Ensure that you go through these ST0-148 cheat sheets before test day.

The high quality of ST0-148 dumps provided in killexams.com will be excellent. You possess to just proceed to killexams.com and download totally free test prep sample Queries before you choose to register with regard to complete Administration of Veritas Storage Foundation 6.0 for Unix Technical Assessment questions financial institution. You will become convinced. You may submit a manual up-date check anytime a person like to confirm your ST0-148 dumps questions.

Exam Code: ST0-148 Practice exam 2022 by Killexams.com team
Administration of Veritas Storage Foundation 6.0 for Unix Technical Assessment
Symantec Administration Free PDF
Killexams : Symantec Administration Free PDF - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/ST0-148 Search results Killexams : Symantec Administration Free PDF - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/ST0-148 https://killexams.com/exam_list/Symantec Killexams : The Peacebuilding Puzzle

Acemoglu, Daron and Robinson, James. 2012. Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty. New York: Crown Publishers.

Afghanistan Bonn Agreement. 2001. Agreement on Provisional Arrangements in Afghanistan Pending the Re-Establishment of Permanent Government Institutions, December 5.

Anderson, Catherine. 2014a. “Timor-Leste Case Study: Ministry of Health.” In Institutions Taking Root: Building State Capacity in Challenging Contexts, edited by Barma, Naazneen H., Huybens, Elisabeth, and Viñuela, Lorena, 303345. Washington, DC: The World Bank.

Anderson, Catherine. 2014b. “Timor-Leste Case Study: Ministry of Social Solidarity.” In Institutions Taking Root: Building State Capacity in Challenging Contexts, edited by Barma, Naazneen H., Huybens, Elisabeth, and Viñuela, Lorena, 261302. Washington, DC: The World Bank.

Andrews, Matt. 2013. The Limits of Institutional Reform in Development: Changing Rules for Realistic Solutions. New York: Cambridge.

Ashley, David W. 1998. “The Failure of Conflict Resolution in Cambodia.” In Cambodia and the International Community: The Quest for Peace, Development, and Democracy, edited by Brown, Frederick Z. and Timberman, David G., 4978. New York: Asia Society.

Aucoin, Louis, and Brandt, Michele. 2010. “East Timor's Constitutional Passage to Independence.” In Framing the State in Times of Transition: Case Studies in Constitution Making, edited by Miller, Laurel E., 245274. Washington: United States Institute of Peace.

Autesserre, Séverine. 2008. “The Trouble With Congo: How Local Disputes Fuel Regional Conflict.” Foreign Affairs 87 (May/June): 94–110.

Autesserre, Séverine. 2009. “Hobbes and the Congo: Frames, Local Violence, and International Intervention.” International Organization 63: 249280.

Autesserre, Séverine. 2010. The Trouble With the Congo: Local Violence and the Failure of International Peacebuilding. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Autesserre, Séverine. 2014. Peaceland: Conflict Resolution and the Everyday Politics of International Intervention. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Babo Soares, Dionisio. 2003. “Branching From the Trunk: East Timorese Perceptions of Nationalism in Transition.” PhD dissertation, Australian National University, Canberra.

Ballentine, Karen, and Sherman, Jake, eds. 2003. The Political Economy of Armed Conflict: Beyond Greed and Grievance. New York and Boulder: International Peace Academy and Lynne Rienner.

Baltazar, Alipio. 2004. “An Overview of the Constitution Drafting Process in East Timor.” East Timor Law Journal 9.

Barfield, Thomas. 2010. Afghanistan: A Cultural and Political History. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Barma, Naazneen H. 2006. “Brokered Democracy-building: Developing Democracy Through Transitional Governance in Cambodia, East Timor and Afghanistan.” International Journal on Multicultural Societies 8 (2): 127161.

Barma, Naazneen H. 2007. “Crafting the State: Transitional Governance and the International Role in Post-Conflict Peacebuilding.” PhD dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.

Barma, Naazneen H. 2012a. “Peacebuilding and the Predatory Political Economy of Insecurity: Evidence from Cambodia, East Timor, and Afghanistan.” Conflict, Security & Development 12 (3): 273298.

Barma, Naazneen H. 2012b. “Petroleum, Governance, and Fragility: The Micro-Politics of Petroleum in Post-Conflict States.” In Beyond the Resource Curse, edited by Shaffer, Brenda and Ziyadov, Taleh, 330351. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Barma, Naazneen H. 2014. “Pathways From Petroleum Dependence to Conflict in Rentier States: A Case Study of Timor-Leste.” Paper presented at ISSS–ISAC Joint Annual Conference, Austin, Texas, November 2014.

Barma, Naazneen H., Huybens, Elisabeth, and Viñuela, Lorena, eds. 2014. Institutions Taking Root: Building State Capacity in Challenging Contexts. Washington, DC: The World Bank.

Barma, Naazneen H., Levy, Naomi, and Piombo, Jessica. 2015. “Creating a Sustainable Peace? Disentangling the Processes of Statebuilding and Peacebuilding.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association, New Orleans, Louisiana, February.

Barnett, Michael. 2006. “Building a Republican Peace.” International Security 30 (4): 87112.

Barnett, Michael, and Finnemore, Martha. 1999. “The Politics, Power, and Pathologies of International Organizations.” International Organization 53 (4): 699732.

Barnett, Michael, and Finnemore, Martha. 2004. Rules for the World: International Organizations in Global Politics. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.

Barnett, Michael, Kim, Hunjoon, O'Donnell, Madalene, and Sitea, Laura. 2007. “Peacebuilding: What Is in a Name?Global Governance 13: 3558.

Barnett, Michael, and Zürcher, Christoph. 2009. “The Peacebuilder's Contract: How External Statebuilding Reinforces Weak Statehood.” In The Dilemmas of Statebuilding: Confronting the Contradictions of Postwar Peace Operations, edited by Paris, Roland and Sisk, Timothy D., 2352. New York: Routledge.

Baskin, Mark. 2004. “Between Exit and Engagement: On the Division of Authority in Transitional Administrations.” Global Governance 10: 119137.

Bates, Robert H. 2001. Prosperity & Violence: The Political Economy of Development. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.

Bates, Robert H. 2008a. When Things Fell Apart: State Failure in Late Century Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Bates, Robert H. 2008b. “Probing the Sources of Political Order.” In Order, Conflict, and Violence, edited by Kalyvas, Stathis N., Shapiro, Ian, and Masoud, Tarek, 1742. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Beauvais, Joel C. 2001. “Benevolent Despotism: A Critique of UN State-Building in East Timor.” New York University Journal of International Law and Politics 33 (4): 11011178.

Bellamy, Alex J., and Williams, Paul. 2004. “Introduction: Thinking Anew About Peace Operations.” International Peacekeeping 11 (1): 115.

Bellamy, Alex J., Williams, Paul, and Griffin, Stuart. 2004. Understanding Peacekeeping. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Bermeo, Nancy. 1997. “Myths of Moderation: Confrontation and Conflict During Democratic Transitions.” Comparative Politics 29 (3): 305322.

Blattman, Christopher, and Miguel, Edward. 2010. “Civil War.” Journal of Economic Literature 48 (1): 357.

Blunt, Peter. 2009. “The Political Economy of Accountability in Timor-Leste: Implications for Public Policy.” Public Administration and Development 29: 89100.

Bockman, Johanna, and Eyal, Gil. 2002. “Eastern Europe as a Laboratory for Economic Knowledge: The Transnational Roots of Neoliberalism.” American Journal of Sociology 108 (2): 310352.

Boege, Volker, Brown, M. Anne, and Clements, Kevin P.. 2009. “Hybrid Political Orders, Not Fragile States.” Peace Review 21 (1): 1321.

Boix, Carles. 2015. Political Order and Inequality: Their Foundations and Their Consequences for Human Welfare. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Boutros-Ghali, Boutros. 1992. An Agenda for Peace: Preventive Diplomacy, Peacemaking, and Peace-Keeping. A/47/277; S/24111. New York: United Nations, June 17.

Boutros-Ghali, Boutros. 1995. Supplement to “An Agenda for Peace”: Position Paper of the Secretary-General on the Occasion of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the United Nations. A/50/60; S/1995/1. New York: United Nations, January 3.

Bowles, Edith, and Chopra, Tanja. 2008. “East Timor: Statebuilding Revisited.” In Building States to Build Peace, edited by Call, Charles T. with Wyeth, Vanessa, 271302. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.

Boyle, Michael J. 2009. “Explaining Strategic Violence After Wars.” Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 32: 209236.

Brady, Henry E., and Collier, David, eds. 2004. Rethinking Social Inquiry: Diverse Tools, Shared Standards. Lanham: Rowman& Littlefield.

Brahimi, Lakhdar. 2000. “Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (The Brahimi Report).” A/55/305; S/2000/809. New York: United Nations.

Bratton, Michael, and Walle, Nicolas Van de. 1994. “Neopatrimonial Regimes and Political Transitions in Africa.” World Politics 46 (4): 453489.

Bratton, Michael, and de Walle, Nicolas Van. 1997. Democratic Experiments in Africa: Regime Transitions in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Brown, Frederick Z., and Timberman, David G.. 1998. “Introduction: Peace, Development, and Democracy in Cambodia – Shattered Hopes.” In Cambodia and the International Community: The Quest for Peace, Development, and Democracy, edited by Brown, Frederick Z. and Timberman, David G., 1331. New York: Asia Society.

Brown, M. Anne. 2009. “Security, Development and the Nation-building Agenda – East Timor.” Conflict, Security & Development 9 (2): 141164.

Bueno de Mesquita, Bruce, Smith, Alastair, Siverson, Randolph M., and Morrow, James D.. 2003. The Logic of Political Survival. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Butler, Michael J. 2012. “Ten Years After: (Re) Assessing Neo-Trusteeship and UN State-building in Timor-Leste.” International Studies Perspectives 13 (1): 85104.

Call, Charles T. 2003. “Democratisation, War and State-Building: Constructing the Rule of Law in El Salvador.” Journal of Latin American Studies 35: 827862.

Call, Charles T. 2008. “Knowing Peace When You See It: Setting Standards for Peace-Building Success.” Civil Wars 10 (2): 173194.

Call, Charles T., ed., with Wyeth, Vanessa. 2008. Building States to Build Peace. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.

Call, Charles T. 2012. Why Peace Fails: The Causes and Prevention of Civil War Recurrence. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Call, Charles T., and Cook, Susan E.. 2003. “On Democratization and Peacebuilding.” Global Governance 9: 233246.

Campbell, Susanna P., and Uvin, Peter S.. 2015. “The Burundi Leadership Training Program.” In Across the Lines of Conflict: Facilitating Cooperation to Build Peace, edited by Lund, Michael and McDonald, Steve, 281312. New York: Columbia University Press.

Caplan, Richard. 2005. International Governance of War-Torn Territories: Rule and Reconstruction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Caplan, Richard, ed. 2012. Exit Strategies and State Building. New York: Oxford University Press.

Capoccia, Giovanni. 2015. “Critical Junctures and Institutional Change.” In Advances in Comparative-Historical Analysis, edited by Mahoney, James and Thelen, Kathleen, 147179. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Carbone, Giovanni, and Memoli, Vincenzo. 2015. “Does Democratization Foster State Consolidation? Democratic Rule, Political Order, and Administrative Capacity.” Governance 28 (1): 524.

Center on International Cooperation. 2006. Annual Review of Global Peace Operations 2006. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.

Chandler, David. 2006. Empire in Denial: The Politics of Statebuilding. London: Pluto Press.

Chandler, David P. 1991. The Tragedy of Cambodian History: Politics, War, and Revolution since 1945. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Chandler, David P. 1998. “The Burden of Cambodia's Past.” In Cambodia and the International Community: The Quest for Peace, Development, and Democracy, edited by Brown, Frederick Z. and Timberman, David G., 3347. New York: Asia Society.

Chandrasekaran, Rajiv. 2006. Imperial Life in the Emerald City: Inside Iraq's Green Zone. New York: Knopf.

Chayes, Sarah P. 2006. The Punishment of Virtue: Inside Afghanistan After the Taliban. New York: Penguin Press.

Cheng, Christine S., and Zaum, Dominic. 2012. “Selling the Peace? Corruption and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding” In Corruption and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding, edited by Cheng, Christine S. and Zaum, Dominic, 125. New York: Routledge.

Chesterman, Simon. 2002. “East Timor in Transition: Self-Determination, State-Building and the United Nations.” International Peacekeeping 9 (1): 4576.

Chesterman, Simon. 2004. You, The People: The United Nations, Transitional Administration, and State-Building. New York: Oxford University Press.

Chesterman, Simon, Ignatieff, Michael, and Thakur, Ramesh, eds. 2005. Making States Work: State Failure and the Crisis of Governance. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.

Chopra, Jarat. 1999. Peace-Maintenance: The Evolution of International Political Authority. London and New York: Routledge.

Chopra, Jarat. 2000. “The UN's Kingdom of East Timor.” Survival 42 (3): 2739.

Chopra, Jarat. 2002. “Building State Failure in East Timor.” Development and Change 33 (5): 9791000.

Cliffe, Sarah, and Manning, Nick. 2008. “Practical Approaches to Building State Institutions.” In Building States to Build Peace, edited by Call, Charles T. with Wyeth, Vanessa, 163184. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.

Collier, Paul, and Hoeffler, Anke. 1998. “On Economic Causes of Civil War.” Oxford Economic Papers 50 (4): 563573.

Collier, Paul, Hoeffler, Anke, and Söderbom, Måns. 2008. “Post-Conflict Risks.” Journal of Peace Research 45 (4): 461478.

Collier, Ruth Berins, and Collier, David. 1991. Shaping the Political Arena: Critical Junctures, the Labor Movement, and Regime Dynamics in Latin America. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Costy, Alexander. 2004. “The Dilemma of Humanitarianism in the Post-Taliban Transition.” In Nation-Building Unraveled? Aid, Peace and Justice in Afghanistan, edited by Donini, Antonio, Niland, Norah, and Wermester, Karin, 143165. Bloomfield: Kumarian Press.

Cramer, Christopher, and Goodhand, Jonathan 2002. “Try Again, Fail Again, Fail Better? War, the State, and the ‘Post-Conflict’ Challenge in Afghanistan.” Development and Change 33 (5): 885909.

Cristalis, Irene. 2002. Bitter Dawn: East Timor, A People's Story. London and New York: Zed Books.

Croissant, Aurel. 2007. “International Interim Governments, Democratization, and Post-Conflict Peace Building: Lessons from Cambodia and East Timor.” In Interim Governments: Institutional Bridges to Peace and Democracy?, edited by Gutierri, Karen and Piombo, Jessica, 217238. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.

Curtis, Devon. 2007. “Transitional Governance in Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.” In Interim Governments: Institutional Bridges to Peace and Democracy?, edited by Gutierri, Karen and Piombo, Jessica, 171194. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.

Curtis, Devon. 2013. “The International Peacebuilding Paradox: Power Sharing and Post-Conflict Governance in Burundi.” African Affairs 112 (446): 7291.

Curtis, Devon, and Dzinesa, Gwinyayi A.. 2012. Peacebuilding, Power, and Politics in Africa. Athens: Ohio University Press.

Dale, Pamela, Lepuschuetz, Lena, and Umapathi, Nitin. 2014. “Peace, Prosperity and Safety Nets in Timor-Leste: Competing Priorities or Complementary Investments?Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies 1 (2): 287296.

Della Porta, Donatella. 2013. Clandestine Political Violence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Diamond, Larry. 1996. “Is the Third Wave Over?Journal of Democracy 7 (3): 2037.

Diehl, Paul F. 2014. “Behavioral Studies of Peacekeeping Outcomes.” International Peacekeeping 21 (4): 484491.

Diehl, Paul F., and Druckman, Daniel. 2010. Evaluating Peace Operations. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.

DiPalma, Giuseppe. 1990. To Craft Democracies: An Essay on Democratic Transitions. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Donini, Antonio. 2004. “Principles, Politics, and Pragmatism in the International Response to the Afghan Crisis.” In Nation-Building Unraveled? Aid, Peace and Justice in Afghanistan, edited by Donini, Antonio, Niland, Norah, and Wermester, Karin, 117142. Bloomfield: Kumarian Press.

Donini, Antonio, Niland, Norah, and Wermester, Karin, eds. 2004. Nation-Building Unraveled? Aid, Peace and Justice in Afghanistan. Bloomfield: Kumarian Press.

Doornbos, Martin. 2002. “State Collapse and Fresh Starts: Some Critical Reflections.” Development and Change 33 (5): 797815.

Downs, George, and Stedman, Stephen J.. 2002. “Evaluation Issues in Peace Implementation.” In Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements, edited by Stedman, Stephen J., Rothchild, Donald, and Cousens, Elizabeth M., 4369. Boulder: Lynne Rienner

Doyle, Michael W. 1995. UN Peacekeeping in Cambodia: UNTAC's Civil Mandate. Occasional Paper Series, International Peace Academy. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.

Doyle, Michael W. 1996. “Peacebuilding in Cambodia.” IPA Policy Briefing Series. New York: International Peace Academy.

Doyle, Michael W. 2001. “War Making and Peace Making: The United Nations’ Post-Cold War Record.” In Turbulent Peace: The Challenges of Managing International Conflict, edited by Crocker, Chester A., Hampson, Fen Osler, and Aall, Pamela, 529560. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.

Doyle, Michael W., and Sambanis, Nicolas. 2000. “International Peacebuilding: A Theoretical and Quantitative Analysis.” American Political Science Review 94 (4): 778801.

Doyle, Michael W., and Sambanis, Nicolas. 2006. Making War and Building Peace: United Nations Peace Operations. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press.

Du Toit, Pierre. 2003. “Why Post-Settlement Settlements?Journal of Democracy 14 (3): 104118.

Dunn, James. 2003 [1983]. East Timor: A Rough Passage to Independence. Haberfield, NSW: Longueville Books.

Dupree, Louis. 1973. Afghanistan. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Durch, William J. 2003. “Picking Up the Peaces: The UN's Evolving Post-Conflict Roles.” Washington Quarterly 26 (4): 195210.

Eckstein, Harry. 1975. “Case Studies and Theory in Political Science.” In Handbook of Political Science (Vol. 7), edited by Greenstein, Fred and Polsby, Nelson W., 79138. Reading, MA: Addison–Wesley.

Ertman, Thomas. 1997. Birth of the Leviathan: Building States and Regimes in Medieval and Early Modern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Evans, Peter B. 1995. Embedded Autonomy: States and Industrial Transformation. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Evans, Peter B., and James, E. Rauch. 1999. “Bureaucracy and Growth: A Cross-National Analysis of the Effects of ‘Weberian’ State Structures on Economic Growth.” American Sociological Review 64 (5): 748765.

Evans, Peter B., Rueschemeyer, Dietrich, and Skocpol, Theda, eds. 1985. Bringing the State Back In. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fearon, James D. 2010. “Governance and Civil War Onset.” Background paper for the World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security, and Development. Washington, DC: The World Bank.

Fearon, James D., and Laitin, David. 2003. “Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War.” American Political Science Review 97 (2): 7590.

Fearon, James D., and Laitin, David D.. 2004. “Neo-Trusteeship and the Problem of Weak States.” International Security 28 (4): 543.

Fearon, James D., and Laitin, David D.. 2008. “Civil War Termination.” Paper presented at the annual meetings of the American Political Science Association, Chicago, Illinois, August 30–September 1, 2007.

Fortna, Virginia Page. 2004. Peace Time: Cease-Fire Agreements and the Durability of Peace. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Fortna, Virginia Page. 2008. Does Peacekeeping Work? Shaping Belligerents’ Choices After Civil Wars. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Fortna, Virginia Page, and Howard, Lise Morjé. 2008. “Pitfalls and Prospects in the Peacekeeping Literature.” Annual Review of Political Science 11: 283301.

Freeman, Christopher. 2007. “Introduction: Security, Governance and Statebuilding in Afghanistan.” International Peacekeeping 14 (1): 17.

Fukuyama, Francis. 2004. State-Building: Governance and World Order in the 21st Century. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Fukuyama, Francis. 2005. “‘Stateness’ First.” Journal of Democracy 16 (1): 8488.

Fukuyama, Francis. 2011. The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to the French Revolution. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Fukuyama, Francis. 2014a. Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalization of Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Fukuyama, Francis. 2014b. “States and Democracy.” Democratization 21 (7): 13261340.

Galbraith, Peter W. 2006. The End of Iraq: How American Incompetence Created a War Without End. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Gans-Morse, Jordan, Mazzuca, Sebastián, and Nichter, Simeon. 2014. “Varieties of Clientelism: Machine Politics During Elections.” American Journal of Political Science 58 (2): 415432.

George, Alexander L., and Bennett, Andrew. 2005. Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Ghani, Ashraf, and Lockhart, Clare. 2008. Fixing Failed States: A Framework for Rebuilding a Fractured World. New York: Oxford University Press.

Girod, Desha M. 2015. Explaining Post-Conflict Reconstruction. New York: Oxford University Press.

Giustozzi, Antonio. 2009. Empires of Mud: War and Warlords of Afghanistan. New York: Columbia University Press.

Giustozzi, Antonio. 2013. “March Toward Democracy? The Development of Political Movements in Afghanistan.” Central Asian Survey 32 (3): 318335.

Gleditsch, Nils Petter, Wallensteen, Peter, Eriksson, Mikael, Sollenberg, Margareta, and Strand, Håvard. 2002. “Armed Conflict 1946–2001: A New Dataset.” Journal of Peace Research 39 (5): 615637.

Goldstone, Anthony. 2004. “UNTAET With Hindsight: The Peculiarities of Politics in an Incomplete State.” Global Governance 10: 8398.

Goldstone, Anthony. 2012. “East Timor.” In Exit Strategies and State Building, edited by Caplan, Richard, 177193. New York: Oxford University Press

Goodhand, Jonathan. 2008. “Corrupting or Consolidating the Peace? The Drugs Economy and Post Conflict Peacebuilding in Afghanistan.” International Peacekeeping 15 (3): 405423.

Goodson, Larry. 2003. “Afghanistan's Long Road to Reconstruction.” Journal of Democracy 14 (1): 8299.

Goodson, Larry. 2005. “Bullets, Ballots, and Poppies in Afghanistan.” Journal of Democracy 16 (1): 2438.

Gottesman, Evan. 2003. Cambodia After the Khmer Rouge: Inside the Politics of Nation Building. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Goulding, Marrack. 1993. “The Evolution of United Nations Peacekeeping.” International Affairs 69 (3): 451464.

Greenhill, Kelly M., and Major, Solomon. 2007. “The Perils of Profiling: Civil War Spoilers and the Collapse of Intrastate Peace Accords.” International Security 31 (3): 740.

Gregorian, Vartan. 1969. The Emergence of Modern Afghanistan: Politics of Reform and Modernization, 1880–1946. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Grindle, Merilee S. 2004. “Good Enough Governance: Poverty Reduction and Reform in Developing Countries.” Governance 17 (4): 525548.

Grindle, Merilee S. 2007. “Good Enough Governance Revisited.” Development Policy Review 25 (5): 553574.

Gunn, Geoffrey C. 1997. East Timor and the United Nations: The Case for Intervention. Lawrenceville, NJ: Red Sea Press, Inc.

Gutierri, Karen, and Piombo, Jessica. 2007. Interim Governments: Institutional Bridges to Peace and Democracy? Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.

Hacker, Jacob S., Pierson, Paul, and Thelen, Kathleen. 2015. “Drift and Conversion: Hidden Faces of Institutional Change.” In Advances in Comparative-Historical Analysis, edited by Mahoney, James and Thelen, Kathleen, 180208. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Haggard, Stephan, and Kaufman, Robert. 1997. “The Political Economy of Democratic Transitions.” Comparative Politics 29 (3): 263–83.

Hamieri, Shahar. 2010. Regulating Statehood: State Building and the Transformation of Global Order. London: Palgrave Macmilllan.

Hartzell, Caroline, and Hoddie, Matthew. 2007. Crafting Peace: Power-Sharing Institutions and the Negotiated Settlement of Civil Wars. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Hartzell, Caroline, and Hoddie, Matthew. 2015. “The Art of the Possible: Power Sharing and Post-Civil War Democracy.” World Politics 67 (1): 3771.

Hartzell, Caroline, Hoddie, Matthew, and Rothchild, Donald. 2001. “Stabilizing the Peace After Civil War: An Investigation of Some Key Variables.” International Organization 55 (1): 183208.

Heder, Steve and Ledgerwood, Judy, eds. 1996. Propaganda, Politics and Violence in Cambodia: Democratic Transition under United Nations Peace-Keeping. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.

Hellman, Joel S. 1998. “Winners Take All: The Politics of Partial Reform in Postcommunist Transitions.” World Politics 50 (2): 203234.

Hendrickson, Dylan. 2001. “Cambodia's Security-Sector Reforms: Limits of a Downsizing Strategy.” Conflict, Security & Development 1 (1): 6782.

Herbst, Jeffrey. 2000. States and Power in Africa: Comparative Lessons in Authority and Control. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Hobbes, Thomas. 1968 [1651]. Leviathan. Edited by MacPherson, C. B.. New York: Penguin Books.

Hoddie, Matthew, and Hartzell, Caroline. 2005. “Power Sharing in Peace Settlements: Initiating the Transition from Civil War.” In Sustainable Peace: Power and Democracy After Civil Wars, edited by Roeder, Philip G. and Rothchild, Donald, 83106. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Hoddie, Matthew, and Hartzell, Caroline. 2010. Strengthening Peace in Post-Civil War States: Transforming Spoilers into Stakeholders. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Horowitz, Donald L. 1985. Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Horowitz, Donald L. 2002. “Constitutional Design: Proposals versus Processes.” In The Architecture of Democracy: Constitutional Design, Conflict Management, and Democracy, edited by Reynolds, Andrew, 1536. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Howard, Lise Morjé. 2008. UN Peacekeeping in Civil Wars. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Howard, Marc Morjé, and Roessler, Philip G.. 2006. “Liberalizing Electoral Outcomes in Competitive Authoritarian Regimes.” American Journal of Political Science 50 (2): 365381.

Hughes, Caroline. 2003. The Political Economy of Cambodia's Transition 1991–2001. Richmond, UK: Curzon Press.

Hughes, Caroline. 2009a. Dependent Communities: Aid and Politics in Cambodia and East Timor. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Southeast Asia Program Publications.

Hughes, Caroline. 2009b. “Reconstructing Legitimate Political Authority through Elections?” In Beyond Democracy in Cambodia: Political Reconstruction in a Post-Conflict Society, edited by Öjendal, Joakim and Lilja, Mona, 3169. Copenhagen: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies Press.

Huntington, Samuel P. 1968. Political Order in Changing Societies. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Hutchcroft, Paul D. 1997. “The Politics of Privilege: Assessing the Impact of Rents, Corruption, and Clientelism on Third World Development.” Political Studies XLV: 639658.

Ingram, Sue. 2012. “Building the Wong Peace: Reviewing the United Nations Transitional Authority in East Timor (UNTAET) Through a Political Settlement Lens.” Political Science 64 (1): 320.

International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty. 2001. The Responsibility to Protect. Ottawa, Canada: International Development Research Centre.

International Crisis Group. 2002. “The Afghan Transitional Administration: Prospects and Perils.” July 30.

International Crisis Group. 2003. “Afghanistan: The Constitutional Loya Jirga.” December 12.

International Crisis Group. 2006. “Afghanistan's New Legislature: Making Democracy Work.” May 15.

International Crisis Group. 2011. “Timor-Leste's Veterans: An Unfinished Struggle?” Asia Briefing No. 129, Dili, Jakarta, and Brussels, November 18.

International Crisis Group. 2012. “Burundi: A Deepening Corruption Crisis.” Africa Report 185, March 21.

International Monetary Fund. 2009. Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste: 2011 Article IV Consultation – Staff Report. IMF Country Report No. 09/219. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.

International Monetary Fund. 2013. Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste: 2013 Article IV Consultation – Staff Report. IMF Country Report No. 13/338. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.

Jackson, Robert H. 1990. Quasi-States: Sovereignty, International Relations, and the Third World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Jackson, Robert H., and Rosberg, Carl G.. 1982. “Why Africa's Weak States Persist: The Empirical and the Juridical in Statehood.” World Politics 35 (1): 124.

Jackson, Robert H. and Rosberg, Carl G.. 1984. “Personal Rule: Theory and Practice.” Contemporary Politics 16 (4): 421442.

Jarstad, Anna K. 2008. “Power Sharing: Former Enemies in Joint Government.” In From War to Democracy: Dilemmas of Peacebuilding, edited by Jarstad, Anna K. and Sisk, Timothy D., 105133. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Jarstad, Anna K., and Nilsson, Desirée. 2008. “From Words to Deeds: The Implementation of Power-Sharing Pacts in Peace Accords.” Conflict Management and Peace Science 25: 206223.

Jarstad, Anna K., and Sisk, Timothy D.. eds. 2008. From War to Democracy: Dilemmas of Peacebuilding. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Johnson, Chris, Maley, William, Thier, Alexander, and Wardak, Ali. 2003. “Afghanistan's Political and Constitutional Development.” London: Overseas Development Institute and United Kingdom Department for International Development.

Jones, Bruce. 2004. “Evolving Models of Peacekeeping: Policy Implications and Responses.” External Study, United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations. New York: United Nations.

Jones, Bruce, and Chandran, Rahul. 2008. From Fragility to Resilience: Concepts and Dilemmas of State Building in Fragile Situations. Joint study by the Center on International Cooperation at New York University and the International Peace Academy. Paris: OECD DAC Fragile States Group.

Joshi, Madhav, and Mason, T. David. 2011. “Peasants, Patrons, and Parties: The Tension between Clientelism and Democracy in Nepal.” International Studies Quarterly 55 (1): 151175.

Kalyvas, Stathis N., Shapiro, Ian, and Masoud, Tarek. 2008. “Introduction: Integrating the Study of Order, Conflict, and Violence.” In Order, Conflict, and Violence, edited by Kalyvas, Stathis N., Shapiro, Ian, and Masoud, Tarek, 114. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Karl, Terry Lynn. 1990. “Dilemmas of Democratization in Latin America.” Comparative Politics 23 (1): 121.

Katzman, Kenneth. 2007. “Afghanistan: Post-War Governance, Security, and US Policy.” Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, Washington, DC, January 11.

Katznelson, Ira. 1997. “Structure and Configuration in Comparative Politics.” In Comparative Politics: Rationality, Culture, and Structure, edited by Lichbach, Marc Irving and Zuckerman, Alan S., 81112. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kaufmann, Chaim. 2007. “A Security Dilemma.” Harvard International Review, April 16.

Kaufmann, Daniel, Kraay, Aart, and Mastruzzi, Massimo. 2010. “The Worldwide Governance Indicators: A Summary of Methodology, Data and Analytical Issues.” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 5430. Washington, DC: The World Bank.

Keefer, Philip. 2011. “Collective Action, Political Parties, and Pro-Development Public Policy.” Asian Development Review 28 (1): 94118.

Keefer, Philip, and Vlaicu, Razvan. 2008. “Democracy, Credibility, and Clientelism.” Journal of Law, Economics, & Organization 24 (2): 371406.

Kelsall, Tim. 2012. “Neo-Patrimonialism, Rent-Seeking and Development: Going with the Grain?New Political Economy 17 (5): 677682.

Kent, Alexandra. 2016. “Conflict Continues: Transitioning Into a Battle for Property in Cambodia Today.” Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 47 (1): 323.

Keohane, Robert O. 2003. “Political Authority After Intervention: Gradations of Sovereignty” In Humanitarian Intervention: Ethical, Legal, and Political Dimensions, edited by Holzgrefe, J. L. and Keohane, Robert O., 275298. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kiernan, Ben. 1996. The Pol Pot Regime: Race, Power, and Genocide in Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge, 1975–79. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Kiernan, Ben. 2003. “The Demography of Genocide in Southeast Asia: The Death Tolls in Cambodia, 1975–1979, and East Timor, 1975–1980.” Critical Asian Studies 35 (4): 585597.

Kitschelt, Herbert, and Wilkinson, Steven I., eds. 2007. Patrons, Clients, and Policies: Patterns of Democratic Accountability and Political Competition. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kohli, Atul. 2002. “State, Society, and Development.” In Political Science: The State of the Discipline, edited by Katznelson, Ira and Milner, Helen V., 84117. New York and Washington, DC: W. W. Norton and American Political Science Association.

Krasner, Stephen D. 1999. Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Krasner, Stephen D. 2004. “Sharing Sovereignty: New Institutions for Collapsed and Failing States.” International Security 29 (2): 85120.

Krasner, Stephen D., and Risse, Thomas. 2014. “External Actors, State-Building, and Service Provision in Areas of Limited Statehood: Introduction.” Governance 27 (4): 545567.

Lake, David A. 2016. The Statebuilder's Dilemma: On the Limits of Foreign Intervention. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Lake, David A., and Fariss, Christopher J.. 2014. “Why International Trusteeship Fails: The Politics of External Authority in Areas of Limited Statehood.” Governance 27 (4): 569587.

Le Billon, Philippe. 2000. “The Political Ecology of Transition in Cambodia 1989–1999: War, Peace and Forest Exploitation.” Development and Change 31: 785805.

Le Billon, Philippe. 2003. “Buying Peace or Fuelling War: The Role of Corruption in Armed Conflicts.” Journal of International Development 15: 413426.

Lemarchand, René. 2012. “Peacebuilding in the Great Lakes Region of Africa.” In Peacebuilding, Power, and Politics in Africa, edited by Curtis, Devon and Dzinesa, Gwinyayi A., 212231. Athens: Ohio University Press.

Levi, Margaret. 1989. Of Rule and Revenue. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Levi, Margaret. 2006. “Why We Need a New Theory of Government.” Perspectives on Politics 4 (1): 520.

Levitsky, Steven, and Way, Lucan A.. 2002. “The Rise of Competitive Authoritarianism.” Journal of Democracy 13 (2): 5165.

Levy, Brian. 2014. Working With the Grain: Integrating Governance and Growth in Development Strategies. New York: Oxford University Press.

Licklider, Roy. 1995. “The Consequences of Negotiated Settlements in Civil Wars, 1945–1993.” American Political Science Review 89 (3): 681690.

Licklider, Roy. 2001. “Obstacles to Peace Settlements.” In Turbulent Peace: The Challenges of Managing International Conflict, edited by Crocker, Chester A., Hampson, Fen Osler, and Aall, Pamela, 697718. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.

Lijphart, Arend. 1977. Democracy in Plural Societies: A Comparative Exploration. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Lijphart, Arend. 2002. “The Wave of Power-Sharing Democracy.” In The Architecture of Democracy: Constitutional Design, Conflict Management, and Democracy, edited by Reynolds, Andrew, 3754. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Linz, Juan J., and Stepan, Alfred. 1996. Problems of Democratic Transition and Consolidation: Southern Europe, South America, and Post-Communist Europe. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Lipset, Seymour Martin. 1959. “Some Social Requisites of Democracy: Economic Development and Political Legitimacy.” American Political Science Review 53 (1): 69105.

Locke, John. 1963 [1698]. Two Treatises of Government. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Lyons, Terrence. 2002. “The Role of Postsettlement Elections.” In Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements, edited by Stedman, Stephen J., Rothchild, Donald, and Cousens, Elizabeth M., 215235. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

Mac Ginty, Roger. 2010. “Warlords and the Liberal Peace: Statebuilding in Afghanistan.” Conflict, Security & Development 10 (4), 577598.

Mac Ginty, Roger, and Richmond, Oliver. 2013. “The Local Turn in Peacebuilding: A Critical Agenda for Peace.” Third World Quarterly 34 (5): 763783.

Mahoney, James and Thelen, Kathleen, eds. 2010. Explaining Institutional Change: Ambiguity, Agency, and Power. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Mahoney, James and Thelen, Kathleen, eds. 2015. Advances in Comparative-Historical Analysis. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Maley, William. 2013. “Statebuilding in Afghanistan: Challenges and Pathologies.” Central Asian Survey 32 (3): 255270.

Mann, Michael. 1986. The Sources of Social Power. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Manning, Carrie. 2007. “Interim Governments and the Construction of Political Elites.” In Interim Governments: Institutional Bridges to Peace and Democracy?, edited by Gutierri, Karen and Piombo, Jessica, 5372. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.

Mansfield, Edward D., and Snyder, Jack. 1995. “Democratization and the Danger of War.” International Security 20 (1): 538.

Marks, Stephen P. 2010. “The Process of Creating a New Constitution in Cambodia.” In Framing the State in Times of Transition: Case Studies in Constitution Making, edited by Miller, Laurel E., 207244. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace.

Marten, Kimberly. 2012. Warlords: Strong-Arm Brokers in Weak States. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Martin, Ian. 2001. Self-Determination in East Timor: The United Nations, The Ballot, and International Intervention. Occasional Paper Series, International Peace Academy. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

Martin, Philip. 2013. “Coming Together: Power-Sharing and the Durability of Negotiated Peace Settlements.” Civil Wars 15 (3): 332358.

Matanock, Aila M. 2014. “Governance Delegation Agreements: Shared Sovereignty as a Substitute for Limited Statehood.” Governance 27 (4) 589612.

Mazzuca, Sebastián L., and Munck, Gerardo L.. 2014. “State or Democracy First? Alternative Perspectives on the State–Democracy Nexus.” Democratization 21 (7): 12211243.

McAdam, Doug, Tarrow, Sidney, and Tilly, Charles. 1997. “Toward an Integrated Perspective on Social Movements and Revolutions.” In Comparative Politics: Rationality, Culture, and Structure, edited by Lichbach, Marc Irving and Zuckerman, Alan S., 142173. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Meyer, John W., Boli, John, Thomas, G. M., and Ramirez, F. O.. 1997. “World Society and the Nation-State.” American Journal of Sociology 103 (1): 144181.

Meyer, John W., and Rowan, Brian. 1977. “Institutionalized Organizations: Formal Structure as Myth and Ceremony.” American Journal of Sociology 83 (2): 340363.

Migdal, Joel S. 1988. Strong Societies and Weak States: State–Society Relations and State Capabilities in the Third World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Migdal, Joel S. 1997. “Studying the State.” In Comparative Politics: Rationality, Culture, and Structure, edited by Lichbach, Marc Irving and Zuckerman, Alan S., 208235. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Migdal, Joel S., Kohli, Atul, and Shue, Vivienne, eds. 1994. State Power and Social Forces: Domination and Transformation in the Third World. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Mill, John Stuart. 1843. A System of Logic. Publisher unknown.

Mo, Timothy. 2002. The Redundancy of Courage. Hong Kong: PaddlelessPress.

Mukhopadhyay, Dipali. 2014. Warlords, Strongman Governors, and the State in Afghanistan. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Nagl, John A., Exum, Andrew M., and Humayun, Ahmed A.. 2009. “A Pathway to Success in Afghanistan: The National Solidarity Program.” CNAS Policy Brief. Washington, DC: Center for a New American Security.

Newman, Edward, and Richmond, Oliver, eds. 2006. Challenges to Peacebuilding: Managing Spoilers During Conflict Resolution. New York: United Nations University Press.

Nicol, Bill. 1978. Timor: The Stillborn Nation. Melbourne: Visa Books.

Nilsson, Desirée, and Kovacs, Mimi Söderberg. 2011. “Revisiting an Elusive Concept: A Review of the Debate on Spoilers in Peace Processes.” International Studies Review 13: 606626.

Niner, Sarah. 2009. Xanana: Leader of the Struggle for Independent Timor-Leste. Melbourne: Australian Scholarly Publishing.

Nixon, Hamish, and Ponzio, Richard. 2007. “Building Democracy in Afghanistan: The Statebuilding Agenda and International Engagement.” International Peacekeeping 14 (1): 2640.

North, Douglass C., Wallis, John J., and Weingast, Barry R.. 2009. Violence and Social Orders: A Conceptual Framework for Interpreting Recorded Human History. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Nunberg, Barbara, Barma, Naazneen, Abdollahian, Mark, Green, Amanda, and Perlman, Deborah. 2010. “At the Frontier of Practical Political Economy: Operationalizing an Agent-Based Stakeholder Model in the World Bank's East Asia and Pacific Region.” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper Series No. 5176. Washington, DC: The World Bank.

Nunberg, Barbara and Taliercio, Robert R.. 2012. “Sabotaging Civil Service Reform in Aid-Dependent Countries: Are Donors to Blame?” World Development 40 (10): 19701981.

O'Dwyer, Conor. 2006. Runaway State-Building: Patronage Politics and Democratic Development. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

OECD. 2005. The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

OECD. 2008a. Concepts and Dilemmas of State Building in Fragile Situations: From Fragility to Resilience. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

OECD. 2008b. The Accra Agenda for Action. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

OECD. 2011. From Power Struggles to Sustainable Peace: Understanding Political Settlements. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

Olson, Mancur. 1993. “Dictatorship, Democracy, and Development.” American Political Science Review 87 (3): 567576.

Ottaway, Marina. 2002. “Rebuilding State Institutions in Collapsed States.” Development and Change 33 (5): 10011023.

Pak, Kimchoeun, Horng, Vuthy, Eng, Netra, Ann, Sovanna, Kim, Sedara, Knowles, Jenny, and Craig, David. 2007. Accountability and Neo-Patrimonialism in Cambodia: A Critical Literature Review. Working Paper No. 34. Phnom Penh: Cambodia Development Resource Institute.

Paris, Roland. 1997. “Peacebuilding and the Limits of Liberal Internationalism.” International Security 22 (2): 5489.

Paris, Roland. 2001. “Wilson's Ghost: The Faulty Assumptions of Postconflict Peacebuilding.” In Turbulent Peace: The Challenges of Managing International Conflict, edited by Crocker, Chester A., Hampson, Fen Osler, and Aall, Pamela, 765784. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.

Paris, Roland. 2003. “Peacekeeping and the Constraints of Global Culture.” European Journal of International Relations 9 (3): 441473.

Paris, Roland. 2004. At War's End: Building Peace After Civil Conflict. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Paris, Roland. 2010. “Saving Liberal Peacebuilding.” Review of International Studies 36: 337365.

Paris, Roland, and Sisk, Timothy D., eds. 2009. The Dilemmas of Statebuilding: Confronting the Contradictions of Postwar Peace Operations. New York: Routledge.

Parsons, Talcott. 1951. The Social System. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Peou, Sorpong. 2002. “Implementing Cambodia's Peace Agreement.” In Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements, edited by Stedman, Stephen J., Rothchild, Donald, and Cousens, Elizabeth M., 499530. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

Pierson, Paul. 1996. “The Path to European Integration: A Historical Institutionalist Perspective.” Comparative Political Studies 29 (2): 123163.

Pierson, Paul. 2004. Politics in Time: History, Institutions, and Social Analysis. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Pierson, Paul. 2015. “Power and Path Dependence.” In Advances in Comparative-Historical Analysis, edited by Mahoney, James and Thelen, Kathleen, 123146. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Pierson, Paul, and Skocpol, Theda. 2002. “Historical Institutionalism in Contemporary Political Science.” In Political Science: The State of the Discipline, edited by Katznelson, Ira and Milner, Helen V., 693721. New York and Washington, DC: W. W. Norton and American Political Science Association.

Ponzio, Richard. 2011. Democratic Peacebuilding: Aiding Afghanistan and other Fragile States. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Powell, G. Bingham. 1989. “Constitutional Design and Citizen Electoral Control.” Journal of Theoretical Politics 1 (2): 107130.

Pritchett, Lant, and Woolcock, Michael. 2002. “Solutions When the Solution is the Problem: Arraying the Disarray in Development.” Working Paper No. 10. Washington, DC: Center for Global Development.

Pritchett, Lant, Woolcock, Michael, and Andrews, Matt. 2013. “Looking Like a State: Techniques of Persistent Failure in State Capability for Implementation.” Journal of Development Studies 49 (1): 118.

Przeworski, Adam, and Teune, Henry. 1970. The Logic of Comparative Social Inquiry. New York: Wiley.

Pugh, Michael. 2005. “The Political Economy of Peacebuilding: A Critical Theory Perspective.” International Journal of Peace Studies 10 (2): 2342.

Ragin, Charles C. 1987. The Comparative Method: Moving Beyond Qualitative and Quantitative Strategies. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Ramalingam, Ben. 2013. Aid on the Edge of Chaos. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rangelov, Iavor, and Theros, Marika, 2012. “Abuse of Power and Conflict Persistence in Afghanistan.” Conflict, Security & Development 12 (3): 227248.

Ratner, Steven R. 1995. The New UN Peacekeeping: Building Peace in Lands of Conflict After the Cold War. New York: St. Martin's Press and Council on Foreign Relations.

Reilly, Benjamin. 2002. “Elections in Post-Conflict Scenarios: Constraints and Dangers.” International Peacekeeping 9 (2): 118139.

Reilly, Benjamin. 2013. “Political Parties and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding.” Civil Wars 15 (S1): 88104.

Rees, Edward. 2004. “Under Pressure: Falantil-Forcas de Defesa de Timor Leste – Three Decades of Defence Force Development in Timor Leste 1975–2004.” Working Paper No. 139. Geneva: Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces.

Reno, William. 2004. “Reconstructing Peace in Liberia.” In Durable Peace: Challenges for Peacebuilding in Africa, edited by Ali, Taisier M. and Matthews, Robert O., 115141. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Reynolds, Andrew, ed. 2002. The Architecture of Democracy: Constitutional Design, Conflict Management, and Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Reynolds, Andrew. 2006. “Electoral Systems Today: The Curious Case of Afghanistan.” Journal of Democracy 17 (2) (April): 104117.

Reynolds, Andrew, and Wilder, Andrew. 2004. Free, Fair or Flawed: Challenges for Legitimate Elections in Afghanistan. Kabul: Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit.

Richmond, Oliver P. 2005. The Transformation of Peace. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Richmond, Oliver P. 2006. “The Problem of Peace: Understanding the ‘Liberal Peace’.” Conflict, Security & Development 6 (3): 291314.

Richmond, Oliver P. 2014. Failed Statebuilding: Intervention, the State, and the Dynamics of Peace Formation. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Richmond, Oliver P., and Franks, Jason. 2009. Liberal Peace Transitions: Between Statebuilding and Peacebuilding. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Roberts, David. 2009. “The Superficiality of Statebuilding in Cambodia: Patronage and Clientelism as Enduring Forms of Politics.” In The Dilemmas of Statebuilding: Confronting the Contradictions of Postwar Peace Operations, edited by Paris, Roland and Sisk, Timothy D., 149169. New York: Routledge.

Roberts, David. 2011. Liberal Peacebuilding and Global Governance: Beyond the Metropolis. New York: Routledge.

Robinson, James A. 2001. “When is a State Predatory?” Unpublished manuscript.

Rodrik, Dani. 2014. “When Ideas Trump Interests: Preferences, Worldviews, and Policy Innovations.” Journal of Economic Perspectives 28 (1): 189208.

Roeder, Philip G., and Rothchild, Donald, eds. 2005. Sustainable Peace: Power and Democracy After Civil Wars. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Rostow, Walt W. 1962. The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rotberg, Robert I., ed. 2004. When States Fail: Causes and Consequences. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Rothchild, Donald. 2002. “Settlement Terms and Post-Agreement Stability.” In Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements, edited by Stedman, Stephen J., Rothchild, Donald, and Cousens, Elizabeth M., 117138. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

Rubin, Barnett R. 2000. “The Political Economy of War and Peace in Afghanistan.” World Development 28 (10): 17891803.

Rubin, Barnett R. 2002. The Fragmentation of Afghanistan: State Formation and Collapse in the International System. (2nd ed.) New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Rubin, Barnett R. 2004. “Creating a Constitution for Afghanistan.” Journal of Democracy 15 (3): 519.

Rubin, Barnett R. 2006. “Afghanistan's Uncertain Transition From Turmoil to Normalcy.” CSR No. 12. New York: Council on Foreign Relations.

Rubin, Barnett R., and Hamidzada, Humayun. 2007. “From Bonn to London: Governance Challenges and the Future of Statebuilding in Afghanistan.” International Peacekeeping 14 (1): 825.

Rustow, Dankwart. 1970. “Transitions to Democracy: Toward a Dynamic Model.” Comparative Politics 2 (3): 337363.

Saikal, Amin. 2005. “Afghanistan's Weak State and Strong Society.” In Making States Work: State Failure and the Crisis of Governance, edited by Chesterman, Simon, Ignatieff, Michael, and Thakur, Ramesh, 193209. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.

Scambary, James. 2009. “Anatomy of a Conflict: The 2006–2007 Communal Violence in East Timor.” Conflict, Security & Development 9 (2): 265288.

Scott, James C. 1972. “Patron–Client Politics and Political Change in Southeast Asia.” American Political Science Review 66(1): 91113.

Scott, James C. 1998. Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Excellerate the Human Condition Have Failed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Shain, Yossi, and Linz, Juan J., eds. 1995. Between States: Interim Governments and Democratic Transitions. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Sharan, Timor. 2011. “The Dynamics of Elite Networks and Patron–Client Relations in Post-Bonn Afghanistan.” Europe–Asia Studies Journal 63 (6): 11091127.

Shawcross, William. 1994. Cambodia's New Deal. Contemporary Issues Paper #1. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

Shefter, Martin. 1977. “Party and Patronage: Germany, England, and Italy.” Politics and Society 7: 403451.

Shefter, Martin. 1994. Political Parties and the State: The American Historical Experience. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Sisk, Timothy D. 1996. Power Sharing and International Mediation in Ethnic Conflicts. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace.

Sisk, Timothy D. 2013. “Power-Sharing in Civil War: Puzzles of Peacemaking and Peacebuilding.” Civil Wars 15 (S1): 720.

Skocpol, Theda. 1979. States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France, Russia, and China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Skocpol, Theda. 1985. “Bringing the State Back In: Strategies of Analysis in Current Research.” In Bringing the State Back In, edited by Evans, Peter B., Rueschemeyer, Dietrich, and Skocpol, Theda, 337. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Skocpol, Theda. 1988. “Social Revolutions and Mass Military Mobilization.” World Politics 40 (2): 147–68.

Skowronek, Stephen. 1982. Building a New American State: The Expansion of National Administrative Capacities, 1877–1920. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Slater, Dan. 2008. “Can Leviathan Be Democratic? Competitive Elections, Robust Mass Politics and State Infrastructural Power.” Studies in Comparative International Development 43 (3): 252272.

Slater, Dan. 2010. Ordering Power: Contentious Politics and Authoritarian Leviathans in Southeast Asia. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Slater, Dan, and Simmons, Erica. 2010. “Informative Regress: Critical Antecedents in Comparative Politics.” Comparative Political Studies 43 (7): 886917.

Smith, Claire Q. 2014. “Illiberal Peace-building in Hybrid Political Orders: Managing Violence During Indonesia's Contested Political Transition.” Third World Quarterly 35 (8): 15091528.

Smith, Michael G., with Dee, Moreen. 2003. Peacekeeping in East Timor: The Path to Independence. Occasional Paper Series, International Peace Academy. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

Smith, Steven S., and Remington, Thomas F.. 2001. The Politics of Institutional Choice: The Formation of the Russian State Duma. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Snyder, Jack. 2000. From Voting to Violence: Democratization and Nationalist Conflict. New York: W. W. Norton.

Soares de Oliveira, Ricardo. 2011. “Illiberal Peacebuilding in Angola.” Journal of Modern Africa Studies 49 (2): 287314.

Solarz, Stephen. 1990. “Cambodia and the International Community.” Foreign Affairs 69 (2): 99115.

Soltan, Karol E. 2002. “The United Nations and the Development of Constitutional Order.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Studies Association, 2002.

Springer, Simon. 2009. “The Neoliberalization of Security and Violence in Cambodia's Transition.” In Human Security in East Asia: Challenges for Collaborative Action, edited by Peou, Sorpong, 125141. New York: Routledge.

Srinivasan, Sharath. 2012. “The Politics of Negotiating Peace in Sudan.” In Peacebuilding, Power, and Politics in Africa, edited by Curtis, Devon and Dzinesa, Gwinyayi A., 195211. Athens: Ohio University Press.

Stark, David, and Bruszt, Laszlo. 1998. Postsocialist Pathways: Transforming Politics and Property in East Central Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stedman, Stephen J. 1997. “Spoiler Problems in Peace Processes.” International Security 22 (Fall 1997): 553.

Stedman, Stephen J., Rothchild, Donald, and Cousens, Elizabeth M., eds. 2002. Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

Steinmo, Sven. 2008. “Historical Institutionalism.” In Approaches and Methodologies in the Social Sciences: A Pluralist Perspective, edited by Porta, Donatella della and Keating, Michael, 118138. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stinchcombe, Arthur L. 1999. “Ending Revolutions and Building New Governments.” Annual Review of Political Science 2: 4973.

Stokes, Susan C., Dunning, Thad, Nazareno, Marcelo, and Brusco, Valeria. 2013. Brokers, Voters, and Clientelism: The Puzzle of Distributive Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Strangio, Sebastian. 2014. Hun Sen's Cambodia. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Suhrke, Astri. 2001. “Peacekeepers as Nationbuilders: Dilemmas of the UN in East Timor.” International Peacekeeping 8 (4): 120.

Suhrke, Astri. 2009. “The Dangers of a Tight Embrace: Externally Assisted Statebuilding in Afghanistan.” In The Dilemmas of Statebuilding: Confronting the Contradictions of Postwar Peace Operations, edited by Paris, Roland and Sisk, Timothy D., 227251. New York: Routledge.

Suhrke, Astri. 2013. “Statebuilding in Afghanistan: A Contradictory Engagement.” Central Asian Survey 32 (3): 271286.

Tansey, Oisín. 2009. Regime-Building: Democratization and International Administration. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Tansey, Oisín. 2014. “Evaluating the Legacies of State-Building: Success, Failure, and the Role of Responsibility.” International Studies Quarterly 58 (1): 174186.

Tarrow, Sidney. 1998. Power in Movement: Social Movements and Contentious Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Taylor, John. 1999. East Timor: The Price of Freedom. London: Zed Books.

Thakur, Ramesh. 2001. “Cambodia, East Timor and the Brahimi Report.” International Peacekeeping 8 (3): 115124.

Thakur, Ramesh, and Schnabel, Albrecht, eds. 2001. United Nations Peacekeeping Operations: Ad Hoc Mission, Permanent Engagement. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.

Thelen, Kathleen. 1999. “Historical Institutionalism in Comparative Politics.” Annual Review of Political Science 2: 369404.

Thelen, Kathleen, and Mahoney, James. 2015. “Comparative-historical Analysis in Contemporary Political Science.” In Advances in Comparative-Historical Analysis, edited by Mahoney, James and Thelen, Kathleen, 336. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Themnér, Lotta, and Wallensteen, Peter. 2014. “Armed Conflict, 1946–2013.” Journal of Peace Research 51 (4): 541554.

Thier, J. Alexander. 2004. “The Politics of Peace-building: Year One: From Bonn to Kabul.” In Nation-Building Unraveled? Aid, Peace and Justice in Afghanistan, edited by Donini, Antonio, Niland, Norah, and Wermester, Karin, 3960. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press.

Thier, J. Alexander. 2010. “Big Tent, Small Tent: The Making of Constitution in Afghanistan.” In Framing the State in Times of Transition: Case Studies in Constitution Making, edited by Miller, Laurel E., 535562. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace.

Thier, J. Alexander, and Chopra, Jarat. 2002. “The Road Ahead: Political and Institutional Reconstruction in Afghanistan.” Third World Quarterly 23 (5): 893907.

Tilly, Charles. 1985. “War Making and State Making as Organized Crime.” In Bringing the State Back In, edited by Evans, Peter B., Rueschemeyer, Dietrich, and Skocpol, Theda, 169191. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tilly, Charles. 1990. Coercion, Capital, and European States, AD 990–1992. Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers.

Toft, Monica Duffy. 2010. Securing the Peace: The Durable Settlement of Civil Wars. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Turner, Mark. 2013. “Why is it So Difficult to Reform Some Asian Bureaucracies? Building Theory from Cambodian Evidence.” Public Administration and Development 33: 275285.

Un, Kheang. 2005. “Patronage Politics and Hybrid Democracy: Political Change in Cambodia, 1993–2003.” Asian Perspective 29 (2): 203230.

United Nations. 2004. A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility – Report of the Secretary-General's High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change. New York: United Nations.

United Nations Security Council. 2006. “Report of the Secretary-General on Timor-Leste pursuant to Security Council Resolution 1690 (2006).” New York: United Nations.

United States Library of Congress. 2009. East Timor: Political Dynamics, Development, and International Involvement. Written by Margesson, Rhoda and Vaughn, Bruce, Congressional Research Service. CRS Report RL33994. Washington, DC: Office of Congressional Information and Publishing, June 17.

Van de Walle, Nicolas. 2007. “Meet the New Boss, Same as the Old Boss? The Evolution of Political Clientelism in Africa.” In Patrons, Clients, and Policies: Patterns of Democratic Accountability and Political Competition, edited by Kitschelt, Herbert and Wilkinson, Steven I., 5067. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Vernon, Raymond. 1971. Sovereignty at Bay: The Multinational Spread of U.S. Enterprises. New York: Basic Books.

Waldner, David. 1999. State Building and Late Development. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Walter, Barbara F. 1999. “Designing Transitions from Civil War: Demobilization, Democratization, and Commitments to Peace.” International Security 24 (1): 127155.

Walter, Barbara F. 2002. Committing to Peace: The Successful Settlement of Civil Wars. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Walter, Barbara F. 2009. “Bargaining Failures and Civil Wars.” Annual Review of Political Science 12: 243261.

Weber, Max. 1978 [1922]. Economy and Society. Edited by Roth, Guenther and Wittich, Claus. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Weinstein, Jeremy. 2002. “Mozambique: A Fading UN Success Story.” Journal of Democracy 13 (1): 141156.

Weinstein, Jeremy. 2005. “Autonomous Recovery and International Intervention in Comparative Perspective.” Working Paper Number 57. Washington, DC: Center for Global Development.

Weir, Margaret. 1992. Politics and Jobs: The Boundaries of Employment Policy in the United States. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Westendorf, Jasmine-Kim. 2015. Why Peace Processes Fail: Negotiating Insecurity After Civil War. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

Whalan, Jeni. 2013. How Peace Operations Work: Power, Legitimacy, and Effectiveness. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wilde, Andreas, and Mielke, Katja. 2013. “Order, Stability, and Change in Afghanistan: From Top-down to Bottom-up State-making.” Central Asian Survey 32 (3): 353370.

Wimmer, Andreas, and Schetter, Conrad. 2003. “Putting State Formation First: Some Recommendations for Reconstruction and Peace-Making in Afghanistan.” Journal of International Development 15: 525539.

Wood, Elisabeth Jean. 2003. Forging Democracy from Below: Insurgent Transitions in South Africa and El Salvador. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

World Bank. 2004. Subnational Administration in Afghanistan: Assessment and Recommendations for Action. Report No. 28435-AF. Washington, DC: The World Bank.

World Bank. 2011. World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security, and Development. Washington, DC: The World Bank.

Zakaria, Fareed. 2003. The Future of Freedom: Illiberal Democracy at Home and Abroad. New York: W. W. Norton.

Zartman, William. 1985. Ripe for Resolution: Conflict and Intervention in Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Zartman, William, ed. 1995. Collapsed States: The Disintegration and Restoration of Legitimate Authority. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.

Zaum, Dominick. 2007. The Sovereignty Paradox: The Norms and Politics of International Statebuilding. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Zaum, Dominik. 2012. “Exit and International Administrations.” In Exit Strategies and State Building, edited by Caplan, Richard, 137158. New York: Oxford University Press.

Zürcher, Christoph, Manning, Carrie, Evenson, Kristie D., Hayman, Rachel, Riese, Sarah, and Roehner, Nora. 2013. Costly Democracy: Peacebuilding and Democratization After War. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Thu, 13 Jan 2022 23:54:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/peacebuilding-puzzle/155E4450DEEE8533AADA45F659E6A0A6
Killexams : The HER2 testing conundrum

Cite this article

Allison, M. The HER2 testing conundrum. Nat Biotechnol 28, 117–119 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt0210-117

Download citation

Share this article

Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:

Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative

Fri, 13 May 2022 14:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.nature.com/articles/nbt0210-117
Killexams : Social Work

Adams, R. 2008 Empowerment, Participation and Social Work Basingstoke, UK Palgrave Macmillan

Ainsworth, M. S. 1985 Infant–Mother Attachment: The Origins and Developmental Significance of Individual Differences in Strange Situation Behavior Lamb, M. Hillsdale, NJ Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

Aldgate, J. McIntosh, M. 2006 Looking After the Family: A Study of Children Looked After in Kinship Care in Scotland Edinburgh Social Work Inspection Agency

Allan, J. 2009 Critical Social Work: Theories and Practices for a Socially Just World Allan, J. Briskman, L. Pease, B. Sydney Allen & Unwin

Allen, J. 2003 The Menninger Clinic Lecture Series Melbourne Cairnmillar Institute

Aotearoa New Zealand Association of Social Workers 2008 ANZASW Competency Handbook Christchurch Aotearoa New Zealand Association of Social Workers Inc

Arnstein, S. 1969 A ladder of citizen participation JAIP 35 216 http://lithgowschmidt.dk/sherry-arnstein/ladder-of-citizen-participation.html

Askeland, G. Fook, J. 2009 Editorial: critical reflection in social work European Journal of Social Work 12 287

Atkinson, J. 2002 Trauma Trails, Recreating Song Lines: The Transgenerational Effects of Trauma in Indigenous Australia North Melbourne Spinifex Press

Atwool, N. 2005 Working with adults who are parenting Social Work Theories in Action Nash, M. Munford, R. O’Donoghue, K. London Jessica Kingsley Publishers

Augusta-Scott, T. 2007 Challenging essentialist anti-oppressive discourse: uniting against racism and sexism Narrative Therapy: Making Meaning, Making Lives Brown, C. Augusta-Scott, T. Thousand Oaks, CA Sage Publications

Austin, D. 1983 The Flexner myth and the history of social work Social Service Review 57 357

Australian Association of Social Workers 2010 Australian Social Work Education and Accreditation Standards Canberra AASW

Australian Child and Adolescent Trauma Loss and Grief Network 2011 Disaster and Mass Adversities www.earlytraumagrief.anu.edu.au/resource_hubs/disasters_children/psychological_first_aid

Bacon, H. Richardson, S. 2001 Attachment theory and child abuse: an overview of the literature for practitioners Child Abuse Review 10 377

Bateson, G. 2002 Mind and Nature: A Necessary Unity Toronto Bantam Books

Beck, A. T. Rush, A. J. Shaw, B. F. Emery, G. 1979 Cognitive Therapy of Depression New York Guilford Press

Beckett, C. 2006 Essential Theory for Social Work Practice London Sage

Beddoe, L. 2010 Surveillance or reflection: professional supervision in ‘the risk society British Journal of Social Work 40 1279

Beddoe, L. Egan, R. 2009 Social Work: Contexts and Practice Connolly, M. Harms, L 410 Melbourne Oxford University Press

Beddoe, L. Maidment, J. 2009 Mapping Knowledge for Social Work Practice: Critical Intersections South Melbourne Cengage Learning

Beels, C. 2009 Some historical conditions of narrative work Family Process 48 363

Berlin, S. 2002 Clinical Social Work Practice: A Cognitive-Integrative Perspective New York Oxford University Press

Bertalanffy, L. 1968 General System Theory: Foundations, Development, Applications New York George Brazillier

Berzoff, J. Flanagan, L. Hertz, P. 2008 Inside Out and Outside In: Psychodynamic Clinical Theory and Psychopathology in Contemporary Multicultural Contexts Lanham, MD Jason Aronson

Bourdieu, P. 1990 Language and Symbolic Power Cambridge Polity Press

Bourdieu, P. Wacquant, L. 1992 An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology University of Chicago Press

Bowes, J. M. Hayes, A. 1999 Children, Families, and Communities: Contexts and Consequences Melbourne Oxford University Press

Bowlby, J. 1984 Attachment London Penguin

Breckenridge, J. Laing, L. 1999 Challenging Silence: Innovative Responses to Sexual and Domestic Violence Sydney Allen & Unwin

Briskman, L. 2007 Social Work with Indigenous Communities Sydney Federation Press

Briskman, L. Fiske, L. 2009 Working with refugees Social Work: Contexts and Practice Connolly, M. Harms, L. 135 Melbourne Oxford University Press

Briskman, L. Pease, B. Allan, J. 2009 Introducing critical theories for social work in a neo-liberal context Critical Social Work: Theories and Practices for a Socially Just World Allan, J. Briskman, L. Pease, B. Sydney

Bromfield, L. M. Higgins, J. R. Richardson, N. Higgins, D. J. 2007 Why standard assessment processes are culturally inappropriate Promising Practices in Out-of-Home Care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Carers and Young People: Strengths and Barriers www.aifs.gov.au/nch/pubs/reports/promisingpractices/summarypapers/paper3.pdf

Bronfenbrenner, U. 1979 The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press

Bronson, D. E. Thyer, B. A. 2001 Behavioral social work: where has it been and where is it going Behavior Analyst Today 2 192

Brown, C. 2007 Situating knowledge and power in the therapeutic alliance Narrative Therapy: Making Meaning, Making Lives Brown, C. Augusta-Scott, T. Thousand Oaks, CA Sage Publications

Brown, C. Augusta-Scott, T. 2007 Narrative Therapy: Making Meaning, Making Lives Thousand Oaks, CA Sage Publications

Bruce, E. Austin, M. 2000 Social work supervision: assessing the past and mapping the future Clinical Supervisor 19 85

Burstow, B. 1992 Radical Feminist Therapy: Working in the Context of Violence Newbury Park, CA Sage Publications

Caplan, G. 1990 Loss, stress and mental health Community Mental Health Journal 26 27

Carey, M. Walther, S. Russell, S. 2009 The absent but implicit: a map to support therapeutic enquiry Family Process 48 319

Carrey, N. 2007 Practicing psychiatry through a narrative lens: working with children, youth and families Narrative Therapy: Making Meaning, Making Lives Brown, C. Augusta-Scott, T. Thousand Oaks, CA Sage Publications

Carroll, M. 1996 Counselling Supervision: Theory, Skills and Practice London Cassell

Carroll, M. Gilbert, M. 2006 On Being a Supervisee: Creating Learning Partnerships London Vukani Publishing

Cassidy, J. Shaver, P. R. 1999 Handbook of Attachment: Theory, Research and Clinical Applications London Guilford

Chaffin, M. Friedrich, B. 2004 Evidence-based treatments in child abuse and neglect Children and Youth Services Review 26 1097

Chamberlain, L. 1995 Strange attractors in patterns of family interaction Chaos Theory in Psychology and the Life Sciences Mahwah, NJ

Charon, R. 2006 Narrative Medicine: Honoring the Stories of Illness New York Oxford University Press

Chodorow, N. 1999 The Power of Feelings: Personal Meaning in Psychoanalysis, Gender, and Culture New Haven, CT Yale University Press

Coates, D. 2010 Impact of childhood abuse: biopsychosocial pathways through which adult mental health is compromised Australian Social Work 63 391

Connolly, M. 1999 Effective Participatory Practice: Family Group Conferencing in Child Protection New York Aldine de Gruyter

Connolly, M. 2003 Cultural components of practice: reflexive responses to diversity and difference Sexual Deviance: Issues and Controversies Ward, T. Laws, D. R. Hudson, S. M. Thousand Oaks, CA Sage Publications

Connolly, M. 2004 Practice approaches Practice Skills in Social Work and Welfare: More Than Just Common Sense Maidment, J. Egan, R. Sydney Allen & Unwin

Connolly, M. 2006 Upfront and personal: confronting dynamics in the family group conference Family Process 45 345

Connolly, M. 2006 Fifteen years of Family Group Conferencing: coordinators talk about their experiences in Aotearoa New Zealand British Journal of Social Work 36 523

Connolly, M. 2007 Practice frameworks: conceptual maps to guide interventions in child welfare British Journal of Social Work 37 825

Connolly, M. Crichton-Hill, Y. Ward, T. 2006 Culture and Child Protection: Reflexive Responses London Jessica Kingsley Publishers

Connolly, M. Doolan, M. 2007 Responding to the deaths of children known to child protection agencies Social Policy Journal of New Zealand 30

Connolly, M. Healy, K. 2009 Social work practice theories and frameworks Social Work: Contexts and Practice Connolly, M. Harms, L. Melbourne Oxford University Press

Connolly, M. Morris, K. Understanding Child and Family Welfare London Palgrave

Connolly, M. Smith, R. 2010 Reforming child welfare Child Welfare 89

Connolly, M. Ward, T. 2008 Morals, Rights and Practice in the Human Services: Effective and Fair Decision-Making in Health, Social Care and Criminal Justice London Jessica Kingsley Publishers

Connolly, M. Ward, T. 2008 Navigating human rights across the life course Child and Family Social Work 13 348

Connolly, M. Ward, T. 2010 Supporting rights-based ideas in policy and practice Communities, Children and Families Australia 5 6

Cork, S. 2010 Resilience and Transformation: Preparing Australia for Uncertain Futures Collingwood, Vic CSIRO Publishing

Croft, S. Beresford, P. 1994 A participatory approach to social work Practising Social Work Hanvey, C. Philpot, T. London Routledge

Crotty, M. 1998 The Foundations of Social Research: Meaning and Perspective in the Research Process Sydney Allen & Unwin

Darlington, Y. Healy, K. Feeney, J. A. 2010 Challenges in implementing a participatory practice in child protection: a contingency approach Children and Youth Services Review 32 1020

Davys, A. Beddoe, L. 2010 Best Practice in Professional Supervision: A Guide for the Helping Professions London Jessica Kingsley Publishers

Denborough, D. 2006 Trauma: Narrative Responses to Traumatic Experience Adelaide Dulwich Centre Publications

Denborough, D. Koolmatrie, C. Mununggirritj, D. Marika, D. Dhurrkay, W. Yunupingu, M. 2006 Linking stories and initiatives: a narrative approach to working with the skills and knowledge of communities International Journal of Narrative Therapy and Community Work 2 19

Department of Health 2000 Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and Their Families London Department of Health, Department for Education and Employment www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en/documents/digitalasset/dh_4014430.pdf

De Shazer, S 1994 Words were Originally Magic New York W. W. Norton & Co

Doel, M. 2002 Task-centred work Social Work: Themes, Issues and Critical Debates Adams, R. Dominelli, L. Payne, M. Basingstoke, UK Palgrave

Dominelli, L. 2002 Anti-oppressive practice in context Social Work: Themes, Issues and Critical Debates Adams, R Dominelli, L. Payne, M New York Palgrave

Doolan, M. Nixon, P. Lawrence, P. 2004 Growing Up in the Care of Relatives or Friends: Delivering Best Practice for Children in Family and Friends Care London

Drisko, J. 2011 Researching clinical practice Theory and Practice in Clinical Social Work Brandell, J. R. Thousand Oaks, CA Sage Publications

Dulwich Centre Publications 1999 Narrative Therapy and Community Work: A Conference Collection Adelaide Dulwich Centre Publications

Durie, M. 1998 Whaiora: Maori Health Development Auckland Oxford University Press

Eagleton, T. 2000 The Idea of Culture Oxford, UK Blackwell Publishers

Edwards, M. Tinworth, K. Burford, G. Pennell, J. 2007 Family Team Meeting (FTM) Process, Outcome, and Impact Evaluation Phase II Report Englewood, CO American Humane Association

Egan, G. 2007 The Skilled Helper: A Problem-Management and Opportunity-Development Approach to Helping Pacific Grove, CA

Elliott, B. 2000 Promoting Family Change: The Optimism Factor Sydney Allen & Unwin

Erikson, E. 1959 Identity and the life-cycle Psychological Issues 1

Falicov, C. J. 1995 Training to think culturally: a multi-dimensional comparative framework Family Process 34 373

Flexner, A. 1915 Proceedings of the National Conference of Charities and Correction 1915 Chicago

Fonagy, P. 2001 Attachment Theory and Psychoanalysis New York Other Press

Fook, J. 1993 Radical Casework: A Theory for Practice Sydney Allen & Unwin

Fook, J. 1999 Critical reflectivity in education and practice Transforming Social Work Practice: Postmodern Critical Perspectives Pease, B. Fook, J. 195 Sydney Allen & Unwin

Fook, J. 2002 Social Work: Critical Theory and Practice London Sage Publications

Frank, A. 1995 The Wounded Storyteller Chicago & London University of Chicago Press

Fraser, H. McMaster, K. 2009 Gender, sexuality and power Social Work: Contexts and Practice Connolly, M. Harms, L. Melbourne Oxford University Press

Freedman, J. Combs, G. 2009 Narrative ideas for consulting with communities and organizations: Ripples from the gatherings Family Process 48 347

Freud, S. 1975 The Psychopathology of Everyday Life Strachey, J. Melbourne Penguin Books

Freud, S. 1976 Two Short Accounts of Psycho-Analysis Strachey, J. Melbourne Penguin

Friedman, B. D. Neuman Allen, K. 2011 Systems theory Theory and Practice in Clinical Social Work Brandell, J. R. 3 Thousand Oaks, CA Sage Publications

Frost, A. Connolly, M. 2004 Reflexivity, reflection, and the change process in offender work Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment 16 365

Furlong, M. 2008 The multiple relationships between the discipline of social work and the contributions of Michael White Australian Social Work 6 403

Gambrill, E. 1995 Behavioral social work: past, present, and future Research on Social Work Practice 5 460

Gergen, K. 1985 The social constructionist movement in modern psychology American Psychologist 40 266

Germain, C. 1991 Human Behavior in the Social Environment: An Ecological View New York Columbia University Press

Germain, C. Bloom, M. 1999 The Ecological Perspective: Human Behavior in the Social Environment: An Ecological View New York Columbia University Press

Gibbons, J. 2001 Effective practice: social work's long history of concern about outcomes Australian Social Work 54 3

Gibney, P. 2003 The Pragmatics of Therapeutic Practice Melbourne Psychoz Publications

Giddens, A. 1984 The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration Los Angeles University of California Press

Gilbert, S. 2009 Social Work: Contexts and Practice Connolly, M. Harms, L. Melbourne Oxford University Press

Goldstein, E. 1995 Ego Psychology and Social Work Practice Sydney Free Press

Goleman, D. 2005 Emotional Intelligence New York Bantam Books

Goleman, D. 2006 Social Intelligence: The New Science of Human Relationships London Hutchinson

Gordon, C. 1980 Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings by Michel Foucault New York Pantheon Books

Gould, N. 2006 An inclusive approach to knowledge for mental health social work practice and policy British Journal of Social Work 36 109

Granvold, D. K. 2011 Cognitive-behavioral therapy with adults Theory and Practice in Clinical Social Work Brandell, J. R. Thousand Oaks, CA Sage Publications

Gray, M. McDonald, C. 2006 Pursuing good practice? The limits of evidence-based practice Journal of Social Work 6 7

Gray, M. Webb, S. A. 2009 Critical Social Work, Social Work Theories and Methods Gray, M. Webb, S. A. London

Green, D. McDermott, F. 2010 Social work from inside and between complex systems: perspectives on person-in-environment for today's social work British Journal of Social Work 40 2414

Green, S. Baldry, E. 2008 Building Indigenous Australian social work Australian Social Work 61 389

Gunderson, K. Cahn, K. Wirth, J. 2003 The Washington State long-term outcome study Protecting Children 18

Harms, L. 2007 Working with People Melbourne Oxford University Press

Harms, L. 2010 Understanding Human Development: A Multidimensional Approach Melbourne Oxford University Press

Harms, L. Connolly, M. 2009 The art and science of social work Social Work: Contexts and Practice Connolly, M. Harms, L. Melbourne Oxford University Press

Harms, L. Connolly, M. 2009 Trans-Tasman reflections Social Work: Contexts and Practice Connolly, M. Harms, L. 451 Melbourne Oxford University Press

Hayes, S. C. 2004 Acceptance and commitment to therapy, relational frame theory, and the third wave of behavioural and cognitive therapies Behaviour Therapy 35 639

Healy, K. 2005 Social Work Theories in Context: Creating Frameworks for Practice Basingstoke, UK Palgrave Macmillan

Hepworth, D. Rooney, R. Larsen, J. A. 2002 Direct Social Work Practice: Theory and Skills Pacific Grove, CA Brooks/Cole

Herman, J. 1997 Trauma and Recovery: The Aftermath of Violence – From Domestic Abuse to Political Power New York Basic Books

Hick, S. F. Murray, K. 2009 Structural social work Social Work Theories and Methods Gray, M. Webb, S. A London Sage Publications

HM Government 2010 Working Together to Safeguard Children London

Holland, S. 2004 Child and Family Assessment in Social Work Practice London Sage Publications

Holloway, E. Neufeldt, S. 1995 Supervision: its contributions to treatment efficacy Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 63 207

Horvath, A. O. Symonds, B. D. 1991 Relation between working alliance and outcome in psychotherapy: a meta-analysis Journal of Counselling Psychology 38 139

Howe, D. 1995 Attachment Theory for Social Work Practice London Macmillan Press

Howe, D. 2009 A Brief Introduction to Social Work Theory Basingstoke, UK Palgrave Macmillan

Hudson, B. L. McDonald, G. 1986 Behavioural Social Work: An Introduction London Macmillan

Hudson, C. 2000 At the edge of chaos: a new paradigm for social work? Journal of Social Work Education 36 215

Hutchison, E. 2003 Dimensions of Human Behavior: The Changing Life Course Thousand Oaks, CA Sage Publications

Hutchison, E. 1999 Dimensions of Human Behavior: Person and Environment Thousand Oaks, CA Pine Forge Press

Ife, J. 2001 Human Rights and Social Work: Towards Rights-based Practice Melbourne Cambridge University Press

Janoff-Bulman, R. 1992 Shattered Assumptions: Towards a New Psychology of Trauma New York Free Press

Jordan, B. 2004 Emancipatory social work? Opportunity or oxymoron British Journal of Social Work 34 5

Kadushin, A. 1972 The Social Work Interview New York Columbia University Press

Kayser, K. 2011 Theory and Practice in Clinical Social Work Brandell, J. R. Thousand Oaks, CA Sage Publications

Kazantzis, N. Reinecke, M. A. Freeman, A. 2010 Cognitive and Behavioral Theories in Clinical Practice New York Guilford Press

Keenan, T. Ward, T. 2003 Developmental antecedents of sexual offending Sexual Deviance: Issues and Controversies Ward, T. Laws, D. R. Hudson, S. M. Thousand Oaks, CA Sage Publications

Kemp, S. Whittaker, J. Tracy, E. 1997 Person-Environment Practice: The Social Ecology of Interpersonal Helping New York Aldine de Gruyter

Kleinman, A. Das, V. Lock, M. 1997 Social Suffering Berkeley University of California Press

Koch, M. Hilt, L. Jenkins, L. Dunn, T. 2006

Kondrat, D. C. 2010 The strengths perspective An Introduction to Applying Social Work Theories and Methods Teater, B. Maidenhead, UK Open University Press

Kondrat, M. E. 1999 Who is the ‘self’ in self-aware? Professional self-awareness from a critical theory perspective Social Service Review 73 451

Koole, S. 2009 The psychology of emotion regulation: an integrative review Cognition and Emotion 23 4

Lambert, M. Barley, D. 2001 Research summary on the therapeutic relationship and psychotherapy outcome Psychotherapy 38

Laub, D. Auerhahn, N. 1993 Knowing and not knowing massive psychic trauma: forms of traumatic memory International Journal of Psycho-Analysis 74 287

Leadbetter, M. 2002 Empowerment and advocacy Social Work: Themes, Issues and Critical Debates Adams, R. Dominelli, L. Payne, M. Basingstoke Palgrave Macmillan

Lee, M. Greene, G. J. 1999 A social constructivist framework for integrating cross-cultural issues in teaching clinical social work Journal of Social Work Education 35 21

Leighninger, L. 1987 Social Work: Search for Identity New York Greenwood Press

Lishman, J. 2002 Personal and professional development Social Work: Themes, Issues and Critical Debates Adams, R Dominelli, L. Payne, M. Basingstoke, UK Palgrave

Lonne, B. Parton, N. Thomson, J. Harries, M. 2009 Reforming Child Protection Oxford, UK Routledge

Lyth, I. M. 1988 Selected Essays London Free Association Books

McKee, M. 2003 Excavating our frames of mind: the key to dialogue and collaboration Social Work 48 401

McKeown, K. 2000

McPhie, L. Chaffey, C. 1999 The journey of a lifetime: group work with young women who have experienced sexual assault Extending Narrative Therapy: A Collection of Practice-based Papers Adelaide Dulwich Centre Publications

Mafile'o, T. 2009 Pasifika social work Social Work: Contexts and Practice Connolly, M. Harms, L. 121 Melbourne Oxford University Press

Marshall, W. L. Serran, G. A. Fernandez, Y. M Mulloy, R. Mann, R. E. Thornton, D. 2003 Therapist characteristics in the treatment of sexual offenders: tentative data on their relationship with indices of behaviour change Journal of Sexual Aggression 9 25

Mendes, P. 2009 Tracing the origins of critical social work practice Critical Social Work: Theories and Practices for a Socially Just World Allan, J. Briskman, L. Pease, B. Sydney Allen & Unwin

Mennen, F. E. O’Keefe, M. 2005 Informed decisions in child welfare: the use of attachment theory Children and Youth Services Review 27 577

Miehls, D. 2011 Neurobiology and clinical social work Theory and Practice in Clinical Social Work Brandell, J. R 81 Thousand Oaks, CA Sage Publications

Mikhailova, O. Nol, J. 2011 Clinical social work with depressed clients Theory and Practice in Clinical Social Work Brandell, J. R. 471 Thousand Oaks, CA Sage Publications

Miller, S. Hubble, M. Duncan, B. 1996 Handbook of Solution-focused Brief Therapy San Francisco Jossey-Bass

Minuchin, S. Fishman, H. 1981 Family Therapy Techniques Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press

Montalbano-Phelps, L. 2004 Taking Narrative Risk: The Empowerment of Abuse Survivors Dallas, TX University Press of America

Moore, T. 2004 Dark Nights of the Soul: A Guide to Finding Your Way through Life's Ordeals Piatkus Books London

Morris, K. 2007 www.frg.org.uk/pdfs/Camden%20FGC%20Service.pdf

Mullaly, B. 2002 Challenging Oppression: A Critical Social Work Approach Ontario Oxford University Press

Munford, R. Sanders, J. 1999 Supporting Families Palmerston North, NZ Dunmore Press

Nathan, L. Wilson, N. J. Hillman, D. 2003 www.corrections.govt.nz/_data/assets/pdf_file/0005/176954/tewhaka.pdf

1997

Nelson-Jones, R. 2006 Theory and Practice of Counselling and Therapy Thousand Oaks, CA Sage Publications

Nickel, J. W. 2007 Making Sense of Human Rights Oxford Blackwell

Nipperess, S. Briskman, L. 2009 Promoting a human rights perspective on critical social work Critical Social Work Theories and Practices for a Socially Just World Allan, J. Briskman, L. Pease, B. 58 Sydney Allen & Unwin

Noble, C. Irwin, J. 2009 Social work supervision: an exploration of the current challenges in a rapidly changing social, economic and political environment Journal of Social Work 9 345

Norlin, J. Chess, W. Dale., O. Smith, R. 2003 Human Behavior and the Social Environment: Social Systems Theory Boston Allyn & Bacon

O’Connell, B. 1998 Solution-focused Therapy London Sage Publications

Orme, J. 2009 Feminist social work Gray, M. Webb, S. A. Social Work Theories and Methods London Sage Publications

Owen, I. 1999 Exploring the similarities and differences between person-centred and psychodynamic therapy British Journal of Guidance and Counselling 27 165

Parton, N. Thorpe, D. Wattam, C. 1997 Child Protection: Risk and the Moral Order London Macmillan

Patterson, J. Garwick, A. 1994 Levels of meaning in family stress theory Family Process 33 287

Payne, M. 1997 Modern Social Work Theory Chicago Lyceum Books

Payne, M. 2005 Systemic and ecological approaches Modern Social Work Theory Chicago Lyceum Books

Pease, B. Fook, J. 1999 Transforming Social Work Practice: Postmodern Critical Perspectives Sydney Allen & Unwin

Pemberton, A. Locke, R. 1971 Towards a radical critique of social work and welfare ideology Australian Journal of Social Issues 6 95

Pennebaker, J. 1995 Emotion, Disclosure and Health Washington, DC American Psychological Society

Pennell, J. Burford, G. 2000 Family group decision-making: protecting children and women Child Welfare 79 131

Perlman, H. H. 1957 Social Casework: A Problem-solving Process Chicago Chicago University Press

Phillipson, J. 2002 Supervision and being supervised Critical Practice in Social Work Adams, L. Dominelli Payne, M. 244 New York Palgrave

Pithers, W. D. Marques, J. K. Gibat, C. C. Marlatt, G. A. 1983 Relapse prevention with sexual aggressors: a self-control model of treatment and maintenance of change The Sexual Aggressor: Current Perspectives on Treatment Greer, J. G. Stuart, I. R. 214 New York Van Nostrand Reinhold

Plath, D. 2009 Evidence-based practice Social Work Theories and Methods London

Ramsden, I. Brien, L. 2000 Defining cultural safety and transcultural nursing Kai Tiaki: Nursing New Zealand 6

Rapp, C. A. 1998 The Strengths Model: Case Management with People Suffering from Severe and Persistent Mental Illness New York Oxford University Press

Reichert, E. 2007 Challenges in Human Rights: A Social Work Perspective New York Columbia University Press

Reid, W. Epstein, L. 1972 Task-centered Casework New York Columbia University Press

Reid, W. J. Shyne, A. 1969 Brief and Extended Casework New York Columbia University Press

Reiter, A. 2005 Narrating the Holocaust London Continuum

Richmond, M. 1917 Social Diagnosis New York Russell Sage Foundation

Robertson, R. 1995 Chaos theory and the relationship between psychology and science Chaos Theory in Psychology and the Life Sciences Robertson, R. Combs, A. Mahwah, NJ Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

Rogers, C. 1965 Client-centered Therapy: Its Current Practice Implications and Theory Boston Houghton Mifflin

Rogers, C. 1980 A Way of Being Boston Houghton Mifflin

Roth, A. Fonagy, P. 1996 What Works for Whom: A Critical Review of Psychotherapy Research New York Guilford Press

Rubin, D. Downes, K. O’Reilly, A. Mekonnen, R. Luan, X. Localio, R. 2008 Impact of kinship care on behavioral well-being for children in out-of-home care Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 162 550

Russell, S. Carey, M. 2003 Feminism, therapy and narrative ideas: exploring some not so commonly asked questions International Journal of Narrative Therapy and Community Work 2 67

Ruwhiu, L. 2009 Social Work: Contexts and Practice Connolly, M. Harms, L. 107 Melbourne Oxford University Press

Sackett, D. Rosenberg, W. Muir Gray, J. Haynes, R. Richardson, W. 1996 Evidence-based medicine: what it is and what it isn't British Medical Journal 312 71

Saleebey, D. 1992 The Strengths Perspective in Social Work Practice New York Longman

Salter, A. C. 1995 Transforming Trauma: A Guide to Understanding and Treating Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse London Sage Publications

Sandler, J. 1985 The Analysis of Defense: The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense Revisited New York International Universities Press

Schön, D. 1983 The Reflective Practitioner London Temple Smith

Schön, D. 1987 Educating the Reflective Practitioner: Towards a New Design for Teaching and Learning in the Professions San Francisco Jossey Bass

Schore, A. 2002 Dysregulation of the right brain: a fundamental mechanism of traumatic attachment and the psychopathogenesis of posttraumatic stress disorder Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 36 9

Scott, D. Walker, L. Gilmore, K. 1995 Breaking the Silence: A Guide to Supporting Adult Victim/Survivors of Sexual Assault Melbourne CASA House

Sennett, R. 2003 Respect in a World of Inequality New York W. W. Norton & Company

Sheehan, R. 2009 Social work and the law Social Work: Contexts and Practice Connolly, M. Harms, L. 334 Melbourne Oxford University Press

Sheldon, B. 1995 Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy: Research, Practice and Philosophy London Tavistock

Sheldon, B. Macdonald, G. 2009 A Textbook of Social Work London Routledge

Sheppard, M. 1998 Practice validity, reflexivity and knowledge for social work British Journal of Social Work 28 763

Shera, W. Wells, L. M. 1999 Empowerment Practice in Social Work: Developing Richer Conceptual Foundations Toronto Canadian Scholars’ Press

Shonkoff, J. Phillips, D. 2000 From Neurons to Neighbourhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development Washington, DC National Academy Press

Shulman, L. 1993 Interactional Supervision Washington, DC NASW Press

Skenridge, P. Lennie, I. 1978 Social work: the wolf in sheep's clothing Arena 51 47

Spitzer, R. 1981 The diagnostic status of homosexuality in DSM-III: a reformulation of the issues American Journal of Psychiatry 138 210

Staples, L. 1990 Powerful ideas about empowerment Administration in Social Work 14 29

Sternberg, E. 2010 Healing Spaces: The Science of Place and Well-being Cambridge, MA Belknap Press

Stone, S. Berzin, S. Taylor, S. Austin, M. 2008 Human behavior and the social environment: exploring conceptual foundations Comprehensive Handbook of Social Work and Social Welfare: Human Behavior in the Social Environment Thyer, B. New York John Wiley & Sons

Strom-Gottfried, K. 2002 Multidimensional assessment Direct Social Work Practice: Theory and Skills Hepworth, D. H. Rooney, R. H. Larsen, J. A. 187 Pacific Grove, CA Brooks/Cole

Strom-Gottfried, K. 2002 Assessing intrapersonal and environmental systems Direct Social Work Practice: Theory and Skills Hepworth, D. H. Rooney, R. H. Larsen, J. A. Pacific Grove CA Brooks/Cole

Taylor, C. White, S. 2000 Practising Reflexivity in Health and Welfare: Making Knowledge Buckingham, UK Open University Press

Teater, B. 2010 An Introduction to Applying Social Work Theories and Methods Maidenhead, UK Open University Press

Thoburn, J. 2007 Globalisation and Child Welfare: Some Lessons from a Cross-national Study of Children in Out-of-home Care Norwich, UK University of East Anglia, School of Social Work and Psychosocial Studies

Thompson, N. 2002 People Skills New York Palgrave Macmillan

Thompson, N. 2003 Promoting Equality: Challenging Discrimination and Oppression Basingstoke, UK Palgrave

Thompson, N. 2006 Anti-Discriminatory Practice Basingstoke, UK Palgrave Macmillan

Thorne, B. 1997 Person-centred counselling The Blackwell Companion to Social Work Davies, M. 177 Oxford Blackwell Publishers

Thyer, B. A. Myers, L. L. 2011 Behavioural and cognitive theories Theory and Practice in Clinical Social Work Brandell, J. R. 21 Thousand Oaks, CA Sage Publications

Titcomb, A. LeCroy, C. 2005 Outcomes of Arizona's family group decision making program Protecting Children 19 47

Trevithick, P. 1998 Feminism and Psychotherapy: Reflections on Contemporary Theories and Practices London Sage Publications

Trevithick, P. 2005 Social Work Skills: A Practice Handbook Maidenhead, UK Open University Press

Trotter, C. 2004 Helping Abused Children and Their Families Sydney Allen & Unwin

Tumarkin, M. 2005 Traumascapes: The Power and Fate of Places Transformed by Tragedy Carlton, Vic Melbourne University Press

Turnell, A. Edwards, S. 1999 Signs of Safety: A Solution and Safety Oriented Approach to Child Protection Casework New York W. W. Norton & Co

Vaillant, G. 1993 The Wisdom of the Ego Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press

Vaillant, G. 2002 Ageing Well: Surprising Guideposts to a Happier Life from the Landmark Harvard Study of Adult Development Melbourne Scribe Publications

Wacquant, L. 1998 Pierre Bourdieu Key Sociological Thinkers Stones, R. New York New York University Press

Wakefield, J. 1996

Wakefield, J. 1996

Walsh, F. 1998 Strengthening Family Resilience New York Guilford Press

Walsh, F. 2010 A family resilience framework for clinical practice: integrating developmental theory and systemic perspectives Reshaping Theory in Contemporary Social Work Borden, W. 146 New York Columbia University Press

Walsh, J. 2006 Theories for Direct Social Work Practice Belmont, CA Thompson Brooks/Cole

Ward, T. 2002 Good lives and the rehabilitation of sex offenders: problems and promises Aggression and Violent Behavior 7 1

Ward, T. Connolly, M. 2008 A human rights-based practice framework for sex offenders Journal of Sexual Aggression 14 87

Watson, S. 2005 Attachment theory and social work Social Work Theories in Action Nash, M. Munford, R. O’Donoghue, K. London Jessica Kingsley Publishers

Watzlawick, P. Weakland, J. Fisch, R. 1974 Change: Principles of Problem Formation and Problem Resolution New York Norton & Co

Webber, M. Nathan, J. 2010 Challenges and opportunities for psychosocial practice in mental health Reflective Practice in Mental Health: Advanced Psychosocial Practice with Children, Adolescents and Adults Webber, M. Nathan, J. 254 London Jessica Kingsley Publishers

Wheeler, C. E. Johnson, S. 2003 Evaluating family group decision making: the Santa Clara example Protecting Children 18 65

White, M. 2004 Working with people who are suffering the consequences of multiple trauma: a narrative perspective International Journal of Narrative Therapy and Community Work 1 45

White, M. 2007 Maps of Narrative Practice New York W. W. Norton & Company

White, M. Epston, D. 1990 Narrative Means to Therapeutic Ends New York W. W. Norton & Co

Wingard, B. Lester, J. 2001 Telling Our Stories in Ways That Make Us Stronger Adelaide Dulwich Centre Publications

Wolpe, J. 1990 The Practice of Behaviour Therapy New York Pergamon

Wronka, J. 2008 Human Rights and Social Justice: Social Action and Service for the Helping and Health Professions Thousand Oaks, CA Sage Publications

Thu, 13 Aug 2020 20:35:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/social-work/2F66E0B9EC9100047C8591DF83202357
Killexams : Frequently asked questions

How do I apply to the MPA programme?

All applications are made through LSE’s Graduate Admissions Office. Applications open in mid-October each year. Full details of how to apply are available on the how to apply page. This includes information about the entry requirements and the documents applicants are required to submit with their application.

What are the entry requirements?

Please visit the entry requirements section on the how to apply page for further details.

Is there a Graduate Open Day?

LSE offers a virtual open day where you can watch a wide range of talks on applying to LSE, accommodation, careers, financial support, support services and life at LSE. This virtual open day can be viewed at anytime, from anywhere in the world.

In addition, the MPA programme holds regular Online Information Sessions which provide you with the opportunity to learn more about study support, future careers and extra-curricular activities. Each session ends with time for your questions, which are answered live by our team.

If you would like to visit the LSE campus, please see 'Can I visit the campus?'.

How many applications do you receive each year?

On average each year we typically receive around 420 applications. Our target intake is 100 students per year, meaning at any one time there may be more than 160 MPA students studying at LSE across both years.

What are the application deadlines?

The MPA does not have a deadline for applications; Graduate Admissions begin accepting applications in mid-October. The MPA has a limited number of offers to make each year and once this limit has been reached, no further applications can be considered. To find out about current programme availability, go to the LSE Graduate Admissions homepage and click "Available programmes" in the menu on the left of the page. We recommend that applicants submit their applications as early as possible to maximise their chance of being considered.

What do you look for in an applicant?

The Selectors will consider the application as a whole before making a decision. They are looking for:

  • Proven academic ability and strong academic grades. Economics and/or quantitative course work is particularly helpful but there is no specific subject requirement for the first degree.

  • Applicants are normally required to have a minimum of one year’s relevant professional work experience at the point of entry to the programme. However, applicants with an exceptional and outstanding academic background may use this to compensate for less than one year’s work experience.

  • A personal statement that is well written and clearly explains why you have chosen this professionally-oriented policy programme. It is also important that your statement explains how your prior professional and educational experiences make you a good candidate for the programme.

  • Strong references in support of your application.

Please note that we cannot advise on individual applications or supply any indication if an applicant should apply. Full details of the entry requirements are available from the Graduate Admissions webpages.

Can I submit a professional reference?

Please select the ‘two academic references’ item from the list on this webpage for reference requirements.

How long should my personal statement be?

Please select the 'personal statement' item from the list on this webpage for more information.

Where do I send my application documents?

All application documents must be sent to Graduate Admissions. If you are unable to upload your documents, please contact Graduate Admissions for advice.

What is your GRE/GMAT policy?

We do not require applicants to have taken GRE/GMAT tests. However, if you have taken one of these, and you feel your results will support your application, you are welcome to include it. As this is not a requirement for the MPA we cannot advise what the Selectors would consider a good score. We are also unable to advise applicants what the average GRE/GMAT score is as only a minority of applicants choose to include this information.

Can I apply even if my English language score is lower than required?

The requirements for English language test scores are available here, please note that we require 'higher'. You can apply if you have not yet achieved the required score. If your application is successful you will receive a conditional offer, which means that you will only be able to join the MPA if you achieve the required test scores before the programme starts. If you will require a student visa, please note that you will need to hold an unconditional offer in order to receive the Confirmation of Acceptance for Studies (CAS) you will need for your visa application so will need to achieve the required English test score leaving enough time to apply for your visa and wait for a decision on your visa application.

Do you accept transfer students?

No, the MPA does not accept transfer students. It is also not possible for students to attend individual courses without being registered for a degree programme at LSE.

What happens after I submit my application?

The LSE Graduate Admissions Office will process your application. They will confirm to you that it has been received and if any further action or documents are required from you. Graduate Admissions receive applications and documentation for all graduate programmes at LSE. This means that it may take some time for your application to be processed. You can see the current processing times on-line.

The MPA Team will not be able to tell you when you will receive a decision on your application as all decisions are processed and sent by Graduate Admissions.

Please note that all queries relating to application documents should be directed to Graduate Admissions.

Mon, 09 May 2022 16:12:00 -0500 en-GB text/html https://www.lse.ac.uk/school-of-public-policy/mpa/frequently-asked-questions
Killexams : Tech Revolution Benefits the Aging

Imagine your frail father dons a virtual reality headset so he can "attend" his grandson's graduation and feel as if he's really there. Or your mom, forgetful about her medicine, swallows a teensy sensor encased in medication that will relay the time she took the pill and the dosage to her smartphone.

Perhaps your mother-in-law has dementia, which makes her agitated. A small robot she holds that acts like a cat, including purring, calms her instantly. Afraid she’ll wander? Your phone can alert you if she does.

Whether already in use or still being tested, aging-in-place technology is improving the aging experience for seniors and family caregivers. Part of the reason: the development of artificial intelligence, or AI, and "big data." With AI, devices can react like humans after assessing a situation and learning someone's habits. Wearable gadgets—think Fitbit on steroids—can collect and analyze health data, while medical mini-machines monitor chronic conditions and customize treatment.

"Technology is a game-changer, improving older adults' independence, engagement and health and reducing their social isolation," says David Lindeman, director of the Center for Technology and Aging at the University of California, Berkeley. "Technologies we haven't even thought of today will be on the market in the next few years."

Technology may be especially beneficial when baby boomers find they need an extra something, perhaps a friendly robot, to keep them healthy, happy and in charge as they grow older. And new technologies could help caregivers. In a 2015 AARP survey, fewer than 10% of family caregivers said they use, or have used, technology for caregiving, but 71% said they were interested.

In the coming years, aging tech is likely to follow the pattern of smartphones, which gained traction in people's lives relatively quickly. Stand-alone devices are getting smaller, and apps are increasingly available for smartphones and tablets. Plus, aging technology is getting faster, cheaper and easier to use.

What's out there today, or about to debut?

Virtual Reality Offers Real Benefits

Although it began as a teen gaming phenomenon, virtual reality, or VR, is maturing into a technology for older adults. While still in its infancy, VR for seniors is gaining fans among physicians, long-term-care staff, researchers, physical therapists and family members.

Here's how it works: A senior dons special VR goggles that show panoramic images made with a 360-degree video camera. The wearer is transported into a multisensory, three-dimensional world where he is totally immersed in a place or experience, making him feel as if he is actually there. That world might be his childhood neighborhood (via Google Maps), the beach, a faraway family reunion or a grandchild's wedding in real time.

For older adults with mobility issues or cabin fever, VR breaks up day-to-day monotony and loneliness, letting seniors "travel"—sky diving or swimming with whales, anyone?—without leaving home.

But VR offers more than just a good time. It's being studied as a way to reduce physical pain, opioid use, anxiety, stress and social isolation, and to Excellerate mood. At Massachusetts General Hospital, doctors plan to use VR to study brain function in aging. "Individuals with dementia tend to struggle with activities such as executive function and multitasking, which can be hard to evaluate in a clinical setting," says Dennis Lally, co-founder of Rendever, a Boston company developing VR software for seniors. "With VR, it's now possible to track the human interaction with virtual tasks and leverage virtual reality analytics to measure the success of these activities." In the next few months, the hospital will begin testing the VR product.

San Francisco physician Sonya Kim says when she first introduced VR to depressed and agitated patients, she thought, "Wow! This is phenomenal! People are happy!" In 2014, Kim developed Aloha VR, which she uses in group therapy sessions. "Our goal is to Excellerate the quality of life for older adults, and through VR, take senior care to the next level," says Kim, even for patients being treated for dementia. She has seen violent dementia patients who have mellowed after using VR.

Dr. David Rhew, chief medical officer for Samsung Electronics America, believes that VR may be more than just a distraction from pain and anxiety—it may be an genuine treatment. "Studies show there's a quantifiable impact, not just when the individual is receiving the VR but also after they take off the headset," says Rhew. A Cedars-Sinai Medical Center study—the largest controlled trial to date for VR pain treatment in hospitalized patients—showed VR reduced pain by 24%.

At the University of Washington, researchers did MRIs on one group who used VR before the imaging and another that didn't. "The VR group showed high levels of activity in the brain suggesting that neurochemicals were being fired," says Rhew. "There is a strong suggestion that VR is reducing pain due to some neurological or physiological impact on the brain."

Consumers have begun snapping up VR gadgets for home use. You can get Samsung's Gear VR headset for $100. But prices range from $15 for a Google Cardboard headset to nearly $600 for an Oculus Rift headset. (Oculus also offers a $99 version.)

The devices are also being used in long-term-care facilities. For the past few months, The Residence at Watertown Square, a Boston-area long-term-care facility, has been using VR. Resident engagement director Shauna Bennett has a preprogrammed tablet that guides viewers through a script she reads. Perhaps it's for an interactive tour of the Grand Canyon or watching stars at night in Alaska. "Five minutes after they try VR, they are so stimulated," she says. "It is a mood changer. They are laughing and smiling and engaged."

Rendever, which designed that Grand Canyon tour, has its product in more than 30 senior facilities; by year-end, it will be in hundreds more.

Social Robots on the Rise

For a growing number of households, Alexa, the AI-enabled, voice-controlled personal assistant on the Amazon Echo speaker, has become a family member. "She" can recite sports scores, play song requests or look up appointments. Alexa is joined by "sisters" Siri, Google Home and Cortana.

These devices are multiplying. A 2016 report from market research company Tractica predicts that 100 million consumer robots will ship between 2015 and 2020—including bots that vacuum and mow the lawn.

Coming soon is Jibo, a $749 tabletop robot due on the market this year that interacts with humans. Jibo can tell a joke when you walk in the room and even teach a grandchild simple math. A built-in camera lets it snap family photos at your say-so.

Robots like Jibo are being developed to react to your mood. Tired? Confused? Sad? Happy? The camera reads your facial expression and then converses with you. Elder care assistant robot ELLI Q, for the home market, is being tested with seniors in San Francisco.

Built on the Android platform, ELLI Q draws content from the Web. The robot is connected to a tablet and suggests activities such as "Want to play a game of bridge?" (if you say yes, it will pull up a Web-based game) or "How about a walk?" after you've sat in front of the TV for a while. The robot will remind you to take your medicine; it also reads body language.

Robotic pets are making the rounds in homes and senior facilities. At Front Porch, a nonprofit that manages senior communities and has a Center for Innovation and Wellbeing, residents in skilled nursing and memory care interact with Paro, a robotic seal, and a dog and cat from Hasbro's Joy for All Companion Pets.

Sue Norton-Clapham's mother Mabel Norton, 98, is an animal lover. Although Norton has dementia and her words are garbled, she talks to Lily, the seal, and Noodles, the cat. She has to share them with other residents of her Chula Vista, Cal., facility, so her daughter plans to buy her a robotic pet of her own. "I work and can't always be with Mom," says Norton-Clapham, "so it really makes me feel great that she is connecting to something and still able to have those emotions and be a person."

Hasbro's pets include three cats ($100 each) and a dog ($120) that looks like a Golden Retriever. When you speak, the dog looks toward you; stroke its back and you feel a "heartbeat."

Robotics can be put to use in other ways, too. For example, robotic exoskeletons are being developed for those who need help moving around after a stroke, perhaps, or who have trouble walking. A wearable mobile machine, powered by electric motors and other technology, allows a person's limbs to move. ReWalk Robotics makes ReWalk for the home and rehab facilities. The battery-powered exoskeleton has motors at the joints, so those with spinal-cord injuries can walk, turn and climb stairs.

Technology to Excellerate Your Health

"Connected" health technology is a godsend for people who want to grow old in their homes and retain their independence. According to an industry report by MarketResearch.com, the market for connected smart sensors is expected to reach $117 billion by 2020. Health tech lets users get help in an emergency with mobile medic alert–like personal emergency response systems; track health and habits via wearable devices that gather biometric cardiac, respiratory, sleep and activity data; and monitor chronic conditions. It also lets patients speak with doctors remotely in real time (known as telemedicine), partake in virtual rehab, anticipate falls and manage medication.

Through GPS, sensors, chips, cameras, voice activation, cellular connectivity and smartphone monitoring apps, technology provides a way to share information and offers peace of mind to family caregivers and loved ones. An adult child, for instance, can easily access the information by logging onto a smartphone, tablet or computer. Health tech company AliveCor sells a $99 smartphone-connected electrocardiogram that detects abnormal heart rhythms; called Kardia Mobile, the app on the smartphone lets the user see the results and take them to the doctor.

And don't forget mental health and well-being. Software such as Posit's Brain HQ (some brain exercises are free, but full access costs $14 a month or $96 a year) and Rosetta Stone's Fit Brains ($80 a year) can help keep the brain sharp. Other technologies let people stay socially connected and engaged. Integrated systems such as GrandCare ($999 to $1,499 plus $99 a month) and Independa (Independa-enabled LG smart TV ranges from $699 to $1,199) combine multiple functions such as videocalling, reminders and activity monitoring (including looking for unusual behavior).

Technology can also be used to manage medication. Not taking your medicine properly, or at all, can land you in the hospital—or worse. Today, there are smartphone apps and physical devices that release pills on schedule, and provide text or phone-call reminders if you forget to take your medicine. Apps, which vary in cost, include Medminder, Reminder Rosie, e-Pill and PillPack.

And there is a new world of ingestible sensors. Proteus Digital Health, a health technology company, is partnering with health care systems to prescribe medications with sensors for patients with heart failure, cardio metabolic risk and hepatitis-C.

Here's how it works: The medication is put into a capsule with a Federal Drug Administration–approved sensor the size of a grain of sand. Swallow the capsule and the sensor turns on when it reaches the stomach. It sends a signal to a small wearable sensor patch placed on your torso. The patch records the time you took your medication, the type of medicine and the dose. It then relays that information to your mobile device. If no information is relayed to the patch because you forgot to take your pill, the Proteus software sends you a reminder on your mobile device. The ingestible sensor passes through your body like food.

The Proteus sensor is currently being used in eight large U.S. health care systems, which are picking up the tab while these smart pills are being tested.

According to Dr. George Savage, co-founder of Proteus, fewer than 50% of people take their medication correctly. "Digital medicine helps doctors make better decisions," says Savage. Physicians can see if patients are failing to respond to the therapy or if it’s how they are taking the medicine that is at fault, he says.

All of these technologies are just the beginning, with many more in the works. For example, smart contact lenses are being developed to measure blood glucose from a wearer's tears to monitor diabetes. Novartis is working with Google to create a contact lens that has a tiny antenna that sends data to the user's smartphone if her glucose level is too high or too low. Another company, Medella Health, has the same goal. It'll be a few years until either is tested, approved and distributed.

Also on the horizon: Lighter and cheaper exoskeletons that pinpoint problem areas on the body. Let's say as your dad grows older, he develops a gait problem. A camera captures his movements and spots his weaknesses, then algorithms analyze the pictures so an engineer can make a brace or other assistive technology.

A few small exoskeletons are in use, such as ReWalk. But they aren't necessarily affordable. "Robotic prosthetic limbs cost anywhere from $5,000 to $50,000," says Majd Alwan, executive director for LeadingAge Center for Aging Services Technologies. But Alwan says he believes that over the next five years, prices will be halved as competition increases. With so many technological advancements under way, the future of aging looks golden.

Sat, 04 Jun 2022 18:26:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.kiplinger.com/article/retirement/t027-c000-s004-tech-revolution-benefits-the-aging.html
Killexams : Security Appliances Market is Anticipated to Reach $229.74 billion by 2030, Registering at a CAGR of 12.81% from 2021 to 2030

Advancements in industrial-grade digital technology, an increase in inclination toward cloud-based security appliances software, and a rise in need for improved supply chain and customer relationship management majorly contribute to the growth of the market. However, the lack of IT infrastructure in underdeveloped nations and the increase in security & privacy concerns hamper the growth of the security appliances market.

Major industry players such as – Cisco Systems, Inc., Check Point Software Technologies Ltd., Symantec Corporation, Intel Corporation, Fortinet, Inc., Palo Alto Networks, Inc., Bosch Sicherheitssysteme GmbH, Honeywell International Inc., Johnson Controls International plc. and Juniper Networks, Inc. 

The security appliances market size was valued at $69.18 billion in 2020, and is estimated to reach $229.74 billion by 2030, growing at a CAGR of 12.81% from 2021 to 2030.

Depending on the deployment model, the on-premise segment garnered the largest share in 2020, and is expected to continue this trend during the forecast period. This is attributed to numerous benefits provided by this on-premise deployment such as high level of data security and safety. On-premise deployment model enables installation of the software and permits applications to run on systems present in the premises of the organization, rather than at a distant facility such as server space or cloud. This model is appropriate for specific applications such as financial applications and health records with critical data that entail large data transfers and operations.  However, the cloud segment is expected to witness highest growth in the upcoming years. As cloud deployment does not need any investment in IT infrastructure as all data is stored on cloud server, which increases the demand for of security appliances software in small and medium scale organizations. Cloud-based deployment is an application licensing and delivery model, where a vendor or a service provider hosts applications remotely. This deployment model provides the IT team with a greater prospect to facilitate real business value to the organization through lower expected cost and an improved ability to focus on innovation and differentiation.

Download trial Report (Get Full Insights in PDF – 265 Pages) at:

https://www.alliedmarketresearch.com/request-sample/2144

On the basis of type, the content management segment dominated the overall security appliances industry in 2020 and is expected to continue this trend throughout the forecast period. Increased markets for cloud-based and cross-platform solutions have created opportunities for market expansion. In addition, integration with parallel products such as customer relationship management, analytics-driven content management, and cross-channel integration are some of the trends that have enhanced the adoption of content management among end-user industries. However, the unified threat management (UTM) segment is expected to witness the highest growth, and this trend is expected to continue during the forecast period. UTM is a solution that allows organizations and IT personnel to monitor and manage a wide variety of security-related applications and components, making them available to users in a secure manner. The development of such solutions that fulfill the impending need to secure an employee’s personal data at the workplace is expected to supplement the growth of UTM. The facility to prevent accidental and malicious data breaches by scanning text and common files is projected to boost market growth. The functionalities offered by UTM such as reduced network complexity and single-point and single-window administration for all security functions are anticipated to further facilitate the growth of the UTM market.

For Purchase Enquiry: https://www.alliedmarketresearch.com/purchase-enquiry/2144

As per Security Appliances Market Analysis. The COVID-19 outbreak had a positive impact on the growth of the security appliances market as the new technologies are helping enterprises to address the extensive capacity demand of security appliances even after the restrictions imposed by the governments and remote working. The outbreak of COVID-19 has affected communities globally while governments and companies are trying their best to respond faster to the challenges posed by this pandemic. However, from the first quarter of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic created an unbalanced health situation, with stringent restrictions to maintain social distancing and lockdown implemented across the world. Thus, with a major aim to contain this pandemic, the majority of the economies have enforced a complete shutdown, thereby leading to decline in business operations. Sectors such as manufacturing and transportation have been severely impacted, worsening the business scenario and resulting in colossal monetary and employment losses. However, this pandemic has elevated the growth of the security appliances market and is expected to exhibit an increase during the forecast period.

Latest news and industry developments in terms of market expansions, acquisitions, growth strategies, joint ventures and collaborations, product launches, market expansions etc. are included in the report.

>> LIMITED-TIME OFFER << Buy Now & Get Exclusive Discount on this Premium Report

Thanks for memorizing this article; you can also get an individual chapter-wise section or region-wise report versions like North America, Europe, or Asia.

About Us:

Allied Market Research (AMR) is a full-service market research and business-consulting wing of Allied Analytics LLP, based in Portland, Oregon. AMR provides global enterprises as well as medium and small businesses with unmatched quality of “Market Research Reports” and “Business Intelligence Solutions.” AMR has a targeted view to provide business insights and consulting to assist its clients to make strategic business decisions and achieve sustainable growth in their respective market domain.

AMR launched its user-based online library of reports and company profiles, Avenue. An e-access library is accessible from any device, anywhere, and at any time for entrepreneurs, stakeholders, and researchers and students at universities. With reports on more than 60,000 niche markets with data comprising of 600,000 pages along with company profiles on more than 12,000 firms, Avenue offers access to the entire repository of information through subscriptions. A hassle-free solution to clients’ requirements is complemented with analyst support and customization requests.

Wed, 22 Jun 2022 05:40:00 -0500 Allied Analytics en-US text/html https://www.digitaljournal.com/pr/security-appliances-market-is-anticipated-to-reach-229-74-billion-by-2030-registering-at-a-cagr-of-12-81-from-2021-to-2030
Killexams : Central America’s Turbulent Northern Triangle

Introduction

A rise in migrants coming from a region of Central America known as the Northern Triangle—comprised of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras—has cast a spotlight on a long-suffering part of the world. Governments in the region have made some efforts to mitigate the poverty, violence, and corruption that are driving citizens away, but the problems remain widespread.

More From Our Experts

Recent U.S. administrations have varied in their responses to the Northern Triangle challenge, which have included changes to foreign aid and immigration policies. So far, the Joe Biden administration has named senior U.S. officials to liaise with Northern Triangle governments, proposed a $4 billion plan to address migration’s root causes in Central America, and issued a series of executive orders regarding U.S. immigration and asylum procedures.

Who is leaving the Northern Triangle, and where are they going?

More on:

Latin America

El Salvador

Honduras

Guatemala

Immigration and Migration

Migrants, including women and children, continue to flee the troubled region in large numbers. On average, an estimated 407,000 people [PDF] have left annually in recent years, though this number plummeted in 2020 due to border closures and restrictions amid the COVID-19 pandemic.

But numbers have surged again as many Latin American governments lift border restrictions. Some migrants seek asylum or economic opportunities in other parts of Latin America or in Europe. However, most endure a treacherous journey north through Mexico to the United States. Hondurans account for the largest share of Northern Triangle migrants intercepted by U.S. border authorities, closely followed by Guatemalans and then Salvadorans.

Why have so many people fled the region?

Many interrelated factors are driving people from the Northern Triangle, including lack of economic opportunity, environmental challenges, and chronic violence.

More From Our Experts

The region is among the poorest in the Western Hemisphere. In 2020, all three countries ranked near the bottom for gross domestic product (GDP) per capita among Latin American and Caribbean states. Inequality and indigence have grown amid the pandemic. In July 2021, the Honduran government estimated that more than 73 percent of the country’s population lived below the poverty line, with nearly 54 percent living in extreme poverty.

Environmental crises, including a destructive coffee rust and devastating back-to-back hurricanes in 2020, have fueled food insecurity and driven migration. Many households depend on remittances, or money sent home by relatives or friends living and working abroad. Though they dropped early in the pandemic, remittances to Latin America amounted to nearly $135 billion in 2021, a 24 percent increase from the previous year, according to the Inter-American Dialogue, a Washington-based think tank. Remittances to the Northern Triangle made up nearly a quarter of that. Historically, corruption and meager tax revenues [PDF], particularly in Guatemala, have crippled governments’ ability to provide social services.

More on:

Latin America

El Salvador

Honduras

Guatemala

Immigration and Migration

Many interrelated factors are driving people from the Northern Triangle, including lack of economic opportunity, environmental challenges, and chronic violence.

Many of the region’s economic problems stem from deep-rooted violence. Decades of civil war and political instability [PDF] planted the seeds for the complex criminal ecosystem that plagues the region today, which includes transnational gangs such as Mara Salvatrucha (MS-13) and the Eighteenth Street Gang (M-18). Critics say that U.S. interventions during the Cold War helped destabilize the region. Homicide rates in the Northern Triangle have been among the world’s highest in recent decades. In 2019, Honduras saw its first rise in murders in seven years, though all three countries recorded declines in 2020 due to pandemic-related restrictions.

Women in the region are also fleeing gender-based violence, which the pandemic has exacerbated. As of 2020, El Salvador and Honduras had some of Latin America’s highest rates of femicide [PDF], or gender-based murders of women and girls.

Looking ahead, experts say that population growth and climate change, which is linked to an increasing number of extreme weather events, could put further strain on Northern Triangle economies, pushing more people to migrate.

How have Northern Triangle governments attempted to address these problems?

Successive governments have tried various development-centric, tough-on-crime interventions to tackle the region’s enduring problems, but they have yielded limited gains.

Economic instability. The region’s most significant coordinated effort to reduce economic instability has been the U.S.-backed Plan of the Alliance for Prosperity (A4P). Aimed at addressing the drivers of irregular migration, A4P made commitments to increase production, strengthen institutions, expand opportunities, and Excellerate public safety. But its outcomes are disputed and difficult to measure.

GDPs were rising across the Northern Triangle before the pandemic. However, monthslong COVID-19 restrictions paralyzed the vast informal sectors that keep regional economies afloat, fueling poverty and food insecurity. Northern Triangle countries borrowed heavily to roll out support programs, but institutional weaknesses impeded their delivery of aid and public services. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) estimates that they suffered economic contractions of between 1.5 percent and 8.6 percent in 2020.

Corruption. Endemic corruption has long been a drag on the region’s economies. In 2006, Guatemala and the United Nations agreed to create the International Commission Against Impunity in Guatemala (CICIG), an independent investigatory body that helped convict more than four hundred people, including a sitting president, and contributed to a significant reduction in Guatemala’s homicide rate.

In 2019, El Salvador announced its own anticorruption panel, which was backed by the Organization of American States (OAS), a regional bloc. Critics said the body—called the International Commission Against Impunity in El Salvador (CICIES)—had limited power, questionable independence, and opaque inner workings, but it did help uncover mismanagement in pandemic-related government spending. Honduras also established an anticorruption committee with the OAS, known as the Mission to Support the Fight Against Corruption and Impunity in Honduras (MACCIH), and it fired 40 percent of its police as part of sweeping reforms beginning in 2016. However, security forces have continued to violate human rights [PDF] without consequence.

All three countries have backslid on their progress. After CICIG began investigating President Jimmy Morales, he allowed its mandate to expire in 2019, and Guatemalan judicial officials who promote the rule of law have faced retribution. The mandate for Honduras’s anticorruption body was likewise left to expire in 2020, months before the country eased penalties for drug trafficking and certain corruption. Graft allegedly exists at the highest levels of the Honduran government: in April 2022, the government extradited former President Juan Orlando Hernandez to the United States to face drug- and weapons-trafficking charges.

Despite launching CICIES, Salvadoran President Nayib Bukele and his administration have similarly faced accusations of graft, and experts warn of rising authoritarianism under the highly popular leader. Since taking office in 2019, Bukele has threatened press freedom, stormed parliament with security forces, defied the Supreme Court, and consolidated power with the help of a ruling party–controlled legislature. In June 2021, his government announced the termination of its deal for CICIES with the OAS.

Violence. Beginning in the early 2000s, Northern Triangle governments implemented a series of controversial anti-crime policies that significantly expanded police powers and enacted harsher punishments for gang members.

Though popular [PDF], these policies in most cases failed to reduce crime and may have led to an increase in gang membership. Mass incarcerations increased the burden on already overcrowded prisons, many of which are effectively run by gangs. The U.S. State Department, human rights groups, and journalists have raised concerns about these policies, denouncing poor prison conditions and police violence against civilians.

In a change of tactic, Salvadoran President Mauricio Funes brokered a truce in 2012 between the MS-13 and M-18 gangs, which experts credited with halving the country’s homicide rate. However, murders skyrocketed after the agreement fell apart in 2014, and the negotiations are faulted for giving the gangs political legitimacy. In 2016, a new tough-on-crime Salvadoran government designated gangs as “terrorist groups,” and authorities arrested officials and others who helped arrange the truce. In 2020, Bukele’s government was itself accused of negotiating with MS-13. Some experts suspect an undisclosed deal between authorities and gang members contributed to a plunge in homicides that year, though a sudden surge in killings in March 2022 renewed concerns over the Bukele administration’s controversial strategy.

COVID-19 restrictions helped temporarily reduce homicides across the Northern Triangle and briefly curtailed revenue for criminal groups. However, experts say these groups quickly adapted to the health crisis, seizing on new opportunities to expand their power.

Migration. Regional governments have sought not only to address migration’s drivers but also to physically halt migrants on the move. For example, Guatemalan authorities used force to break up a so-called caravan of migrants bound for the United States in January 2021. Guatemala’s northern neighbor, Mexico, has sporadically worked to prevent migrants from crossing its southern border, including by deploying thousands of National Guard members to bolster border enforcement.

What’s been the U.S. approach to the Northern Triangle?

Over the past twenty years, the United States has tried to help Northern Triangle countries manage irregular migration flows by fighting economic insecurity and violence. However, critics say U.S. policies have been largely reactive, prompted by upturns in migration to the U.S.-Mexico border.

Critics say U.S. policies have been largely reactive, prompted by upturns in migration to the U.S.-Mexico border.

Barack Obama administration. President Obama and Congress isolated the Central America portion of the Merida Initiative, a U.S. assistance program benefiting the region and Mexico, and rebranded it as the Central America Regional Security Initiative (CARSI) [PDF]. Over the years, the U.S. government has budgeted more than $2 billion in aid through CARSI to help the region’s law enforcement, counternarcotics agencies, and justice systems. Midway through his second term, Obama recast the U.S. strategy [PDF] for Central America, forging what was intended to be a more holistic, interagency approach to complement A4P.

After a 2014 upswing in migration from the region, particularly by unaccompanied minors, the administration partnered with Northern Triangle governments on anti-smuggling operations and information campaigns intended to deter would-be migrants. It also cracked down on undocumented immigrants inside the United States. Court-mandated removals during Obama’s administration outpaced those under President George W. Bush, totaling about three million. After Mexico, the Northern Triangle countries accounted for the largest shares of Obama-era removals.

Donald Trump administration. Trump kept Obama’s framework for the region but prioritized stemming migration to the United States and ramping up border security. In 2018, the administration implemented a zero-tolerance policy [PDF] that sought to criminally prosecute all adults entering the United States illegally, which resulted in authorities controversially separating several thousand children from their parents. The administration also sparked criticism for deploying troops and diverting funds to secure the U.S.-Mexico border, as well as for negotiating deals with Mexico and the Northern Triangle governments to send asylum seekers back to countries they traveled through en route to the United States. Of the Northern Triangle governments, only Guatemala’s began implementing the agreement, but it suspended the deal in 2020. Trump also sought to end temporary protected status, a program that allows migrants from crisis-stricken countries to live and work in the United States for a period of time, for Hondurans and Salvadorans.

In 2019, the Trump administration began withholding most aid to the Northern Triangle over the region’s failure to curb migration; it reportedly reinstated the assistance [PDF] by the following year. However, annual funding for the Obama-era Central America strategy—most of which has gone to Northern Triangle countries—dropped by almost one-third during Trump’s presidency.

Apprehensions of Northern Triangle migrants at the U.S. southern border plunged in the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic after soaring in fiscal year 2019. In March 2020, border authorities began expelling most migrants under Title 42, a pandemic-related public health order. Critics say the Trump administration used this and other measures to unnecessarily restrict immigration. Additionally, some observers allege that Trump overlooked governance issues in the Northern Triangle. Weeks before Trump left office, Congress passed legislation championed by Representative Eliot Engel (D-NY) that requires the United States to name and sanction corrupt or undemocratic officials in the region.

Joe Biden administration. The Biden administration has taken steps to roll back several Trump-era immigration policies related to the Northern Triangle. Notable among them are: canceling the asylum deals with El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras; raising the refugee cap to 125,000; reserving temporary visas for workers from the Northern Triangle; and reinstating an Obama-era program, which Trump discontinued in 2017, that allows eligible children from the region to join their parents already living in the United States. It has also launched a $4 billion plan [PDF] for Central America that seeks to mitigate the root causes of migration.

At the same time, the administration has sought to discourage irregular migration through messaging campaigns; called on Central American and Mexican officials to disrupt migrant flows; and continued to expel migrants—with the exceptions of unaccompanied children and some families and adults—under Title 42. Additionally, the administration has tried to end the controversial Migrant Protection Protocols, but legal setbacks have stalled those efforts.

In March 2021, the Biden administration named Ricardo Zuniga as special envoy for the Northern Triangle and designated Vice President Kamala Harris to lead regional diplomacy aimed at curbing migration to the U.S. southern border. Harris’s involvement has so far focused on border enforcement, stimulating private-sector investment, and supporting civil society.

Wed, 22 Jun 2022 03:20:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/central-americas-turbulent-northern-triangle
Killexams : Indiana Public Media News

{ "banners": { "tv" : [ {"url" : "https://indianapublicmedia.secureallegiance.com/wtiu/WebModule/Donate.aspx?P=WTIUMCBNR&PAGETYPE=PLG&CHECK=2T6mTyo6yYuMn%2bAFYFwp%2bq1gzMC6uhq5nDjkJobrCdg%3d", "img" : "https://indianapublicmedia.org/images/banner-images/6-23-22-wtiu-fye-bnr.jpg", "startingDate" : "1655956800000", "endingDate" : "1656475140000"} , {"url" : "https://indianapublicmedia.secureallegiance.com/wtiu/WebModule/Donate.aspx?P=WTIUMCBNR&PAGETYPE=PLG&CHECK=2T6mTyo6yYuMn%2bAFYFwp%2bq1gzMC6uhq5nDjkJobrCdg%3d", "img" : "https://indianapublicmedia.org/images/banner-images/6-29-22-wfiu-cye-bnr.jpg", "startingDate" : "1656475200000", "endingDate" : "1656561540000"} , {"url" : "https://indianapublicmedia.secureallegiance.com/wtiu/WebModule/Donate.aspx?P=WTIUMCBNR&PAGETYPE=PLG&CHECK=2T6mTyo6yYuMn%2bAFYFwp%2bq1gzMC6uhq5nDjkJobrCdg%3d", "img" : "https://indianapublicmedia.org/images/banner-images/6-30-22-wtiu-fye-bnr.jpg", "startingDate" : "1656561600000", "endingDate" : "1656647940000"} , {"url" : "https://indianapublicmedia.secureallegiance.com/wtiu/WebModule/Donate.aspx?P=WTIUMCBNR&PAGETYPE=PLG&CHECK=2T6mTyo6yYuMn%2bAFYFwp%2bq1gzMC6uhq5nDjkJobrCdg%3d", "img" : "https://indianapublicmedia.org/images/banner-images/6-6-22-to-6-8-22-wtiu-bnr.jpg", "startingDate" : "1654488000000", "endingDate" : "1654747140000"} , {"url" : "https://indianapublicmedia.secureallegiance.com/wtiu/WebModule/Donate.aspx?P=WTIUMCBNR&PAGETYPE=PLG&CHECK=2T6mTyo6yYuMn%2bAFYFwp%2bq1gzMC6uhq5nDjkJobrCdg%3d", "img" : "https://indianapublicmedia.org/images/banner-images/6-9-22-to-6-10-22-wtiu-bnr.jpg", "startingDate" : "1654747200000", "endingDate" : "1654919940000"} , {"url" : "https://indianapublicmedia.secureallegiance.com/wtiu/WebModule/Donate.aspx?P=WTIUMCBNR&PAGETYPE=PLG&CHECK=2T6mTyo6yYuMn%2bAFYFwp%2bq1gzMC6uhq5nDjkJobrCdg%3d", "img" : "https://indianapublicmedia.org/images/banner-images/6-11-22-wtiu-bnr.jpg", "startingDate" : "1654920000000", "endingDate" : "1655006340000"} , {"url" : "https://indianapublicmedia.secureallegiance.com/wtiu/WebModule/Donate.aspx?P=WTIUMCBNR&PAGETYPE=PLG&CHECK=2T6mTyo6yYuMn%2bAFYFwp%2bq1gzMC6uhq5nDjkJobrCdg%3d", "img" : "https://indianapublicmedia.org/images/banner-images/6-12-22-wtiu-bnr.jpg", "startingDate" : "1655006400000", "endingDate" : "1655092740000"} , {"url" : "https://indianapublicmedia.secureallegiance.com/wtiu/WebModule/Donate.aspx?P=WTIUMCBNR&PAGETYPE=PLG&CHECK=2T6mTyo6yYuMn%2bAFYFwp%2bq1gzMC6uhq5nDjkJobrCdg%3d", "img" : "https://indianapublicmedia.org/images/banner-images/3-20-22-and-4-24-22-sanditon-webbnr.jpg", "startingDate" : "1647748800000", "endingDate" : "1647835140000"} , {"url" : "https://indianapublicmedia.secureallegiance.com/wtiu/WebModule/Donate.aspx?P=WTIUMCBNR&PAGETYPE=PLG&CHECK=2T6mTyo6yYuMn%2bAFYFwp%2bq1gzMC6uhq5nDjkJobrCdg%3d", "img" : "https://indianapublicmedia.org/images/banner-images/3-20-22-and-4-24-22-sanditon-webbnr.jpg", "startingDate" : "1650772800000", "endingDate" : "1650859140000"} ], "radio" : [ {"url" : "https://indianapublicmedia.secureallegiance.com/wtiu/WebModule/Donate.aspx?P=WFIUFDBNR&PAGETYPE=PLG&CHECK=tAXekcDG%2flgkr2wNtsqwhq1gzMC6uhq5nDjkJobrCdg%3d", "img" : "https://indianapublicmedia.org/images/banner-images/6-17-22-wfiu-fye-bnr.jpg", "startingDate" : "1655438400000", "endingDate" : "1656129540000"} , {"url" : "https://indianapublicmedia.secureallegiance.com/wtiu/WebModule/Donate.aspx?P=WFIUFDBNR&PAGETYPE=PLG&CHECK=tAXekcDG%2flgkr2wNtsqwhq1gzMC6uhq5nDjkJobrCdg%3d", "img" : "https://indianapublicmedia.org/images/banner-images/6-25-22-wfiu-fye-lightbox.jpg", "startingDate" : "1656129600000", "endingDate" : "1656561540000"} , {"url" : "https://indianapublicmedia.secureallegiance.com/wtiu/WebModule/Donate.aspx?P=WFIUFDBNR&PAGETYPE=PLG&CHECK=tAXekcDG%2flgkr2wNtsqwhq1gzMC6uhq5nDjkJobrCdg%3d", "img" : "https://indianapublicmedia.org/images/banner-images/6-30-22-wfiu-fye-bnr.jpg", "startingDate" : "1656561600000", "endingDate" : "1656647940000"} , {"url" : "https://indianapublicmedia.secureallegiance.com/wtiu/WebModule/Donate.aspx?P=WFIUFDBNR&PAGETYPE=PLG&CHECK=tAXekcDG%2flgkr2wNtsqwhq1gzMC6uhq5nDjkJobrCdg%3d", "img" : "https://indianapublicmedia.org/images/banner-images/3-25-22-wfiu-bnr.jpg", "startingDate" : "1648180800000", "endingDate" : "1648267140000"} , {"url" : "https://indianapublicmedia.secureallegiance.com/wtiu/WebModule/Donate.aspx?P=WFIUFDBNR&PAGETYPE=PLG&CHECK=tAXekcDG%2flgkr2wNtsqwhq1gzMC6uhq5nDjkJobrCdg%3d", "img" : "https://indianapublicmedia.org/images/banner-images/3-26-22-to-3-27-22-wfiu-bnr.jpg", "startingDate" : "1648267200000", "endingDate" : "1648439940000"} , {"url" : "https://indianapublicmedia.secureallegiance.com/wtiu/WebModule/Donate.aspx?P=WFIUFDBNR&PAGETYPE=PLG&CHECK=tAXekcDG%2flgkr2wNtsqwhq1gzMC6uhq5nDjkJobrCdg%3d", "img" : "https://indianapublicmedia.org/images/banner-images/3-28-22-wfiu-bnr-am.jpg", "startingDate" : "1648440000000", "endingDate" : "1648497540000"} , {"url" : "https://indianapublicmedia.secureallegiance.com/wtiu/WebModule/Donate.aspx?P=WFIUFDBNR&PAGETYPE=PLG&CHECK=tAXekcDG%2flgkr2wNtsqwhq1gzMC6uhq5nDjkJobrCdg%3d", "img" : "https://indianapublicmedia.org/images/banner-images/3-28-22-wfiu-bnr-pm.jpg", "startingDate" : "1648497600000", "endingDate" : "1648508400000"} ] }}

{ "lightboxes": { "tv" : [ {"url" : "https://indianapublicmedia.secureallegiance.com/wtiu/WebModule/Donate.aspx?P=WTIUMCLB&PAGETYPE=PLG&CHECK=2T6mTyo6yYtDgsQprWuZNm3L5BYddGq6PVAl6UEf65g%3d", "img" : "https://indianapublicmedia.org/images/banner-images/6-23-22-wtiu-fye-lightbox.jpg", "startingDate" : "1655956800000", "endingDate" : "1656475140000"} , {"url" : "https://indianapublicmedia.secureallegiance.com/wtiu/WebModule/Donate.aspx?P=WTIUMCLB&PAGETYPE=PLG&CHECK=2T6mTyo6yYtDgsQprWuZNm3L5BYddGq6PVAl6UEf65g%3d", "img" : "https://indianapublicmedia.org/images/banner-images/6-29-22-wtiu-fye-lightbox.jpg", "startingDate" : "1656475200000", "endingDate" : "1656561540000"} , {"url" : "https://indianapublicmedia.secureallegiance.com/wtiu/WebModule/Donate.aspx?P=WTIUMCLB&PAGETYPE=PLG&CHECK=2T6mTyo6yYtDgsQprWuZNm3L5BYddGq6PVAl6UEf65g%3d", "img" : "https://indianapublicmedia.org/images/banner-images/6-30-22-wtiu-fye-lightbox.jpg", "startingDate" : "1656561600000", "endingDate" : "1656647940000"} , {"url" : "https://indianapublicmedia.secureallegiance.com/wtiu/WebModule/Donate.aspx?P=WTIUMCLB&PAGETYPE=PLG&CHECK=2T6mTyo6yYtDgsQprWuZNm3L5BYddGq6PVAl6UEf65g%3d", "img" : "https://indianapublicmedia.org/images/banner-images/6-6-22-to-6-8-22-wtiu-lightbox.jpg", "startingDate" : "1654488000000", "endingDate" : "1654747140000"} , {"url" : "https://indianapublicmedia.secureallegiance.com/wtiu/WebModule/Donate.aspx?P=WTIUMCLB&PAGETYPE=PLG&CHECK=2T6mTyo6yYtDgsQprWuZNm3L5BYddGq6PVAl6UEf65g%3d", "img" : "https://indianapublicmedia.org/images/banner-images/6-9-22-to-6-10-22-wtiu-lightbox.jpg", "startingDate" : "1654747200000", "endingDate" : "1654919940000"} , {"url" : "https://indianapublicmedia.secureallegiance.com/wtiu/WebModule/Donate.aspx?P=WTIUMCLB&PAGETYPE=PLG&CHECK=2T6mTyo6yYtDgsQprWuZNm3L5BYddGq6PVAl6UEf65g%3d", "img" : "https://indianapublicmedia.org/images/banner-images/6-11-22-wtiu-lightbox.jpg", "startingDate" : "1654920000000", "endingDate" : "1655006340000"} , {"url" : "https://indianapublicmedia.secureallegiance.com/wtiu/WebModule/Donate.aspx?P=WTIUMCLB&PAGETYPE=PLG&CHECK=2T6mTyo6yYtDgsQprWuZNm3L5BYddGq6PVAl6UEf65g%3d", "img" : "https://indianapublicmedia.org/images/banner-images/6-12-22-wtiu-lightbox.jpg", "startingDate" : "1655006400000", "endingDate" : "1655092740000"} , {"url" : "https://indianapublicmedia.secureallegiance.com/wtiu/WebModule/Donate.aspx?P=WTIUMCLB&PAGETYPE=PLG&CHECK=2T6mTyo6yYtDgsQprWuZNm3L5BYddGq6PVAl6UEf65g%3d", "img" : "https://indianapublicmedia.org/images/banner-images/3-20-22-and-4-24-22-sanditon-lightbox.jpg", "startingDate" : "1647748800000", "endingDate" : "1647835140000"} , {"url" : "https://indianapublicmedia.secureallegiance.com/wtiu/WebModule/Donate.aspx?P=WTIUMCLB&PAGETYPE=PLG&CHECK=2T6mTyo6yYtDgsQprWuZNm3L5BYddGq6PVAl6UEf65g%3d", "img" : "https://indianapublicmedia.org/images/banner-images/3-20-22-and-4-24-22-sanditon-lightbox.jpg", "startingDate" : "1650772800000", "endingDate" : "1650859140000"} ], "radio" : [ {"url" : "https://indianapublicmedia.secureallegiance.com/wtiu/WebModule/Donate.aspx?P=WFIUFDLB&PAGETYPE=PLG&CHECK=tAXekcDG%2flizvLEFSbjC6m3L5BYddGq6PVAl6UEf65g%3d", "img" : "https://indianapublicmedia.org/images/banner-images/6-17-22-wfiu-fye-lightbox.jpg", "startingDate" : "1655438400000", "endingDate" : "1655524740000"} , {"url" : "https://indianapublicmedia.secureallegiance.com/wtiu/WebModule/Donate.aspx?P=WFIUFDLB&PAGETYPE=PLG&CHECK=tAXekcDG%2flizvLEFSbjC6m3L5BYddGq6PVAl6UEf65g%3d", "img" : "https://indianapublicmedia.org/images/banner-images/6-25-22-wfiu-fye-bnr.jpg", "startingDate" : "1656129600000", "endingDate" : "1656475140000"} , {"url" : "https://indianapublicmedia.secureallegiance.com/wtiu/WebModule/Donate.aspx?P=WFIUFDLB&PAGETYPE=PLG&CHECK=tAXekcDG%2flizvLEFSbjC6m3L5BYddGq6PVAl6UEf65g%3d", "img" : "https://indianapublicmedia.org/images/banner-images/6-30-22-wfiu-fye-lightbox.jpg", "startingDate" : "1656561600000", "endingDate" : "1656647940000"} , {"url" : "https://indianapublicmedia.secureallegiance.com/wtiu/WebModule/Donate.aspx?P=WFIUFDLB&PAGETYPE=PLG&CHECK=tAXekcDG%2flizvLEFSbjC6m3L5BYddGq6PVAl6UEf65g%3d", "img" : "https://indianapublicmedia.org/images/banner-images/3-25-22-wfiu-lightbox.jpg", "startingDate" : "1648180800000", "endingDate" : "1648267140000"} , {"url" : "https://indianapublicmedia.secureallegiance.com/wtiu/WebModule/Donate.aspx?P=WFIUFDLB&PAGETYPE=PLG&CHECK=tAXekcDG%2flizvLEFSbjC6m3L5BYddGq6PVAl6UEf65g%3d", "img" : "https://indianapublicmedia.org/images/banner-images/3-26-22-to-3-27-22-wfiu-lightbox.jpg", "startingDate" : "1648267200000", "endingDate" : "1648439940000"} , {"url" : "https://indianapublicmedia.secureallegiance.com/wtiu/WebModule/Donate.aspx?P=WFIUFDLB&PAGETYPE=PLG&CHECK=tAXekcDG%2flizvLEFSbjC6m3L5BYddGq6PVAl6UEf65g%3d", "img" : "https://indianapublicmedia.org/images/banner-images/3-28-22-wfiu-lightbox-am.jpg", "startingDate" : "1648440000000", "endingDate" : "1648497540000"} , {"url" : "https://indianapublicmedia.secureallegiance.com/wtiu/WebModule/Donate.aspx?P=WFIUFDLB&PAGETYPE=PLG&CHECK=tAXekcDG%2flizvLEFSbjC6m3L5BYddGq6PVAl6UEf65g%3d", "img" : "https://indianapublicmedia.org/images/banner-images/3-28-22-wfiu-lightbox-pm.jpg", "startingDate" : "1648497600000", "endingDate" : "1648508400000"} ] }}

news@indianapublicmedia.org and follow us on Twitter: @AskTheMayor 

Ask The Mayor header
From left: Mayor Jim Lienhoop (R-Columbus), Mayor Duke Bennett (R-Terre Haute), Mayor John Hamilton (D-Bloomington), and Nashville Municipal Consultant Dax Norton.
  • First Wednesday of the month: Columbus Mayor Jim Lienhoop (R)
  • Second Wednesday of the month: Terre Haute Mayor Duke Bennett (R)
  • Third Wednesday of the month: Bloomington Mayor John Hamilton (D)
  • Fourth Wednesday of the month: Nashville Municipal Consultant Dax Norton

true

Previous Shows

true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true ( ask-the-mayor-terre-hautes-bennett-on-casino-preparations,-funds-for-new-parking-garage| ask-the-mayor-columbus-lienhoop-on-elevating-city-status,-readi-grant-allocation| ask-the-mayor-bloomingtons-hamilton-on-sarah-dye-online-market,-2-women-taking-first-steps-to-enter-mayoral-race| ask-the-mayor-terre-hautes-bennett-on-school-shootings,-casino-groundbreaking,-failed-referendum| nashvilles-nancy-crocker-on-covid-rise,-human-rights-ordinance| ask-the-mayor-bloomingtons-hamilton-on-tax-increase,-high-speed-internet| nashvilles-crocker-on-brown-county-playhouse,-human-rights-ordinance| ask-the-mayor-bloomingtons-hamilton-on-tax-increase,-fiscal-transparency| ask-the-mayor-terre-hautes-bennett-on-convention-center-opening,-turn-to-the-river-project| ask-the-mayor-columbus-lienhoop-on-pandemic-fallout,-housing-development| nashville-council-president-joins-ask-the-mayor-show,-talks-infrastructure-needs| ask-the-mayor-bloomingtons-hamilton-on-creamery-smokestack,-tax-hike,-annexation| ask-the-mayor-terre-hautes-bennett-on-sewer-rate-increases,-convention-center-opening,-gas-prices| ask-the-mayor-columbus-lienhoop-on-masks,-ukrainian-solidarity,-conference-center-study| ask-the-mayor-bloomingtons-hamilton-on-annexation-numbers,-food-and-beverage-tax,-mask-mandate| ask-the-mayor-terre-hautes-bennett-on-winter-storm-cleanup,-neighborhood-forums| ask-the-mayor-columbus-lienhoop-on-snow-storm,-tax-cuts,-conference-center| nashville-municipal-consultant-on-2021-accomplishments,-tourism,-innkeepers-tax| ask-the-mayor-bloomingtons-hamilton-on-remonstration,-city-covid-cases,-waldron| ask-the-mayor-terre-hautes-bennett-on-vaccine-mandates,-state-tax-cuts| ask-the-mayor-columbus-lienhoop-on-tax-cuts,-new-grant-money,-fair-oaks-mall| ask-the-mayor-bloomingtons-hamilton-on-masks,-remonstration,-lead-testing| ask-the-mayor-terre-hautes-bennett-on-covid-surge,-casino-operator| ask-the-mayor-columbus-lienhoop-on-covid-trending-in-wrong-direction,-high-speed-internet-infrastructure| ask-the-mayor-bloomingtons-hamilton-on-lead-contamination,-high-speed-internet| questions-for-the-bloomington-mayor-submit-them-here.| ask-the-mayor-columbus-lienhoop-on-fair-oaks-mall,-urban-grocer-development| nashvilles-municipal-consultant-dax-norton-on-tourism-crowds,-maintaining-whole-life-residents| ask-the-mayor-bloomingtons-hamilton-on-budget-rift,-remonstration,-re-election| ask-the-mayor-terre-hautes-bennett-on-police-retention,-casino-license| nashvilles-municipal-consultant-dax-norton-on-preparing-for-fall-tourists,-police-budget| ask-the-mayor-bloomingtons-hamilton-on-annexation-questions,-police-pay| ask-the-mayor-terre-hautes-bennett-doesnt-believe-census-numbers,-police-station-move-date| ask-the-mayor-columbus-lienhoop-on-afghan-refugees,-proposed-amtrak-service| ask-the-mayor-municipal-consultant-norton-on-nashville-covid,-water-utility-needs| ask-the-mayor-terre-hautes-duke-bennett-on-no-mask-mandates,-annexation| ask-the-mayor-bloomingtons-hamilton-on-annexation-and-police,-kirkwood-flooding| ask-the-mayor-columbus-lienhoop-on-reopening,-sewer-rate,-fairoaks-mall-renaming| nashville-municipal-consultant-dax-norton-on-rising-covid-rates,-utility-expansion-to-state-park| ask-the-mayor-bloomingtons-hamilton-on-duplex-ordinance,-annexation,-july-4th-parade| ask-the-mayor-terre-hautes-bennett-on-vaccine-hesitancy,-convention-center-progress| ask-the-mayor-columbus-lienhoop-on-vaccination-hesitancy,-airpark-campus| ask-the-mayor-nashville-enforcing-business-restrictions,-water-sewer-infrastucture| ask-the-mayor-bloomingtons-hamilton-on-covid-metrics,-upzoning,-and-your-questions| ask-the-mayor-terre-hautes-bennett-on-rescue-plan-funds,-threshold-for-restrictions| ask-the-mayor-columbus-lienhoop-on-extending-mask-mandate,-federal-8-million-boost| ask-the-mayor-bloomingtons-hamilton-answers-your-questions| ask-the-mayor-terre-hautes-bennet-on-a-year-of-covid,-new-fairbanks-attraction| ask-the-mayor-columbus-lienhoop-on-reaching-herd-immunity,-riverfront-project| ask-the-mayor-nashville-zoning,-new-utility-board,-tree-trimming| ask-the-mayor-bloomingtons-hamilton-on-udo-zoning-changes,-hospital-site-redevelopment| ask-the-mayor-terre-hautes-bennett-on-vaccination-progress,-another-casino-delay| ask-the-mayor-columbus-lienhoop-on-new-vaccination-age-limit,-urban-grocer-development| nashvilles-municipal-consultant-dax-norton-on-tourist-boom-during-pandemic| ask-the-mayor-bloomingtons-hamilton-on-vaccine-availability,-seminary-park| ask-the-mayor-terre-hautes-bennett-on-insurrection,-vaccine-distribution| ask-the-mayor-columbus-lienhoop-on-vaccinations,-urban-grocer| ask-the-mayor-bloomingtons-hamilton-on-covid-vaccine,-city-park-overnight-camping| ask-the-mayor-terre-hautes-bennett-on-contracting-covid-19,-restrictions| ask-the-mayor-columbus-lienhoop-on-covid-hospital-spike,-downtown-development| ask-the-mayor-bloomingtons-hamilton-on-covid-spike,-election| ask-the-mayor-bloomingtons-hamilton-on-long-early-voting-lines,-covid-case-increases| ask-the-mayor-terre-hautes-bennett-on-coronavirus-spike,-holiday-events| ask-the-mayor-columbus-lienhoop-on-early-voting,-overpass-opening,-halloween| Ask The Mayor Bloomingtons Hamilton On Convention Center, Housing| )

true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true true

VIEW MORE STORIES &#9660

April 21, 2021

feature

Ask The Mayor: Bloomington's Hamilton On COVID Metrics, Upzoning, And Your Questions

The mayor addresses COVID metrics, uptick in cases, Rescue Plan funding, herd immunity, senior citizen parking downtown, UDO zoning, IU's new president, and more.

Wed, 29 Jun 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://indianapublicmedia.org/news/topics/ask-the-mayor.php
Killexams : Gov. Gretchen Whitmer, seeking a second four-year term, airs first TV campaign ad of 2022

LANSING — Gov. Gretchen Whitmer highlights challenges she has faced and touts her administration's accomplishments in the areas of child care and education in her campaign's first TV ad of 2022.

"The last few years have been tough. But we're tougher, and getting things done right now," Whitmer says in the 30-second ad.

Gov. Gretchen Whitmer's first campaign ad of 2022 touts her administration's accomplishments without raising taxes.

The ad opens with Whitmer saying that both her daughters are now in college, but she remembers the days when she was working full-time and "juggling a newborn" while her mother had cancer.

"It was a lot," Whitmer says in the ad. "All over Michigan, people are facing those same struggles."

More: Whitmer urges protection for Americans seeking abortions in Canada, but no influx yet

More: Whitmer, lawmakers agree to $76 billion budget deal — but not tax cuts yet

The ad says that since taking office in 2019, Whitmer's administration has made child care more affordable, made it a priority to get students back in classrooms after the pandemic paused in-person instruction, and made record investments in K-12 education, without raising taxes.

Republicans, who rejected Whitmer's proposed 45-cent-per-gallon increase in the state fuel tax to help fulfill her 2018 campaign promise to "fix the damn roads," have criticized her for not doing enough to move students back into classrooms from virtual learning more quickly. Whitmer has vetoed bills passed by the Republican Legislature to cut Michigan's personal income tax, saying they are fiscally irresponsible because most of the state's budget surplus is only short-term.

Republicans slammed the new ad.

“Gretchen Whitmer appears to be living in a fantasy world where one day she can try and raise taxes and the next she takes credit for Republican accomplishments," said Chris Gustafson, a spokesman for the Republican Governors Association. "Michiganders deserve a Republican governor who will fight for them and deliver real relief."

Five Republican candidates are on the Aug. 2 Republican primary ballot for governor: Norton Shores businesswoman Tudor Dixon; Ottawa County real estate agent Ryan Kelley; Farmington Hills retired pastor Ralph Rebandt; Oakland County businessman Kevin Rinke; and Kalamazoo chiropractor Garrett Soldano. Also, former Detroit Police Chief James Craig is running as a write-in candidate after being disqualified from the ballot over fraudulent signatures.

The winner of the GOP primary will face Whitmer in the Nov. 8 general election.

Contact Paul Egan: 517-372-8660 or pegan@freepress.com. Follow him on Twitter @paulegan4Read more on Michigan politics and sign up for our elections newsletter

Become a subscriber.

This article originally appeared on Detroit Free Press: Gov. Gretchen Whitmer airs first TV campaign ad of 2022

Tue, 12 Jul 2022 06:48:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.yahoo.com/news/gov-gretchen-whitmer-seeking-second-122052821.html
Killexams : The wear and tear of 26.2: dermatological injuries reported on marathon day

Abstract

Whether it is to take on the challenge, to get in shape and lose weight, to relieve stress, or to enjoy the outdoors, people have increasingly turned to the marathon as their sporting event of choice. Although there are many health benefits, beginners should be aware that injuries are quite common in marathon runners. Among these are the wear and tear injuries to the skin. This is a review of the most commonly reported dermatological injuries on marathon day.

  • marathon
  • running
  • injuries
  • skin disease
  • dermatology

Dermatological injuries reported in the marathon literature include frictional skin injuries, jogger’s nipples, chafing and other abrasions, tinea pedis, and jogger’s toe.

BLISTERS AND OTHER INJURIES ON THE FOOT FROM REPETITIVE FRICTION

Blisters were the most common complaint of marathon runners, with an incidence of 0.2–39% (table 1). Acute friction on the soles of the feet results in horizontal shear forces which cause epidermal splits, with the separated layers then filling with blood or tissue transudate.1–4 The most commonly affected sites include the tips of the toes, the balls of the feet, and the posterior heel.5 Factors that contribute to the formation of blisters include heat, moisture, poorly fitting shoes, and excessive or unusual exercises early in training.1,2,6–11 Painful blisters can be lanced with a sharp sterile instrument, taking care to stay near the periphery and maintain the blister roof.1,11–14 Usual suggestions for preventing blisters include wearing dry socks, applying drying powder or other topical antiperspirants, wearing two pairs of socks that are different materials, applying petroleum jelly, wearing appropriately fitting footwear and moisture wicking synthetic socks, and promoting the hardening of the skin with 10% tannic acid soaks.1,3,9–11,14–16

Table 1

 Blisters, calluses, and corns reported in the marathon literature

Calluses and corns are hypertrophic areas which develop on the feet of runners as a protective response to chronic and repetitive friction.4,12,13 Corns can be differentiated from calluses by their hyperkeratotic core.4,6,14 They should both be differentiated from warts which have “black seeds” indicating pericapillary haemorrhages.6,8 Calluses and corns both commonly occur over bony prominences, especially the metatarsal heads at the ball of the foot, and along the inner aspect of the large toe, or over areas of structurally or functionally defective areas of the foot.7,8 Those who desire to remove their calluses or corns can soak their feet for several minutes and pare down the lesions to reduce the thickness of the callus, or apply an abrasive, topical salicylic acid or urea preparation.4,6,7,13,14

JOGGER’S NIPPLES

Jogger’s nipples are a common occurrence in long distance runners, especially in women who run without bras and in men who wear shirts made of coarse fibre such as cotton. Jogger’s nipples were reported by 2–16.3% of runners on marathon day (table 2). Repetitive friction between a runner’s shirt and their nipples can result in painful, erythematous, and crusted erosions of the areola and nipples.2,6,12,14,15,17 With prolonged irritation, lesions may crack or fissure with subsequent bleeding which may result in dramatic marks on the runner’s shirt.6,12,15,18

Table 2

 Jogger’s nipples reported in the marathon literature

Treatment includes applying petroleum jelly or antibiotic ointment such as erythromycin after the lesions occur.6,12,15,18 To prevent trauma, a runner can apply petroleum jelly, commercially available patches, or adhesive tape over the nipples before long runs.2,4,6,12,15,18 Semisynthetic, silk, or other soft fibre bras are also available to female runners to reduce friction, and men can decrease the incidence of jogger’s nipples by wearing a synthetic shirt that wicks moisture.2,4,6,12,15,18

CHAFING AND ABRASIONS

Chafing is a superficial inflammatory dermatitis of skin surfaces that rub together and are subjected to increased moisture, friction, and maceration.13 This friction, combined with a warm, moist environment, causes a separation of the keratin from the granular sublayer in the epidermis, resulting in an inflamed, oozing lesion.13 In the marathon literature, chafing was reported by 0.4–16% of runners who reported to medical tents (table 3). Treatment consists of cleaning with soap and water, drying the areas thoroughly, applying a drying powder, and topical steroid ointments to alleviate inflammation.13 The runner can prevent chafing by wearing dry, well fitting clothes.13 Talcum and alum powders are mildly helpful for drying, and petroleum jelly is effective for reducing friction, especially in runners who are overweight.13

Table 3

 Chafing and abrasions reported in the marathon literature

TINEA PEDIS

Organisms causing tinea pedis in runners include Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagraphytes.5,6,12,19–23 These organisms live in keratin and thrive in the warm and moist environment of the feet.5,6,12,19–23 Tinea pedis presents in three forms: interdigital type with scaling plaques; inflammatory type with vesicles typically on the instep; moccasin distribution scaling type with or without erythema along the lateral aspect of the sole.4,5,7,12,13,24,25 Two studies have specifically looked at the presence of tinea pedis in marathon runners on race day. In 1988, Auger et al26 took interdigital skin scrapings from 405 runners participating in the International Marathon of Montreal four days before the race and found a culture positive incidence of 22%. Only 48% of this group had occult athlete’s foot.26 Lacroix et al27 found a slightly higher incidence of 31% after taking scrapings from 147 runners after the 1998 Médoc Marathon.

Several factors are believed to put runners at risk of tinea pedis, including occlusion, trauma, sharing showers, and sweating with subsequent maceration of the epidermis.1,2,4,12,13,20–22,24,28–30 An astringent soak and 30% aluminium chloride applied to the web spaces may help to keep the skin dry, remove crusts and macerated tissue, and kill bacteria responsible for superinfection.4,7,28 Topical antifungals, including the azoles, allylamines, and tolnaftate, may be used several times a day for mild disease, although reinfection is common, and oral antifungal treatment may be necessary for more moderate to severe cases.2,4,20–22,31–34 Runners can prevent tinea pedis by frequently changing their socks, wearing ventilated shoes and moisture wicking synthetic socks, and applying powder to keep their feet dry.6,7,12,13,15,21,22,28,35 They should also be advised to wear sandals in the locker room and showers.6,12,15,21,22,35

JOGGER’S TOE

A repetitive thrusting of the longest toe into the toebox, especially with downhill running, results in subungual haematoma, or jogger’s toe.4,8,12,18,36,37 Only one study of marathon runners has reported on subungual haematoma. Bird et al38 found an incidence of 2.5% after reviewing the medical records of 635 runners in the 1979 New York City Marathon. Clinically, jogger’s toe presents on the hallux, second toenail, or the lateral aspects of the third, fourth, and fifth toes with black discoloration, onycholysis, periungual haemorrhage, oedema, and erythema.21,37,39,40 Clinicians can also confuse jogger’s toe with onychomycosis and subungual malignant melanoma.6,12,37,39,41 Potassium hydroxide can differentiate onychomycosis from jogger’s toe.6,12,37,39,41 If melanoma is suspected, a biopsy should be performed.6,14,37,39

Treatment of subungual haematomas is not necessary, as they may resolve on their own; however, the toenail may remain black for several months.6,12,36,37,39,42 Properly fitted footwear with a snug midfoot and adequate toebox can help prevent jogger’s toe.4,6,12,37,39,42,43 In addition, nails should be cut straight and close to the skin to ensure equal distribution of forces and to prevent damage to surrounding nail structures.4,6,8,9,12,37,39,42

SUMMARY

Dermatological injuries are commonly reported by the runner on marathon day. By keeping in mind the skin diseases that plague the long distance runner, clinicians can make quick diagnoses and provide prompt and appropriate treatment.

REFERENCES

  1. Bart B. Skin problems in athletics. Minn Med1986;66:239–41.

  2. Levine N. Dermatologic aspects of sports medicine. J Am Acad Dermatol1980;3:415–24.

  3. Levine N. Friction blisters. Phys Sportsmed1982;10:84–92.

  4. Pharis DB, Teller C, Wolf JE. Cutaneous manifestations of sports participation. J Am Acad Dermatol1997;36:448–59.

  5. King MJ. Dermatologic problems in podiatric sports medicine. Clin Podiatr Med Surg1997;14:511–24.

  6. Adams BB. Sports dermatology. Dermatol Nurs2001;13:347–63.

  7. Atton AV, Tunnessen WW. The athlete and his skin. Clin Rev Allergy1988;6:403–29.

  8. Basler RSW. Skin injuries in sports medicine. J Am Acad Dermatol1989;21:1257–62.

  9. Basler RSW. Sports-related skin injuries. Adv Dermatol1989;4:29–50.

  10. Herring KM, Richie DH. Friction blisters and sock fiber composition. A double-blind study. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc1990;80:63–71.

  11. Knapik JJ, Reynolds KL, Duplantis KL, et al. Friction blisters: pathophysiology, prevention and treatment. Sports Med 1995;20:136–47.

  12. Adams BB. Dermatologic disorders of the athlete. Sports Med2002;32:309–21.

  13. Eiland G, Ridley D. Dermatologic problems in the athlete. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther1996;23:388–402.

  14. Helm TN, Bergfeld WF. Sports dermatology. Clin Dermatol1998;16:159–65.

  15. Adams BB. Sports dermatology. Adolesc Med2001;12:305–22.

  16. Bergfeld WF, Taylor JS. Trauma, sports, and the skin. Am J Ind Med1985;8:403–13.

  17. Conklin RJ. Common cutaneous disorders in athletes. Sports Med1990;9:100–19.

  18. Adams BB. Skin and sports: common skin conditions in athletes and tips on treatments. Skin and Aging2003;11:65–70.

  19. Brenner IKM, Shek PN, Shepard RJ. Infection in athletes. Sports Med1994;17:86–107.

  20. Hughes WT. The athlete: an immunocompromised host. Adv Pediatr Infect Dis1998;13:79–99.

  21. Kantor GR, Bergfeld WF. Common and uncommon dermatologic diseases related to sports activities. Exerc Sport Sci Rev1988;16:215–53.

  22. Sevier TL. Infectious Diseases in athletes. Sports Med1994;78:389–412.

  23. Strong WB. The uniqueness of the young athlete: medical considerations. Am J Sports Med1980;8:372–6.

  24. Adams BB. Transmission of cutaneous infections in athletes. Br J Sports Med2000;34:413–14.

  25. Adams BB. Which skin infections are transmitted between athletes? West J Med 2001;174:352–3.

  26. Auger P, Marquis G, Joly J, Attye A. Epidemiology of tinea pedis in marathon runners: prevalence of occult athlete’s foot. Mycoses1993;36:35–41.

  27. Lacroix C, Baspeyras M, de La Salmonière P, et al. Tinea pedis in European marathon runners. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2002;16:139–42.

  28. Basler RSW. Skin lesions related to sports activity. Prim Care1983;10:479–94.

  29. Beck CK. Infectious diseases in sports. Med Sci Sports Exerc2000;32:S431–8.

  30. Caputo R, De Boulle K, Del Rosso J, et al. Prevalence of superficial infections among sports-active individuals: results from the Achilles survey, a review of the literature. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2001;15:312–16.

  31. Bell-Syer SEM, Hart R, Crawford F, et al. Oral treatments for fungal infections of the skin of the foot (Cochrane Review). Cochrane Library. Issue 3. Oxford: Update Software, 2003.

  32. Bergfeld WF. Dermatologic problems in athletes. Clin Sports Med1982;1:419–30.

  33. Bergfeld WF. Dermatologic problems in athletes. Prim Care1984;11:151–60.

  34. Crawford F, Hart R, Bell-Syer SEM, et al. Topical treatments for fungal infections of the skin and nails of the foot (Cochrane Review). Cochrane Library. Issue 3. Oxford: Update Software, 2003.

  35. Mellman MF. Common medical problems in sports. Clin Sports Med1997;16:635–62.

  36. Adams BB. More on jogger’s toe. Phys Sportsmed2000;28:20.

  37. Adams BB. Jogger’s toenail. J Am Acad Dermatol2003;48:S58–9.

  38. Bird N, Andreola V, Galli L, et al. Medical care in the New York City Marathon. New York Running News 1980;24:72.

  39. Adams BB. Running-related toenail abnormality. Phys Sportsmed1999;27:85–7.

  40. Scher RK. Jogger’s toe. Int J Dermatol1978;17:719–20.

  41. Adams BB. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis in a marathon runner. Int J Dermatol2002;41:394–6.

  42. Fisher AA. Sports-related cutaneous reactions. Part III. Sports identification marks. Cutis1999;63:256–8.

  43. Rzonca EC, Lupo PJ. Pedal nail pathology: biomechanical implications. Clin Podiatr Med Surg1989;6:327–37.

  44. Orava S. About the strains caused by a marathon race to fitness joggers. J Sports Med Phys Fitness1977;17:49–57.

  45. Caldwell J. Experience from the 1980 Midnight Sun Marathon: injuries and training. Alaska Med1981;23:18–21.

  46. Duras P, Russell JW, Kretsch A, et al. Illness and injury during the 1980 Big M Melbourne Marathon. Aust J Sports Med Exerc Sci 1983;15:35–9.

  47. Temple C. Hazards of jogging and marathon running. Br J Hosp Med1983;29:237–9.

  48. Cerio R, Moody A. The London Marathon: 3 years in the running. Arch Emerg Med1985;2:89–91.

  49. Nicholl JP, Williams BT. Injuries sustained by runners during a popular marathon. Br J Sports Med1983;17:10–15.

  50. Nicholl JP, Williams BT. Medical problems before and after a popular marathon. BMJ (Clin Res Ed)1982;285:1465–6.

  51. Nicholl JP, Williams BT. Popular marathons: forecasting casualties. BMJ (Clin Res Ed)1982;285:1464–5.

  52. Roberts WO. A 12-year profile of medical injury and illness for the Twin Cities Marathon. Med Sci Sports Exerc2000;32:1549–55.

  53. Ridley SA, Rogers PN, Wright IH. Glasgow Marathons 1982–1987: a review of medical problems. Scot Med J1990;35:9–11.

  54. Adner MM, Scaralet JJ, Casey J. The Boston marathon medical care team: ten years of experience. Phys Sportsmed1988;16:99–106.

  55. Hölmich P, Darre E, Jahnsen F, et al. The elite marathon runner: problems during and after competition. Br J Sports Med 1988;22:19–21.

  56. Hölmich P, Christensen SW, Darre E, et al. Non-elite marathon runners: health, training and injuries. Br J Sports Med 1989;23:177–8.

  57. Darre E, Hölmich P, Jahnsen F, et al. Medical service and registration of injuries in the 1986 Wonderful Copenhagen Marathon. Ugeskr Laeger 1987;149:811–13.

  58. Jakobsen BW, Kroner K, Schmidt SA, et al. Running injuries sustained in a marathon race. Registration of the occurrence and types of injuries in the 1986 Arhus Marathon. Ugeskr Laeger 1989;151:2189–92.

  59. Crouse B, Beattie K. Marathon medical services: strategies to reduce runner morbidity. Med Sci Sports Exerc1996;28:1093–6.

  60. Satterthwaite P, Larmer P, Gardiner J, et al. Incidence of injuries and other health problems in the Aukland Citibank Marathon, 1993. Br J Sports Med 1996;30:324–6.

  61. Satterthwaite P, Norton R, Larmer R, et al. Risk factors for injuries and other health problems sustained in a marathon. Br J Sports Med 1999;33:22–6.

  62. Caselli MA, Longobardi SJ. Lower extremity injuries at the New York City Marathon. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc1997;87:34–7.

  63. Sainsbury R. Medical Experience of the Great North Run Fordham. Br J Sports Med1984;18:265.

  64. Nequin ND. More on jogger’s ailments. N Engl J Med1978;298:405.

Wed, 26 Aug 2020 08:11:00 -0500 en text/html https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/38/4/498
ST0-148 exam dump and training guide direct download
Training Exams List