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Exam Code: SC0-411 Practice exam 2022 by Killexams.com team
Hardening the Infrastructure
SCP Infrastructure thinking
Killexams : SCP Infrastructure thinking - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/SC0-411 Search results Killexams : SCP Infrastructure thinking - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/SC0-411 https://killexams.com/exam_list/SCP Killexams : Cyber Attacks Against Critical Infrastructure Quietly Increase The Washington Post reported this week on how the cyber war between Iran and Israel has intensified. The story began this way: “In late June, Iran’s state-owned Khuzestan Steel Co. and two other steel companies were forced to halt production after suffering a cyber attack. A hacking group claimed responsibility on social media, saying it targeted Iran’s three biggest steel companies in response to the “aggression of the Islamic Republic.”

“Israel’s defense secretary then ordered an investigation into leaked video showing the damage to the steel plants, citing “operational events in a manner that violates Israel’s ambiguity policy.” This incident came close on the heels of a statement by the Israeli Security Agency, or Shin Bet, claiming a May cyber operation by Iran was intended to generate actions outside of the cyber domain.

“Both incidents show how the cyber conflict between the two countries has grown increasingly public in the past two years.”

The article goes on to point out that worldwide cyber actions are becoming less covert.

Meanwhile, cyber attacks are continuing between Russia and Ukraine, occasionally making headlines. But in our world that is tiring of war stories from Eastern Europe, cyber attack news generally takes a backseat to bigger issues like natural gas supplies being cut to Germany.

Back at home in the U.S., IBM released its annual 2022 IBM Cost of a Data Breach Report, which covers all industries. Here are some highlights:

“Critical Infrastructure Lags in Zero Trust Almost 80 percent of critical infrastructure organizations studied don't adopt zero-trust strategies, seeing average breach costs rise to $5.4 million – a $1.17 million increase compared to those that do. All while 28 percent of breaches amongst these organizations were ransomware or destructive attacks. …

“Concerns over critical infrastructure targeting appear to be increasing globally over the past year, with many governments' cybersecurity agencies urging vigilance against disruptive attacks. In fact, IBM's report reveals that ransomware and destructive attacks represented 28 percent of breaches amongst critical infrastructure organizations studied, highlighting how threat actors are seeking to fracture the global supply chains that rely on these organizations. This includes financial services, industrial, transportation and health-care companies amongst others.”


Commenting on the report, this article points out that “the unrelenting barrage of cyber attacks against health-care organizations is causing major financial damage as health systems struggle to mitigate the costs of data breaches.

“A health-care data breach now comes with a record-high price tag — to the tune of $10.1 million on average, according to IBM Security's annual Cost of a Data Breach Report.”


Back in June of this year, Trend Micro Incorporated announced new research revealing that “89 percent of electricity, oil and gas, and manufacturing firms have experienced cyber attacks impacting production and energy supply over the past 12 months.

“The research also found that:

  • 40 percent of respondents could not block the initial attack.
  • 48 percent of those who say there have been some disruptions do not always make improvements to minimize future cyber risks.
  • Future investments in cloud systems (28 percent) and private 5G deployments (26 percent) were the top two drivers of cybersecurity among respondents.
  • The OT security function tends to be less mature than IT on average in terms of risk-based security.

“The addition of cloud, edge and 5G in the mixed IT and OT environments has rapidly transformed industrial operations and systems. Organizations must stay ahead of the curve and take security measures to protect business assets. Improving risk and threat visibility is a curtail first step to a secure industrial cloud and private network."

This video describes ICS/OT situational awareness and asset visibility:

You can get the full Trend Micro survey report for 2022 here: https://resources.trendmicro.com/IoT-survey-report.html

Also, I like this Accenture OT and ICS security video covering “the art of the possible:”


Just like earthquake discussions in California, it seems like we keep coming back to questions surrounding whether a cyber 9/11 or a cyber Pearl Harbor is coming soon.

This article proclaims "China Could Unleash a Cyber-Pearl Harbor on America": “It is understandable that military analysts focus on Russia and the threat it poses to Ukraine. But when it comes to cyber, and in particular cyber defense and offense in space, we cannot forget that China is the leading threat. Lessons from the war against Ukraine may have only limited application to this more critical, longer-term struggle. …

“Unfortunately, we cannot assume that the cyber components of a conflict with China will resemble what we are seeing in Ukraine. Consider first of all that China has a $14.3 trillion economy, compared to Russia’s GDP of just $1.7 trillion at official exchange rates. While both countries have significant workforce technical skills, China has spent decades trying to copy and surmount the skills found in the United States and other highly advanced countries. It is a step behind the United States, Japan, Taiwan and our other peers in semiconductors, supercomputers and avionics — but only just a step.”


You may be wondering: Is this is a new subject for "Lohrmann on Cybersecurity"?

The answer is no, and here are just a few of the previous blogs where I covered this critical infrastructure protection topic:

I expect this subject is not going away over the next decade.

In fact, despite the lack of a Colonial Pipeline-type event in 2022 so far, cyber attacks against critical infrastructure are quietly rising around the world.

Sat, 30 Jul 2022 22:31:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.govtech.com/blogs/lohrmann-on-cybersecurity/cyber-attacks-against-critical-infrastructure-quietly-increase
Killexams : Languages of Cloud Native


Cormack: I'm Justin Cormack. I'm the CTO at Docker. Also, I'm a member of the technical oversight committee of the Cloud Native Computing Foundation. I also am really interested in programming languages and how they affect the way we work.

One of the things I'm talking about is, in the Cloud Native Computing Foundation, of the 42 graduated and incubating projects we have, 26 of them are written predominantly in Go. I want to explore how this happened and which new language is emerging in the cloud native space and how we got to this point where Go is so dominant. One of the things that was really important in this historically was Docker. When I started at Docker in 2015, Go was already an established language in the company.

Why Docker Adopted Go

I want to talk to Solomon Hykes, who founded Docker, about how they started off with Go, and how really early in the Go language evolution they adopted it, moving away from Python.

Hykes: We didn't want to target the Java platform, or the Python platform, we wanted to target the Linux platform. That was one aspect. Another aspect, honestly, it was more of a personal gut feeling thing. We were Python and C developers trying to write distributed systems. A lot of what we ended up doing was writing them in Python, and then getting bitten by the typing issues of Python, so discovering problems a little bit too late at runtime when they could have been discovered earlier. Also, trying to recreate a lightweight threading system. It's been a while, but at the time we were heavily using libraries and frameworks like gevent and Greenlets and things like that, Go had goroutines built in. That was the same thing, but better. It had the typing benefits of C. From our specific point of view of C and Python developers of distributed systems, it was just the perfect tool.

Cormack: Presumably you didn't want to choose C for other reasons.

Hykes: No, exactly. Yes, C was not a consideration. Python was the default, because it's what we used. Go was just better by every metric that we cared about. One factor being the fact that it compiles to a standalone binary. The other being that it was just the right programming model for us. The third, is that, because we specifically wanted to grow a large community of open source contributors, we wanted Docker to be not just a successful tool, but a successful open source project, the choice of language mattered for social reasons. For example, we wanted something that was familiar enough to enough people, that the language itself would not be a huge barrier to studying the source code and contributing to it. The nice thing about Go is it's not radical in its syntax. If you've written C, you'll be familiar with Go. If you've written Python, you'll be familiar. It's not Haskell. It's not Lisp. It doesn't break every possible convention compared to mainstream programming languages. That was explicitly considered a benefit, because that means it's easier to contribute.

How Project Vitess Got Started In Go

Cormack: During this interview with Solomon. He called out that when he was looking around at the existing Go ecosystem at the time, it was, what's now another CNCF project, Vitess, that was something that he saw that gave him confidence. Vitess was a project that was in YouTube at the time, as YouTube was growing really fast. I talked to Sugu, who was one of the founders of Vitess, about how he had got started in Go.

Sougoumarane: I can go through some of the thought process that we went through, about how we ended up choosing Go. It was not very scientific with Go. In 2010, when we were thinking of starting this project, the primary options were Python, Java, and C++. Those were the three languages that popped up for us. Python was because YouTube was written in Python. Then Python was already losing, because it's not a systems programming language. We knew that we wanted to build an efficient proxy. Python has not the efficiency, it's not a very efficient language. We had Java and C++. I wasn't familiar with Java, and I think I was slightly bitter about it those days. I don't know why, but probably based on some people I ran into. I wasn't very excited about Java. Mike wasn't excited about C++ because he didn't feel like he could write something good with it.

There were a couple of reasons why we chose Go. The funny one is, it was just a passing comment, but it is still a funny comment, which is, if we use Go and if our project fails, we can blame it on that. I don't think that's the reason why we chose it. That was definitely one statement that was made in the conversation. Really, the reason why we chose Go is because of Rob, Russ, Ian, and Robert Griesemer. Because it was such a brand new language, we had to check out the authors, and we actually basically studied those people. We realized that their values, their thinking, their philosophy is very mature, and similar to the way we approached problems, which means that they were not too theoretical or too hacky. They had a very good pragmatic balance about how to solve problems. It was around the time where within Google there was a case where engineers were going through this phase where they had this fascination to complexity. Where anything complex is awesome, type of thing. This was one group of people that were contrarian to that. They were saying, you can be simple. I said, "I like that. I like the way you think."

What happened at that time was, I gave Dmitry Vyukov a reproduction as to why we are stuck. The challenge I gave him was, we have eight CPUs. That's all we have. The Go runtime today is only able to use six. If you optimize the runtime to use the other two CPUs, we will be true. That's the challenge I gave him. He went away for, I think, two months, and came up with this work-stealing design and a prototype implementation. We tried it, it indeed start the eight CPUs. That pulled us out of trouble. He saved our project. If that had not happened, we might have moved away from Go. It was not because of Go's design. It was just that we were getting pressured because YouTube was about to fall apart. We needed to find a solution. That solution basically restored our faith in Go. After that, we never had any struggle.

Cormack: Both Solomon and Sugu were looking for the right language for their new project, a systems language for cloud native. Both of them really also felt that community was important. We can say that for Sugu, it's the community of the creators of Go, and the people working on making the language better. For Solomon, it was the community that he wanted to create around Docker to make the language accessible to this community.

Why Go Became a Dominant Systems and Cloud Native Language

Around this time, late 2012, Derek Collison who created the NATS project, tweeted that within two years, Go would become the dominant systems language and the language for cloud native. At the time, people were very skeptical, of course, but it actually worked out that way. In that period, Docker and Kubernetes were both released, and there was a huge explosion of usage. I talked to him about how he came to that conclusion back then.

Collison: The original NATS was written in Ruby, like Cloud Foundry was. I actually from a development perspective, and just liking working in a language once the system is set up, Ruby is still awesome to me. Deploying production systems with the Ruby VM and all the dependencies, and we had dependencies on event machine to do async stuff more efficiently and stuff, wasn't going to work. In 2012, when we had started Apcera, we were internally huddling around, yes, NATS will be the control plane addressing discovery and telemetry system for the Apcera platform as well, called Continuum. I didn't want to run in Ruby anymore, and we were looking at either Go, which was the newcomer. I think it was at 0.52 at the time, or Node.js, which was also a newcomer, but not as new at least from a lexicon perspective as Go. There was definitely some initial things that we chose.

Then, after being in the Go ecosystem for so long, there were some interesting observations now about why it was the right choice that weren't necessarily the original decision makers. The original decision makers were trying to alleviate the pain that we had deploying production systems with the Ruby ecosystem. Node, even though it had npm, or the beginnings of it, at the time, it was still a virtual machine, had a package management system that had to be spun up and all wrapped around it. Go had the ability to present Quasi-Static Executables. We do full blown static executables, you had to do a little extra work. That was a huge thing, meaning our deployment could be an SCP, essentially. Goroutines and the concurrency model were interesting to us, for sure.

The other big defining factor for me, because I spent a long time at TIBCO designing a system to do this was, in TIBCO, we wrote everything in low level C. Which is still probably one of my favorite languages, even though it has a lot of challenges there, of being that close to the metal was fun. I've learned Rust. I'm going to learn Zig this holiday as my pet project. I probably would never program in C again, but I still liked it. At the time, it was very interesting to me within what we were trying to do, to flow from 80% to 90% use cases that would live on the stack, to transparently move themselves to the heap. That's very hard to do in C. I spent a lot of time and effort to get that to work in C, and Go had that for free. Almost nobody cared about that. They're like, what are you even talking about? I said, I spent so long trying to do that in C and Go has it. At 0.52, Go's garbage collector was really primitive, very primitive mark and sweep. To me, I was like, it doesn't matter, because I can architect to have most of the things on the stack. If they blow past the stack, they auto-promote in Go, I don't have to do unnatural acts like we had to in the C code base at TIBCO. It was static executables, and stacks were real, were the decision points.

The concurrency was a nice to have. Again, looking back now at the ecosystem, go-funk was bigger impact than people thought, huge. Everyone does the same thing now. The tooling, Go Vet, pprof, the way the testing all was in there. The number one thing for me is that if I go away from the code base, maybe it's because I'm old. If I come back, I immediately know what I was doing. Or even if it's let's say code that you wrote, I could figure out pretty quickly what your intent was with Go as a simple language versus Haskell, or Caml, or even sometimes if people went into Meta land with Ruby, and essentially we're programming DSLs. You went back to a code after a couple months and I'm looking at it and it would take me an hour or so to figure out what I was even trying to really do. That also lends itself to bringing new people in to get up to speed very quickly with a language. I still think that's huge.

The Adoption of Rust

Cormack: We talked a lot about how Go got started in the cloud native ecosystem. Recently, we've been seeing a bunch of projects in Rust as well and we've seen other languages. I talked to Matt Butcher about how he adopted Rust. He had started off as a Go programmer, he built Helm among other things. Recently, he started using Rust for new projects.

Butcher: Ryan Levick, who is one of Rust's core maintainers, but he also works at Microsoft when we were starting to look into this, and he just dropped into our Slack and was like, "I heard you're writing a Rust program Clippy style." Basically, anybody who wanted to learn Rust, Ryan was more than happy to walk them through the basics, then point them at some resources, and then answer those first few questions about how to do the borrow checking correctly. Very rapidly, I think six or eight of us got going in the Rust ecosystem. The default started to shift. We wanted to write Krustlet in Rust, because of the way we wanted to build a Kubernetes controller. We hadn't intended to start writing other things in Rust, it just happened out of that, that new projects started to default to being written in Rust instead of Go.

Why Krustlet Was Written in Rust

Cormack: What was it about Krustlet that made you want to write it in Rust then?

Butcher: The main one was we wanted a WebAssembly runtime, and the best WebAssembly runtimes are either written in C or C++ for the JavaScript ecosystem, or are written in Rust. The one we wanted to use was Wasmtime, which is the reference implementation of the WASI specification. That was written in Rust. We looked at, we could compile this to a library and then link it with Go. Then, once everybody else started working on Rust, and going, "I like the generics. There's a Kubernetes library, the kube.rs crate is pretty good." Before long, everybody wanted to write it in Rust. Ron had to write all of Krustlet in Rust. Where it started, really, because of the necessity of wanting the WebAssembly runtime, it ended with us choosing it because it felt like the right language for what we were building. Then the surprising conclusion from that was we started writing other projects in Rust because it felt like the right fit for the things we were starting to do moving forward from there.

WebAssembly and Zig

Cormack: Derek had quite similar thoughts about lighter weight languages for lighter weight processing, particularly on the edge. We talked about WebAssembly as well, and also Zig.

Collison: Most of the new ecosystems have taken a similar approach. The standard library can't just be scalable. Even Zig, which is one of the newer lower level languages has spent quite a bit of time on their standard library, fleshing it all out.

Cormack: Even C++ has decided it needs HTTP and TLS, but it's going to take another decade to get there.

Collison: I don't know how long my career will keep going for, but I can say with confidence, I will never program in C or C++ again. I'm ok with that. I think there's better alternatives now, for sure. I also think with the other prediction around edge computing, at least my opinion that it's going to dwarf cloud computing. Cloud computing will become the mainframe very quickly. We know they exist, but who cares? Nobody ever really interacts with them, they just live in the background type stuff. Efficiency, so not necessarily performance, but efficiency. How much energy and resources are you using to do the same amount of work, is going to come back into play. I think enterprise with .NET and Java will still remain and still be driven especially within the data center or the cloud world. I think you're going to see C, Rust, Zig, and then of course, very high speed Wasm or JavaScript engines as the looser, maybe some MicroPython, CircuitPython type stuff. TinyGo is becoming really interesting, in my opinion.

Q Programming Language

Cormack: Solomon is still a big believer and a user of Go, but it was another language that we talked about where he would like to see changes.

Hykes: I still write Go. I'm not the typical programming language early adopter. I tend to use the same tools for a long time. We were probably a strong influence in the adoption of Go, and also in the adoption of YAML in the cloud landscape, and so there's one I feel better than in the other. YAML I think is just a source of problems. It's not that it's bad. It's just that it's used for things that it wasn't meant to be used for. It's just being overused. That's the sign that there's something missing. This new project that we're working on, Dagger, it's written in Go, but it's configurable and customizable to the extreme. YAML or JSON just didn't support the features that we wanted to express. We found this language called Q. Initially, we used HCL in our first prototype. Terraform and other HashiCorp tools use HCL. I think it's an in-house project. It spun out as a library, so you can use it in your own tool. It has limitations, pretty severe limitations. You can tell it started its life tied to a specific tool, and not as a standalone language meant from the beginning to be used by multiple tools. Q on the other hand started out as a language. It's Arthur [inaudible 00:21:33], is a language experts. Exactly like Go solves a specific problem, it felt like it was written perfectly for us. Q felt the same way as a replacement to YAML. I'm a huge believer in Q's future. I think it will, or at least it should replace YAML in many cloud native configuration scenarios.

Lessons Learned from the Adoption of Languages in Cloud Native

Cormack: What have we learned about the adoption of languages in cloud native in particular? The first thing that's clearly important, very important is community. This is the community around you as you start to think about using a new language, and the things they've built and the way they're building them. Second is the community that you want to bring to your projects, and how you want them to be able to adopt the language and tools you're building. The second one is fit for a problem domain. For cloud native, there were some requirements that a lot of people mentioned around things like static binaries that were useful to be able to distribute their code easily or let people run as easily in production that were important. Always, you knew this fit between the problem you're working on. Moving into a new domain is actually a great opportunity to examine the fit for the tools that you're using, the languages you're using now and decide whether that's a good point to make a change.

Performance was also important for the cloud native use case. It was interesting that it came up a little bit. The language performance actually grew in line with the requirements. The conversation with Sugu about YouTube, it was really interesting that Go managed to keep growing and meeting those requirements as the requirements became more difficult, and they never got to the point where they had to give up. It's important to remember that languages can change and evolve with your users, and they grow, and the ecosystem around them grows as you start using them. Those things are really important.

Then, finally, everyone's journey into learning new languages was different. People often thought about things, experimented maybe years before they actually adopted a language. Also, there's a whole journey towards internalizing how to work in a new language and how to use the opportunities it presents best. That process of learning new languages is incredibly important to people. It's really important that we all continue to learn new programming languages, experiment and see new ways we could do things, so that when we get an opportunity, like when we're moving into a new area or experimenting with a new idea, we can think about what programming language would work best for this, and what kind of community do I want to build?

Questions and Answers

Schuster: It seems that ahead-of-time compilation, or having static binaries is one of the big selling points for languages like Go or Rust. Even Java nowadays has ahead-of-time compilation. Is that going to be essential for all future languages that come along?

Cormack: Yes, it's interesting why it matters, and then what for? I think the comment was around serverless. Serverless, really, startup time is incredibly important, and it becomes one of the constraints because you're there and you've got to do things, and you get people who work around it by trying to snapshot things after startup. Interestingly enough, Emacs even used to do that, as an editor. Emacs used to snapshot itself after startup because the startup was too slow. It does depend on what that period is, and how to work around it. Emacs no longer does, because computers were fast enough, it wasn't an issue. It does depend exactly what those constraints are. Ahead of time has those big advantages. The user experience is worse. In theory, with the JavaScript model, you can start running the code slowly with an interpreter, and maybe it doesn't need to be fast, and you only compile it if it's really going to be used. Static compilation is just not worth it for those kinds of applications where most applications are so small. Even like an interpreter is fine. I think there are compromises, but I think we're seeing a lot of spaces where ahead of time is working better.

We've gone back to that, because it's how languages originally were from the '70s. It was Java that moved away from that, but JavaScript followed there. There was a huge investment in these JIT technologies. Then we are seeing a little bit of a swing back to ahead of time. There is always the theory that JIT and profiles based on genuine execution can be faster. In general, that's mostly been true for dynamically typed languages where you can work out what the types are. I think the ahead of time thing has gone with a revival in static typing and the shift back to let's fix these bugs at compile time, because it's annoying to fix them at runtime as well. I think that combination of static typing and ahead of time, definitely we've swung back that way again, for some of those reasons.

Schuster: It's also important for serverless, especially because there you don't want to pay essentially for the compiler to do some work if you can do it ahead of time.

Cormack: As serverless has had billing with smaller intervals, that becomes more important, and as we want to do really lightweight things in serverless. Small code size also becomes important for those things. It's very much the case with WebAssembly, where, again, Rust has become a popular language to compile to WebAssembly, because it compiles to a small static binary without a runtime. I remember talking to Cloudflare about the hoops they were having to go through with Go in WebAssembly, because compiling the language runtime to WebAssembly was a few megabytes of overhead. Again, they were really space constrained by how quickly they could load code into a machine. A megabyte of code is much quicker than 100 megabytes of code just to load up and how much concurrency you can get, and those types of issues as well. Those kind of constraints are related as well. I think that's what a lot of the discussion about edge use cases, and Derek's conversation about TinyGo, and MicroPython, and things like that, where they're really designed for really small runtimes. That gives you advantages if you want to run them for very short periods of time, or a lot of things at once, and those kinds of things. Memory consumption is one of the big constraints for how many customers can you run at once, is take your memory consumption divide it by the size of the application. That basically gives you the amount of the things you can multiplex onto a CPU at one time. As serverless and those things started to get into those constraints, those types of constraints start to matter a lot too.

Schuster: We just heard a talk about how Shopify is using WebAssembly to allow people to extend their platform, and that also quite nice kick in by Rust for it and it can pack a lot of code into a small space, because it's naturally isolated. It doesn't need containers, and stuff on virtual machines to isolate the code from others. It's also an interesting trend in what WebAssembly allows here.

Cormack: I think isolation is a technology that has always been important. It just has different shapes over time and different kinds of sizes. We started with virtual machines and containers were smaller and more convenient. We're now looking at things like, can I isolate parts of a single application? Because I don't trust them, or I don't want to audit the code in them. Google has a rule that every untrusted bit of code has to have two isolation layers between that and their code, for example. Those two isolation layers could be different things in different cases, but one isolation layer could be broken, but two is much more difficult. Yes, if you're on Shopify and you're embedding customer code in your code, then that's something you have to isolate, and you want isolation layers with that. Those might be the Wasm runtime and some Linux kernel process isolation. For example, you run the runtime in a separate process, or they might have a couple of other ways of doing it. The more we make our applications out of sets of code with different trust levels, the more we need isolation at lots of different scales. Everything from VMs for cloud tenants, down to containers for, "I'm running six applications at once, and I don't want them to interfere with each other," to, "I'm running a library that the customer provided and I have noticed it," or, "I'm running a library that I got from npm and I don't trust it." Can I run that in isolation as well?

Schuster: There was some interesting work with capability based isolation inside of JavaScript Engines.

Cormack: Kate Sills did a talk a while back at QCon that was really good.

Schuster: What happened to that? It had one of those ungoogleable names that's hard to keep up with it. It was supposed to come in one of the ECMAScripts. Something to check up on, I think.

I have not heard of this, but it occurs to me that a cloud provider could provide a JVM Platform as a Service in a serverless manner.

Cormack: I think there were some back in the day. The JVM was like the first language runtime that was designed for secure isolation. The security isolation wasn't actually very good, in the end. It was broken a lot of times after it was initially released mainly through security issues in the standard library and so on. It was an experiment in isolation. You can see Wasm as being a more secure version of the JVM. There have been a lot of lessons learned in the last 20 years, or is it even longer, since JVM. A lot of lessons learned on how to build secure isolation for language runtimes. Wasm really is the state of the art that came out of the browser as the most attacked piece of software we ever built. There was a lot of work, particularly from the Google team around Chrome and those kinds of layers of isolation there that taught us how to do that better. I think back in the day, people did have that idea. The JVM runtime wasn't quite designed for that, and wasn't quite secure enough. It's very much in the same line of forms of isolation that we've worked on over the years.

Schuster: The advantage that Wasm has is that it just doesn't stuff as many features into the standard runtime, because with Java, you can import data file formats and stuff like that.

Cormack: The type system is reflected inside, which turned out to be quite complicated. Whereas Wasm has very simple linear arrays, and again, the language has to compile down the type system it wants on top of that, so it's even simpler. WebAssembly is almost recognizably an assembly language apart from has better looping constructs, but it feels more like a machine level thing than a language level thing. That, again, makes it easier because it's simpler.

Schuster: I found it was quite fun trying to write code in it with the text format, which is a Lispy type of thing. It's much easier than assembly.

Cormack: Yes. It is fun. It's not perhaps designed for that. When I was younger, I wrote PostScript, which was like that too. It was Forth based and it felt amazing to be able to program a printer.

Schuster: Did you hack the printer? Any stack overflows in there, any recursion overflows?

Cormack: Yes. You got them all the time.

See more presentations with transcripts

Sun, 07 Aug 2022 07:31:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.infoq.com/presentations/languages-cloud-native/
Killexams : Surveillance & Security News for May 2012 No result found, try new keyword!Benefits of a modern access control system go beyond security An access control system can be an excellent and an invaluable tool for enhancing business efficiency The picture that comes into most ... Mon, 30 Apr 2012 21:48:00 -0500 text/html https://www.sourcesecurity.com/news/dt/may-2012.html Killexams : The Learning Network

Professional development

Our collection of previously recorded writing webinars explores how to teach the kinds of real-world writing found in newspapers, including editorials, reviews, profiles, personal narratives and more.

By The Learning Network and

Thu, 04 Aug 2022 21:03:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.nytimes.com/section/learning
Killexams : What Kind Of Investors Own Most Of Shopping Centres Australasia Property Group (ASX:SCP)?

A look at the shareholders of Shopping Centres Australasia Property Group (ASX:SCP) can tell us which group is most powerful. Generally speaking, as a company grows, institutions will increase their ownership. Conversely, insiders often decrease their ownership over time. Companies that used to be publicly owned tend to have lower insider ownership.

Shopping Centres Australasia Property Group has a market capitalization of AU$3.1b, so we would expect some institutional investors to have noticed the stock. Taking a look at our data on the ownership groups (below), it seems that institutions own shares in the company. Let's delve deeper into each type of owner, to discover more about Shopping Centres Australasia Property Group.

Check out our latest analysis for Shopping Centres Australasia Property Group


What Does The Institutional Ownership Tell Us About Shopping Centres Australasia Property Group?

Institutions typically measure themselves against a benchmark when reporting to their own investors, so they often become more enthusiastic about a stock once it's included in a major index. We would expect most companies to have some institutions on the register, especially if they are growing.

Shopping Centres Australasia Property Group already has institutions on the share registry. Indeed, they own a respectable stake in the company. This can indicate that the company has a certain degree of credibility in the investment community. However, it is best to be wary of relying on the supposed validation that comes with institutional investors. They too, get it wrong sometimes. When multiple institutions own a stock, there's always a risk that they are in a 'crowded trade'. When such a trade goes wrong, multiple parties may compete to sell stock fast. This risk is higher in a company without a history of growth. You can see Shopping Centres Australasia Property Group's historic earnings and revenue below, but keep in mind there's always more to the story.


Hedge funds don't have many shares in Shopping Centres Australasia Property Group. Our data shows that The Vanguard Group, Inc. is the largest shareholder with 8.3% of shares outstanding. Meanwhile, the second and third largest shareholders, hold 6.8% and 6.3%, of the shares outstanding, respectively.

On studying our ownership data, we found that 25 of the top shareholders collectively own less than 50% of the share register, implying that no single individual has a majority interest.

Researching institutional ownership is a good way to gauge and filter a stock's expected performance. The same can be achieved by studying analyst sentiments. Quite a few analysts cover the stock, so you could look into forecast growth quite easily.

Insider Ownership Of Shopping Centres Australasia Property Group

While the precise definition of an insider can be subjective, almost everyone considers board members to be insiders. Company management run the business, but the CEO will answer to the board, even if he or she is a member of it.

I generally consider insider ownership to be a good thing. However, on some occasions it makes it more difficult for other shareholders to hold the board accountable for decisions.

Our data suggests that insiders own under 1% of Shopping Centres Australasia Property Group in their own names. Keep in mind that it's a big company, and the insiders own AU$5.3m worth of shares. The absolute value might be more important than the proportional share. Arguably, latest buying and selling is just as important to consider. You can click here to see if insiders have been buying or selling.

General Public Ownership

The general public -- including retail investors -- own 54% of Shopping Centres Australasia Property Group. With this amount of ownership, retail investors can collectively play a role in decisions that affect shareholder returns, such as dividend policies and the appointment of directors. They can also exercise the power to vote on acquisitions or mergers that may not Boost profitability.

Next Steps:

It's always worth thinking about the different groups who own shares in a company. But to understand Shopping Centres Australasia Property Group better, we need to consider many other factors. For instance, we've identified 5 warning signs for Shopping Centres Australasia Property Group (2 are a bit unpleasant) that you should be aware of.

If you would prefer discover what analysts are predicting in terms of future growth, do not miss this free report on analyst forecasts.

NB: Figures in this article are calculated using data from the last twelve months, which refer to the 12-month period ending on the last date of the month the financial statement is dated. This may not be consistent with full year annual report figures.

Have feedback on this article? Concerned about the content? Get in touch with us directly. Alternatively, email editorial-team (at) simplywallst.com.

This article by Simply Wall St is general in nature. We provide commentary based on historical data and analyst forecasts only using an unbiased methodology and our articles are not intended to be financial advice. It does not constitute a recommendation to buy or sell any stock, and does not take account of your objectives, or your financial situation. We aim to bring you long-term focused analysis driven by fundamental data. Note that our analysis may not factor in the latest price-sensitive company announcements or qualitative material. Simply Wall St has no position in any stocks mentioned.

Thu, 07 Jul 2022 01:55:00 -0500 en-CA text/html https://ca.finance.yahoo.com/news/kind-investors-own-most-shopping-222840825.html
Killexams : Climate and Environment

The climate change and prescription drug law has revived a set of party goals that were widely thought to be dead.

By Michael Barbaro, Eric Krupke, Will Reid, Nina Feldman, Mooj Zadie, Rachelle Bonja, Rachel Quester, Marion Lozano, Brad Fisher and Chris Wood

Thu, 04 Aug 2022 19:14:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.nytimes.com/section/climate
Killexams : Second-Hand Television SHINEs, Takes Down Entire Village’s Internet

We occasionally get stories on the tips line that just make us want to know more. This is especially true with tech stories covered by the mass media, which usually leave out the juicy tidbits that would just clutter up the story for the majority of non-technical readers. That leaves us to dig a little deeper for the satisfying details.

The latest one of these gems to hit the tips line is the tale of a regular broadband outage in a Welsh village. As in, really regular — at 7:00 AM every day, the internet customers of Aberhosan suffered a loss of their internet service. Customers of Openreach, the connectivity arm of the British telco BT, complained about the interruptions as customers do, and technicians responded to investigate the issue. Nobody was able to find the root cause, and despite replacing nearly all the cables in the system, the daily outages persisted for 18 months.

In the end, Openreach brought in a crack team from their Chief Engineer’s office to investigate. Working against COVID-19 restrictions, the team set up a spectrum analyzer in the early morning hours, to capture any evidence of whatever was causing the problem. At the appointed hour they saw a smear of radio frequency interference appear, a high-intensity pulse of noise at just the right frequency to interfere with the village’s asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) broadband service.

A little sleuthing led to the home of a villager and a second-hand TV, which was switched on every day at 7:00 AM. The TV was found to be emitting a strong RF impulse when it was powered up, strong enough to knock out the ADSL service to the entire village. Openreach categorized this as SHINE, or single high-level impulse noise. We’d never heard of this, but apparently it’s common enough that BT warns customers about it and provides helpful instructions for locating sources with an AM radio.

We’ll say one thing for the good people of Aberhosan: they must be patient in the extreme to put up with daily internet outages for 18 months. And it’s funny how there was no apparent notice paid by the offending television’s owner that his or her steady habit caused the outage. Perhaps they don’t have a broadband connection, and so wouldn’t have noticed the borking.

In any case, the owner was reportedly “mortified” by the news and hasn’t turned the TV on since learning of the issue. This generally seems to be the reaction when someone gets caught inadvertently messing up the spectrum — remember the Great Ohio Key Fob Mystery?

Thanks to [Kieran Donnelly] for spotting this for us.

Fri, 05 Aug 2022 12:00:00 -0500 Dan Maloney en-US text/html https://hackaday.com/2020/09/22/second-hand-television-shines-takes-down-entire-villages-internet/
Killexams : Firmware Find Hints At Subscription Plan For ReMarkable Tablet

We’ve been keeping a close eye on the development of electronic paper tablets such as the reMarkable for a while now. These large-format devices would be a great way to view schematics and datasheets, and with the right software, could easily become an invaluable digital sidekick. Unfortunately, a troubling discovery made in a beta version of the reMarkable firmware is a strong indication the $400 USD device may be heading down a path that many in this community wouldn’t feel comfortable with.

While trying to get a reMarkable tablet running firmware version synced up to self-hosted server using rmfakecloud, Reddit user [dobum] was presented with a very unusual prompt. The tablet displayed several subscription levels, as well as brief description of what each one unlocked. It explained that standard users would get “basic functions only”, while the highest tier subscription would unlock an “expanding universe of powerful tools” for the e-paper tablet. In addition, only recently used documents would be synced with the cloud unless you had a paid subscription.

After contacting support about the message, [dobum] received a response that didn’t mince words:

At reMarkable, we constantly strive to Boost our products and services. In addition to exploring new functionality, reMarkable is also considering new payment models that can support our vision. This includes a subscription-based model.

We want our customers to know that we are grateful for their support and that we always work to make their experience better. If we introduce a subscription model, our existing customers will get this service for free and have access to the full reMarkable experience – even powerful new features we may introduce in the future.

To their credit, at least reMarkable is being upfront by admitting a subscription model is being considered. It also sounds like existing users will be grandfathered in when it goes live, which should come as some comfort to current owners. But for prospective buyers, this could literally change everything. It’s bad enough that cloud synchronization of documents would potentially be time-limited, though we’ll admit there’s some justification in that the company is obviously incurring costs by hosting these files. Limiting features based on subscription tier on the other hand is simply a step too far, especially on a device that the user purchased outright.

We’ve already seen the first tentative steps towards developing a free and open source operating system for the reMarkable tablet, and this news is only going to redouble the efforts of those who wish to liberate this very promising piece of hardware from the overbearing software it ships with. What worries us is how the company is likely to respond to such projects if they’ve found themselves in a situation where recurring charges have become necessary to balance the books. We’ve already seen a motorcycle airbag that will only deploy if the wearer has paid up for the year, so is a tablet that won’t let you install additional applications unless you’ve sprung for the premium membership really that far fetched? Sadly, we all know the answer.

Tue, 02 Aug 2022 12:00:00 -0500 Tom Nardi en-US text/html https://hackaday.com/2021/09/22/firmware-find-hints-at-subscription-plan-for-remarkable-tablet/
Killexams : Former Laker Medvedenko auctions NBA title rings for Ukraine No result found, try new keyword!SCP Auctions is donating the entire final sale price of both rings to Medvedenko’s Fly High Foundation. Its goal is to support Ukrainian children by restoring the sports infrastructure of the ... Mon, 25 Jul 2022 03:02:00 -0500 text/html https://www.macon.com/entertainment/celebrities/article263783908.html Killexams : Sociedad Comercial del Plata SA - Stock Quote COME

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Thu, 16 Jun 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.morningstar.com/stocks/xbue/come/quote
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