 Practising Reflexivity in Health and Welfare: Making Knowledge Buckingham, UK Open University Press

Teater, B. 2010 An Introduction to Applying Social Work Theories and Methods Maidenhead, UK Open University Press

Thoburn, J. 2007 Globalisation and Child Welfare: Some Lessons from a Cross-national Study of Children in Out-of-home Care Norwich, UK University of East Anglia, School of Social Work and Psychosocial Studies

Thompson, N. 2002 People Skills New York Palgrave Macmillan

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Killexams : Frequently asked questions

How do I apply to the MPA programme?

All applications are made through LSE’s Graduate Admissions Office. Applications open in mid-October each year. Full details of how to apply are available on the how to apply page. This includes information about the entry requirements and the documents applicants are required to submit with their application.

What are the entry requirements?

Please visit the entry requirements section on the how to apply page for further details.

Is there a Graduate Open Day?

LSE offers a virtual open day where you can watch a wide range of talks on applying to LSE, accommodation, careers, financial support, support services and life at LSE. This virtual open day can be viewed at anytime, from anywhere in the world.

In addition, the MPA programme holds regular Online Information Sessions which provide you with the opportunity to learn more about study support, future careers and extra-curricular activities. Each session ends with time for your questions, which are answered live by our team.

If you would like to visit the LSE campus, please see 'Can I visit the campus?'.

How many applications do you receive each year?

On average each year we typically receive around 420 applications. Our target intake is 100 students per year, meaning at any one time there may be more than 160 MPA students studying at LSE across both years.

What are the application deadlines?

The MPA does not have a deadline for applications; Graduate Admissions begin accepting applications in mid-October. The MPA has a limited number of offers to make each year and once this limit has been reached, no further applications can be considered. To find out about current programme availability, go to the LSE Graduate Admissions homepage and click "Available programmes" in the menu on the left of the page. We recommend that applicants submit their applications as early as possible to maximise their chance of being considered.

What do you look for in an applicant?

The Selectors will consider the application as a whole before making a decision. They are looking for:

  • Proven academic ability and strong academic grades. Economics and/or quantitative course work is particularly helpful but there is no specific subject requirement for the first degree.

  • Applicants are normally required to have a minimum of one year’s relevant professional work experience at the point of entry to the programme. However, applicants with an exceptional and outstanding academic background may use this to compensate for less than one year’s work experience.

  • A personal statement that is well written and clearly explains why you have chosen this professionally-oriented policy programme. It is also important that your statement explains how your prior professional and educational experiences make you a good candidate for the programme.

  • Strong references in support of your application.

Please note that we cannot advise on individual applications or supply any indication if an applicant should apply. Full details of the entry requirements are available from the Graduate Admissions webpages.

Can I submit a professional reference?

Please select the ‘two academic references’ item from the list on this webpage for reference requirements.

How long should my personal statement be?

Please select the 'personal statement' item from the list on this webpage for more information.

Where do I send my application documents?

All application documents must be sent to Graduate Admissions. If you are unable to upload your documents, please contact Graduate Admissions for advice.

What is your GRE/GMAT policy?

We do not require applicants to have taken GRE/GMAT tests. However, if you have taken one of these, and you feel your results will support your application, you are welcome to include it. As this is not a requirement for the MPA we cannot advise what the Selectors would consider a good score. We are also unable to advise applicants what the average GRE/GMAT score is as only a minority of applicants choose to include this information.

Can I apply even if my English language score is lower than required?

The requirements for English language test scores are available here, please note that we require 'higher'. You can apply if you have not yet achieved the required score. If your application is successful you will receive a conditional offer, which means that you will only be able to join the MPA if you achieve the required test scores before the programme starts. If you will require a student visa, please note that you will need to hold an unconditional offer in order to receive the Confirmation of Acceptance for Studies (CAS) you will need for your visa application so will need to achieve the required English test score leaving enough time to apply for your visa and wait for a decision on your visa application.

Do you accept transfer students?

No, the MPA does not accept transfer students. It is also not possible for students to attend individual courses without being registered for a degree programme at LSE.

What happens after I submit my application?

The LSE Graduate Admissions Office will process your application. They will confirm to you that it has been received and if any further action or documents are required from you. Graduate Admissions receive applications and documentation for all graduate programmes at LSE. This means that it may take some time for your application to be processed. You can see the current processing times on-line.

The MPA Team will not be able to tell you when you will receive a decision on your application as all decisions are processed and sent by Graduate Admissions.

Please note that all queries relating to application documents should be directed to Graduate Admissions.

Mon, 09 May 2022 16:12:00 -0500 en-GB text/html https://www.lse.ac.uk/school-of-public-policy/mpa/frequently-asked-questions
Killexams : Tech Revolution Benefits the Aging

Imagine your frail father dons a virtual reality headset so he can "attend" his grandson's graduation and feel as if he's really there. Or your mom, forgetful about her medicine, swallows a teensy sensor encased in medication that will relay the time she took the pill and the dosage to her smartphone.

Perhaps your mother-in-law has dementia, which makes her agitated. A small robot she holds that acts like a cat, including purring, calms her instantly. Afraid she’ll wander? Your phone can alert you if she does.

Whether already in use or still being tested, aging-in-place technology is improving the aging experience for seniors and family caregivers. Part of the reason: the development of artificial intelligence, or AI, and "big data." With AI, devices can react like humans after assessing a situation and learning someone's habits. Wearable gadgets—think Fitbit on steroids—can collect and analyze health data, while medical mini-machines monitor chronic conditions and customize treatment.

"Technology is a game-changer, improving older adults' independence, engagement and health and reducing their social isolation," says David Lindeman, director of the Center for Technology and Aging at the University of California, Berkeley. "Technologies we haven't even thought of today will be on the market in the next few years."

Technology may be especially beneficial when baby boomers find they need an extra something, perhaps a friendly robot, to keep them healthy, happy and in charge as they grow older. And new technologies could help caregivers. In a 2015 AARP survey, fewer than 10% of family caregivers said they use, or have used, technology for caregiving, but 71% said they were interested.

In the coming years, aging tech is likely to follow the pattern of smartphones, which gained traction in people's lives relatively quickly. Stand-alone devices are getting smaller, and apps are increasingly available for smartphones and tablets. Plus, aging technology is getting faster, cheaper and easier to use.

What's out there today, or about to debut?

Virtual Reality Offers Real Benefits

Although it began as a teen gaming phenomenon, virtual reality, or VR, is maturing into a technology for older adults. While still in its infancy, VR for seniors is gaining fans among physicians, long-term-care staff, researchers, physical therapists and family members.

Here's how it works: A senior dons special VR goggles that show panoramic images made with a 360-degree video camera. The wearer is transported into a multisensory, three-dimensional world where he is totally immersed in a place or experience, making him feel as if he is actually there. That world might be his childhood neighborhood (via Google Maps), the beach, a faraway family reunion or a grandchild's wedding in real time.

For older adults with mobility issues or cabin fever, VR breaks up day-to-day monotony and loneliness, letting seniors "travel"—sky diving or swimming with whales, anyone?—without leaving home.

But VR offers more than just a good time. It's being studied as a way to reduce physical pain, opioid use, anxiety, stress and social isolation, and to Excellerate mood. At Massachusetts General Hospital, doctors plan to use VR to study brain function in aging. "Individuals with dementia tend to struggle with activities such as executive function and multitasking, which can be hard to evaluate in a clinical setting," says Dennis Lally, co-founder of Rendever, a Boston company developing VR software for seniors. "With VR, it's now possible to track the human interaction with virtual tasks and leverage virtual reality analytics to measure the success of these activities." In the next few months, the hospital will begin testing the VR product.

San Francisco physician Sonya Kim says when she first introduced VR to depressed and agitated patients, she thought, "Wow! This is phenomenal! People are happy!" In 2014, Kim developed Aloha VR, which she uses in group therapy sessions. "Our goal is to Excellerate the quality of life for older adults, and through VR, take senior care to the next level," says Kim, even for patients being treated for dementia. She has seen violent dementia patients who have mellowed after using VR.

Dr. David Rhew, chief medical officer for Samsung Electronics America, believes that VR may be more than just a distraction from pain and anxiety—it may be an genuine treatment. "Studies show there's a quantifiable impact, not just when the individual is receiving the VR but also after they take off the headset," says Rhew. A Cedars-Sinai Medical Center study—the largest controlled trial to date for VR pain treatment in hospitalized patients—showed VR reduced pain by 24%.

At the University of Washington, researchers did MRIs on one group who used VR before the imaging and another that didn't. "The VR group showed high levels of activity in the brain suggesting that neurochemicals were being fired," says Rhew. "There is a strong suggestion that VR is reducing pain due to some neurological or physiological impact on the brain."

Consumers have begun snapping up VR gadgets for home use. You can get Samsung's Gear VR headset for $100. But prices range from $15 for a Google Cardboard headset to nearly $600 for an Oculus Rift headset. (Oculus also offers a $99 version.)

The devices are also being used in long-term-care facilities. For the past few months, The Residence at Watertown Square, a Boston-area long-term-care facility, has been using VR. Resident engagement director Shauna Bennett has a preprogrammed tablet that guides viewers through a script she reads. Perhaps it's for an interactive tour of the Grand Canyon or watching stars at night in Alaska. "Five minutes after they try VR, they are so stimulated," she says. "It is a mood changer. They are laughing and smiling and engaged."

Rendever, which designed that Grand Canyon tour, has its product in more than 30 senior facilities; by year-end, it will be in hundreds more.

Social Robots on the Rise

For a growing number of households, Alexa, the AI-enabled, voice-controlled personal assistant on the Amazon Echo speaker, has become a family member. "She" can recite sports scores, play song requests or look up appointments. Alexa is joined by "sisters" Siri, Google Home and Cortana.

These devices are multiplying. A 2016 report from market research company Tractica predicts that 100 million consumer robots will ship between 2015 and 2020—including bots that vacuum and mow the lawn.

Coming soon is Jibo, a $749 tabletop robot due on the market this year that interacts with humans. Jibo can tell a joke when you walk in the room and even teach a grandchild simple math. A built-in camera lets it snap family photos at your say-so.

Robots like Jibo are being developed to react to your mood. Tired? Confused? Sad? Happy? The camera reads your facial expression and then converses with you. Elder care assistant robot ELLI Q, for the home market, is being tested with seniors in San Francisco.

Built on the Android platform, ELLI Q draws content from the Web. The robot is connected to a tablet and suggests activities such as "Want to play a game of bridge?" (if you say yes, it will pull up a Web-based game) or "How about a walk?" after you've sat in front of the TV for a while. The robot will remind you to take your medicine; it also reads body language.

Robotic pets are making the rounds in homes and senior facilities. At Front Porch, a nonprofit that manages senior communities and has a Center for Innovation and Wellbeing, residents in skilled nursing and memory care interact with Paro, a robotic seal, and a dog and cat from Hasbro's Joy for All Companion Pets.

Sue Norton-Clapham's mother Mabel Norton, 98, is an animal lover. Although Norton has dementia and her words are garbled, she talks to Lily, the seal, and Noodles, the cat. She has to share them with other residents of her Chula Vista, Cal., facility, so her daughter plans to buy her a robotic pet of her own. "I work and can't always be with Mom," says Norton-Clapham, "so it really makes me feel great that she is connecting to something and still able to have those emotions and be a person."

Hasbro's pets include three cats ($100 each) and a dog ($120) that looks like a Golden Retriever. When you speak, the dog looks toward you; stroke its back and you feel a "heartbeat."

Robotics can be put to use in other ways, too. For example, robotic exoskeletons are being developed for those who need help moving around after a stroke, perhaps, or who have trouble walking. A wearable mobile machine, powered by electric motors and other technology, allows a person's limbs to move. ReWalk Robotics makes ReWalk for the home and rehab facilities. The battery-powered exoskeleton has motors at the joints, so those with spinal-cord injuries can walk, turn and climb stairs.

Technology to Excellerate Your Health

"Connected" health technology is a godsend for people who want to grow old in their homes and retain their independence. According to an industry report by MarketResearch.com, the market for connected smart sensors is expected to reach $117 billion by 2020. Health tech lets users get help in an emergency with mobile medic alert–like personal emergency response systems; track health and habits via wearable devices that gather biometric cardiac, respiratory, sleep and activity data; and monitor chronic conditions. It also lets patients speak with doctors remotely in real time (known as telemedicine), partake in virtual rehab, anticipate falls and manage medication.

Through GPS, sensors, chips, cameras, voice activation, cellular connectivity and smartphone monitoring apps, technology provides a way to share information and offers peace of mind to family caregivers and loved ones. An adult child, for instance, can easily access the information by logging onto a smartphone, tablet or computer. Health tech company AliveCor sells a $99 smartphone-connected electrocardiogram that detects abnormal heart rhythms; called Kardia Mobile, the app on the smartphone lets the user see the results and take them to the doctor.

And don't forget mental health and well-being. Software such as Posit's Brain HQ (some brain exercises are free, but full access costs $14 a month or $96 a year) and Rosetta Stone's Fit Brains ($80 a year) can help keep the brain sharp. Other technologies let people stay socially connected and engaged. Integrated systems such as GrandCare ($999 to $1,499 plus $99 a month) and Independa (Independa-enabled LG smart TV ranges from $699 to $1,199) combine multiple functions such as videocalling, reminders and activity monitoring (including looking for unusual behavior).

Technology can also be used to manage medication. Not taking your medicine properly, or at all, can land you in the hospital—or worse. Today, there are smartphone apps and physical devices that release pills on schedule, and provide text or phone-call reminders if you forget to take your medicine. Apps, which vary in cost, include Medminder, Reminder Rosie, e-Pill and PillPack.

And there is a new world of ingestible sensors. Proteus Digital Health, a health technology company, is partnering with health care systems to prescribe medications with sensors for patients with heart failure, cardio metabolic risk and hepatitis-C.

Here's how it works: The medication is put into a capsule with a Federal Drug Administration–approved sensor the size of a grain of sand. Swallow the capsule and the sensor turns on when it reaches the stomach. It sends a signal to a small wearable sensor patch placed on your torso. The patch records the time you took your medication, the type of medicine and the dose. It then relays that information to your mobile device. If no information is relayed to the patch because you forgot to take your pill, the Proteus software sends you a reminder on your mobile device. The ingestible sensor passes through your body like food.

The Proteus sensor is currently being used in eight large U.S. health care systems, which are picking up the tab while these smart pills are being tested.

According to Dr. George Savage, co-founder of Proteus, fewer than 50% of people take their medication correctly. "Digital medicine helps doctors make better decisions," says Savage. Physicians can see if patients are failing to respond to the therapy or if it’s how they are taking the medicine that is at fault, he says.

All of these technologies are just the beginning, with many more in the works. For example, smart contact lenses are being developed to measure blood glucose from a wearer's tears to monitor diabetes. Novartis is working with Google to create a contact lens that has a tiny antenna that sends data to the user's smartphone if her glucose level is too high or too low. Another company, Medella Health, has the same goal. It'll be a few years until either is tested, approved and distributed.

Also on the horizon: Lighter and cheaper exoskeletons that pinpoint problem areas on the body. Let's say as your dad grows older, he develops a gait problem. A camera captures his movements and spots his weaknesses, then algorithms analyze the pictures so an engineer can make a brace or other assistive technology.

A few small exoskeletons are in use, such as ReWalk. But they aren't necessarily affordable. "Robotic prosthetic limbs cost anywhere from $5,000 to $50,000," says Majd Alwan, executive director for LeadingAge Center for Aging Services Technologies. But Alwan says he believes that over the next five years, prices will be halved as competition increases. With so many technological advancements under way, the future of aging looks golden.

Sat, 04 Jun 2022 18:26:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.kiplinger.com/article/retirement/t027-c000-s004-tech-revolution-benefits-the-aging.html
Killexams : Security Appliances Market is Anticipated to Reach $229.74 billion by 2030, Registering at a CAGR of 12.81% from 2021 to 2030

Advancements in industrial-grade digital technology, an increase in inclination toward cloud-based security appliances software, and a rise in need for improved supply chain and customer relationship management majorly contribute to the growth of the market. However, the lack of IT infrastructure in underdeveloped nations and the increase in security & privacy concerns hamper the growth of the security appliances market.

Major industry players such as – Cisco Systems, Inc., Check Point Software Technologies Ltd., Symantec Corporation, Intel Corporation, Fortinet, Inc., Palo Alto Networks, Inc., Bosch Sicherheitssysteme GmbH, Honeywell International Inc., Johnson Controls International plc. and Juniper Networks, Inc. 

The security appliances market size was valued at $69.18 billion in 2020, and is estimated to reach $229.74 billion by 2030, growing at a CAGR of 12.81% from 2021 to 2030.

Depending on the deployment model, the on-premise segment garnered the largest share in 2020, and is expected to continue this trend during the forecast period. This is attributed to numerous benefits provided by this on-premise deployment such as high level of data security and safety. On-premise deployment model enables installation of the software and permits applications to run on systems present in the premises of the organization, rather than at a distant facility such as server space or cloud. This model is appropriate for specific applications such as financial applications and health records with critical data that entail large data transfers and operations.  However, the cloud segment is expected to witness highest growth in the upcoming years. As cloud deployment does not need any investment in IT infrastructure as all data is stored on cloud server, which increases the demand for of security appliances software in small and medium scale organizations. Cloud-based deployment is an application licensing and delivery model, where a vendor or a service provider hosts applications remotely. This deployment model provides the IT team with a greater prospect to facilitate real business value to the organization through lower expected cost and an improved ability to focus on innovation and differentiation.

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On the basis of type, the content management segment dominated the overall security appliances industry in 2020 and is expected to continue this trend throughout the forecast period. Increased markets for cloud-based and cross-platform solutions have created opportunities for market expansion. In addition, integration with parallel products such as customer relationship management, analytics-driven content management, and cross-channel integration are some of the trends that have enhanced the adoption of content management among end-user industries. However, the unified threat management (UTM) segment is expected to witness the highest growth, and this trend is expected to continue during the forecast period. UTM is a solution that allows organizations and IT personnel to monitor and manage a wide variety of security-related applications and components, making them available to users in a secure manner. The development of such solutions that fulfill the impending need to secure an employee’s personal data at the workplace is expected to supplement the growth of UTM. The facility to prevent accidental and malicious data breaches by scanning text and common files is projected to boost market growth. The functionalities offered by UTM such as reduced network complexity and single-point and single-window administration for all security functions are anticipated to further facilitate the growth of the UTM market.

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As per Security Appliances Market Analysis. The COVID-19 outbreak had a positive impact on the growth of the security appliances market as the new technologies are helping enterprises to address the extensive capacity demand of security appliances even after the restrictions imposed by the governments and remote working. The outbreak of COVID-19 has affected communities globally while governments and companies are trying their best to respond faster to the challenges posed by this pandemic. However, from the first quarter of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic created an unbalanced health situation, with stringent restrictions to maintain social distancing and lockdown implemented across the world. Thus, with a major aim to contain this pandemic, the majority of the economies have enforced a complete shutdown, thereby leading to decline in business operations. Sectors such as manufacturing and transportation have been severely impacted, worsening the business scenario and resulting in colossal monetary and employment losses. However, this pandemic has elevated the growth of the security appliances market and is expected to exhibit an increase during the forecast period.

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Wed, 22 Jun 2022 05:40:00 -0500 Allied Analytics en-US text/html https://www.digitaljournal.com/pr/security-appliances-market-is-anticipated-to-reach-229-74-billion-by-2030-registering-at-a-cagr-of-12-81-from-2021-to-2030
Killexams : Central America’s Turbulent Northern Triangle


A rise in migrants coming from a region of Central America known as the Northern Triangle—comprised of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras—has cast a spotlight on a long-suffering part of the world. Governments in the region have made some efforts to mitigate the poverty, violence, and corruption that are driving citizens away, but the problems remain widespread.

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Recent U.S. administrations have varied in their responses to the Northern Triangle challenge, which have included changes to foreign aid and immigration policies. So far, the Joe Biden administration has named senior U.S. officials to liaise with Northern Triangle governments, proposed a $4 billion plan to address migration’s root causes in Central America, and issued a series of executive orders regarding U.S. immigration and asylum procedures.

Who is leaving the Northern Triangle, and where are they going?

More on:

Latin America

El Salvador



Immigration and Migration

Migrants, including women and children, continue to flee the troubled region in large numbers. On average, an estimated 407,000 people [PDF] have left annually in recent years, though this number plummeted in 2020 due to border closures and restrictions amid the COVID-19 pandemic.

But numbers have surged again as many Latin American governments lift border restrictions. Some migrants seek asylum or economic opportunities in other parts of Latin America or in Europe. However, most endure a treacherous journey north through Mexico to the United States. Hondurans account for the largest share of Northern Triangle migrants intercepted by U.S. border authorities, closely followed by Guatemalans and then Salvadorans.

Why have so many people fled the region?

Many interrelated factors are driving people from the Northern Triangle, including lack of economic opportunity, environmental challenges, and chronic violence.

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The region is among the poorest in the Western Hemisphere. In 2020, all three countries ranked near the bottom for gross domestic product (GDP) per capita among Latin American and Caribbean states. Inequality and indigence have grown amid the pandemic. In July 2021, the Honduran government estimated that more than 73 percent of the country’s population lived below the poverty line, with nearly 54 percent living in extreme poverty.

Environmental crises, including a destructive coffee rust and devastating back-to-back hurricanes in 2020, have fueled food insecurity and driven migration. Many households depend on remittances, or money sent home by relatives or friends living and working abroad. Though they dropped early in the pandemic, remittances to Latin America amounted to nearly $135 billion in 2021, a 24 percent increase from the previous year, according to the Inter-American Dialogue, a Washington-based think tank. Remittances to the Northern Triangle made up nearly a quarter of that. Historically, corruption and meager tax revenues [PDF], particularly in Guatemala, have crippled governments’ ability to provide social services.

More on:

Latin America

El Salvador



Immigration and Migration

Many interrelated factors are driving people from the Northern Triangle, including lack of economic opportunity, environmental challenges, and chronic violence.

Many of the region’s economic problems stem from deep-rooted violence. Decades of civil war and political instability [PDF] planted the seeds for the complex criminal ecosystem that plagues the region today, which includes transnational gangs such as Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) and the Eighteenth Street Gang (M-18). Critics say that U.S. interventions during the Cold War helped destabilize the region. Homicide rates in the Northern Triangle have been among the world’s highest in recent decades. In 2019, Honduras saw its first rise in murders in seven years, though all three countries recorded declines in 2020 due to pandemic-related restrictions.

Women in the region are also fleeing gender-based violence, which the pandemic has exacerbated. As of 2020, El Salvador and Honduras had some of Latin America’s highest rates of femicide [PDF], or gender-based murders of women and girls.

Looking ahead, experts say that population growth and climate change, which is linked to an increasing number of extreme weather events, could put further strain on Northern Triangle economies, pushing more people to migrate.

How have Northern Triangle governments attempted to address these problems?

Successive governments have tried various development-centric, tough-on-crime interventions to tackle the region’s enduring problems, but they have yielded limited gains.

Economic instability. The region’s most significant coordinated effort to reduce economic instability has been the U.S.-backed Plan of the Alliance for Prosperity (A4P). Aimed at addressing the drivers of irregular migration, A4P made commitments to increase production, strengthen institutions, expand opportunities, and Excellerate public safety. But its outcomes are disputed and difficult to measure.

GDPs were rising across the Northern Triangle before the pandemic. However, monthslong COVID-19 restrictions paralyzed the vast informal sectors that keep regional economies afloat, fueling poverty and food insecurity. Northern Triangle countries borrowed heavily to roll out support programs, but institutional weaknesses impeded their delivery of aid and public services. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) estimates that they suffered economic contractions of between 1.5 percent and 8.6 percent in 2020.

Corruption. Endemic corruption has long been a drag on the region’s economies. In 2006, Guatemala and the United Nations agreed to create the International Commission Against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG), an independent investigatory body that helped convict more than four hundred people, including a sitting president, and contributed to a significant reduction in Guatemala’s homicide rate.

In 2019, El Salvador announced its own anticorruption panel, which was backed by the Organization of American States (OAS), a regional bloc. Critics said the body—called the International Commission Against Impunity in El Salvador (CICIES)—had limited power, questionable independence, and opaque inner workings, but it did help uncover mismanagement in pandemic-related government spending. Honduras also established an anticorruption committee with the OAS, known as the Mission to Support the Fight Against Corruption and Impunity in Honduras (MACCIH), and it fired 40 percent of its police as part of sweeping reforms beginning in 2016. However, security forces have continued to violate human rights [PDF] without consequence.

All three countries have backslid on their progress. After CICIG began investigating President Jimmy Morales, he allowed its mandate to expire in 2019, and Guatemalan judicial officials who promote the rule of law have faced retribution. The mandate for Honduras’s anticorruption body was likewise left to expire in 2020, months before the country eased penalties for drug trafficking and certain corruption. Graft allegedly exists at the highest levels of the Honduran government: in April 2022, the government extradited former President Juan Orlando Hernandez to the United States to face drug- and weapons-trafficking charges.

Despite launching CICIES, Salvadoran President Nayib Bukele and his administration have similarly faced accusations of graft, and experts warn of rising authoritarianism under the highly popular leader. Since taking office in 2019, Bukele has threatened press freedom, stormed parliament with security forces, defied the Supreme Court, and consolidated power with the help of a ruling party–controlled legislature. In June 2021, his government announced the termination of its deal for CICIES with the OAS.

Violence. Beginning in the early 2000s, Northern Triangle governments implemented a series of controversial anti-crime policies that significantly expanded police powers and enacted harsher punishments for gang members.

Though popular [PDF], these policies in most cases failed to reduce crime and may have led to an increase in gang membership. Mass incarcerations increased the burden on already overcrowded prisons, many of which are effectively run by gangs. The U.S. State Department, human rights groups, and journalists have raised concerns about these policies, denouncing poor prison conditions and police violence against civilians.

In a change of tactic, Salvadoran President Mauricio Funes brokered a truce in 2012 between the MS-13 and M-18 gangs, which experts credited with halving the country’s homicide rate. However, murders skyrocketed after the agreement fell apart in 2014, and the negotiations are faulted for giving the gangs political legitimacy. In 2016, a new tough-on-crime Salvadoran government designated gangs as “terrorist groups,” and authorities arrested officials and others who helped arrange the truce. In 2020, Bukele’s government was itself accused of negotiating with MS-13. Some experts suspect an undisclosed deal between authorities and gang members contributed to a plunge in homicides that year, though a sudden surge in killings in March 2022 renewed concerns over the Bukele administration’s controversial strategy.

COVID-19 restrictions helped temporarily reduce homicides across the Northern Triangle and briefly curtailed revenue for criminal groups. However, experts say these groups quickly adapted to the health crisis, seizing on new opportunities to expand their power.

Migration. Regional governments have sought not only to address migration’s drivers but also to physically halt migrants on the move. For example, Guatemalan authorities used force to break up a so-called caravan of migrants bound for the United States in January 2021. Guatemala’s northern neighbor, Mexico, has sporadically worked to prevent migrants from crossing its southern border, including by deploying thousands of National Guard members to bolster border enforcement.

What’s been the U.S. approach to the Northern Triangle?

Over the past twenty years, the United States has tried to help Northern Triangle countries manage irregular migration flows by fighting economic insecurity and violence. However, critics say U.S. policies have been largely reactive, prompted by upturns in migration to the U.S.-Mexico border.

Critics say U.S. policies have been largely reactive, prompted by upturns in migration to the U.S.-Mexico border.

Barack Obama administration. President Obama and Congress isolated the Central America portion of the Merida Initiative, a U.S. assistance program benefiting the region and Mexico, and rebranded it as the Central America Regional Security Initiative (CARSI) [PDF]. Over the years, the U.S. government has budgeted more than $2 billion in aid through CARSI to help the region’s law enforcement, counternarcotics agencies, and justice systems. Midway through his second term, Obama recast the U.S. strategy [PDF] for Central America, forging what was intended to be a more holistic, interagency approach to complement A4P.

After a 2014 upswing in migration from the region, particularly by unaccompanied minors, the administration partnered with Northern Triangle governments on anti-smuggling operations and information campaigns intended to deter would-be migrants. It also cracked down on undocumented immigrants inside the United States. Court-mandated removals during Obama’s administration outpaced those under President George W. Bush, totaling about three million. After Mexico, the Northern Triangle countries accounted for the largest shares of Obama-era removals.

Donald Trump administration. Trump kept Obama’s framework for the region but prioritized stemming migration to the United States and ramping up border security. In 2018, the administration implemented a zero-tolerance policy [PDF] that sought to criminally prosecute all adults entering the United States illegally, which resulted in authorities controversially separating several thousand children from their parents. The administration also sparked criticism for deploying troops and diverting funds to secure the U.S.-Mexico border, as well as for negotiating deals with Mexico and the Northern Triangle governments to send asylum seekers back to countries they traveled through en route to the United States. Of the Northern Triangle governments, only Guatemala’s began implementing the agreement, but it suspended the deal in 2020. Trump also sought to end temporary protected status, a program that allows migrants from crisis-stricken countries to live and work in the United States for a period of time, for Hondurans and Salvadorans.

In 2019, the Trump administration began withholding most aid to the Northern Triangle over the region’s failure to curb migration; it reportedly reinstated the assistance [PDF] by the following year. However, annual funding for the Obama-era Central America strategy—most of which has gone to Northern Triangle countries—dropped by almost one-third during Trump’s presidency.

Apprehensions of Northern Triangle migrants at the U.S. southern border plunged in the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic after soaring in fiscal year 2019. In March 2020, border authorities began expelling most migrants under Title 42, a pandemic-related public health order. Critics say the Trump administration used this and other measures to unnecessarily restrict immigration. Additionally, some observers allege that Trump overlooked governance issues in the Northern Triangle. Weeks before Trump left office, Congress passed legislation championed by Representative Eliot Engel (D-NY) that requires the United States to name and sanction corrupt or undemocratic officials in the region.

Joe Biden administration. The Biden administration has taken steps to roll back several Trump-era immigration policies related to the Northern Triangle. Notable among them are: canceling the asylum deals with El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras; raising the refugee cap to 125,000; reserving temporary visas for workers from the Northern Triangle; and reinstating an Obama-era program, which Trump discontinued in 2017, that allows eligible children from the region to join their parents already living in the United States. It has also launched a $4 billion plan [PDF] for Central America that seeks to mitigate the root causes of migration.

At the same time, the administration has sought to discourage irregular migration through messaging campaigns; called on Central American and Mexican officials to disrupt migrant flows; and continued to expel migrants—with the exceptions of unaccompanied children and some families and adults—under Title 42. Additionally, the administration has tried to end the controversial Migrant Protection Protocols, but legal setbacks have stalled those efforts.

In March 2021, the Biden administration named Ricardo Zuniga as special envoy for the Northern Triangle and designated Vice President Kamala Harris to lead regional diplomacy aimed at curbing migration to the U.S. southern border. Harris’s involvement has so far focused on border enforcement, stimulating private-sector investment, and supporting civil society.

Wed, 22 Jun 2022 03:20:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/central-americas-turbulent-northern-triangle
Killexams : Indiana Public Media News

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The Mayor Bloomingtons Hamilton On Convention Center, Housing| )

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April 21, 2021


Ask The Mayor: Bloomington's Hamilton On COVID Metrics, Upzoning, And Your Questions

The mayor addresses COVID metrics, uptick in cases, Rescue Plan funding, herd immunity, senior citizen parking downtown, UDO zoning, IU's new president, and more.

Wed, 29 Jun 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://indianapublicmedia.org/news/topics/ask-the-mayor.php
Killexams : Gov. Gretchen Whitmer, seeking a second four-year term, airs first TV campaign ad of 2022

LANSING — Gov. Gretchen Whitmer highlights challenges she has faced and touts her administration's accomplishments in the areas of child care and education in her campaign's first TV ad of 2022.

"The last few years have been tough. But we're tougher, and getting things done right now," Whitmer says in the 30-second ad.

Gov. Gretchen Whitmer's first campaign ad of 2022 touts her administration's accomplishments without raising taxes.

The ad opens with Whitmer saying that both her daughters are now in college, but she remembers the days when she was working full-time and "juggling a newborn" while her mother had cancer.

"It was a lot," Whitmer says in the ad. "All over Michigan, people are facing those same struggles."

More: Whitmer urges protection for Americans seeking abortions in Canada, but no influx yet

More: Whitmer, lawmakers agree to $76 billion budget deal — but not tax cuts yet

The ad says that since taking office in 2019, Whitmer's administration has made child care more affordable, made it a priority to get students back in classrooms after the pandemic paused in-person instruction, and made record investments in K-12 education, without raising taxes.

Republicans, who rejected Whitmer's proposed 45-cent-per-gallon increase in the state fuel tax to help fulfill her 2018 campaign promise to "fix the damn roads," have criticized her for not doing enough to move students back into classrooms from virtual learning more quickly. Whitmer has vetoed bills passed by the Republican Legislature to cut Michigan's personal income tax, saying they are fiscally irresponsible because most of the state's budget surplus is only short-term.

Republicans slammed the new ad.

“Gretchen Whitmer appears to be living in a fantasy world where one day she can try and raise taxes and the next she takes credit for Republican accomplishments," said Chris Gustafson, a spokesman for the Republican Governors Association. "Michiganders deserve a Republican governor who will fight for them and deliver real relief."

Five Republican candidates are on the Aug. 2 Republican primary ballot for governor: Norton Shores businesswoman Tudor Dixon; Ottawa County real estate agent Ryan Kelley; Farmington Hills retired pastor Ralph Rebandt; Oakland County businessman Kevin Rinke; and Kalamazoo chiropractor Garrett Soldano. Also, former Detroit Police Chief James Craig is running as a write-in candidate after being disqualified from the ballot over fraudulent signatures.

The winner of the GOP primary will face Whitmer in the Nov. 8 general election.

Contact Paul Egan: 517-372-8660 or pegan@freepress.com. Follow him on Twitter @paulegan4Read more on Michigan politics and sign up for our elections newsletter

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This article originally appeared on Detroit Free Press: Gov. Gretchen Whitmer airs first TV campaign ad of 2022

Tue, 12 Jul 2022 06:48:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.yahoo.com/news/gov-gretchen-whitmer-seeking-second-122052821.html
Killexams : The wear and tear of 26.2: dermatological injuries reported on marathon day


Whether it is to take on the challenge, to get in shape and lose weight, to relieve stress, or to enjoy the outdoors, people have increasingly turned to the marathon as their sporting event of choice. Although there are many health benefits, beginners should be aware that injuries are quite common in marathon runners. Among these are the wear and tear injuries to the skin. This is a review of the most commonly reported dermatological injuries on marathon day.

  • marathon
  • running
  • injuries
  • skin disease
  • dermatology

Dermatological injuries reported in the marathon literature include frictional skin injuries, jogger’s nipples, chafing and other abrasions, tinea pedis, and jogger’s toe.


Blisters were the most common complaint of marathon runners, with an incidence of 0.2–39% (table 1). Acute friction on the soles of the feet results in horizontal shear forces which cause epidermal splits, with the separated layers then filling with blood or tissue transudate.1–4 The most commonly affected sites include the tips of the toes, the balls of the feet, and the posterior heel.5 Factors that contribute to the formation of blisters include heat, moisture, poorly fitting shoes, and excessive or unusual exercises early in training.1,2,6–11 Painful blisters can be lanced with a sharp sterile instrument, taking care to stay near the periphery and maintain the blister roof.1,11–14 Usual suggestions for preventing blisters include wearing dry socks, applying drying powder or other topical antiperspirants, wearing two pairs of socks that are different materials, applying petroleum jelly, wearing appropriately fitting footwear and moisture wicking synthetic socks, and promoting the hardening of the skin with 10% tannic acid soaks.1,3,9–11,14–16

Table 1

 Blisters, calluses, and corns reported in the marathon literature

Calluses and corns are hypertrophic areas which develop on the feet of runners as a protective response to chronic and repetitive friction.4,12,13 Corns can be differentiated from calluses by their hyperkeratotic core.4,6,14 They should both be differentiated from warts which have “black seeds” indicating pericapillary haemorrhages.6,8 Calluses and corns both commonly occur over bony prominences, especially the metatarsal heads at the ball of the foot, and along the inner aspect of the large toe, or over areas of structurally or functionally defective areas of the foot.7,8 Those who desire to remove their calluses or corns can soak their feet for several minutes and pare down the lesions to reduce the thickness of the callus, or apply an abrasive, topical salicylic acid or urea preparation.4,6,7,13,14


Jogger’s nipples are a common occurrence in long distance runners, especially in women who run without bras and in men who wear shirts made of coarse fibre such as cotton. Jogger’s nipples were reported by 2–16.3% of runners on marathon day (table 2). Repetitive friction between a runner’s shirt and their nipples can result in painful, erythematous, and crusted erosions of the areola and nipples.2,6,12,14,15,17 With prolonged irritation, lesions may crack or fissure with subsequent bleeding which may result in dramatic marks on the runner’s shirt.6,12,15,18

Table 2

 Jogger’s nipples reported in the marathon literature

Treatment includes applying petroleum jelly or antibiotic ointment such as erythromycin after the lesions occur.6,12,15,18 To prevent trauma, a runner can apply petroleum jelly, commercially available patches, or adhesive tape over the nipples before long runs.2,4,6,12,15,18 Semisynthetic, silk, or other soft fibre bras are also available to female runners to reduce friction, and men can decrease the incidence of jogger’s nipples by wearing a synthetic shirt that wicks moisture.2,4,6,12,15,18


Chafing is a superficial inflammatory dermatitis of skin surfaces that rub together and are subjected to increased moisture, friction, and maceration.13 This friction, combined with a warm, moist environment, causes a separation of the keratin from the granular sublayer in the epidermis, resulting in an inflamed, oozing lesion.13 In the marathon literature, chafing was reported by 0.4–16% of runners who reported to medical tents (table 3). Treatment consists of cleaning with soap and water, drying the areas thoroughly, applying a drying powder, and topical steroid ointments to alleviate inflammation.13 The runner can prevent chafing by wearing dry, well fitting clothes.13 Talcum and alum powders are mildly helpful for drying, and petroleum jelly is effective for reducing friction, especially in runners who are overweight.13

Table 3

 Chafing and abrasions reported in the marathon literature


Organisms causing tinea pedis in runners include Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagraphytes.5,6,12,19–23 These organisms live in keratin and thrive in the warm and moist environment of the feet.5,6,12,19–23 Tinea pedis presents in three forms: interdigital type with scaling plaques; inflammatory type with vesicles typically on the instep; moccasin distribution scaling type with or without erythema along the lateral aspect of the sole.4,5,7,12,13,24,25 Two studies have specifically looked at the presence of tinea pedis in marathon runners on race day. In 1988, Auger et al26 took interdigital skin scrapings from 405 runners participating in the International Marathon of Montreal four days before the race and found a culture positive incidence of 22%. Only 48% of this group had occult athlete’s foot.26 Lacroix et al27 found a slightly higher incidence of 31% after taking scrapings from 147 runners after the 1998 Médoc Marathon.

Several factors are believed to put runners at risk of tinea pedis, including occlusion, trauma, sharing showers, and sweating with subsequent maceration of the epidermis.1,2,4,12,13,20–22,24,28–30 An astringent soak and 30% aluminium chloride applied to the web spaces may help to keep the skin dry, remove crusts and macerated tissue, and kill bacteria responsible for superinfection.4,7,28 Topical antifungals, including the azoles, allylamines, and tolnaftate, may be used several times a day for mild disease, although reinfection is common, and oral antifungal treatment may be necessary for more moderate to severe cases.2,4,20–22,31–34 Runners can prevent tinea pedis by frequently changing their socks, wearing ventilated shoes and moisture wicking synthetic socks, and applying powder to keep their feet dry.6,7,12,13,15,21,22,28,35 They should also be advised to wear sandals in the locker room and showers.6,12,15,21,22,35


A repetitive thrusting of the longest toe into the toebox, especially with downhill running, results in subungual haematoma, or jogger’s toe.4,8,12,18,36,37 Only one study of marathon runners has reported on subungual haematoma. Bird et al38 found an incidence of 2.5% after reviewing the medical records of 635 runners in the 1979 New York City Marathon. Clinically, jogger’s toe presents on the hallux, second toenail, or the lateral aspects of the third, fourth, and fifth toes with black discoloration, onycholysis, periungual haemorrhage, oedema, and erythema.21,37,39,40 Clinicians can also confuse jogger’s toe with onychomycosis and subungual malignant melanoma.6,12,37,39,41 Potassium hydroxide can differentiate onychomycosis from jogger’s toe.6,12,37,39,41 If melanoma is suspected, a biopsy should be performed.6,14,37,39

Treatment of subungual haematomas is not necessary, as they may resolve on their own; however, the toenail may remain black for several months.6,12,36,37,39,42 Properly fitted footwear with a snug midfoot and adequate toebox can help prevent jogger’s toe.4,6,12,37,39,42,43 In addition, nails should be cut straight and close to the skin to ensure equal distribution of forces and to prevent damage to surrounding nail structures.4,6,8,9,12,37,39,42


Dermatological injuries are commonly reported by the runner on marathon day. By keeping in mind the skin diseases that plague the long distance runner, clinicians can make quick diagnoses and provide prompt and appropriate treatment.


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