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Exam Code: NCLEX-PN Practice test 2022 by Killexams.com team
NCLEX-PN National Council Licensure Examination(NCLEX-PN)

The test plan is reviewed and approved by the NCLEX®
Examination Committee (NEC) every three years.
Multiple resources are used, including the exact practice analysis of licensed practical/vocational nurses (LPN/VNs), and expert opinions of the NEC, NCSBN staff and nursing regulatory bodies (NRBs) to ensure that the test plan is consistent with nurse practice acts. Following the endorsement of proposed revisions by the NEC, the test plan document is presented for approval to the Delegate Assembly, which is the decisionmaking body of NCSBN. The test plan serves a variety of purposes. It is used to guide candidates preparing for the examination, to direct item writers in the development of items, and to facilitate the classification of examination items. This document offers a comprehensive listing of content for each client needs category and subcategory outlined in the test plan. sample items are provided at the end of each category, which are specific to the client needs category in that section. There is an item writing guide along with sample case scenarios, which provide nurse educators with hands-on experience in writing NCLEX-style test items.

Entry into the practice of nursing is regulated by the licensing authorities within each of the NCSBN nursing regulatory bodies (state, commonwealth and territorial boards of nursing). To ensure public protection, each jurisdiction requires candidates for licensure to meet set requirements that include passing an examination that measures the competencies needed to perform safely and effectively as a licensed practical/vocational nurse (LPN/VN). NCSBN develops a licensure examination, the National Council Licensure Examination for Practical Nurses (NCLEX-PN®), which is used by U.S. members to assist in making licensure decisions.
Several steps occur in the development of the NCLEX-PN Test Plan. The first step is conducting a practice analysis that is used to collect data on the current practice of entry-level LPN/VNs (Report of Findings from the 2018 LPN/VN Practice Analysis: Linking the NCLEX-PN® Examination to Practice, NCSBN, 2019). Twelve thousand newly licensed practical/vocational nurses are asked about the frequency and priority of performing nursing care activities. Nursing care activities are then analyzed in relation to the frequency of performance, impact on maintaining client safety and client care settings where the activities are performed. This analysis guides the development of a framework for entry-level nursing practice that incorporates specific client needs, as well as processes that are fundamental to the practice of nursing. The next step is the development of the NCLEX-PN Test Plan, which guides the selection of content and behaviors to be tested. Variations in jurisdiction laws and regulations are considered in the development of the test plan. The NCLEX-PN Test Plan provides a concise summary of the content and scope of the licensure examination. It serves as a guide for examination development as well as candidate preparation. The NCLEX® assesses the knowledge, skills and abilities that are essential for the entry-level LPN/VN to use in order to meet the needs of clients requiring the promotion, maintenance and restoration of health. The following sections describe beliefs about people and nursing that are integral to the examination, cognitive abilities that will be tested in the examination and specific components of the NCLEX-PN Test Plan.

Client Needs
Percentage of Items from Each
Category/Subcategory
Safe and Effective Care Environment
„ Coordinated Care 18–24%
„ Safety and Infection Control 10–16%
Health Promotion and Maintenance 6–12%
Psychosocial Integrity 9–15%
Physiological Integrity
„ Basic Care and Comfort 7–13%
„ Pharmacological Therapies 10–16%
„ Reduction of Risk Potential 9–15%
„ Physiological Adaptation 7–13%

The activity statements used in the 2018 LPN/VN Practice Analysis: Linking the NCLEX-PN® Examination to Practice (NCSBN, 2019) preface each of the eight content categories and are identified throughout the test plan by an asterisk (*). NCSBN performs an analysis of those activities used frequently and identified as important by entry-level nurses to ensure client safety. This is called a practice analysis; it provides data to support the NCLEX as a reliable, valid measure of competent, entry-level LPN/VN practice. The practice analysis is conducted every three years. In addition to the practice analysis, NCSBN conducts a knowledge, skills and abilities (KSA) survey. The primary purpose of this study is to identify the knowledge needed by newly licensed practical/vocational nurses in order to provide safe and effective care. Findings from both the 2018 LPN/VN Practice Analysis: Linking the NCLEX-PN® Examination to Practice (NCSBN, 2019) and the 2018 LPN/VN Nursing Knowledge Survey (NCSBN, 2019) can be found at www.ncsbn.org/1235.htm. Both documents are used in the development of the NCLEX-PN Test Plan as well as to inform item development. All task statements in the 2020 NCLEX-PN® Test Plan require the nurse to apply the fundamental principles of clinical decision making and critical thinking to nursing practice. The test plan also makes the assumption that the nurse integrates concepts from the following bodies of knowledge:
„ Social Sciences (psychology and sociology); and
„ Biological Sciences (anatomy, physiology, biology and microbiology) Collaboration with Interdisciplinary Team
„ Identify roles/responsibilities of health care team members
„ Identify need for nursing or interdisciplinary client care conference
„ Contribute to the development of and/or update the client plan of care
„ Contribute to planning interdisciplinary client care conferences
„ Participate as a member of an interdisciplinary team Concepts of Management and Supervision
„ Recognize and report staff conflict
„ Verify abilities of staff members to perform assigned tasks (e.g., job description, scope of practice, training, experience)
„ Provide input for performance evaluation of other staff
„ Participate in staff education (e.g., inservices, continued competency)
„ Use data from various credible sources in making clinical decisions
„ Serve as resource person to other staff
„ Monitor activities of assistive personnel
Confidentiality/Information Security
„ Identify staff actions that impact client confidentiality and intervene as needed (e.g., access to medical records, discussions at nurses station, change-of-shift reports)
„ Recognize staff member and client understanding of confidentiality requirements
„ Apply knowledge of facility regulations when accessing client records
„ Maintain client confidentiality*
„ Provide for privacy needs Continuity of Care
„ Follow up with client after discharge*
„ Participate in client discharge or transfer*
„ Provide follow-up for unresolved client care issues
„ Provide and receive report*
„ Record client information (e.g., medical record, referral/transfer form)
„ Use agency guidelines to guide client care (e.g., clinical pathways, care maps, care plans)
Establishing Priorities
„ Organize and prioritize care based on client needs*
„ Participate in planning client care based upon client needs (e.g., diagnosis, abilities, prescribed treatment)
„ Use effective time management skills
Ethical Practice
„ Identify ethical issues affecting staff or client
„ Inform client of ethical issues affecting client care
„ Intervene to promote ethical practice
„ Practice in a manner consistent with code of ethics for nurses*
„ Review client and staff member knowledge of ethical issues affecting client care Informed Consent
„ Identify appropriate person to provide informed consent for client (e.g., client, parent, legal guardian)
„ Participate in client consent process*
„ Describe informed consent requirements (e.g., purpose for procedure, risks of procedure)
„ Recognize that informed consent was obtained (e.g., completed consent form, client understanding of procedure)
Information Technology
„ Use information technology in client care*
„ Access data for client or staff through online databases and journals
„ Enter computer documentation accurately, completely and in a timely manner
Legal Responsibilities
„ Identify legal issues affecting staff and client (e.g., refusing treatment)
„ Verify and process health care provider orders*
„ Recognize self-limitations of task/assignments and seek assistance when needed*
„ Respond to the unsafe practice of a health care provider (e.g., intervene, report)*
„ Follow regulation/policy for reporting specific issues (e.g., abuse, neglect, gunshot wound, communicable disease)*
„ Document client care
„ Provide care within the legal scope of practice*
Performance Improvement (Quality Improvement)
„ Identify impact of performance improvement/quality improvement activities on client care outcomes
„ Participate in quality improvement (QI) activity (e.g., collecting data, serving on QI committee)*
„ Document performance improvement/quality improvement activities
„ Report identified performance improvement/quality improvement concerns to appropriate
personnel (e.g., nurse manager, risk manager)
„ Apply evidence-based practice when providing care*

National Council Licensure Examination(NCLEX-PN)
NCLEX Examination(NCLEX-PN) history
Killexams : NCLEX Examination(NCLEX-PN) history - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/NCLEX-PN Search results Killexams : NCLEX Examination(NCLEX-PN) history - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/NCLEX-PN https://killexams.com/exam_list/NCLEX Killexams : Two Hudson Valley teens earn perfect scores on AP US History Exam

Sep 30, 2022, 2:45amUpdated on Sep 30, 2022

By: News 12 Staff

At least two Hudson Valley seniors earned perfect scores on the Advanced Placement U.S. History Exam.

The district says Oliver loves history and studied by reviewing notes and practice essays.

Kieran Burke, of Pearl River, was another of those nine in the world to earn every possible point on the exam.

Pearl River says Kieran has been a high honor roll award and community service award recipient throughout his academic career.

The impressive scores will help both young men get into college and get college credit.

Thu, 29 Sep 2022 14:46:00 -0500 text/html https://newjersey.news12.com/two-hudson-valley-teens-earn-perfect-scores-on-ap-us-history-exam
Killexams : Guthrie’s ‘Sally & Tom’ an insightful examination of history, race and power

If you’ve ever encountered an interview with a historian who’s written about the relationship of American “founding father” Thomas Jefferson and the mother of most of his children, Sally Hemings, there’s a good possibility you’ve heard this phrase: “It’s complicated.”

Is it a case of a 41-year-old slave owner taking sexual advantage of a 14-year-old girl? Oh, yes, it certainly is. But how did their relationship evolve over 39 years together? Did it become something more like a marriage? Despite the obvious power dynamic, could the two have actually been in love?

Playwright Suzan-Lori Parks tackles these complex (and perhaps unanswerable) questions in her newest play, “Sally & Tom,” which has just premiered at Minneapolis’ Guthrie Theater. And she does so in an inspiringly imaginative way: By inviting us into the creative process of a Black playwright-actor, her white producer-director-actor lover, and their enthusiastic but resource-strapped little theater company as they approach opening night for her new play about … the relationship of Sally Hemings and Thomas Jefferson.

  • A woman sits on a couch with her laptop as a man leans over her; they are talking.

    Kristen Ariza (Luce/Sally) and Luke Robertson (Mike/Tom) in the Guthrie Theater's production of "Sally & Tom," which runs Oct. 1 -- Nov. 6, 2022. (Dan Norman / Guthrie Theater)

  • Production still from the Guthrie Theater's "Sally & Tom,"

    Kristen Ariza (Luce/Sally) and Luke Robertson (Mike/Tom) in the Guthrie Theater's production of "Sally & Tom," which runs Oct. 1 -- Nov. 6, 2022. (Dan Norman / Guthrie Theater)

  • Production still from the Guthrie Theater's "Sally & Tom,"

    Luke Robertson (Mike/Tom) and Kristen Ariza (Luce/Sally) in the Guthrie Theater's production of "Sally & Tom," which runs Oct. 1 -- Nov. 6, 2022. (Dan Norman / Guthrie Theater)

  • Production still from the Guthrie Theater's "Sally & Tom,"

    Kristen Ariza (Luce/Sally) and Luke Robertson (Mike/Tom) in the Guthrie Theater's production of "Sally & Tom," which runs Oct. 1 -- Nov. 6, 2022. (Dan Norman / Guthrie Theater)

  • Production still from the Guthrie Theater's "Sally & Tom,"

    Kadeem Ali Harris (Devon/Nathan), Gillian Glasco (Maggie/Mary), Kristen Ariza (Luce/Sally), Luke Robertson (Mike/Tom) and Sun Mee Chomet (Scout/Polly) in the Guthrie Theater's production of "Sally & Tom," which runs Oct. 1 -- Nov. 6, 2022. (Dan Norman / Guthrie Theater)

  • Production still from the Guthrie Theater's "Sally & Tom,"

    The cast of the Guthrie Theater's production of "Sally & Tom," which runs Oct. 1 -- Nov. 6, 2022. (Dan Norman / Guthrie Theater)

  • Production still from the Guthrie Theater's "Sally & Tom,"

    Kristen Ariza (Luce/Sally), Daniel Petzold (Geoff/Cooper/Carey/Tobias) and Gillian Glasco (Maggie/Mary) in the Guthrie Theater's production of "Sally & Tom," which runs Oct. 1 -- Nov. 6, 2022. (Dan Norman / Guthrie Theater)

  • Production still from the Guthrie Theater's "Sally & Tom,"

    Amari Cheatom (Kwame/James) and Kristen Ariza (Luce/Sally) in the Guthrie Theater's production of "Sally & Tom," which runs Oct. 1 -- Nov. 6, 2022. (Dan Norman / Guthrie Theater)

Parks has already won a Pulitzer Prize for 2001’s “Topdog/Underdog,” and, after experiencing the Guthrie’s high-energy and expertly executed production of “Sally & Tom,” I can say that this transcends that play in both reach and grasp. It’s a powerful piece of theater that addresses such important issues as racial reckoning and foundational principles forsaken for the sake of capitalism, yet does so with plenty of humor and open-hearted affection for the process of making theater.

And what an honor for Twin Cities audiences to be the first to experience what should be the most talked-about new play of 2022. “Sally & Tom” is a triumph of not only historical storytelling — laying out the subjectivity that enters into such a pursuit — but also finding intriguing ways to explore how history echoes in modern relationships affected by differences in color, gender, economics and status.

As it opens, it would seem that we’ve been transported back to 1790, period-costumed dancers engaging in a minuet. When one of the actors directly addresses the audience, we find that this will be a play called “The Pursuit of Happiness.” But it’s not long before the scene stops and we realize that we’re in the midst of a rehearsal for a play still undergoing revisions.

From there, we watch as the play and production come together — and periodically apart — getting to know eight vividly drawn theater artists, with the linchpin relationship of playwright Luce and producer-director Mike changing while they play the roles of Sally Hemings and Thomas Jefferson in “The Pursuit of Happiness.”

During the show’s first act, I found myself hoping that the backstage banter would take on a more naturalistic feel — it sometimes seemed as stagy as the 18th-century exchanges of the play within a play — and I got my wish in the second act, when “Sally & Tom” became grippingly real.

Director Steve H. Broadnax III brings impressive order to a potentially chaotic and confusing theatrical challenge. And each actor creates a convincing portrayal, spearheaded by Kristen Ariza and Luke Robertson as Luce and Mike. Amari Cheatom also impresses as a film and TV actor who joins the cast and brings potential buzz to the production, while Kadeem Ali Harris, Daniel Petzold, Kate Nowlin, Sun Mee Chomet and Gillian Glasco each get cleverly crafted stints in the spotlight.

Yes, it’s a “complicated” subject, but Parks may very well make it an overdue part of the public conversation with this excellent new play.

“Sally and Tom”

  • When: Through Nov. 6
  • Where: Guthrie Theater, 818 Second St. S., Minneapolis
  • Tickets: $75-$15.50, available at 612-377-2224 or guthrietheater.org
  • Capsule: A brilliant new play about how history echoes around us.
Author

Rob Hubbard is a Twin Cities arts writer whose relationship with the St. Paul Pioneer Press has spanned most of his career, with stints in sports, business news and arts and entertainment. 

Mon, 10 Oct 2022 23:34:00 -0500 Rob Hubbard en-US text/html https://www.twincities.com/2022/10/11/guthries-sally-tom-an-insightful-examination-of-history-race-and-power/
Killexams : History paper for Oct 10 UGC-NET test did not leak: NTA

The National Testing Agency (NTA) on Wednesday issued a statement saying a fake tweet and YouTube video are circulating on social media regarding a leak of a history paper for UGC-NET December 2021 and June 2022 (merged cycles).

The test was held on October 10, 2022. The agency said there had been no such leak of any question paper and urged all stakeholders to beware of such tweets on social media that are “trying to deviate genuine aspirants from the real issue”.

"The denies allegations regarding leakage of Question Paper of History(06) paper Shift II," the NTA said in a statement.

The agency further said the format circulating on social media is not the same that had been delivered

Sign on to read the HT ePaper epaper.hindustantimes.com

Wed, 12 Oct 2022 02:30:00 -0500 en-IN text/html https://www.msn.com/en-in/news/other/history-paper-for-oct-10-ugc-net-exam-did-not-leak-nta/ar-AA12SDCn
Killexams : Aspen University in Phoenix surrenders nursing program license, failing to meet NCLEX first-time pass rate

Aspen University in Phoenix is surrendering its nursing program license as it cannot meet the minimum required first-time pass rate percentage on the national test to become a nurse, says a document provided by the Arizona State Board of Nursing.

The National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX) needs to have a pass rate of 80%, and the university doesn't see itself meeting that requirement in the near future.

"As of today, the year-to-date pass rate is 69.4%. Ninety-three out of the 134 students who have passed," said Dr. David Hrabe, education program administrator of the Arizona State Board of Nursing, at a July 29 board meeting.

The license was surrendered on Sept. 20 and the university agreed to a "teach out," meaning it's agreed to offer "instruction for its existing nursing students for up to two years, so that they may complete their degrees or seek other options."

Passing the national test, the NCLEX, is a requirement in the U.S. to become a nurse.

"At the end of this teach out period, the nursing program's provisional approval will automatically be surrendered. Aspen University will not be eligible to apply for reissuance of its approval for a period of two years," a news release from the Arizona State Board of Nursing said.

Students will also have the option to transfer their credits to another school, if applicable.

The university released a statement saying, in part, "Aspen had suspended admissions to its Arizona program in January 2022. Under the terms of the Consent Agreement, Aspen will continue its current Arizona nursing program for all current students and provide regular reports to the Board of Nursing about the program. It remains accountable to the Board to ensure that its current students receive expected instruction and learning opportunities. Once all currently enrolled students in the program have either completed the program or ceased enrollment, or within two years, whichever is sooner, Aspen’s program approval will be automatically voluntarily surrendered for a minimum period of two years."

Aspen University nursing students in other states will also be impacted.

"Aspen will suspend new enrollments and complete instruction of its program for currently enrolled Core nursing students in Florida, Georgia, Tennessee and Texas," the school said.

Mon, 19 Sep 2022 12:00:00 -0500 Justin Lum en text/html https://www.fox10phoenix.com/news/aspen-university-in-phoenix-surrenders-nursing-program-license-failing-to-meet-nclex-first-time-pass-rate
Killexams : Women Writers Have Had Plenty of Babies. Here’s the Data.

In A Room of One’s Own (1929), Virginia Woolf argued that, historically, successful women writers have not been mothers. Of Jane Austen, Charlotte and Emily Brontë, and George Eliot, she noted, “not one of them had a child.” This idea that having children stifles women’s creativity has had enormous cultural staying power for the past 100 years. Grappling with this narrative in 2018, for example, the narrator of Sheila Heti’s novel Motherhood wonders whether a baby would destroy her career as a novelist, asking whether “the universe lets women who make art but don’t make babies, off the hook?”

Given the cultural prominence of this idea that you can’t be a mother and a writer, it is surprising to learn that, across history, at least in Woolf’s Britain, roughly half of women writers have in fact had children. This is indeed lower than the percentage of women in the general population who had children—but the picture is not as dire as Woolf perceived. In a sample from the Orlando textbase of 1,115 British women who lived between medieval times and the present and who wrote at least one book, half (49 percent) were mothers. And the women writers who didn’t have children, like the canonical authors Woolf names, mostly lived in the 19th century. Even then, 41 percent of 19th-century women writers had children. Before the 17th century, women writers had children at similar rates to the general population. In the 20th century, with the rise of family planning and reproductive health care, women writers began to have more children again.

The Orlando Project is a textbase of entries on the lives and writing of more than 1,400 authors from medieval times to the present. Orlando began at the University of Alberta in 1995 and continues to grow in the present day. As specialists in 19th-century women’s writing and data and visualization, we have been collaborators on the project for the past four years. As parents of young children ourselves, we were repeatedly told that our writing and research would suffer after having kids. With unprecedented data to hand, we wondered if this had in fact been the case across history, or if the idea is a relic of the 19th century.

The number of children born to women writers across the centuries. Karen Bourrier and John Brosz

This interesting historical trajectory, with its pronounced dip in maternal authorship in the 19th century, initially confounded us. Why did women writing before the 19th century have more children? One explanation for the diminished fertility of women writers in the 19th century is that the shape of the career changed. The rise of the professional woman writer who was paid for her work in the commercial marketplace in the late 17th and early 18th centuries made it more important to restrict childbirth. Many earlier women writers are known for letters, life writing, and poetry written within a familial context, mostly for readers they knew, and often only published in book form centuries later. Margery Kempe (1373–1438), a mother of 14, became known as the author of the first autobiography written in English, a chronicle of her spiritual development. Early in their marriage, she and her husband were (as she described it) consumed by sexual desire, resulting in 14 children, a record she repented when she began dictating her life’s spiritual story around age 40. Lady Hester Pulter (1605–1678), a mother of 15 living and writing during the English Civil War, also circulated her royalist emblem poems and her prose romance within her family circle.

Production expectations for writers rose as authorship became a viable profession in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. For the first time in history, women (and men) could earn a living by writing journalism and fiction. Before writing became a career, women writers were almost as likely as other women to have children: 86 percent of women writers in the Orlando textbase born before 1600 did have children, a percentage roughly in line with the general population’s fertility in England and Wales. Afterward, the proportion of women writers who had children declined steeply, from 55 percent in the 1600s to 48 percent in the 1700s and 41 percent in the 1800s. In the 20th century, when limiting the size of one’s family became more possible, women writers became mothers in greater numbers, with 63 percent having at least one child.

The choice for most women who had sex with men and who were born before the 20th century would have been to have about seven children, or none. A lack of reliable birth control meant that in the 19th century, the average married woman in England or Wales had six or seven children, and a further 10 to 15 percent had 10 or more children. As better birth control became available, the number of births began to fall dramatically, from an average of just below six after 1875 to settling at just over two by 1940. In an era of unrestricted childbirth, as writer Rebecca Traister argues, spinsterhood could be a powerful position for women who wanted to safeguard their time for an increasingly demanding literary career. But despite the challenges, it was far from impossible, even for women in the 19th century, to have children and write. Nineteenth-century women writers who had children had around 3.33; roughly half the number of the average 19th-century mother, but plenty from a contemporary standpoint.

Does the number of children a woman writer has matter? Pointing to Joan Didion, Margaret Atwood, and Alice Walker, Lauren Sandler has argued that the secret to being both a successful writer and a mother is to limit yourself to one child. Single children have been common for women writers: 24 percent in our sample had one child. But across the centuries, having two or three children (39 percent), or even five or more children (34 percent), has been more common. In the 20th century, large families are less common for both writers and women in general: 87 percent of women writers who had children had one, two, or three.

There is a popular idea that you’ll lose a book, or maybe two, for every child you have. Men almost never seem to consider the issue of writing and its conflicts with having children, but in a rare exception, novelist and father of four Michael Chabon wrote that he was advised that “You lose a book for every child.” Journalist Hadley Freeman reports that a writer friend told her it’s two books for every child. This turns out not to be true, at least not for the writers in our database. In our sample, women writers without children published fewer books, on average (about 12), than those with one (14 books), two (13 books), or three children (16 books). The number of books does start to drop with four kids (11 books), or five or more children (10 books). (In our data set, we removed books that are exact duplicates, but some books that have different titles but similar content, for example A Room of One’s Own and A Room of One’s Own and Three Guineas, are counted separately, because we believe this type of republication does deliver a measure of a woman writer’s influence.) Unless three is the magic number of children to have to spur one’s productivity, a moderately sized family seems to have had little impact on the number of books women published.

Each blue dot represents a woman author. The horizontal position shows the number of books; the vertical position indicates the number of children that the author had. Only books published within the author’s life span were included in the count of books authored. Karen Bourrier and John Brosz

While you may not lose a book for every child, with more children your book may come out a little later. One way to try to measure this effect is to calculate the average publication date for an author’s books and see what age she was. For those with no children, the average age at which they published a book was 46; for those with one or two children, it was 48; for three, it was 50. The age dropped down again for those with four to nine children, to 49, and to 48 for 10 or more children. Rather than every child causing a woman writer to lose a book, it might be more accurate to say that every child delayed a book by a year.

There are some amazing examples throughout history of women writers who had large families and large literary outputs. Charlotte Smith (1749–1806) and Sarah Trimmer (1741–1810) are two successful writers, a poet and a children’s author, respectively, who had 12 children apiece. The woman writer in the Orlando textbase with the largest number of children is Susanna Wesley (1669–1742), who wrote religious works addressed to her children. She had 18 or 19 children; her son was the founder of Methodism, John Wesley. Elizabeth Clinton, Countess of Lincoln (1574–1630), was a mother of 18 children who wrote The Countesse of Lincolnes Nurserie (1622), an advice manual on a woman’s religious and maternal duty to breastfeed her children. Emma Caroline Wood (1802–1879) produced 13 children and 14 novels. She took up writing to support herself at the age of 60, after her husband’s death.

Even in the 19th century, some women wrote big novels and had big families. Mary Elizabeth Braddon (1835–1915) had six children between 1862 and 1870. The 1860s were also the decade when Braddon, a bestselling novelist of sensational works, wrote her most important works, including Lady Audley’s Secret (1862). Elizabeth Gaskell (1810–1865) had seven children and wrote some of the most important fiction of the period, including Cranford and North and South. Margaret Oliphant (1828–1897), who had six children, three of whom survived childhood, and who also supported extended family members, wrote more multivolume fiction (232 titles) than any other Victorian novelist. And Woolf’s definition of motherhood is narrow: George Eliot (included as a mother in our sample) was a devoted stepmother to three stepsons, and Charlotte Brontë was pregnant when she died.

Social class and race may be more important factors in determining which writers have become mothers, historically. Class and race are more slippery concepts than the number of children one has, and the data is fuzzier on these points. But the 8 percent of women identified as lower-class or working-class writers in our database were actually more likely to be mothers than the rest of our sample set. At the beginning of the 19th century, around 60 percent of women were illiterate, which was far more of a bar to becoming a writer than whether or not you had children.

New Yorker writer Jia Tolentino recently noted that the idea that motherhood is a threat to an individual’s intellectual and creative possibility has usually been voiced by white women, and that books by authors of color, like Angela Garbes’ Essential Labor, may offer us an alternate model of caregiving and creativity. The women in the Orlando textbase are indeed predominantly white, which might suggest that race, alongside class, is more of a structural barrier to writing than maternity, at least in Britain. Historically, limiting births has been a heterosexual women’s issue, giving rise to the possibility that women who were not inclined to have sex with men were at an advantage as writers. The Orlando data is also slippery on the subject of sexuality. But from the information we have, writers tagged as “lesbian” represent only 8 percent of the sample set, and they, too, have an average of 0.63 children.

Virginia Woolf has had an outsize influence on the feminist literary canon, shaping our idea of what counts as good women’s writing—and what kind of life a woman writer should lead—well into the 21st century. Like her fellow writers of the early 20th century, she was desparate to establish literary standards that favored the slim experimental modernist novel, defining it as the opposite of what Henry James called the “large loose baggy monster” of the Victorian period, with its emphasis on feminine themes like courtship and domestic life. Woolf excluded the “lady novelists” of her parents’ generation from the canon in the process.
In Woolf’s canon and James’ comments, we can see a fear of fecund, prolific women writers. Gaskell’s North and South may conform to different literary standards than Mrs. Dalloway, but it is still an excellent novel.

If the narrative that women writers can’t be mothers is, at best, only half true, why do we continue to deliver this 100-year-old critical chestnut so much weight? Clichés about both writers and mothers are to blame. Writers are supposed to be independent, working in long stretches of unbroken solitude and living a life of the mind. Mothers, meanwhile, are supposed to epitomize selfless care and interdependence. They are also not generally held to be competent at anything other than caregiving: witness the phrase, “so simple, even my mother could do it,” and the well-documented bias against mothers in the workforce.

It is too early to say if and how 21st-century women writers will combine writing and motherhood, especially since parenthood is on the decline for everyone, not just writers. But the idea that it’s nigh impossible to have a child and write a book belongs in the 19th century.