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Killexams : IBM Solutions test - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/P8010-004 Search results Killexams : IBM Solutions test - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/P8010-004 https://killexams.com/exam_list/IBM Killexams : IBM Annual Cost of Data Breach Report 2022: Record Costs Usually Passed On to Consumers, “Long Breach” Expenses Make Up Half of Total Damage

IBM’s annual Cost of Data Breach Report for 2022 is packed with revelations, and as usual none of them are good news. Headlining the report is the record-setting cost of data breaches, with the global average now at $4.35 million. The report also reveals that much of that expense comes with the data breach version of “long Covid,” expenses that are realized more than a year after the attack.

Most organizations (60%) are passing these added costs on to consumers in the form of higher prices. And while 83% of organizations now report experiencing at least one data breach, only a small minority are adopting zero trust strategies.

Security AI and automation greatly reduces expected damage

The IBM report draws on input from 550 global organizations surveyed about the period between March 2021 and March 2022, in partnership with the Ponemon Institute.

Though the average cost of a data breach is up, it is only by about 2.6%; the average in 2021 was $4.24 million. This represents a total climb of 13% since 2020, however, reflecting the general spike in cyber crime seen during the pandemic years.

Organizations are also increasingly not opting to absorb the cost of data breaches, with the majority (60%) compensating by raising consumer prices separate from any other recent increases due to inflation or supply chain issues. The report indicates that this may be an underreported upward influence on prices of consumer goods, as 83% of organizations now say that they have been breached at least once.

Brad Hong, Customer Success Manager for Horizon3.ai, sees a potential consumer backlash on the horizon once public awareness of this practice grows: “It’s already a breach of confidence to lose the confidential data of customers, and sure there’s bound to be an organization across those surveyed who genuinely did put in the effort to protect against and curb attacks, but for those who did nothing, those who, instead of creating a disaster recovery plan, just bought cyber insurance to cover the org’s operational losses, and those who simply didn’t care enough to heed the warnings, it’s the coup de grâce to then pass the cost of breaches to the same customers who are now the victims of a data breach. I’d be curious to know what percent of the 60% of organizations who increased the price of their products and services are using the extra revenue for a war chest or to actually reinforce their security—realistically, it’s most likely just being used to fill a gap in lost revenue for shareholders’ sake post-breach. Without government regulations outlining restrictions on passing cost of breach to consumer, at the least, not without the honest & measurable efforts of a corporation as their custodian, what accountability do we all have against that one executive who didn’t want to change his/her password?”

Breach costs also have an increasingly long tail, as nearly half now come over a year after the date of the attack. The largest of these are generally fines that are levied after an investigation, and decisions or settlements in class action lawsuits. While the popular new “double extortion” approach of ransomware attacks can drive long-term costs in this way, the study finds that companies paying ransom demands to settle the problem quickly aren’t necessarily seeing a large amount of overall savings: their average breach cost drops by just $610,000.

Sanjay Raja, VP of Product with Gurucul, expands on how knock-on data breach damage can continue for years: “The follow-up attack effect, as described, is a significant problem as the playbooks and solutions provided to security operations teams are overly broad and lack the necessary context and response actions for proper remediation. For example, shutting down a user or application or adding a firewall block rule or quarantining a network segment to negate an attack is not a sustainable remediation step to protect an organization on an ongoing basis. It starts with a proper threat detection, investigation and response solution. Current SIEMs and XDR solutions lack the variety of data, telemetry and combined analytics to not only identify an attack campaign and even detect variants on previously successful attacks, but also provide the necessary context, accuracy and validation of the attack to build both a precise and complete response that can be trusted. This is an even greater challenge when current solutions cannot handle complex hybrid multi-cloud architectures leading to significant blind spots and false positives at the very start of the security analyst journey.”

Rising cost of data breach not necessarily prompting dramatic security action

In spite of over four out of five organizations now having experienced some sort of data breach, only slightly over 20% of critical infrastructure companies have moved to zero trust strategies to secure their networks. Cloud security is also lagging as well, with a little under half (43%) of all respondents saying that their security practices in this area are either “early stage” or do not yet exist.

Those that have onboarded security automation and AI elements are the only group seeing massive savings: their average cost of data breach is $3.05 million lower. This particular study does not track average ransom demands, but refers to Sophos research that puts the most recent number at $812,000 globally.

The study also notes serious problems with incident response plans, especially troubling in an environment in which the average ransomware attack is now carried out in four days or less and the “time to ransom” has dropped to a matter of hours in some cases. 37% of respondents say that they do not test their incident response plans regularly. 62% say that they are understaffed to meet their cybersecurity needs, and these organizations tend to suffer over half a million more dollars in damages when they are breached.

Of course, cost of data breaches is not distributed evenly by geography or by industry type. Some are taking much bigger hits than others, reflecting trends established in prior reports. The health care industry is now absorbing a little over $10 million in damage per breach, with the average cost of data breach rising by $1 million from 2021. And companies in the United States face greater data breach costs than their counterparts around the world, at over $8 million per incident.

Shawn Surber, VP of Solutions Architecture and Strategy with Tanium, provides some insight into the unique struggles that the health care industry faces in implementing effective cybersecurity: “Healthcare continues to suffer the greatest cost of breaches but has among the lowest spend on cybersecurity of any industry, despite being deemed ‘critical infrastructure.’ The increased vulnerability of healthcare organizations to cyber threats can be traced to outdated IT systems, the lack of robust security controls, and insufficient IT staff, while valuable medical and health data— and the need to pay ransoms quickly to maintain access to that data— make healthcare targets popular and relatively easy to breach. Unlike other industries that can migrate data and sunset old systems, limited IT and security budgets at healthcare orgs make migration difficult and potentially expensive, particularly when an older system provides a small but unique function or houses data necessary for compliance or research, but still doesn’t make the cut to transition to a newer system. Hackers know these weaknesses and exploit them. Additionally, healthcare orgs haven’t sufficiently updated their security strategies and the tools that manufacturers, IT software vendors, and the FDA have made haven’t been robust enough to thwart the more sophisticated techniques of threat actors.”

Familiar incident types also lead the list of the causes of data breaches: compromised credentials (19%), followed by phishing (16%). Breaches initiated by these methods also tended to be a little more costly, at an average of $4.91 million per incident.

Global average cost of #databreach is now $4.35M, up 13% since 2020. Much of that are realized more than a year after the attack, and 60% of organizations are passing the costs on to consumers in the form of higher prices. #cybersecurity #respectdataClick to Tweet

Cutting the cost of data breach

Though the numbers are never as neat and clean as averages would indicate, it would appear that the cost of data breaches is cut dramatically for companies that implement solid automated “deep learning” cybersecurity tools, zero trust systems and regularly tested incident response plans. Mature cloud security programs are also a substantial cost saver.

Mon, 01 Aug 2022 10:00:00 -0500 Scott Ikeda en-US text/html https://www.cpomagazine.com/cyber-security/ibm-annual-cost-of-data-breach-report-2022-record-costs-usually-passed-on-to-consumers-long-breach-expenses-make-up-half-of-total-damage/
Killexams : Three Common Mistakes That May Sabotage Your Security Training

Phishing incidents are on the rise. A report from IBM shows that phishing was the most popular attack vector in 2021, resulting in one in five employees falling victim to phishing hacking techniques.

The Need for Security Awareness Training

Although technical solutions protect against phishing threats, no solution is 100% effective. Consequently, companies have no choice but to involve their employees in the fight against hackers. This is where security awareness training comes into play.

Security awareness training gives companies the confidence that their employees will execute the right response when they discover a phishing message in their inbox.

As the saying goes, "knowledge is power," but the effectiveness of knowledge depends heavily on how it is delivered. When it comes to phishing attacks, simulations are among the most effective forms of training because the events in training simulations directly mimic how an employee would react in the event of an genuine attack. Since employees do not know whether a suspicious email in their inbox is a simulation or a real threat, the training becomes even more valuable.

Phishing Simulations: What does the training include?

It is critical to plan, implement and evaluate a cyber awareness training program to ensure it truly changes employee behavior. However, for this effort to be successful, it should involve much more than just emailing employees. Key practices to consider include:

  • Real-life phishing simulations.
  • Adaptive learning - live response and protection from genuine cyberattacks.
  • Personalized training based on factors such as department, tenure, and cyber experience level.
  • Empowering and equipping employees with an always-on cybersecurity mindset.
  • Data-driven campaigns

Because employees do not recognize the difference between phishing simulations and real cyberattacks, it's important to remember that phishing simulations evoke different emotions and reactions, so awareness training should be conducted thoughtfully. As organizations need to engage their employees to combat the ever-increasing attacks and protect their assets, it is important to keep morale high and create a positive culture of cyber hygiene.

Three common phishing simulation mistakes.

Based on years of experience, cybersecurity firm CybeReady has seen companies fall into these common mistakes.

Mistake #1: Testing instead of educating

The approach of running a phishing simulation as a test to catch and punish "repeat offenders" can do more harm than good.

An educational experience that involves stress is counterproductive and even traumatic. As a result, employees will not go through the training but look for ways to circumvent the system. Overall, the fear-based "audit approach" is not beneficial to the organization in the long run because it cannot provide the necessary training over an extended period.

Solution #1: Be sensitive

Because maintaining positive employee morale is critical to the organization's well-being, provide positive just-in-time training.

Just-in-time training means that once employees have clicked on a link within the simulated attack, they are directed to a short and concise training session. The idea is to quickly educate the employee on their mistake and deliver them essential tips on spotting malicious emails in the future.

This is also an opportunity for positive reinforcement, so be sure to keep the training short, concise, and positive.

Solution #2: Inform relevant departments.

Communicate with relevant stakeholders to ensure they are aware of ongoing phishing simulation training. Many organizations forget to inform relevant stakeholders, such as HR or other employees, that the simulations are being conducted. Learning has the best effect when participants have the opportunity to feel supported, make mistakes, and correct them.

Mistake #2: Use the same simulation for all employees

It is important to vary the simulations. Sending the same simulation to all employees, especially at the same time, is not only not instructive but also has no valid metrics when it comes to organizational risk.

The "warning effect" - the first employee to discover or fall for the simulation warns the others. This prepares your employees to respond to the "threat" by anticipating the simulation, thus bypassing the simulation and the training opportunity.

Another negative impact is social desirability bias, which causes employees to over-report incidents to IT without noticing them in order to be viewed more favorably. This leads to an overloaded system and the department IT.

This form of simulation also leads to inaccurate results, such as unrealistically low click-through rates and over-reporting rates. Thus, the metrics do not show the real risks of the company or the problems that need to be addressed.

Solution: Drip mode

Drip mode allows sending multiple simulations to different employees at different times. Certain software solutions can even do this automatically by sending a variety of simulations to different groups of employees. It's also important to implement a continuous cycle to ensure that all new employees are properly onboarded and to reinforce that security is important 24/7 - not just checking a box for minimum compliance.

Mistake #3: Relying on data from a single campaign

With over 3.4 billion phishing attacks per day, it's safe to assume that at least a million of them differ in complexity, language, approach, or even tactics.

Unfortunately, no single phishing simulation can accurately reflect an organization's risk. Relying on a single phishing simulation result is unlikely to provide reliable results or comprehensive training.

Another important consideration is that different groups of employees respond differently to threats, not only because of their vigilance, training, position, tenure, or even education level but because the response to phishing attacks is also contextual.

Solution: Implement a variety of training programs

Behavior change is an evolutionary process and should therefore be measured over time. Each training session contributes to the progress of the training. Training effectiveness, or in other words, an accurate reflection of genuine organizational behavior change, can be determined after multiple training sessions and over time.

The most effective solution is to continuously conduct various training programs (at least once a month) with multiple simulations.

It is highly recommended to train employees according to their risk level. A diverse and comprehensive simulation program also provides reliable measurement data based on systematic behavior over time. To validate their efforts at effective training, organizations should be able to obtain a valid indication of their risk at any given point in time while monitoring progress in risk reduction.

Implement an effective phishing simulation program.

Creating such a program may seem overwhelming and time-consuming. That's why we have created a playbook of the 10 key practices you can use to create a simple and effective phishing simulation. Simply download the CybeReady Playbook or meet with one of our experts for a product demo and learn how CybeReady's fully automated security awareness training platform can help your organization achieve the fastest results with virtually zero effort IT.


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Wed, 03 Aug 2022 22:37:00 -0500 The Hacker News en text/html https://thehackernews.com/2022/08/three-common-mistakes-that-may-sabotage.html
Killexams : Know How Automation Testing Market Growing Massively by 2022-2028 Focusing on Top Players – IBM, CA Technologies, Micro Focus, Capgemini

Automation Testing is anticipated to increase from USD 20.7 billion in 2021 to USD 49.9 billion by 2028. The market for automation testing is expanding as a result of the quick uptake of cutting-edge technology.

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant influence on the retail, banking, logistics, education, manufacturing, and healthcare industries. Automation testing services and solutions are widely used in these industries. As a result, the component is thought to have a High Impact. The short-term impact on the technology industry, which includes a disruption in the supply of raw materials, instability in the electronics value chain, and the potential for inflationary product risk.

The automated testing sector has a fantastic opportunity to evaluate these cutting-edge technical applications as modern technologies like IoT, AI, and machine learning are rapidly developing. Currently, rule-based software manages the majority of corporate processes digitally. The ability to handle important problems with this approach is somewhat limited.

Employee productivity and organisational performance eventually suffer as a result of the lengthy processes and excessively repetitive work that employees must perform.

Request demo Copy of this Report: 

https://www.infinitybusinessinsights.com/request_sample.php?id=655958

To prevent unauthorised access to data, governments apply data regulation laws from different economies. Numerous national and international rules, like the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) in the US and the Data Protection Directive in the EU, must be adhered to when it comes to data storage security and privacy. Businesses have total control over their data when it is kept on-site, but data kept on the cloud is more open to security risks.

The use of smartphones and the internet is now a necessary part of daily life. Software apps are one of the sectors in the mobile and web business that are growing the fastest. This market expansion is attributed to factors such as the low cost of smartphones, the abundance of web-based applications, the decline in data pricing, and the increased purchasing power of end users. End customers obtain programmes based on treatment and rejection, two variables that are intimately related to the effectiveness of the application. Mobile applications also have a quicker development and life cycle than other types of applications. In order to develop the life cycle of mobile apps, automation testing for mobile applications is crucial. Companies may increase regression test cases and testing productivity.

Information security and privacy are concerned with how and where data is stored. Data security is one of the most important factors to take into account when implementing automation testing solutions. Data storage and media flow both need to use encryption. Additional security measures apply to the network and firewall where data storage occurs in an organisation. Infrastructure as a Service, Platform as a Service, and Software as a Service are all in high demand. Automation testing is gaining popularity, particularly in the BFSI and retail industries. Systems are exposed to a number of hazards due to the prevalence of smart, connected IoT-enabled gadgets that gather and exchange massive amounts of produced data.

An organisation with more than 1000 people that is not a micro, small, or medium firm is considered a large enterprise. Large businesses need automation testing services to ensure that their business operations run smoothly. Additionally helpful for lowering operational costs and raising client satisfaction, these automation services. With the growth of technologies, large corporations have developed a variety of the latest technology-based solutions and applications. It is necessary to periodically test these most recent technology-based solutions and applications to ensure that they precisely satisfy the set business objectives and aims. Because it gives security testing an advantage over other testing methods, large organisations deliver software security the highest priority.

Regional Insight: 

The Americas ,US, Canada, Europe, UK, Germany, France, Europe as a whole, APAC, New Zealand and Australia, Japan, the rest of APAC, China, MEA, Africa and the Middle East Other MEA, South America, Brazil, Mexico, Latin America as a whole are major regions according to their contribution to the automating testing market.

Competitive Analysis:

The top manufacturers in the automation testing industry are Accenture (Ireland), AFour Technologies, Applitools, Astegic, Broadcom, Capgemini, Cigniti Technologies, Codoid, Cygnet Infotech, froglogic (Germany), IBM, Infostrecth, Invensis, Keysight Technologies, Micro Focus, Microsoft, Mobisoft Infotech, Parasoft, ProdPerfect, QA Mentor, QA Source, and QualityKi (US). To expand in the worldwide providing market, these players have taken a number of different strategies. The paper offers a thorough competition analysis of these major market participants who provide automation testing, together with information about their organisations, recent accomplishments, and important business strategies.

Some of the key questions answered in this report:
1. What will the market growth rate, growth momentum or acceleration market carries during the forecast period?
2. Which are the key factors driving the Automation Testing market?
3. What was the size of the emerging Automation Testing market by value in 2021?
4. What will be the size of the emerging Automation Testing market in 2028?
5. Which region is expected to hold the highest market share in the Automation Testing market?
6. What trends, challenges and barriers will impact the development and sizing of the Automation Testing market?
7. What are sales volume, revenue, and price analysis of top manufacturers of Automation Testing market?

If you need anything more than these then let us know and we will prepare the report according to your requirement.

For More Details On this Report @:

https://www.infinitybusinessinsights.com/enquiry_before_buying.php?id=655958

Table of Contents:
1. Automation Testing Market Overview
2. Impact on Automation Testing Market Industry
3. Automation Testing Market Competition
4. Automation Testing Market Production, Revenue by Region
5. Automation Testing Market Supply, Consumption, Export and Import by Region
6. Automation Testing Market Production, Revenue, Price Trend by Type
7. Automation Testing Market Analysis by Application
8. Automation Testing Market Manufacturing Cost Analysis
9. Internal Chain, Sourcing Strategy and Downstream Buyers
10. Marketing Strategy Analysis, Distributors/Traders
11. Market Effect Factors Analysis
12. Automation Testing Market Forecast (2022-2028)
13. Appendix

Contact Us:
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Thu, 04 Aug 2022 23:39:00 -0500 Newsmantraa en-US text/html https://www.digitaljournal.com/pr/know-how-automation-testing-market-growing-massively-by-2022-2028-focusing-on-top-players-ibm-ca-technologies-micro-focus-capgemini
Killexams : IBM Report: Data Breach Costs Reach All-Time High

For the twelfth year in a row, healthcare saw the costliest breaches among all industries with the average cost reaching $10.1 million per breach.

CAMBRIDGE, Mass. — IBM (NYSE: IBM) Security released the annual Cost of a Data Breach Report, revealing costlier and higher-impact data breaches than ever before, with the global average cost of a data breach reaching an all-time high of $4.35 million for studied organizations. With breach costs increasing nearly 13% over the last two years of the report, the findings suggest these incidents may also be contributing to rising costs of goods and services. In fact, 60% of studied organizations raised their product or services prices due to the breach, when the cost of goods is already soaring worldwide amid inflation and supply chain issues.

The perpetuality of cyberattacks is also shedding light on the “haunting effect” data breaches are having on businesses, with the IBM report finding 83% of studied organizations have experienced more than one data breach in their lifetime. Another factor rising over time is the after-effects of breaches on these organizations, which linger long after they occur, as nearly 50% of breach costs are incurred more than a year after the breach.

The 2022 Cost of a Data Breach Report is based on in-depth analysis of real-world data breaches experienced by 550 organizations globally between March 2021 and March 2022. The research, which was sponsored and analyzed by IBM Security, was conducted by the Ponemon Institute.

Some of the key findings in the 2022 IBM report include:

  • Critical Infrastructure Lags in Zero Trust – Almost 80% of critical infrastructure organizations studied don’t adopt zero trust strategies, seeing average breach costs rise to $5.4 million – a $1.17 million increase compared to those that do. All while 28% of breaches amongst these organizations were ransomware or destructive attacks.
  • It Doesn’t Pay to Pay – Ransomware victims in the study that opted to pay threat actors’ ransom demands saw only $610,000 less in average breach costs compared to those that chose not to pay – not including the cost of the ransom. Factoring in the high cost of ransom payments, the financial toll may rise even higher, suggesting that simply paying the ransom may not be an effective strategy.
  • Security Immaturity in Clouds – Forty-three percent of studied organizations are in the early stages or have not started applying security practices across their cloud environments, observing over $660,000 on average in higher breach costs than studied organizations with mature security across their cloud environments.
  • Security AI and Automation Leads as Multi-Million Dollar Cost Saver – Participating organizations fully deploying security AI and automation incurred $3.05 million less on average in breach costs compared to studied organizations that have not deployed the technology – the biggest cost saver observed in the study.

“Businesses need to put their security defenses on the offense and beat attackers to the punch. It’s time to stop the adversary from achieving their objectives and start to minimize the impact of attacks. The more businesses try to perfect their perimeter instead of investing in detection and response, the more breaches can fuel cost of living increases.” said Charles Henderson, Global Head of IBM Security X-Force. “This report shows that the right strategies coupled with the right technologies can help make all the difference when businesses are attacked.”

Over-trusting Critical Infrastructure Organizations

Concerns over critical infrastructure targeting appear to be increasing globally over the past year, with many governments’ cybersecurity agencies urging vigilance against disruptive attacks. In fact, IBM’s report reveals that ransomware and destructive attacks represented 28% of breaches amongst critical infrastructure organizations studied, highlighting how threat actors are seeking to fracture the global supply chains that rely on these organizations. This includes financial services, industrial, transportation and healthcare companies amongst others.

Despite the call for caution, and a year after the Biden Administration issued a cybersecurity executive order that centers around the importance of adopting a zero trust approach to strengthen the nation’s cybersecurity, only 21% of critical infrastructure organizations studied adopt a zero trust security model, according to the report. Add to that, 17% of breaches at critical infrastructure organizations were caused due to a business partner being initially compromised, highlighting the security risks that over-trusting environments pose.

Businesses that Pay the Ransom Aren’t Getting a “Bargain”

According to the 2022 IBM report, businesses that paid threat actors’ ransom demands saw $610,000 less in average breach costs compared to those that chose not to pay – not including the ransom amount paid. However, when accounting for the average ransom payment, which according to Sophos reached $812,000 in 2021, businesses that opt to pay the ransom could net higher total costs – all while inadvertently funding future ransomware attacks with capital that could be allocated to remediation and recovery efforts and looking at potential federal offenses.

The persistence of ransomware, despite significant global efforts to impede it, is fueled by the industrialization of cybercrime. IBM Security X-Force discovered the duration of studied enterprise ransomware attacks shows a drop of 94% over the past three years – from over two months to just under four days. These exponentially shorter attack lifecycles can prompt higher impact attacks, as cybersecurity incident responders are left with very short windows of opportunity to detect and contain attacks. With “time to ransom” dropping to a matter of hours, it’s essential that businesses prioritize rigorous testing of incident response (IR) playbooks ahead of time. But the report states that as many as 37% of organizations studied that have incident response plans don’t test them regularly.

Hybrid Cloud Advantage

The report also showcased hybrid cloud environments as the most prevalent (45%) infrastructure amongst organizations studied. Averaging $3.8 million in breach costs, businesses that adopted a hybrid cloud model observed lower breach costs compared to businesses with a solely public or private cloud model, which experienced $5.02 million and $4.24 million on average respectively. In fact, hybrid cloud adopters studied were able to identify and contain data breaches 15 days faster on average than the global average of 277 days for participants.

The report highlights that 45% of studied breaches occurred in the cloud, emphasizing the importance of cloud security. However, a significant 43% of reporting organizations stated they are just in the early stages or have not started implementing security practices to protect their cloud environments, observing higher breach costs2. Businesses studied that did not implement security practices across their cloud environments required an average 108 more days to identify and contain a data breach than those consistently applying security practices across all their domains.

Additional findings in the 2022 IBM report include:

  • Phishing Becomes Costliest Breach Cause – While compromised credentials continued to reign as the most common cause of a breach (19%), phishing was the second (16%) and the costliest cause, leading to $4.91 million in average breach costs for responding organizations.
  • Healthcare Breach Costs Hit Double Digits for First Time Ever– For the 12th year in a row, healthcare participants saw the costliest breaches amongst industries with average breach costs in healthcare increasing by nearly $1 million to reach a record high of $10.1 million.
  • Insufficient Security Staffing – Sixty-two percent of studied organizations stated they are not sufficiently staffed to meet their security needs, averaging $550,000 more in breach costs than those that state they are sufficiently staffed.

To obtain a copy of the 2022 Cost of a Data Breach Report, visit https://www.ibm.com/security/data-breach.

Fri, 29 Jul 2022 02:16:00 -0500 CS Staff en text/html https://www.campussafetymagazine.com/research/ibm-report-data-breach-costs-reach-all-time-high/
Killexams : IBM report: Middle Eastern consumers pay the price as regional data breach costs reach all-time high

Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: IBM, the leading global technology company, has published a study highlighting the importance of cybersecurity in an increasingly digital age. According to IBM Security’s annual Cost of a Data Breach Report,  the Middle East has incurred losses of SAR 28 million from data breaches  in 2022 alone — this figure already exceeding the total amount of losses accrued in each of the last eight years. 

The latest edition of the Cost of a Data Breach Report — now in its 17th year — reveals costlier and higher-impact data breaches than ever before. As outlined by the study, the global average cost of a data breach has reached an all-time high of $4.35 million for surveyed organizations. With breach costs increasing nearly 13% over the last two years of the report, the findings suggest these incidents may also be contributing to rising costs of goods and services. In fact, 60% of studied organizations raised their product or services prices due to the breach, when the cost of goods is already soaring worldwide amid inflation and supply chain issues.

Notably, the report ranks the Middle East2 among the top five countries and regions for the highest average cost of a data breach. As per the study, the average total cost of a data breach in the Middle East amounted to SAR 28 million in 2022, the region being second only to the United States on the list. The report also spotlights the industries across the Middle East that have suffered the highest per-record costs in millions; the financial (SAR 1,039), health (SAR 991) and energy (SAR 950) sectors taking first, second and third spot, respectively.    

Fahad Alanazi, IBM Saudi General Manager, said: “Today, more so than ever, in an increasingly connected and digital age, cybersecurity is of the utmost importance. It is essential to safeguard businesses and privacy. As the digital economy continues to evolve, enhanced security will be the marker of a modern, world class digital ecosystem.” 

He continued: “At IBM, we take great pride in enabling the people, businesses and communities we serve to fulfil their potential by empowering them with state-of-the-art services and support. Our findings reiterate just how important it is for us, as a technology leader, to continue pioneering solutions that will help the Kingdom distinguish itself as the tech capital of the region.”

The perpetuality of cyberattacks is also shedding light on the “haunting effect” data breaches are having on businesses, with the IBM report finding 83% of studied organizations have experienced more than one data breach in their lifetime. Another factor rising over time is the after-effects of breaches on these organizations, which linger long after they occur, as nearly 50% of breach costs are incurred more than a year after the breach.

The 2022 Cost of a Data Breach Report is based on in-depth analysis of real-world data breaches experienced by 550 organizations globally between March 2021 and March 2022. The research, which was sponsored and analyzed by IBM Security, was conducted by the Ponemon Institute.

Some of the key global findings in the 2022 IBM report include:

  • Critical Infrastructure Lags in Zero Trust – Almost 80% of critical infrastructure organizations studied don’t adopt zero trust strategies, seeing average breach costs rise to $5.4 million – a $1.17 million increase compared to those that do. All while 28% breaches amongst these organizations were ransomware or destructive attacks.
  • It Doesn’t Pay to Pay – Ransomware victims in the study that opted to pay threat actors’ ransom demands saw only $610,000 less in average breach costs compared to those that chose not to pay – not including the cost of the ransom. Factoring in the high cost of ransom payments, the financial toll may rise even higher, suggesting that simply paying the ransom may not be an effective strategy.
  • Security Immaturity in Clouds – Forty-three percent of studied organizations are in the early stages or have not started applying security practices across their cloud environments, observing over $660,000 on average in higher breach costs than studied organizations with mature security across their cloud environments. 
  • Security AI and Automation Leads as Multi-Million Dollar Cost Saver – Participating organizations fully deploying security AI and automation incurred $3.05 million less on average in breach costs compared to studied organizations that have not deployed the technology – the biggest cost saver observed in the study.

“Businesses need to put their security defenses on the offense and beat attackers to the punch. It’s time to stop the adversary from achieving their objectives and start to minimize the impact of attacks. The more businesses try to perfect their perimeter instead of investing in detection and response, the more breaches can fuel cost of living increases.” said Charles Henderson, Global Head of IBM Security X-Force. “This report shows that the right strategies coupled with the right technologies can help make all the difference when businesses are attacked.”

Over-trusting Critical Infrastructure Organizations 

Concerns over critical infrastructure targeting appear to be increasing globally over the past year, with many governments’ cybersecurity agencies urging vigilance against disruptive attacks. In fact, IBM’s report reveals that ransomware and destructive attacks represented 28% of breaches amongst critical infrastructure organizations studied, highlighting how threat actors are seeking to fracture the global supply chains that rely on these organizations. This includes financial services, industrial, transportation and healthcare companies amongst others.

Despite the call for caution, and a year after the Biden Administration issued a cybersecurity executive order that centers around the importance of adopting a zero trust approach to strengthen the nation’s cybersecurity, only 21% of critical infrastructure organizations studied adopt a zero trust security model, according to the report. Add to that, 17% of breaches at critical infrastructure organizations were caused due to a business partner being initially compromised, highlighting the security risks that over-trusting environments pose.

Businesses that Pay the Ransom Aren’t Getting a “Bargain” 

According to the 2022 IBM report, businesses that paid threat actors’ ransom demands saw $610,000 less in average breach costs compared to those that chose not to pay – not including the ransom amount paid. However, when accounting for the average ransom payment, which according to Sophos reached $812,000 in 2021, businesses that opt to pay the ransom could net higher total costs - all while inadvertently funding future ransomware attacks with capital that could be allocated to remediation and recovery efforts and looking at potential federal offenses.

The persistence of ransomware, despite significant global efforts to impede it, is fueled by the industrialization of cybercrime. IBM Security X-Force discovered the duration of studied enterprise ransomware attacks shows a drop of 94% over the past three years – from over two months to just under four days. These exponentially shorter attack lifecycles can prompt higher impact attacks, as cybersecurity incident responders are left with very short windows of opportunity to detect and contain attacks. With “time to ransom” dropping to a matter of hours, it's essential that businesses prioritize rigorous testing of incident response (IR) playbooks ahead of time. But the report states that as many as 37% of organizations studied that have incident response plans don’t test them regularly.

Hybrid Cloud Advantage

The report also showcased hybrid cloud environments as the most prevalent (45%) infrastructure amongst organizations studied. Averaging $3.8 million in breach costs, businesses that adopted a hybrid cloud model observed lower breach costs compared to businesses with a solely public or private cloud model, which experienced $5.02 million and $4.24 million on average respectively. In fact, hybrid cloud adopters studied were able to identify and contain data breaches 15 days faster on average than the global average of 277 days for participants.

The report highlights that 45% of studied breaches occurred in the cloud, emphasizing the importance of cloud security. However, a significant 43% of reporting organizations stated they are just in the early stages or have not started implementing security practices to protect their cloud environments, observing higher breach costs3 . Businesses studied that did not implement security practices across their cloud environments required an average 108 more days to identify and contain a data breach than those consistently applying security practices across all their domains. 

Additional findings in the 2022 IBM report include:

  • Phishing Becomes Costliest Breach Cause – While compromised credentials continued to reign as the most common cause of a breach (19%), phishing was the second (16%) and the costliest cause, leading to $4.91 million in average breach costs for responding organizations.
  • Healthcare Breach Costs Hit Double Digits for First Time Ever– For the 12th year in a row, healthcare participants saw the costliest breaches amongst industries with average breach costs in healthcare increasing by nearly $1 million to reach a record high of $10.1 million.
  • Insufficient Security Staffing – Sixty-two percent of studied organizations stated they are not sufficiently staffed to meet their security needs, averaging $550,000 more in breach costs than those that state they are sufficiently staffed.

Additional Sources

  • To obtain a copy of the 2022 Cost of a Data Breach Report, please visit: https://www.ibm.com/security/data-breach. 
  • Read more about the report’s top findings in this IBM Security Intelligence blog.
  • Sign up for the 2022 IBM Security Cost of a Data Breach webinar on Wednesday, August 3, 2022, at 11:00 a.m. ET here.
  • Connect with the IBM Security X-Force team for a personalized review of the findings: https://ibm.biz/book-a-consult.

-Ends-

About IBM Security

IBM Security offers one of the most advanced and integrated portfolios of enterprise security products and services. The portfolio, supported by world-renowned IBM Security X-Force® research, enables organizations to effectively manage risk and defend against emerging threats. IBM operates one of the world's broadest security research, development, and delivery organizations, monitors 150 billion+ security events per day in more than 130 countries, and has been granted more than 10,000 security patents worldwide. For more information, please check www.ibm.com/security, follow @IBMSecurity on Twitter or visit the IBM Security Intelligence blog.

Wed, 27 Jul 2022 22:20:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.zawya.com/en/press-release/research-and-studies/ibm-report-middle-eastern-consumers-pay-the-price-as-regional-data-breach-costs-reach-all-time-high-q1wbuec0
Killexams : Twitter Account Hacked? Even Security Companies Have Trouble Getting Back In

The regular reports from antivirus testing companies around the world are extremely helpful when I’m evaluating a new or updated antivirus program. I know all the players, so receiving an email from a lab’s executive team is no surprise, but the request in one such recent email was unusual. Andreas Marx, CEO and co-founder of AV-Test Institute(Opens in a new window), wanted to know if I had any inside contacts at Twitter. It turned out that AV-Test Institute's main Twitter handle, @avtestorg(Opens in a new window), had been hacked, and his attempts to get help from Twitter were going unanswered.

How could this happen in a company with more than 15 years of experience in the security industry? Speaking with Marx and with Maik Morgenstern, technical director of AV-Test and its other CEO, I learned that even when you do everything right, you can still get hacked. As of this writing, the AV-Test account is still posting and retweeting random NFT spam, rather than providing support for AV-Test’s business and its customers.

After account takeover, Twitter feed is replaced by spam

After an account takeover, a Twitter feed is replaced by spam.


Neil J. Rubenking: How did you first learn the account was hacked?
Andreas Marx
: I got a WhatsApp message from a well-known security researcher, just about 10 minutes after the account was hacked on July 25, with screenshots of the compromised Twitter account. Shortly thereafter, we got further notifications from other parties.

What was your first reaction to the hack?
Well, I tried to log in to my mobile device with the Twitter account, but the @avtestorg account was no longer accessible. I tried to check the account on my PC, but I was not able to log in and just saw the compromised Twitter account there, too. (Twitter actually asked me to create a new account!)

In my email Inbox, I saw three mails from Twitter, all in Russian. One e-mail message from Twitter said, "Пароль был изменён" ("Password has been changed") with the information "Недавно вы изменили пароль своей учетной записи @avtestorg." ("You recently changed your @avtestorg account password."). Just two minutes later, this email message arrived: "Адрес электронной почты для @avtestorg изменен" ("Email address for @avtestorg changed"). It said to confirm by following a link sent to the new email and ended, “If you haven't made these changes, please contact Twitter support immediately."

Password change warning in Russian

Password change warning in Russian (Credit: PCMag)

I'm a German, and I've used Twitter in German language for the last decade, so it appears to me that someone changed the default language first.

To my surprise, the new email address for the account was blanked out (not fully visible), and I saw the message that only the new address needs to be confirmed. So, Twitter doesn't even ask if the person behind the current email address agrees with the account change.

What techniques did you use to try regaining access?
We immediately contacted the Twitter support and opened a case, “Regain access - Hacked or compromised," providing all details to reclaim our account. When nothing happened after two days we filed another case, with the same result so far: nothing.

What does Twitter recommend in a case like this?
Twitter suggests you contact their support via the website "I’m having problems with account access(Opens in a new window)."

What was Twitter’s response?
There is no response from Twitter so far, neither from the initial report via the website, nor from a second request two days later. We also tried to contact the support via @TwitterSupport, and tried to contact Twitter via email.

Well, “no response” is not entirely true. I've received a response from a bot who asked me, "Twitter would like your feedback. It should only take 2 minutes!" but that's from a third party.

What did you learn from this experience?
I have to admit that I'm still feeling totally lost. More than one week has passed by, and there has been no reaction. I actually expected a response from Twitter after my reports somehow, as the changes to the account and the postings are very unusual. At least the account should have been blocked in the short term, until further verification. The account is still there, and we have no access to it, so it might still be in use by the malicious actors.

Any advice for others to protect their Twitter accounts?
We used a strong password and 2FA (two-factor authentication) for protecting the account, but it looks like this was not enough. Maybe the attacker hasn't stolen the password, but taken over an active session, so they were already logged in and most of the security features are disabled then. I still don't understand why changing the email account wouldn't trigger a 2FA request. That's definitely a weakness of Twitter; other social networks handle this much better.

Recommended by Our Editors

My strong recommendation is actually for Twitter, not for other users. Before changing an email address for an account, please ensure that the current person behind this email address agrees to the transfer. For many other websites and social media platforms, a confirmation link or code is sent before the account can be transferred, or another form of 2FA is required to ensure that the account cannot easily be hijacked.

 And, Twitter, please be kind and respond to messages.


When even the experts can’t prevent an account takeover, you may figure that you’re just out of luck. In truth, there’s quite a bit you can do to make sure your Twitter account and other important accounts remain secure. Start with the basics. If you don’t already have a password manager, get one. Use it to change the passwords for your sensitive accounts to something unique and random. Don’t worry; the password manager remembers them for you.

Even though the hackers in this story seem to have done an end-run around multi-factor authentication, that doesn’t mean it’s not valuable. When you engage multi-factor for your important accounts, you make it a lot harder for anyone to hack into them. Chances are good that a random hacker will skip your account and go for something easier, like an account that has a password of “password” with no added authentication.

You can log out of all other Twitter sessions

(Credit: PCMag)

Marx mentioned that the hacker might have gained access through an active, unlocked Twitter session. You can help your security by always logging out when you’re done using Twitter, or at least making sure your computers and smart devices are thoroughly secured. You can also view active and past sessions directly from your Twitter account and click a simple link to shut down all sessions except your current one.

So, what are you waiting for? Log into your Twitter account right now and make sure you have multi-factor authentication protecting it. Check those other sessions—if any of them look wonky, pull the plug and shut 'em all down. And be sure you're protecting that account with a strong password, not your birthday or your dog's name.

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Wed, 03 Aug 2022 03:25:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.pcmag.com/news/twitter-account-hacked-even-security-companies-have-trouble-getting-back
Killexams : From Floppies to Solid State: The Evolution of PC Storage Media

Since the dawn of computing, we've struggled with how to store all this digital stuff. International Business Machines helped launch the PC revolution in the 1980s, but computers were dealing with storage issues long before that. In fact, that same company had the first hard disk drive running back in 1956(Opens in a new window)—a 2,000-pound unit that cost $35,000 per year to operate.

It also held only 5 megabytes (MB). But just look at how streamlined that thing is.

Other ways to store data existed in those early days, from punch cards to giant, reel-to-reel magnetic tape machines. Thankfully, by the time PCs first made it to our offices and living rooms, storage devices were substantially smaller, if not yet as small as what we carry in our pockets today.

Let's look back at what it took to store data on a PC from the early days through today. It should deliver you a whole new appreciation for the size, speed, and capacity of today’s latest storage methods.


1. 5.25-Inch Floppy Disk

A 5.25-inch floppy drive from an original IBM PC

A 5.25-inch floppy drive from an original IBM PC (Credit: René Ramos/Molly Flores)

IBM created the floppy drive as a means of read-only magnetic storage in 1972. Floppy disks originally came in a size of 203.2mm, which is close enough to 8 inches for that to be the moniker used. The round disk inside was in a permanent flexible (floppy) jacket to keep fingers off.

The eight-inch size didn't stick around for very long. Steve Wozniak designed the first external Apple II disk drive in 1978; it used a 5.25-inch floppy disk. Soon, Commodore, Tandy, and Atari adopted the same format.

The original IBM PC 5150 that debuted in August 1981 offered the option of one or two internal 5.25-inch floppy drives. Each floppy diskette could hold 160 kilobytes on one side, or 320KB if you could use both (not all disks were double-sided). The drives required a controller card on the motherboard and were connected with ribbon cables. Back then, having two floppy drives made a huge difference because one of them could hold the operating system while the other drive loaded a program, such as Lotus 1-2-3(Opens in a new window). You wouldn't have to swap disks.

Hard drives soon became the permanent, long-term data storage standard, and next-generation floppy disks would soon take over for portability, both of which we'll get to below. The 5.25-inch floppy was fully ejected by 1994.


2. Cassette Tape

Iomega Ditto

Iomega Ditto (Credit: René Ramos/Dual Freq via Wikimedia Commons)

Magnetic tape isn't that far different from a floppy disk, although it's a lot slower when accessing stored data. In the 1980s, computer software was often sold on cassette tape, just like music albums. Cassette recorders were available for home computers such as the Apple II and Commodore 64.

The original IBM PC also had a port for one. A 90-minute cassette could hold about a megabyte of data. But few developers sold PC software on tape because the computer almost always came with at least one floppy drive. IBM soon dropped the 5-pin DIN cassette port on its later systems, but it continued to sell the original 5150 right up through 1987 without a floppy drive if a customer preferred tape.

Why include a port for tape at all? Some people wanted to run a version of BASIC called Cassette BASIC(Opens in a new window) that only worked off of tape, and DOS had no cassette tape support (DOS stood for Disk Operating System, after all). And because tape was the cheapest storage available(Opens in a new window).

Third parties made proprietary tape-based drives for backup, such as Iomega and its Ditto drive(Opens in a new window) of the 1990s. Iomega gave it up and sold off the tape drive biz before the end of the decade. 

Unlike the floppy drive, however, tape has never gone away. You can still buy uber-expensive cartridge drives using the Linear Tape-Open (LTO) spec(Opens in a new window) for massive backup use—usually they’re found in enterprises(Opens in a new window), backing up servers full of important data.


3. 3.5-Inch Floppy Disk

3.5-inch Floppy Disks

3.5-inch floppy disks (Credit: René Ramos/Javier Zayas Photography/Getty Images)

The 3.5-inch floppy disk is the universal iconic symbol for saving your work for a reason. The smaller disk wasn't as floppy as 8-inch and 5.25-inch diskettes because the 3.5-inch version came inside a hard plastic shell. It did, however, become the top-selling removable storage medium by 1988. This despite a limited capacity: first 720KB, then in a high-density 1.44MB version. IBM made a 2.88MB double-sided extended-density diskette for the IBM PS/2, but that standard went nowhere.

3.5-inch floppies were a mainstay of PC software well into the 90s; five billion 3.5-inch floppies(Opens in a new window) were in use by 1996.

But the small diskettes couldn’t keep up with the demands of bloated software. At one point, for example, Microsoft shipped a version of Windows 98 that required sequentially inserting 21 different floppy disks to install it on a hard drive. Microsoft Office required almost twice that many. You could build up your arm muscles by replacing disks while installing software to a hard drive. Sony, one of the biggest manufacturers, stopped making 3.5-inch floppies(Opens in a new window) in 2011.


4. Hard Disk Drive

The Seagate ST-412 Hard Disk Drive from the Original IBM PC

A Seagate ST-412 hard disk drive from an original IBM PC (Credit: Molly Flores)

Hard disk drives (HDDs) were nothing new in 1982, but a hard drive didn’t make it into the first IBM PC. Instead, the world (and PC Magazine) awaited the second-generation eXTension (XT) model. The PC XT included a standard 10MB HDD, which we called "certainly significant" in our Feb-Apr 1983 issue(Opens in a new window). The drive required a new power supply and a BIOS update, all of which contributed to the XT's much higher price of $4,995 (that’s $14,380 with 2022 inflation(Opens in a new window)).

The IBM PC's first HDD was the Seagate Technology Model ST-412(Opens in a new window). The interface between it and the motherboard became the de facto disk drive standard for several years.

Entire books have been written about HDDs (though one book entitled Hard Drive(Opens in a new window) was about the hard-driving influence of Microsoft). The impact of spacious, local, re-writable storage on a platter changed everything. Hard drives continued to dominate system storage decades later due to their overall reliability and ever-increasing speed and capacity.

Today, you can find 20-terabyte (TB) internal hard drives on the market, such as the Seagate Exos X20(Opens in a new window) for $389. That company alone has shipped a full 3 zettabytes of hard drive storage capacity as of 2021—the equivalent of 150,000,000 hard drives with 20TB each.


5. Zip Disk

Zip Disks

Zip disks (Credit: Young Swee Ming/Shutterstock)

The Zip Drive and its high-capacity floppy disks never really replaced the standard floppy, but of the many “superfloppy” products that tried, only Iomega’s came close. The company had limited success with its Bernoulli Box removable floppies in the 1980s. But the 1994 debut of the very affordable Zip Drive put Bernoulli on a whole other level.

Zip disks were the first to hold 100MB of data each; subsequent releases went to 250MB and even 750MB in 2002. Bernoulli also survived the famous Click of Death(Opens in a new window) lawsuit in 1998. By 2003, Iomega had shipped some 50 million Zip Drives.

But timing is everything. Zip Drives were caught between the era of the floppy and the onslaught of writable CDs that could seek data much faster, plus local networks that made file transfers much easier. EMC bought Iomega, and soon partnered with Lenovo before killing off the Zip drive line.


6. Jaz Disk

Jaz Disk

A Jaz disk (Credit: René Ramos/Science & Society Picture Library/Getty Images)

Following the debut of the popular Zip disk, Iomega tried to build on that success in 1995 with the Jaz(Opens in a new window). The thicker Jaz format boosted capacity to 1GB per disk, and then to 2GB by 1998—perfect for creatives who needed copious amounts of storage.

Iomega marketed the Jaz mainly as a $500 external drive, although an internal version was available, which the Zip also had as an option. The Jaz drive connected via a SCSI interface, which was big on the Macintosh, though some later models connected to parallel ports. A SCSI adapter worked with USB and even FireWire.

The Jaz had some of the same issues as the Zip, however, including the Click of Death problem and overheating. Like the Zip, the Jaz also pushed up against the coming of the CD and CD-R, and couldn't compete on price.


7. USB Flash Drive

A USB Drive in a Swiss Army Knife

A USB drive in a Swiss army knife (Credit: René Ramos/Victorinox via Amazon)

2000 saw the first ever Universal Serial Bus (USB)-based flash-memory drive, the ThumbDrive from Trek Technology(Opens in a new window). A holy matrimony between the easy-to-use and now mainstream USB port and (finally inexpensive) non-volatile NAND flash memory, the ThumbDrive was among the first chips that didn’t require power to retain data. IBM’s first flash drive that same year, the DiskOnKey(Opens in a new window), held 8MB for $50.

Soon, the floodgates opened. Tons of companies made small, fast, somewhat-high-capacity solid-state drives as big as your thumb. Many sued each other. It took years for Trek to win the US copyright to the name “Thumbdrive”(Opens in a new window) in 2010, by which time the term was genericized—but that win is also why PCMag and others now call them “flash drives” instead.

That initial 1.0 USB specification gave way to the 30x faster speeds of 2.0, which only helped flash memory drives. By 2004 the first 1GB flash drive shipped.

Today, USB flash drives typically use USB 3.0 with a read speed of 120 MB per second. In our Best USB Flash Drives for 2022, we tested devices with the old-school USB-A connector (Samsung Bar Plus 128GB USB 3.1 Flash Drive for $21) and even some that use the faster USB-C (SanDisk Ultra Dual Drive 128GB USB Type-C Flash Drive for $18). We’ve seen them in all shapes (including as part of a Swiss army knife), some with incredibly high capacity, some with security locks integrated, and other crazy things. For all-around ease of use coupled with secure, mobile storage, USB flash drives remain hard to beat.


8. Memory Card

Memory Cards

SD cards (Credit: René Ramos/Nattawut Lakjit/EyeEm/Getty Images)

It's not unfair to think of memory cards as USB flash drives without the USB. The cards can be much, much smaller. While they work as media storage for PCs, they’re more likely to be found in even smaller devices, requiring you to have an adapter for your PC to read them.

The first “cards” were the large PCMCIA devices that came in sized like a credit card, albeit substantially thicker. This gave way in the mid-1990s to Compact Flash, a format that you can still find in devices today—then to Toshiba’s SmartMedia Card (SMC), a NAND-based flash memory that held as much as 128MB on a card only 0.76mm thick.

Memory cards have had many subsequent names and sizes and shapes in the last two decades: Multimedia Cards (MMC), Secure Digital(Opens in a new window) (SD), SmartMedia, Memory Stick, XD-Card, and Universal Flash Storage (UFS), among others. Eventually, the most popular, SD, got smaller via miniSD and microSD; they remain the most prevalent today.

Recommended by Our Editors

Originally, memory cards were meant to replace floppy disks or even the high-capacity ones like the Zip. But the tiny size made them ideal to become the digital replacement for film in cameras. The memory card propelled the age of digital photography. Today, support for memory cards in Android-based smartphones ebbs and flows (usually, it ebbs). Some memory cards are even specific to various brands and generations of game consoles.


9. CD-ROM

Using a CD-ROM in a laptop

Using a CD-ROM with a laptop (Credit: silverjohn/Getty Images)

The read-only memory that changed the world. The fully-optical-and-digital compact disc full of data held up to 650MB on 1.2 mm of polycarbonate plastic with a reflective aluminum surface. They could be read only by a laser. CD-ROM became the standard for software and video game distribution in the late 1980s and persisted through the 90s. (Music CDs are similar, but they use a different format(Opens in a new window), although computer CD drives could eventually read those, too.)

The CD-ROM's only downside is that it is read-only memory (it's right there in the name). Users couldn’t write data to it. This did however make them ideal to software and game distributors who liked that it was easy to copy-protect.

The faster the drive could spin the CD-ROM, the faster the data could be accessed. The base standard of 1x was about 150Kb per second, but eventually, drives were hitting 52x or even 72x, but with some physical world caveats.


10. CD-R and CD-RW

CD-R and a CD-RW with printable surface

A CD-R and a CD-RW with a printable surface (Credit: René Ramos/Verbatim via Amazon)

The compact disc-recordable (CD-R) was originally called the CD-Write-Once and uses some of the same technology as the earlier magneto-optical drive—the ability to write your data to a disc one time only for backup or distribution. You could write to CD-Rs in the audio format (“Red Book”) holding up to 80 minutes of music or data format (“Yellow Book”) with 700MB of info, and they’d work in regular CD players or CD-ROM drives most of the time. The CD-R format was part of the “Orange Book(Opens in a new window)” standard, and writing to CD-Rs became known as “burning” a CD.

You can still easily buy CD-R media online. Verbatim sells a 100 disc pack for $19.22(Opens in a new window) on Amazon.

Another Orange Book-based product introduced in 1997, the CD-RW became the first truly mainstream optical media option that let you write to the disc, erase it, and write to it again. You couldn't do it forever, maybe 1,000 times, but that’s still a lot. They’re almost the same as CD-Rs but with different reflective layers to facilitate erasure and re-writing.

The biggest drawback of CD-RWs is that not all older CD and CD-R drives will read them. They also don’t necessarily last as long as the original CD-ROMs. A spindle of 50 CD-RW discs from Verbatim currently sells for $31(Opens in a new window). Plus, they’re printable—you can run them through select printers to label them.


11. DVD and DVD±RW

Stacks of DVD-R Disks

Stacks of DVD-R disks (Credit: René Ramos/Olga Sapegina/Shutterstock)

The Digital Video Disc, or Digital Versatile Disc depending on who you ask, also came in the late 1990s and became the primo way to distribute high-end video of films quickly. It was better than LaserDisc because it was much smaller, it included sharper digital video, and it also didn't need to be flipped halfway through a movie. The DVD was enough to replace VHS and also get Netflix off the ground in 1998 as a mail-order movie rental biz. Remember those red envelopes?

There are types of re-writeable DVD: the standard “dash” format (DVD-R/RW) from 1997 and the plus (DVD+R/RW) from 2002. Different industry consortiums back each standard. With an R, you can write once; with RWs you can re-write, just like with the CD version. The big upside of a DVD-R for computer storage, of course, is it holds a lot more than a CD-R. A regular DVD-R on a single side using a single layer can store 4.7GB of data. A 30-pack of Verbatim-brand DVD+RW discs goes now for $23.25(Opens in a new window)


12. Sony Blu-ray

Blu-Ray BD-RE disc

A Blu-ray BD-RE disc (Credit: René Ramos/bkindler/GettyImages)

You probably know Blu-ray as the format for buying high-definition movies (with lots of extras) on a disc. It's the format that won the war against Toshiba’s HD-DVD(Opens in a new window) in the aughts, finally giving Sony some justice over what happened with Betamax(Opens in a new window). It wasn’t originally created for the purpose, but Blu-ray became king of the movie-watching hill...at least until streaming went, uh, mainstream. (But some of us still prefer physical media.)

Recordable (BD-R) or Recordable Erasable (BD-RE) Blu-ray discs have been available since at least 2005, assuming you have the right kind of drive that can handle 45Mbps write speed. The standard disk capacity is 25GB or 50GB depending on whether it's single- or dual-layer.


13. Solid-State Drive (SSD)

Samsung Solid State Drive

Samsung Solid State Drive (Credit: René Ramos/Zlata Ivleva)

The first SSD appeared in 1991, but it took a few decades for the tech to go mainstream. It's essentially like flash drive memory, on a grander scale of capacity, and using semiconductor cells for non-volatile storage. SSDs work in a PC like HDDs, but without any of the moving parts that spell eventual doom. And SSDs are a lot faster, making them perfect for booting up an operating system.

SSDs often accompany HDDs in lower-cost PCs, and increasingly the SSD is the only drive on board. Plus, there are many external SSD options. SSDs also make great upgrades for PCs that need a new drive, even laptops, thanks to the small “gumstick” M.2 format. You can read more about them in SSD vs. HDD: What’s the Difference, and our sister site ExtremeTech has a deep dive on how SSDs work(Opens in a new window).


Want to see some stranger storage? Check out 10 Bizarre PC Storage Formats that Didn’t Quite Cut It.

Thu, 04 Aug 2022 02:21:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.pcmag.com/news/the-evolution-of-pc-storage-media
Killexams : IBM Report: Consumers Pay the Price as Data Breach Costs Reach All-Time High

60% of breached businesses raised product prices post-breach; vast majority of critical infrastructure lagging in zero trust adoption; $550,000 in extra costs for insufficiently staffed businesses

CAMBRIDGE, Mass., July 27, 2022 /PRNewswire/ -- IBM (NYSE: IBM) Security today released the annual Cost of a Data Breach Report,1 revealing costlier and higher-impact data breaches than ever before, with the global average cost of a data breach reaching an all-time high of $4.35 million for studied organizations. With breach costs increasing nearly 13% over the last two years of the report, the findings suggest these incidents may also be contributing to rising costs of goods and services. In fact, 60% of studied organizations raised their product or services prices due to the breach, when the cost of goods is already soaring worldwide amid inflation and supply chain issues.

60% of breached businesses studied stated they increased the price of their products or services due to the data breach

The perpetuality of cyberattacks is also shedding light on the "haunting effect" data breaches are having on businesses, with the IBM report finding 83% of studied organizations have experienced more than one data breach in their lifetime. Another factor rising over time is the after-effects of breaches on these organizations, which linger long after they occur, as nearly 50% of breach costs are incurred more than a year after the breach.

The 2022 Cost of a Data Breach Report is based on in-depth analysis of real-world data breaches experienced by 550 organizations globally between March 2021 and March 2022. The research, which was sponsored and analyzed by IBM Security, was conducted by the Ponemon Institute.

Some of the key findings in the 2022 IBM report include:

  • Critical Infrastructure Lags in Zero Trust – Almost 80% of critical infrastructure organizations studied don't adopt zero trust strategies, seeing average breach costs rise to $5.4 million – a $1.17 million increase compared to those that do. All while 28% of breaches amongst these organizations were ransomware or destructive attacks.
  • It Doesn't Pay to Pay – Ransomware victims in the study that opted to pay threat actors' ransom demands saw only $610,000 less in average breach costs compared to those that chose not to pay – not including the cost of the ransom. Factoring in the high cost of ransom payments, the financial toll may rise even higher, suggesting that simply paying the ransom may not be an effective strategy.
  • Security Immaturity in Clouds – Forty-three percent of studied organizations are in the early stages or have not started applying security practices across their cloud environments, observing over $660,000 on average in higher breach costs than studied organizations with mature security across their cloud environments.
  • Security AI and Automation Leads as Multi-Million Dollar Cost Saver – Participating organizations fully deploying security AI and automation incurred $3.05 million less on average in breach costs compared to studied organizations that have not deployed the technology – the biggest cost saver observed in the study.

"Businesses need to put their security defenses on the offense and beat attackers to the punch. It's time to stop the adversary from achieving their objectives and start to minimize the impact of attacks. The more businesses try to perfect their perimeter instead of investing in detection and response, the more breaches can fuel cost of living increases." said Charles Henderson, Global Head of IBM Security X-Force. "This report shows that the right strategies coupled with the right technologies can help make all the difference when businesses are attacked."

Over-trusting Critical Infrastructure Organizations
Concerns over critical infrastructure targeting appear to be increasing globally over the past year, with many governments' cybersecurity agencies urging vigilance against disruptive attacks. In fact, IBM's report reveals that ransomware and destructive attacks represented 28% of breaches amongst critical infrastructure organizations studied, highlighting how threat actors are seeking to fracture the global supply chains that rely on these organizations. This includes financial services, industrial, transportation and healthcare companies amongst others.

Despite the call for caution, and a year after the Biden Administration issued a cybersecurity executive order that centers around the importance of adopting a zero trust approach to strengthen the nation's cybersecurity, only 21% of critical infrastructure organizations studied adopt a zero trust security model, according to the report. Add to that, 17% of breaches at critical infrastructure organizations were caused due to a business partner being initially compromised, highlighting the security risks that over-trusting environments pose.

Businesses that Pay the Ransom Aren't Getting a "Bargain"
According to the 2022 IBM report, businesses that paid threat actors' ransom demands saw $610,000 less in average breach costs compared to those that chose not to pay – not including the ransom amount paid. However, when accounting for the average ransom payment, which according to Sophos reached $812,000 in 2021, businesses that opt to pay the ransom could net higher total costs - all while inadvertently funding future ransomware attacks with capital that could be allocated to remediation and recovery efforts and looking at potential federal offenses.

The persistence of ransomware, despite significant global efforts to impede it, is fueled by the industrialization of cybercrime. IBM Security X-Force discovered the duration of studied enterprise ransomware attacks shows a drop of 94% over the past three years – from over two months to just under four days. These exponentially shorter attack lifecycles can prompt higher impact attacks, as cybersecurity incident responders are left with very short windows of opportunity to detect and contain attacks. With "time to ransom" dropping to a matter of hours, it's essential that businesses prioritize rigorous testing of incident response (IR) playbooks ahead of time. But the report states that as many as 37% of organizations studied that have incident response plans don't test them regularly.

Hybrid Cloud Advantage
The report also showcased hybrid cloud environments as the most prevalent (45%) infrastructure amongst organizations studied. Averaging $3.8 million in breach costs, businesses that adopted a hybrid cloud model observed lower breach costs compared to businesses with a solely public or private cloud model, which experienced $5.02 million and $4.24 million on average respectively. In fact, hybrid cloud adopters studied were able to identify and contain data breaches 15 days faster on average than the global average of 277 days for participants.

The report highlights that 45% of studied breaches occurred in the cloud, emphasizing the importance of cloud security. However, a significant 43% of reporting organizations stated they are just in the early stages or have not started implementing security practices to protect their cloud environments, observing higher breach costs2. Businesses studied that did not implement security practices across their cloud environments required an average 108 more days to identify and contain a data breach than those consistently applying security practices across all their domains.

Additional findings in the 2022 IBM report include:

  • Phishing Becomes Costliest Breach Cause – While compromised credentials continued to reign as the most common cause of a breach (19%), phishing was the second (16%) and the costliest cause, leading to $4.91 million in average breach costs for responding organizations.
  • Healthcare Breach Costs Hit Double Digits for First Time Ever– For the 12th year in a row, healthcare participants saw the costliest breaches amongst industries with average breach costs in healthcare increasing by nearly $1 million to reach a record high of $10.1 million.
  • Insufficient Security Staffing – Sixty-two percent of studied organizations stated they are not sufficiently staffed to meet their security needs, averaging $550,000 more in breach costs than those that state they are sufficiently staffed.

Additional Sources

  • To obtain a copy of the 2022 Cost of a Data Breach Report, please visit: https://www.ibm.com/security/data-breach.
  • Read more about the report's top findings in this IBM Security Intelligence blog.
  • Sign up for the 2022 IBM Security Cost of a Data Breach webinar on Wednesday, August 3, 2022, at 11:00 a.m. ET here.
  • Connect with the IBM Security X-Force team for a personalized review of the findings: https://ibm.biz/book-a-consult.

About IBM Security
IBM Security offers one of the most advanced and integrated portfolios of enterprise security products and services. The portfolio, supported by world-renowned IBM Security X-Force® research, enables organizations to effectively manage risk and defend against emerging threats. IBM operates one of the world's broadest security research, development, and delivery organizations, monitors 150 billion+ security events per day in more than 130 countries, and has been granted more than 10,000 security patents worldwide. For more information, please check www.ibm.com/security, follow @IBMSecurity on Twitter or visit the IBM Security Intelligence blog.

Press Contact:

IBM Security Communications
Georgia Prassinos
gprassinos@ibm.com

1 Cost of a Data Breach Report 2022, conducted by Ponemon Institute, sponsored, and analyzed by IBM
2 Average cost of $4.53M, compared to average cost $3.87 million at participating organizations with mature-stage cloud security practices

IBM Corporation logo. (PRNewsfoto/IBM)

Cision View original content to obtain multimedia:https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/ibm-report-consumers-pay-the-price-as-data-breach-costs-reach-all-time-high-301592749.html

SOURCE IBM

Tue, 26 Jul 2022 16:29:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://fox40.com/business/press-releases/cision/20220727NY26218/ibm-report-consumers-pay-the-price-as-data-breach-costs-reach-all-time-high/
Killexams : IBM Report: Consumers Pay the Price as Data Breach Costs Reach All-Time High

60% of breached businesses raised product prices post-breach; vast majority of critical infrastructure lagging in zero trust adoption; $550,000 in extra costs for insufficiently staffed businesses

CAMBRIDGE, Mass., July 27, 2022 /PRNewswire/ -- IBM (NYSE: IBM) Security today released the annual Cost of a Data Breach Report,1 revealing costlier and higher-impact data breaches than ever before, with the global average cost of a data breach reaching an all-time high of $4.35 million for studied organizations. With breach costs increasing nearly 13% over the last two years of the report, the findings suggest these incidents may also be contributing to rising costs of goods and services. In fact, 60% of studied organizations raised their product or services prices due to the breach, when the cost of goods is already soaring worldwide amid inflation and supply chain issues.

60% of breached businesses studied stated they increased the price of their products or services due to the data breach

The perpetuality of cyberattacks is also shedding light on the "haunting effect" data breaches are having on businesses, with the IBM report finding 83% of studied organizations have experienced more than one data breach in their lifetime. Another factor rising over time is the after-effects of breaches on these organizations, which linger long after they occur, as nearly 50% of breach costs are incurred more than a year after the breach.

The 2022 Cost of a Data Breach Report is based on in-depth analysis of real-world data breaches experienced by 550 organizations globally between March 2021 and March 2022. The research, which was sponsored and analyzed by IBM Security, was conducted by the Ponemon Institute.

Some of the key findings in the 2022 IBM report include:

  • Critical Infrastructure Lags in Zero Trust – Almost 80% of critical infrastructure organizations studied don't adopt zero trust strategies, seeing average breach costs rise to $5.4 million – a $1.17 million increase compared to those that do. All while 28% of breaches amongst these organizations were ransomware or destructive attacks.

  • It Doesn't Pay to Pay – Ransomware victims in the study that opted to pay threat actors' ransom demands saw only $610,000 less in average breach costs compared to those that chose not to pay – not including the cost of the ransom. Factoring in the high cost of ransom payments, the financial toll may rise even higher, suggesting that simply paying the ransom may not be an effective strategy.

  • Security Immaturity in Clouds – Forty-three percent of studied organizations are in the early stages or have not started applying security practices across their cloud environments, observing over $660,000 on average in higher breach costs than studied organizations with mature security across their cloud environments.

  • Security AI and Automation Leads as Multi-Million Dollar Cost Saver – Participating organizations fully deploying security AI and automation incurred $3.05 million less on average in breach costs compared to studied organizations that have not deployed the technology – the biggest cost saver observed in the study.

"Businesses need to put their security defenses on the offense and beat attackers to the punch. It's time to stop the adversary from achieving their objectives and start to minimize the impact of attacks. The more businesses try to perfect their perimeter instead of investing in detection and response, the more breaches can fuel cost of living increases." said Charles Henderson, Global Head of IBM Security X-Force. "This report shows that the right strategies coupled with the right technologies can help make all the difference when businesses are attacked."

Over-trusting Critical Infrastructure Organizations
Concerns over critical infrastructure targeting appear to be increasing globally over the past year, with many governments' cybersecurity agencies urging vigilance against disruptive attacks. In fact, IBM's report reveals that ransomware and destructive attacks represented 28% of breaches amongst critical infrastructure organizations studied, highlighting how threat actors are seeking to fracture the global supply chains that rely on these organizations. This includes financial services, industrial, transportation and healthcare companies amongst others.

Despite the call for caution, and a year after the Biden Administration issued a cybersecurity executive order that centers around the importance of adopting a zero trust approach to strengthen the nation's cybersecurity, only 21% of critical infrastructure organizations studied adopt a zero trust security model, according to the report. Add to that, 17% of breaches at critical infrastructure organizations were caused due to a business partner being initially compromised, highlighting the security risks that over-trusting environments pose.

Businesses that Pay the Ransom Aren't Getting a "Bargain"
According to the 2022 IBM report, businesses that paid threat actors' ransom demands saw $610,000 less in average breach costs compared to those that chose not to pay – not including the ransom amount paid. However, when accounting for the average ransom payment, which according to Sophos reached $812,000 in 2021, businesses that opt to pay the ransom could net higher total costs - all while inadvertently funding future ransomware attacks with capital that could be allocated to remediation and recovery efforts and looking at potential federal offenses.

The persistence of ransomware, despite significant global efforts to impede it, is fueled by the industrialization of cybercrime. IBM Security X-Force discovered the duration of studied enterprise ransomware attacks shows a drop of 94% over the past three years – from over two months to just under four days. These exponentially shorter attack lifecycles can prompt higher impact attacks, as cybersecurity incident responders are left with very short windows of opportunity to detect and contain attacks. With "time to ransom" dropping to a matter of hours, it's essential that businesses prioritize rigorous testing of incident response (IR) playbooks ahead of time. But the report states that as many as 37% of organizations studied that have incident response plans don't test them regularly.

Hybrid Cloud Advantage
The report also showcased hybrid cloud environments as the most prevalent (45%) infrastructure amongst organizations studied. Averaging $3.8 million in breach costs, businesses that adopted a hybrid cloud model observed lower breach costs compared to businesses with a solely public or private cloud model, which experienced $5.02 million and $4.24 million on average respectively. In fact, hybrid cloud adopters studied were able to identify and contain data breaches 15 days faster on average than the global average of 277 days for participants.

The report highlights that 45% of studied breaches occurred in the cloud, emphasizing the importance of cloud security. However, a significant 43% of reporting organizations stated they are just in the early stages or have not started implementing security practices to protect their cloud environments, observing higher breach costs2. Businesses studied that did not implement security practices across their cloud environments required an average 108 more days to identify and contain a data breach than those consistently applying security practices across all their domains.

Additional findings in the 2022 IBM report include:

  • Phishing Becomes Costliest Breach Cause – While compromised credentials continued to reign as the most common cause of a breach (19%), phishing was the second (16%) and the costliest cause, leading to $4.91 million in average breach costs for responding organizations.

  • Healthcare Breach Costs Hit Double Digits for First Time Ever– For the 12th year in a row, healthcare participants saw the costliest breaches amongst industries with average breach costs in healthcare increasing by nearly $1 million to reach a record high of $10.1 million.

  • Insufficient Security Staffing – Sixty-two percent of studied organizations stated they are not sufficiently staffed to meet their security needs, averaging $550,000 more in breach costs than those that state they are sufficiently staffed.

Additional Sources

  • To obtain a copy of the 2022 Cost of a Data Breach Report, please visit: https://www.ibm.com/security/data-breach.

  • Read more about the report's top findings in this IBM Security Intelligence blog.

  • Sign up for the 2022 IBM Security Cost of a Data Breach webinar on Wednesday, August 3, 2022, at 11:00 a.m. ET here.

  • Connect with the IBM Security X-Force team for a personalized review of the findings: https://ibm.biz/book-a-consult.

About IBM Security
IBM Security offers one of the most advanced and integrated portfolios of enterprise security products and services. The portfolio, supported by world-renowned IBM Security X-Force® research, enables organizations to effectively manage risk and defend against emerging threats. IBM operates one of the world's broadest security research, development, and delivery organizations, monitors 150 billion+ security events per day in more than 130 countries, and has been granted more than 10,000 security patents worldwide. For more information, please check www.ibm.com/security, follow @IBMSecurity on Twitter or visit the IBM Security Intelligence blog.

Press Contact:

IBM Security Communications
Georgia Prassinos
gprassinos@ibm.com

1 Cost of a Data Breach Report 2022, conducted by Ponemon Institute, sponsored, and analyzed by IBM
2 Average cost of $4.53M, compared to average cost $3.87 million at participating organizations with mature-stage cloud security practices

IBM Corporation logo. (PRNewsfoto/IBM)

Cision

View original content to obtain multimedia:https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/ibm-report-consumers-pay-the-price-as-data-breach-costs-reach-all-time-high-301592749.html

SOURCE IBM

Tue, 26 Jul 2022 20:36:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://finance.yahoo.com/news/ibm-report-consumers-pay-price-040100294.html
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