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Killexams : IBM Administering outline - BingNews Search results Killexams : IBM Administering outline - BingNews Killexams : API Economy as a Key for Success of Future Banking and Finance

Application Programming Interfaces are an integral part of the emerging digital space. Without them, benefiting from many of today’s habitual financial services would be at least difficult if not impossible. In this piece, Andersen’s experts in FinTech software development will tell how API-based IT solutions contribute to the success of banks and financial organizations.

A brief outline of API technology

APIs allow FinTech companies to make data and features of their applications available to external custom software development companies, business partners, and internal departments. Thus, services and products interact with each other using third-party data and features via dedicated interfaces. The implementation of API protocols is required for looking up the weather forecast in real-time, making a bank transfer, memorizing text messages, and more. 

RapidAPI Developer Survey 2020-2021 attests to the popularity of this tool. Namely, 61,3% of software development companies said that in 2020 they had used APIs in their work more frequently than in the year before that, while 71,1% of respondents were planning to increasingly use them in 2021. Over 58% of organizations consider implementing the API economy model to be their highest priority. In their view, APIs are mostly used in Telecom, Healthcare, and Finance. 

Rest APIs remain a dominant technology, and there is also a growing interest in Websockets, Serverless & FaaS, gRPC, etc. For example, in 2020, the usage of AsyncAPIs and GraphQL increased by several times. The larger a company is the more internal services and communication protocols it uses. For example, 40% of major companies employing ten thousand people and more reported that they simultaneously use over 250 internal APIs. Three in four companies are inclined to rely on their own solutions while reducing their dependence on external products.

The API market dynamics

According to MarketsandMarkets, the global API management market will reach $5.1 billion by 2023 growing by nearly five times compared to 2018 and at an average annual rate of 32,9%. The forecast by Adroit Market Research, in turn, states that the global API market growth will surpass $21 billion by 2028.

Tools for API platforms, analytics, and security are increasingly used thanks to the advancement of mobile technologies. This motivates companies to develop their solutions for internal and external use. 

The above two pieces of research underscore the advantages of cloud technologies compared to the on-premises approach when a company uses its own data centers. Cloud technologies reduce companies’ expenses and speed up product development.

North America is the main region for the development of API technologies. There, API-related technologies are commonly used, vendors supply API management solutions on a massive scale, technology is constantly evolving, and there are skilled and knowledgeable experts. 

The rapid API market advancement is projected in the Asia-Pacific region with its technological leap and increased number of users.

APIs are most commonly used in Telecom, the IT sector, Banking, Finance, Security and Insurance, and public administration. The Banking and Finance industries are constantly looking for cutting-edge, flexible, and efficient tools for providing their clients with digital services. Numerous are developed by large organizations at a faster rate than by small and medium businesses.

The following infographics show the API management market growth by region.

The main global market players are Adobe, IBM, Oracle, Google, Red Hat, Software AG, Microsoft, SAP SE, and others. These are mostly US and European companies.

The API economy structure

Some companies following the global API trend don't fully understand how the API economy structure is organized. Thus, their API implementation strategies are inconsistent and fragmented.

The API economy is based on the following pillars:

  • the right approach to API adoption;

  • the choice of the right technology;

  • API development management;

  • the establishment of an ecosystem. 

Let’s consider how the above stages are implemented within Banking, Finance, Security, and Insurance.

The right approach to API adoption

Companies implement a business-driven approach to API management based on the adoption of Payment Services Directive 2 (PSD2) and Open Banking. These regulatory policies allow external financial service providers access to banking data, transactions, and other financial data of banks’ clients and financial institutions via APIs. 

The above approach is based on the API-first mindset and the top-down approach. The former suggests shifting a company’s business and IT processes to applying key API management principles. The latter requires that any solutions are made and the main channels of communication with clients are established via APIs. 

API reusability allows companies to develop their products based on already existing solutions. This principle substantially speeds up product launches and allows companies to get ROI faster. 

To implement the right approach to API adoption, financial institutions must change their organizational policies, ensuring communication with their clients and within their organizations mainly via APIs. Financial institutions can develop them in-house, order them from software development companies, or use open-source solutions.

The choice of the right API technology

The choice and comprehensive implementation of a suitable technological solution is another crucial factor for establishing the API economy. This stage is required to build the production environment. As a rule, companies consider the following tools and technologies:

  • API management platforms are the core of an entire API management system allowing organizations to establish data security policies, choose communication protocols and repositories, and get data analytics;

  • Microservice architecture is a decentralized system for data processing and storing. Thanks to it, companies perform the needed operations and establish communication protocols within the IT architecture of their solutions. Thus, each API is functioning independently, is easy to develop, and is testable and secure;

  • API management catalog is a cataloging system that stores information about APIs for their subsequent reuse or for the development of new APIs;

  • API monitoring technologies are used for efficient platform and service management, collection of statistics, and managing systems’ performance and user access.

The following infographics represent API architecture.

Companies face the challenge of choosing the right platforms for ensuring their production and communication processes, organizing efficient and harmonious microservice structure, and establishing effective API cataloging and monitoring. To do so, businesses look for reliable finance software development companies that specialize in API development and implementation.

API development management

This stage of the API economy implementation involves the adoption of Agile practices for API development management. The following development teams are responsible for API development:

Central teams manage API software architecture and processes on a platform level, establish use standards and patterns, and work with API-related tools, defining API development strategy.

Business unit design teams coordinate the interaction of API processes and standards within departments. They manage API development based on legislation and company rules within their industries, e.g. Finance, Insurance, or Banking. For these purposes, API capability centers are established.

Finally, delivery teams whose work is based on DevOps principles finalize a product. They rely on strategic principles and standards outlined by central teams, and on developments achieved by business unit design teams.

Successful API development and implementation lie in the efficient distribution of tasks between different teams, as well as in the interaction of customers with the key FinTech development specialists on a project.

Building of API ecosystem

To ensure the stable functioning of the API economy within an organization it needs to establish an ecosystem where API solutions are included in its production and marketing strategies as a key element of the infrastructure. The API ecosystem establishment implies using of developer portals for efficient support and transparent document flow.  

It's recommended that an organization’s specialists would participate in technical conferences, meetups, and hackathons where new ideas for the development of API banking solutions are generated. After all, businesses should implement advanced, user-friendly, and innovative software products to stay competitive in fast-evolving markets. 

A consumer-first approach is also crucial for building a productive ecosystem. It implies paying attention primarily to the development and improvement of services that are used by an organization’s clients and business partners most.

Finally, companies successfully monetize their API ecosystems by leasing their tools, adopting new payment methods, and enhancing client support.

To sum up

The API economy is the future of companies in the Banking and Finance industries. API solutions help businesses to interact with each other at a new level establishing efficient and convenient communication. 

At each of the API economy levels specified above, companies face the challenge of choosing the right API development and management strategies. Cooperation with top-rated finance software development companies will help companies solve this problem.

Thu, 21 Jul 2022 08:35:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : What recession? Tech spending stays robust as digital transformation plans forge ahead

In announcing second-quarter earnings on July 18, IBM Corp. Chief Executive Arvind Krishna commented that his business is not only not showing any signs of suffering from recessionary pressures but may actually be benefiting from them.

“We see technology as deflationary,” he said. “It acts as a counterbalance to all of the inflation and labor demographics people are facing all over the globe.”

If current trends are any indication, Krishna is onto something. Amid growing fears of an economic downturn, enterprises are mostly staying the course with overall information technology spending and even increasing investments in digital transformation-related areas such as cloud migration and software as a service.

That’s a break from the past. IT budgets have historically tracked business cycles because the principal use of IT systems was to process transactions. When the volume of business fell, so did technology budgets.

But analysts who track spending patterns say this year is different. The move to cloud platforms and remote work that was accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic demonstrated such a strong return on investment that organizations are holding the line on tech spending with expectations that further efficiencies can be gained.

Post-‘as-a-service’ recession

“This is the first post-‘as-a-service’ recession,” said Philip Carter, a group vice president at International Data Corp. “IT has moved from being capital to an operating expense. The [traditional spending] lumpiness isn’t completely removed but it’s much less of a factor.”

Fears of a recession are growing amid higher inflation, supply chain problems and disruptions triggered by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. TD Securities USA LLC recently said there is a better than 50% chance of a U.S. recession within the next 18 months. Economists polled by Reuters rated the likelihood at 40% over the next year.

A latest IDC quick poll of chief information officers found that 80% expect a recession to arrive within the next 12 months and most believe it will last about a year, Carter said. The good news is that nearly three-quarters believe the downturn will be moderate.

Business as usual

IT budgets typically ebb and flow with the economy, but something is different this time. “It’s business as usual from a CIO spending and tech vendor revenue perspective,” said John-David Lovelock, research vice president at Gartner Inc.

Gartner’s latest forecast sees 3% growth in IT spending in 2022, down only slightly from the 4% forecast at the beginning of this year. And some line items are actually growing. The research firm sees spending on data center systems growing 11.1% this year, up from 6.4% growth last year. Software expenditures are expected to rise 9.6% and next year by 12% more.

What drags down the total is an anticipated 5% drop in spending on personal computers, printers and other consumer devices. Businesses “did a massive refresh in 2020 for work-from-home, so this year when inflation started to bite, they stuck their hands back in the pocket and paused,” Lovelock said.

Other forecasters have recently published similar figures. Forrester Research Inc. expects technology budgets at U.S. companies to grow 6.7% this year, virtually unchanged from its expectations more than a year ago.

“We see the recession as an opportunity for firms to go on the offensive rather than the defensive with their technology investments,” said Christopher P. Gilchrist, a Forrester principal analyst. “This means refocusing strategy to where value can be extended and expanded, not where costs can be limited.”

IDC expects overall IT spending to “modestly exceed GDP growth,” but notes that strong growth in enterprise systems and software is masked by a slowdown in spending on end-user computing devices. “Exclusive of devices, growth will be nearly three times GDP growth,” Carter said.

Enterprise Technology Research expects total IT spending to grow 6.6% the year, down from the 8.3% rate it forecast at the end of last year but more optimistic than most.

Out of the back office

Analysts attribute the resilience of IT budgets to three factors, of which the most significant is that organizations are now looking at technology as a source of competitive advantage rather than a back-office function.

“IT is no longer considered a cost center,” said Gartner’s Lovelock. “It is crucial to operations and customer relationships. Digital business transformation is the number one thing happening in IT right now and you can’t cut your way to it.”

A survey of more than 2,900 IT decision-makers by colocation vendor Equinix Inc. provides clues about where the dollars are going. Despite the economic uncertainty, 72% of executives said their companies are planning to expand into new geographies, supported by digital technologies.

Asked about the priorities for their technology investments, five of the top seven respondents cited tech that relates to transformative areas such as future-proofing the business, improving customer experience, accelerating innovation, improving the employee experience and digitizing the business.

More than 70% said they’re moving more functions to the cloud and 52% agreed that “our IT strategy has become more aggressive and ambitious as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic,” compared with 28% who disagreed.

“Discretionary spending such as proof-of-concept tests…could get pushed back, but businesses see more value than ever in tech that will enhance the customer experience and provide them an edge in an increasingly tight market,” The Wall Street Journal reported last month.

Forrester’s Gilchrist suggested the experience of previous recessions may have finally convinced executives that downturns are the best time to ramp up investments that can separate companies from their competitors. “Even when organizational budgets began to contract during the pandemic, IT spending expanded in the aggregate,” he said. “This phenomenon was a materialization of how IT cost structures have evolved over the past decade.”

That’s the case at Detroit-based Rocket Mortgage LLC.  “The message I hear from most of my business partners is look, this is going to be a rough year but recessions are the time to lean in,” CIO Brian Woodring told The Wall Street Journal.

At age 24, Iddo Gino has never managed a business through a recession, but the CEO of RapidAPI, which is the business name of R Software Inc., said he learned something from temporary recession caused by COVID in 2020. “It served as a cautionary tale against overreacting,” he said. “We froze hiring and marketing spend for six months. That was followed by two of the best years we’ve ever had.”

Democratized spending

The second factor is that IT spending is harder to pinpoint and manage than it was just a few years ago. A latest Gartner report asserted that line-of-business leaders in the average enterprise now spend more on transformative IT projects than the IT organization. As department heads have shouldered responsibility for the cloud software they now rely upon, budget mandates have become harder to enforce.

“Customer experience is coming from marketing and the ‘internet of things’ from the factory,” Carter said. “Digital transformation is much less of an IT budget discussion than a C-suite budget discussion.”

The third factor is that IT budgets are simply becoming harder to cut. The costs of maintaining and administering data centers and enterprise software constitute as much as 80% of the IT budget at large organizations, and shifting operations to the cloud has been shown to yield only modest savings.

“IT is so efficient and so necessary that there’s no fat left to cut,” said Gartner’s Lovelock.

A worsening skills shortage has driven up salaries and spending just to keep basic services in operation. “We have 200 open positions in the IT department globally and we can’t fill them,” the CIO at a multinational consumer packaged goods manufacturer told IDC.

The degree to which IT spending continues to hold up has become more evident this week as bellwether companies such as Microsoft Corp. and Alphabet Inc. report quarterly earnings that somewhat exceeded expectations, particularly thanks to continued high spending on cloud computing. IBM’s Krishna described the company’s pipeline as “pretty healthy,” and SAP SE attributed the better-than-expected results it reported recently to strength in its cloud business.

Although there’s a reason for optimism, the full extent of any potential recession is still unclear and plans could change. “When revenue falls and the wealth of executives evaporates as stock prices follow, how many of those surveyed will still talk a good digital game about the next best thing?” asked InfoWorld columnist David Linthicum earlier this month. “I hope priorities don’t change when everyone finds out what a hard slog digital transformation will be.”

Image: Mediamodifier/Pixabay

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Wed, 27 Jul 2022 08:59:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Advanced Report on Procure to Pay Software Market by Growth, Demand, Opportunities & Forecast To 2028|Oracle, Coupa Software, Tradeshift, SAP America

Expanded need for process smoothing out in the business, expanding vital improvements, for example, organizations and arrangements are key factors adding to high CAGR of Procure To Pay Software Market during gauge period. Procure To Pay (P2P) is the technique for catch, buy, get, pay and record for items and administrations. It takes its name from the arranged succession of procurement and financial strategies, starting with the initial steps to the last advances participated in paying for it. Procure To Pay software market is explicitly planned to deal with the whole procurement process or its parts, for example, invoicing, or related methods, like stock administration and financial bookkeeping. Procure To Pay software market incorporates a buy orders which starts the requesting system during which a buy request (PO) is created. On getting the merchandise normal records are created that incorporate an Advanced Notice of Shipping (ASN) and request affirmation. At the last stage the genuine payment, that regularly includes making a receipt, organizing to pay merchants and recording a bookkeeping framework exchange. The receipt of merchandise is contrasted with the request for buy to approve if the two match.

P2Psystems are expected to provide associations control and perceivability all through an exchange’s life cycle, offering total knowledge into income and financial commitments. Most organizations that utilise these plans are searching for their procurement division to be unified or to set up a common help association for a similar reason. The worth chain of P2P software comprises of indent the board, e-Informing, e-Tendering, e-Auctioning, merchant the executives, list the executives, Purchase Order Integration, Order Status, Ship Notice, e-invoicing, e-payment, and agreement the executives. Carrying out an e-procurement conspiracy benefits an association at all levels. E-procurement frameworks provide improved perceivability and control of consumption and help finance officials coordinate buys with buys, receipts and work tickets. A P2P framework likewise oversees tenders through a site.

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The report gives the outline of the market the development of the expense, dispatch, application, use volume and plan. The Procure to Pay Software research report offers huge pieces of data into the business center from the beginning phase including a few consistent methods chalked out by recognizable market trailblazers to foster areas of strength for an improvement in the business. Besides, the significant region of the Procure to Pay Software market are likewise evaluated based on their exhibition. The report offers inside and out investigation of the market by giving the definition, application and orders. The SWOT examination and methodologies of every merchant in the market is given in the report. The offers exhaustive bits of knowledge into ebb and flow industry patterns, pattern gauge and development drivers. The report gives an itemized outline of the merchant scene, cutthroat investigation and key market procedures to acquire serious scenes.

The market is portioned based on the item, type, end clients and application. Division is viewed as the most essential piece of the report which assists the peruser with understanding the market in a précised way.

By Type:

On-premise, Cloud-based

By End clients:

Huge Enterprises, SMEs

Procure To Pay software market is quickest developing at a CAGR of 2% in Asia Pacific inferable from expanding number of associated gadgets and computerized payments in emerging nations like India and China.

North America is the biggest locale with a portion of 33.06% in the Procure To Pay software market because of the greater reception of 5G advancements and computerized payments and developing versatile entrance in Canada. Europe is supposed to represent 27.28% of the worldwide Procure To Pay software market because of the rising interest for e-procurement in European nations like the U.K., France, Japan, and Germany.

A portion of the central members in the Procure To Pay software market are Accenture, Infosys, GEP, Genpact, Proxima, WNS, Capgemini, IBM, Wipro.

If you need anything more than these then let us know and we will prepare the report according to your requirement.

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Table of Contents:
1. Procure to Pay Software Market Overview
2. Impact on Procure to Pay Software Market Industry
3. Procure to Pay Software Market Competition
4. Procure to Pay Software Market Production, Revenue by Region
5. Procure to Pay Software Market Supply, Consumption, Export and Import by Region
6. Procure to Pay Software Market Production, Revenue, Price Trend by Type
7. Procure to Pay Software Market Analysis by Application
8. Procure to Pay Software Market Manufacturing Cost Analysis
9. Internal Chain, Sourcing Strategy and Downstream Buyers
10. Marketing Strategy Analysis, Distributors/Traders
11. Market Effect Factors Analysis
12. Procure to Pay Software Market Forecast (2022-2028)
13. Appendix

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Mon, 01 Aug 2022 00:30:00 -0500 Newsmantraa en-US text/html
Killexams : Data Protection Service Market Overview, Demand, Supply and Production Status 2022

The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.

Jun 24, 2022 (Alliance News via COMTEX) -- Key Companies Covered in the Data Protection Service Market Research areEY, IBM, PwC, Deloitte, Data Privacy and Security Services Ltd, Data Protection Training & Auditing Services Ltd, THE DATA PRIVACY GROUP, IBM, Quest (Questsys), Aujas, NSD, Kroll, LLC, Xcina Consulting Limited, SISA, BSI, Centuro Global and other key market players.

The global ICT market is forecast to reach US$ 6.6 trillion dollars in 2022 and almost 8 trillion by 2023. The constant growth is a reminder of the ever-rising plurality and importance of technology in today's society. A surge in traditional tech spending over the forecast period drives by big data and analytics, social, mobile, and cloud computing.

According to our research on Data Protection Service Market and global economic environment, we forecast that the global market size of Data Protection Service Market will reach (2026 Market size $$) million $ in 2026 with a CAGR of % from 2021-2026.

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According to the International Trade Administration, Ireland's U$ 50 billion digital economy accounts for 13% of GDP. Around 1,000 digital firms operate in Ireland, including major U.S. MNEs like Apple, AWS, Cisco, Facebook, Google, HPE, IBM, Intel, and Microsoft. Despite the impact presented by the COVID-19 pandemic, the US$ 5 billion ICT market has maintained demand as digital technologies and solutions recreate a tremendous role globally.

In the past few years, Data Protection Service Market experienced a huge change under the influence of COVID-19, the global market size of Data Protection Service Market reached $$ million $ in 2021 from $$ in 2016 with a CAGR of $$ from 2016-2021 is. As of now, the global COVID-19 Coronavirus Cases have exceeded 200 million, and the global epidemic has been basically under control, therefore, the World Bank has estimated the global economic growth in 2021 and 2022. The World Bank predicts that the global economic output is expected to expand 4 percent in 2021 while 3.8 percent in 2022.

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, according to World Bank statistics, global GDP has shrunk by about 3.5% in 2020. Entering 2021, Economic activity in many countries has started to recover and partially adapted to pandemic restrictions. The research and development of vaccines has made breakthrough progress, and many governments have also issued various policies to stimulate economic recovery, particularly in the United States, is likely to provide a strong boost to economic activity but prospects for sustainable growth vary widely between countries and sectors. Although the global economy is recovering from the great depression caused by COVID-19, it will remain below pre-pandemic trends for a prolonged period. The pandemic has exacerbated the risks associated with the decade-long wave of global debt accumulation. It is also likely to steepen the long-expected slowdown in potential growth over the next decade.

The world has entered the COVID-19 epidemic recovery period. In this complex economic environment, we published the Data Protection Service Market Status, Trends and COVID-19 Impact Report 2021, which provides a comprehensive analysis of the global Data Protection Service Market , This Report covers the manufacturer data, including: sales volume, price, revenue, gross margin, business distribution etc., these data help the consumer know about the competitors better. This report also covers all the regions and countries of the world, which shows the regional development status, including market size, volume and value, as well as price data. Besides, the report also covers segment data, including: type wise, industry wise, channel wise etc. all the data period is from 2015-2021E, this report also provide forecast data from 2021-2026.

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Region Segmentation
North America (United States, Canada, Mexico)
South America (Brazil, Argentina, Other)
Asia Pacific (China, Japan, India, Korea, Southeast Asia)
Europe (Germany, UK, France, Spain, Italy)
Middle East and Africa (Middle East, Africa)

Product Type Segmentation
Designated Data Protection Officer (Ddpo) Services
Outsourced Data Subject Access (Sar) Services

Application Segmentation
Large Enterprise

Channel (Direct Sales, Distribution Channel) Segmentation

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Table of Content:

  • Market Definition and Overview
  • Research Method and Logic
  • Market Competition Analysis
  • Product and Service Analysis
  • Strategies for Company to Deal with the Impact of COVID-19
  • Market Segment by Type, Historical Data and Market Forecasts
  • Market Segment by Application, Historical Data and Market Forecasts
  • Market by by Region, Historical Data and Market Forecasts
  • Market Dynamic Analysis and Development Suggestions

Key Questions Answered in the Market Report

  1. What is theworldwide (North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa)deals esteem, creation esteem, utilization worth, import and commodity of Market?
  2. Who are the worldwide key makers of the Market Industry? How is what is happening (limit, creation, deals, value, cost, gross, and income)?
  3. How the opposition goes later on connected with Market?
  4. Which is the most driving country on the planet?
  5. What is the Market open doors and dangers looked by the merchants in the worldwide Market Industry?
  6. Which application/end-client or item type might look for steady development possibilities? What is the portion of the overall industry of each sort and application?
  7. What cantered approach and imperatives are holding the Market?
  8. What are the various deals, advertising, and dissemination directing in the overall business?
  9. What are the upstream unrefined substances and assembling hardware of Market alongside the assembling system of Acetonitrile?
  10. What are the key market patterns affecting the development of the Market?
  11. Monetary effect on the Market business and advancement pattern of the Market business.
  12. What is the market potential open doors, market hazard, and market outline of the Market?
  13. What are the key drivers, restrictions, open doors, and difficulties of the Market, and what they are supposed to mean for the market?
  14. What is the Market size at the provincial and nation level?
  15. How would you track down your ideal interest group?

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Thu, 23 Jun 2022 14:53:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : IoT Analytics Market Expansion Projected to Gain an Uptick During 2021-2031

IoT Analytics Market: Introduction

IoT connected devices accumulate large amount of data, and these IoT devices are equivalent in value to the acute information that they gather. The number of IoT devices is increasing owing to the demand for IoT analytics and services for numerous applications in various sectors. Hence, the IoT analytics market is allowing companies to create services platform that allow them to proficiently analyze and accomplish real-time information streams from various data sources. This enables companies to optimize, manage, and predict business processes and operations, Strengthen efficiency and profitability, and nullify threats. Thus, data analytics is important for expansion of IoT and companies are also increasing their efforts on the IoT analytics market. Companies are planning strategies to organize and procure appropriate tools that enable the effective adoption of IoT analytics and operation analysis in real time.

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Global IoT Analytics Market: Dynamics

Global IoT Analytics Market: Key Drivers

IoT analytics plays a vital role in improving the productivity of the healthcare industry. The amount of data processes by the healthcare industry is increasing rapidly. IoT healthcare solutions have the potential to advance the efficiency and quality of treatments. With leveraging IoT & analytics, healthcare solutions, is leading a way for a model that is digital enabled, patient centric to increase the market growth over the forecast period. For instance, in December 2017 Apollo Hospitals in India started emphasizing on connected health to offer better-quality service in which they targeted IoT analytics within the hospital. The advent of wearable devices, which allows the user to track blood pressure, heart rate, and several other parameters coupled with its better adoption has resulted in the generation of voluminous data that has to be analyzed and structured. This is anticipated to boost the adoption of the IoT analytics market during the forecast period.

How IoT Analytics Market will recover after covid19 –

North America to Account for Major Share of Global IoT Analytics Market

In terms of region, the global IoT analytics market can be divided into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East & Africa, and South America

North America is projected to hold a major share of the global market due to the early acceptance of IoT technology in several industries in the region. Companies in the region are increasingly adopting IoT analytics to track the performance of their offerings. Monitoring compliance is a major driver due to the extraordinary adoption of IoT technology in the U.S. The outline of the Energy Act in the U.S. has accelerated the efforts to observe sustainable energy consumption. This is anticipated to propel the IoT analytics market during the forecast period.

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Global IoT Analytics Market: Competitive Landscape

Key Players Operating in Global IoT Analytics Market

Key Players of IoT Analytics Market Include:

  • Microsoft Corporation
  • IBM Corporation
  • Intel Corporation
  • Aeris Communication
  • Tableau Software
  • Cumulocity GmbH
  • Amazon Web Services, Inc.
  • Accenture PLC
  • Cisco Systems, Inc.
  • Oracle Corporation

In March 2018, IBM allows private IoT investigation cloud stage that integrates similar public cloud highlights for the server farm. This will encourage the customer’s to bring high convergence of income.

In November 2019, AWS stated new updates for Alexa Voice Service & added new IoT analytics facilities. This allows the simple administration of new gadgets like gotten AWS IoT device management.

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Thu, 14 Jul 2022 21:00:00 -0500 Transparency Market Research en-US text/html
Killexams : Accenture, Alibaba, and Cisco Among Leading...

LONDON, July 21, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- The "Smart Cities – Thematic Research" report offered by GlobalData Plc provides an overview of the smart cities theme and identifies the key trends impacting the growth of the theme over the next 12 to 24 months. The report also includes a comprehensive industry analysis, including forecasts for global smart city spending to 2025. Moreover, it contains details of M&A deals driven by the smart cities theme, and a timeline highlighting milestones in the development of smart cities.

According to the thematic intelligence report published by GlobalData, the smart cities market size was valued at $221.1 billion in 2019 and is expected to grow at a CAGR of more than 11% by 2025. Increased urbanization is already causing infrastructure headaches for cities, which will only worsen. These challenges are driving the creation of smart cities.

For more insights on the smart cities market forecast, download a sample report

Smart Cities Mergers and Acquisitions

Smart grid and smart transportation have seen the most significant M&A activity. Two of the biggest acquisitions, Veolia's purchase of Suez and Emerson Electric's acquisition of OSI, are centered around smart grids and water. They arguably reflect the importance of the smart metering market and its potential for steady growth. The growing importance of water infrastructure can also be seen in the acquisitions of Irrisoft and S-Group Solutions.

To know more about key smart cities M&A transactions, download a sample report

Key Trends Impacting the Smart Cities Theme

Technology Trend: Early signs are that the metaverse could play several roles in smart cities. The pandemic has shown that the most resilient cities enable their citizens to work, learn, and socialize remotely. Accordingly, in November 2021, Seoul announced plans to use a metaverse platform to provide this flexibility to its citizens. The platform (to be completed by 2023) will virtually conduct public services such as tourism, education, cultural experiences, and civilian services.

Macroeconomic Trend: The pandemic's fallout means cities face a growing number of problems during a period of serious economic uncertainty. As a result, cities will view proposed smart city initiatives differently. To be a justifiable investment, an initiative must have a clear, relevant purpose and be as cost-effective as possible.

Regulatory Trend: Cities worldwide are starting to create ethical guidelines for their adoption of technology. London has published an emerging technology charter; a set of rules that outline the city's expectations for how new data-enabled technologies should be developed and deployed for use in the public realm. Dubai has also been discussing a similar charter, while cities like Boston have created a playbook that governs the relationship between suppliers and citizens.

For more insights on other trends impacting the smart cities theme, download a sample report

Smart Cities Value Chains

The smart cities value chain consists of three main areas: smart city platforms, smart city applications, and smart city services.

Smart City Platforms: Smart city platforms provide a platform for the unified delivery of local public services. Although each city is unique, and all have their challenges around delivering services and providing vital infrastructure, a common factor is that more value will be delivered by integrating each smart city service into an all-encompassing platform. This allows for the creation of open data services to encourage innovation and the development of new digital services.

Smart City Applications: Smart city applications can be further segmented into smart buildings, smart transport, smart infrastructure, and smart grid. Health measures in the form of improved heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) and screening systems will become crucial components of smart buildings. The structure or framework for smart transportation starts with infrastructure. There cannot be a smart city without smart mobility, and smart mobility is impossible without smart transport infrastructure. The cities have also invested in two infrastructure types: health infrastructure that directly tackles the spread of COVID-19 and infrastructure that improves citizens' digital access. Moreover, a smart grid modernizes power systems through self-healing designs, automation, remote monitoring and control, and the establishment of microgrids.

Smart City Services: Cities do not have the design, technical, integration, or data analysis skills to become smart cities on their own. There is an active market for smart city design and integration services, which stitch together applications for smart buildings, transportation, infrastructure, and power grids. On the integration side, the providers of these services include large players such as IBM, Siemens, and Huawei, together with the likes of TCS, Capgemini, Wipro, and notably in Asia, Mitac.

For comprehensive insights on the value chain of the smart cities theme, download a sample report

Leading Public Companies Associated with the Smart Cities Theme

  • Accenture
  • Alibaba
  • Cisco
  • Hikvision
  • Hitachi
  • Honeywell
  • IBM
  • iFlytek
  • Johnson Controls
  • Microsoft
  • Nokia
  • Schneider Electric
  • Siemens
  • ZTE

Leading Private Companies Associated with the Smart Cities Theme

  • 75F
  • Cleverciti
  • Huawei
  • Quantela
  • Via Transportation

To know more about leading companies associated with the smart cities theme, download a sample report

Smart Cities Sector Scorecards

At GlobalData, we use a scorecard approach to predict tomorrow's leading companies within each sector. Our sector scorecards have three screens: a thematic screen, a valuation screen, and a risk screen.

Smart city is a theme that impacts many of the 17 technology, media, and telecom (TMT) sectors we cover. In this report, we focus specifically on the industrial automation and IT services sectors.

  • Thematic screen: Our thematic screen ranks companies based on overall leadership in the 10 themes that matter most to their industry, generating a leading indicator of future performance.
  • Valuation screen: Our valuation screen ranks our universe of companies within a sector based on selected valuation metrics.
  • Risk screen: Our risk screen ranks companies within a particular sector based on overall investment risk.


  • The report identifies the key trends impacting the growth of the theme over the next 12 to 24 months, split into three categories: technology trends, macroeconomic trends, and regulatory trends.
  • It includes comprehensive industry analysis, including forecasts for global smart cities spending to 2025.
  • It contains details of M&A deals driven by the smart cities theme, and a timeline highlighting milestones in the development of smart cities.
  • The detailed value chain illustrates how smart cities fit into the IoT technology stack. The report covers three layers of the smart cities value chain: the platform layer, the app layer, and the services layer.

Reasons to Buy

The smart city is an important market that attracts substantial investment. This report is a clear and insightful overview of this increasingly important theme, telling you everything you need to know about what makes a city smart and which companies are benefitting from increased urbanization.

Related Reports

  • Smart Cities in Travel and Tourism – Thematic Research – Click here
  • UEFA Women's European Championships Business, Case Studies, Tourism Impact, Sponsorship, and Media Landscape, 2022 – Click here
  • Cybersecurity in Defense - Thematic Research – Click here
  • Cybersecurity in Travel and Tourism - Thematic Research – Click here
  • Travel Apps - Thematic Research – Click here

Smart Cities Market Overview

Market Size 2019 $221.1 billion
CAGR >11%
Key Technology Trends The Metaverse, Cyber Threats, Digital Twins, AI Adoption, 5G, Surveillance Tech, and Digitalization
Key Macroeconomic Trends The Post-COVID Smart City, Water Shortages, Smart City Geopolitics, and The Digital Silk Road
Key Regulatory Trends COP26 Impact on Cities and Emerging Tech Charters
Value Chains Smart City Platforms, Smart City Apps, and Smart City Services
Leading Public Companies Accenture, Alibaba, Cisco, Hikvision, Hitachi, Honeywell, IBM, iFlytek, Johnson Controls, Microsoft, Nokia, Schneider Electric, Siemens, and ZTE
Leading Private Companies 75F, Cleverciti, Huawei, Quantela, and Via Transportation


What was the smart cities market size in 2019?
The smart cities market size was valued at $221.1 billion in 2019.

What is the smart cities market growth rate?
The smart cities market is expected to grow at a CAGR of more than 11% from 2019 to 2025.

What are the key technology trends impacting the smart cities theme?
The key technology trends impacting the smart cities theme are the metaverse, cyber threats, digital twins, AI adoption, 5G, surveillance tech, and digitalization.

What are the key macroeconomic trends impacting the smart cities theme?
The key macroeconomic trends impacting the smart cities theme are the post-COVID smart city, water shortages, smart city geopolitics, and the digital silk road.

What are the key regulatory trends impacting the smart cities theme?
The key regulatory trends impacting the smart cities theme are COP26 impact on cities and emerging tech charters.

What are the key value chains in the smart cities market?
The key value chains in the smart cities market can be divided into three segments: smart city platforms, smart city apps, and smart city services.

Which are the leading public companies associated with the smart cities theme?
The leading public companies associated with the smart cities theme are Accenture, Alibaba, Cisco, Hikvision, Hitachi, Honeywell, IBM, iFlytek, Johnson Controls, Microsoft, Nokia, Schneider Electric, Siemens, and ZTE.

Which are the leading private companies associated with the smart cities theme?
The leading private companies associated with the smart cities theme are 75F, Cleverciti, Huawei, Quantela, and Via Transportation.

About GlobalData

GlobalData is a leading provider of data, analytics, and insights on the world's largest industries. In an increasingly fast-moving, complex, and uncertain world, it has never been harder for organizations and decision makers to predict and navigate the future. This is why GlobalData's mission is to help our clients to decode the future and profit from faster, more informed decisions. As a leading information services company, thousands of clients rely on GlobalData for trusted, timely, and actionable intelligence. Our solutions are designed to provide a daily edge to professionals within corporations, financial institutions, professional services, and government agencies.

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© 2022 Benzinga does not provide investment advice. All rights reserved.

Thu, 21 Jul 2022 14:22:00 -0500 text/html
Killexams : Tasks That Are Common to SAS/CONNECT and SAS/SHARE Killexams : CMS: APPC Access Method : Tasks That Are Common to SAS/CONNECT and SAS/SHARE
Communications Access Methods for SAS/CONNECT and SAS/SHARE Software
Network Administrator, System Administrator, and User
To use the APPC access method with a CMS host for SAS/CONNECT and SAS/SHARE, perform these tasks:
  1. Verify that you have met all your site and software requirements.
  2. Verify that the resources for the APPC access method have been defined.
  3. Set the SAS/CONNECT and SAS/SHARE options that you want.

System and Software Requirements for SAS/CONNECT and SAS/SHARE

Ensure that the following conditions have been met:

  1. SAS software is installed on both the local and remote hosts.
  2. To use the APPC access method between sessions on a VM host or another type of host, the following conditions apply:
    • You can communicate within your local VM/ESA system without additional software.
    • You can communicate between VM/ESA systems that are in either the same Transparent Services Access Facility (TSAF) collection or the same Communication Services (CS) collection.
    • You can communicate with systems in an SNA network if you have installed the Advanced Communication Facility for the Virtual Telecommunications Access Method (ACF/VTAM), the Group Control System (GCS), and the APPC/VM VTAM Support (AVS).

Note:   For SAS/CONNECT only, you will need to manage SNA session limits to use the APPC access method in an SNA network. For more information about setting up an SNA network (including setting session limits), see System Configuration for the APPC Access Method for SAS/CONNECT.  [cautionend]

Defining Resources for the APPC Access Method

Network Administrator

APPC is an IBM strategic enterprise connectivity solution. Based on a System Network Architecture (SNA) logical unit type 6.2 (LU 6.2), APPC is the foundation for distributed processing within an SNA network. In this book, APPC is used to refer to the SNA LU 6.2 distributed processing method.

Before you can use SAS/CONNECT or SAS/SHARE with the APPC access method, you must first define APPC resources for the CMS system. This enables CMS to behave as either a local or a remote host in a SAS/CONNECT session or as a SAS/SHARE server or client. See System Configuration for the APPC Access Method for SAS/CONNECT for SAS/CONNECT resource configuration. See System Configuration for the APPC Access Method for SAS/SHARE for SAS/SHARE resource configuration.

To use the APPC access method with SAS/CONNECT and SAS/SHARE, you may need to set specific options.

You may specify an option in any of several forms, as follows:

If you set multiple forms of the same option, this is the order of precedence that is followed:

OPTIONS statement
SAS invocation
SAS configuration file

There are several methods for supplying userid and password information for SAS/CONNECT and SAS/SHARE. They are:

  • USER= and PASSWORD= options in selected statements
  • APPCSEC option
  • APPCPASS statement.

The person who maintains the userid and password information varies according to the method used.

For SAS/CONNECT, you must supply identifying information to sign on without a script to a remote host running a spawner program. A SAS/SHARE server, running secured, requires identification from each connecting client. The next two sections outline the version-specific methods for specifying client identification for SAS/CONNECT and SAS/SHARE.

Providing Client Identification in a Version 8 Session

In Version 8, you provide client identification to a SAS/CONNECT remote host or a SAS/SHARE server using the USER= and PASSWORD= options. These options are valid in the following statements:

Connect to Remote

Specifying client identification in the APPCSEC option is still accepted but is not recommended in Version 8. The USER= and PASSWORD= options take precedence over the client APPCSEC option when both are specified. For example, a SAS/SHARE client's execution of a LIBNAME statement with values assigned to the USER= and PASSWORD= options would override an APPCSEC option setting in the same client SAS session.

In order to make a SAS/SHARE server secured, the APPCSEC option must still be set at a SAS/SHARE server that can run on a supported host.  [cautionend]

Here is the syntax and the definitions for these options:


Specifying these options allows a user on the local host whose username and password have been Tested to access the remote host.

is a valid userid for the remote host and is thus host-dependent in form. If the value contains blanks or special characters, it must be enclosed in quotes.
is the password, if any, required for authentication of the supplied username. This value will not be echoed in the SAS log. If the value contains blanks or special characters, it must be enclosed in quotes.
specifies that the SAS System prompts the client for username and password.

Note:   The values provided when prompted must NOT be quoted.  [cautionend]

Specifying USER=_PROMPT_ and omitting the PASSWORD= specification will cause SAS to prompt you for both userid and password.

This is especially useful for allowing the SAS statements containing the USER= and PASSWORD= options to be copied and otherwise effectively reused by others.

For SAS/SHARE, the values supplied for the USER= and PASSWORD= options are valid for the duration of the remote host connection. Additional accesses of the remote host while the connection to that host is still in effect do not require re-supplying of the USER= and PASSWORD= options. For example, while the first connecting library assign to a SAS/SHARE server may require specification of the options, subsequent assigns to the same server will not need specification of these options as long as the original connection is in effect. A subsequent re-connect to the same server or connect to a different server would require re-supplying of the USER= and PASSWORD= options.

Here is a Version 8 example for SAS/SHARE:

libname test 'prog2 a' user=joeblue password="2muchfun" server=share1;

Here is a Version 8 example for SAS/CONNECT:

signon rmthost user=joeblack password=born2run;

As a security precaution, PASSWORD= field entries echoed in the log are replaced with Xs. If _PROMPT_ was specified for entering the password, the entry would not be displayed on the screen as it is typed.

Providing Client Identification in a pre-Version 8 Session

In Version 6 and 7, the APPCSEC option is used to specify how users are authenticated when connecting between hosts using the APPC access method. On the local host, you may set the APPCSEC option to allow local hosts or clients whose userids and passwords have been Tested to access a SAS/CONNECT remote host or a SAS/SHARE server. On the remote host, you must specify the APPCSEC option before you start a server.

The valid values for the APPCSEC option are:

APPCSEC=_NONE_ | _PROMPT_ | userid.password | _SECURE_
has different meanings, depending on whether it is set at the local host or the remote host.
SAS/CONNECT local host or at the SAS/SHARE client
_NONE_ specifies that the userid and password are to be obtained from the UCOMDIR NAMES, SCOMDIR NAMES, or APPCPASS CP directory entries instead of from the APPCSEC option. _NONE_ is the default.
SAS/CONNECT remote host or at the SAS/SHARE server
_NONE_ specifies an unsecured remote host, which does not require the local host to supply a Tested userid and password.
must be set at the SAS/CONNECT local host or at the SAS/SHARE client.

_PROMPT_ specifies that SAS prompt the user for userid and password information. If the communications directory file entry contains SECURITY.NONE, no prompting is performed.

When prompted for a userid, if you press the ENTER key without supplying one, then SAS uses the local userid. The userid is not obtained from UCOMDIR NAMES, SCOMDIR NAMES, or an APPCPASS CP directory statement as it is when _NONE_ is specified.

When prompted for a password, the input field is not displayed. If you press the ENTER key without supplying a password, one is obtained from UCOMDIR NAMES, SCOMDIR NAMES, or an APPCPASS CP directory statement. The behaviors of the _PROMPT_ and _NONE_ values are different.

must be set at the SAS/CONNECT local host or at the SAS/SHARE client.

This value optionally specifies the userid and the password. If you do not specify a userid, SAS uses the local userid. The userid is not obtained from UCOMDIR NAMES, SCOMDIR NAMES, or an APPCPASS CP directory statement as it is when _NONE_ is specified.

must be set at the SAS/SHARE server only.

The _SECURE_ value for the APPCSEC option requires the SAS/SHARE client to supply a valid userid and password to the remote host on which the server is running in order to allow client access to the server.

APPCSEC is maintained by the user. If you assign the userid.password or password to the APPCSEC option and store the option in a disk file, you should make the file secure, for example, by using a read password on the disk. If you are running SAS/CONNECT or SAS/SHARE interactively, you can assign the userid and password to the APPCSEC option without a need for file security.

If you assign _PROMPT_ to the APPCSEC option, the userid and password cannot be revealed by writing it to either SASLOG or a console spool file.

You may use the APPCSEC option as the means to override the userid and password information in the UCOMDIR NAMES or SCOMDIR NAMES file, or the APPCPASS statement.


The SCOMDIR NAMES or UCOMDIR NAMES file can be used to specify userid and password security information. For more information about storing the userid and password in either of these files, for SAS/CONNECT, see Creating a Communications Directory File; for SAS/SHARE, see Creating a User Communications Directory File.

The UCOMDIR NAMES file is maintained by the user. If you store passwords in the file you should secure it, for example, by using a disk password.

For information about the UCOMDIR NAMES file, see System Configuration for the APPC Access Method for SAS/CONNECT. For information about the SCOMDIR NAMES file, see System Configuration for the APPC Access Method for SAS/SHARE.

APPCPASS Statement

The APPCPASS statement is used to specify userid and password security information in the local user's CP directory. See the IBM publication VM/ESA Connectivity Planning Administration and Operation (SC24-5448) for more information about APPCPASS.

The system administrator maintains an APPCPASS statement for each userid. It is secure because users must have privileged authority to access the CP directories of other users.

Copyright 1999 by SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA. All rights reserved.

Sun, 26 Mar 2017 12:28:00 -0500 text/html
Killexams : Startups News No result found, try new keyword!Showcase your company news with guaranteed exposure both in print and online Online registration is now closed. If you are looking to purchase single tickets please email… Ready to embrace the ... Thu, 04 Aug 2022 06:27:00 -0500 text/html Killexams : Shorten sets ethical, linked-up digital services vision for myGov

Newly-minted government services minister Bill Shorten has charted the federal government’s vision for ethical, linked-up digital government services as a way of helping to “restore citizen’s faith in democracy”.

The minister charged with overseeing Services Australia used a keynote address in Canberra on Tuesday morning to outline the government’s expectations for service delivery policy over the next 10 years.

“The election result shows citizens are hungry for better government, they expect to be heard, they expect reforms, and the delivery of effective and ethical digital services can play a vital role in these reforms,” he told the AFR Government Services Summit.

While access to major online government services has been available through myGov since 2013, Shorten said there is still a disconnect between the citizens and government, requiring citizens to “grapple with the complexities of machinery of government”.

“While agencies continue to create digital silos, with their own disconnected apps and websites, ordinary Australians will remain rightfully frustrated,” he said.

“Imagine a myGov that unifies government digital services – by making it more valuable for the Commonwealth, states and service providers to interface with myGov to offer better service delivery to Australians.”


Shorten said there was no reason why myGov could not be used for simple conveniences, as well as more proactive activities such as nudging people to consider health screening and other treatments as they age.

“Image the simple convenience of pharmaceutical prescriptions being accessible within the enhanced myGov, for instance. If Priceline can do it for their customers, why can’t government? he said.

“Imagine with aged-base life events – throughout life, but particularly after 40, we could nudge people to engage in preventative screening and treatments.

“We could nudge people to book in for cancer screening, commenced from within the enhanced myGov app (interfacing with GP software platforms for bookings). Imagine if that simple and effective nudge saved one of our lives.”

myGov nudges could also be used to help people “top up training and education”, which in turn “boost[s] productivity and wage growth, and insures against individuals becoming obsolete within their industry”.

It is not clear whether these are blue-sky improvements or if they form part of the $200 million overhaul of myGov that has been underway for the past two years in concert with Deloitte, Accenture, IBM and Arq Group.

The extent of the changes will become clear through the myGov audit, announced by the now-government in the lead up to the election to deliver reliability and useability improvements for users.

Shorten said the audit would commence shortly, providing an “opportunity to get a deep understanding of what our citizens want and expect” so to “collectively plot out, the ‘how’ and ‘what’ that sets us up for success for many, many years”.

“Not just a once-off digital blueprint, a reset in thinking,” he said.

“By delivering through myGov we must consider how we continuously Strengthen our services.

“Australians deserve more than an uplift of their services every 10 years; they deserve them to be contemporary and world-class all the time.”

The trust equation

What is clear, however, is that trust will be central to any changes, with Shorten noting latest developments in South Korea that allow citizens to directly manage personal information held by government as an attractive “level of transparency and agency”.

“When new technology is used to make important decisions, especially in the sphere of government services, it must be fair,” he said.

“It is right the Australian public values their personal rights, pluralism and accountability. In practice that means decision, designs and services are fair,, accurate, accountable and efficient.”

Shorten pointed to the damage of the former government’s unlawful robodebt program as one of the reason people distrust the government.

“In my opinion, another thing about robodebt is that the government was beta-testing a new form of technology on literally the most vulnerable people in our country – people who rely on social security,” he said.

Shorten said the Royal Commission would “help us understand how such a failure of public administration could happen, for the crucial reason of ensuring it will never happen again”.

“The commission could quite possibly find that the decision makers had their assumptions back-to-front. We should assume that AI and similar new technology will make mistakes, and that we should design services around that assumption,” he said.

Laying down the gauntlet to public servants, Shorten added that it was time to overcome a “long period of an ineffective, arrogant and at times malicious digital transformation”, which has erroded trust in government and democracy.

“Imagine if humble government services could help restore citizens’ faith in democracy as an operating model. Imagine that!” he said.

“I want us to return to a respectful relationship between the government and the Australian Public Service, that has the safety to be and truly frank and fearless.”

“I want you to know it is time to be bold, to innovate.”

Tue, 26 Jul 2022 00:41:00 -0500 text/html
Killexams : Hershey Fonts: Not Chocolate, The Origin Of Vector Lettering

Over the past few years, I kept bumping into something called Hershey fonts. After digging around, I found a 1967 government report by a fellow named Dr. Allen Vincent Hershey. Back in the 1960s, he worked as a physicist for the Naval Weapons Laboratory in Dahlgren, Virginia, studying the interaction between ship hulls and water. His research was aided by the Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC), which was built by IBM and was one of the fastest computers in the world when it was first installed in 1954.

The NORC’s I/O facilities, such as punched cards, magnetic tape, and line printers, were typical of the era. But the NORC also had an ultra-high-speed optical printer. This device had originally been developed by the telecommunications firm Stromberg-Carlson for the Social Security Administration in order to quickly print massive amounts of data directly upon microfilm.

Perhaps you’ve heard stories of programmers waiting impatiently for printouts from mainframe operators? Well you would have waited even longer for your optical plots. Since they used film, they required chemical processing to become photos, slides, or microfilm. But despite this wait time, the printing speed was much faster than line printers of the day: 7000 lines per minute vs 150. While this printing speed was certainly impressive, the ability to plot entire graphs and figures in just fractions of a second was no doubt well appreciated by the scientists at Dahlgren.

Charactron Tube Diagram
Charactron Tube Diagram (US Patent 2735956)

What made this device so fast? It was the Charactron Tube which we covered back in 2017. This special CRT has an internal metal screen into which a font is etched. The electron beam projects an entire letter on the phosphor face of the tube in one “flash”, which in turn exposes photographic film. No raster scanning or vector drawing was involved, so the process was fast. But soon the system would be utilized in ways not imagined by the original designers.


Back in those days, before roff, LaTex, and WYSIWYG word processors, preparing technical reports full of complicated mathematical equations and data plots was quite time consuming. The text itself would be prepared using an ordinary typewriter. But special-purpose typewriters like the Varityper were needed to typeset math equations. Plots and figures would generally be hand-drawn or by pen plotter. Hershey came to the realization that the NORC’s optical printer could take on a new role and be used as a typesetter. Dr Hershey not only saw this possibility, but possessed a hurry interest in calligraphy and didn’t mind spending his evenings developing this new capability.

Varityper used for report preparation

The key to make this happen was to define a new mode of output which bypassed the internal stencil fonts. Rather, the film would be exposed by using the period (full stop) stencil as a “dot”, and moving the dot under program control. When applied to text, this is of course slower than using the stencil, but it allows an arbitrary selection of fonts, or repertories as Dr Hershey called them. Furthermore, it opens up the ability to plot data directly onto film, bypassing the slower pen-plotter and even slower hand-drawing techniques of the day.

Dr Hershey learned that engineers at the Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey had developed a font for their optical printer using a similar technique, approaching it from a rasterization point of view. Dr Hershey realized he could expand this to embrace more exotic and artistic glyphs. He focused on using vectors to design his fonts, and embarked on the lengthy journey of researching and building his collection of vector-based fonts.

Works for All Languages (Except Dragons in Motion)

In hindsight, he not only built a set of tools to solve the needs of the Dahlgren community, but pushed the limits of the optical plotter to the extreme. In his reports he demonstrated fonts not only in English, but in other languages such as Greek, Russian, and Japanese. In addition to mathematical symbols, he showed how the plotter could draw electronic circuit diagrams, stellar maps of the galaxy, maps in general, chemical bonds, etc. An example of his thoroughness is found in his 1967 report “Calligraphy for Computers”. Although Hershey only implemented a subset of Japanese characters as a demonstration, he searched through over 5000 of them looking for glyphs which might exceed the limitations of his method. He could only find one such case, which he reasonably decided to ignore:

With some omission of detail in tight spaces and some overflow in complicated cases, this size [a height of 21 raster units] is believed to be adequate for all characters in Nelson’s dictionary except No. 5444. Inasmuch as this character represents dragons in motion, it is of doubtful utility.

Composite of font charts created by Paul Bourke

All in all, Dr. Hershey generated about 1400 western and 800 Japanese glyphs, all drawn painstakingly by hand on graph paper. There were five different optical font sizes and three different stroke types, not to mention all sorts of symbols used in mapping, science, mathematics, etc.

The Importance of Hershey Font Today

Hershey was trying to generate pleasing fonts for printed reports using the leading technology of the day. By far the greatest number of glyphs were complex — that is, they were constructed with multiple lines, or strokes, to provide increased and variable stroke width. These strokes are often depicted today as thin lines when you search for his fonts online, but when properly drawn, taking into account the size of the SC4020 beam, solid letters will result. Today we have a plethora of fonts at our disposal, so why are Hershey fonts still being used? You might be tempted to say because they are public domain. But probably the biggest reason is the single-stroke family of fonts, which are still quite useful in so many different applications. Here are some examples I’ve encountered over the years.

OpenSCAD (not needed since 2015)

Technical Lettering Style from 1865 Textbook

Today if you want to draw text in OpenSCAD, there is built-in support. But when I was first learning OpenSCAD in early 2015, this wasn’t available. A project I was working on needed text, so I decided to make my own. As I went down the rabbit hole of simple lettering that I could implement using the graphics primitives of OpenSCAD, I discovered this is a technique with a long history.

It was during this research when I first stumbled upon Hershey fonts. I have since learned that these classical lettering styles were a source of inspiration for Dr. Hershey, including the Leroy lettering sets used by draftsmen and some comic book letterers.

At the time, I passed on Hershey fonts because they only used lines, and it seemed that real curves would look better. I made my own vector font based on these simple drafting lettering styles which used only lines and circular arcs — things I knew how to make with OpenSCAD. Looking back at this now, I see that text was integrated into OpenSCAD in March of that year. If I had just waited three months, I would’ve saved myself the time and hassle.

Leroy Lettering Set

Front panel lettering

Example of Engraved Panel Lettering

As a young engineer, some of my company’s projects required durable front panel markings. We made these by having the lettering and symbols engraved into the panel using a CNC machine. One well-proven way was to engrave a panel then fill in the grooves with epoxy paint. Today we can even skip the hassle of machine engraving all together. Low-cost direct laser etching provides a cleaner and often more affordable technique. Both these methods work by moving the head, a milling tool or laser beam, along paths which are defined by X-Y pairs. This is a perfect fit for vector fonts. They can be made more or less bold by changing the diameter of the milling tool or laser beam size, and can be easily scaled or rotated as needed using basic trigonometry. Trying to do this with a bit-mapped font would be awkward at best.

PCB Artwork Lettering

We’ve all put text on our PCB’s silkscreen and copper layers, but perhaps didn’t stop and think about the details. When you generate files for manufacturing, the traces and features of your board, themselves naturally vectors, are expressed in the familiar Gerber format (RS-274X). Letters are expressed in the same way.

Gerber 6241 Photoplotter from the early 1980s

The first photoplotters used for making PCB film artwork were made by the Gerber Scentific company in the 1960s. This device grew out of a family of large computer-controlled X-Y tables. These were originally used for tasks like cutting patterns from fabric and making prescription eyeglass lenses. The Gerber Photoplotter’s basic operation was not unlike a pen-plotter or CNC engraving machine, except that a beam of light would shine through a selectable aperture to expose photographic film. A wheel containing different aperture sizes allowed you to change the line width and also used to “flash” pads. It was only natural that vector commands were used to control the photoplotter. Rather than reinvent the wheel, Gerber defined a subset of the CNC digital interface standard RS-274D that had been around since the 1950s. With a few extensions and revisions, this is still the format we use today to convey our PCB artwork to the fabrication shop.

As in many fields, technology marches on. PCB fabrication shops don’t actually use Gerber-style photoplotters anymore. These days, more often than not, the manufacturer will convert your Gerber files so that the artwork is transferred to film using a high-resolution, high-speed raster printer. In some cases, the artwork is projected directly onto the PCB itself, entirely bypassing the film and intermediate transfer step.

That said, I don’t think we will ever send rasterized PCB artwork to the manufacturers. The features of the PCB that we send to the shop, traces and pads, are inherently vector-like in nature. And for proper results, the manufacturer needs to identify these features in order to tweak them according to their own unique manufacturing process. That’s the meaning of fabrication notes like “Line, pad, and via dimensions are specified as finished size” and “Controlled impedance traces xxxx should be 75 ohm”. Even silk-screen lettering widths may need to be adjusted depending on the process being used. Adjusting these parameters on a raster-based image, while not impossible, would be much more complicated.

CAD Tools

Hershey Format of the letter H

I needed to put some Korean text on a PCB for a client awhile back. After discussing this on the KiCad forum I learned that within KiCad, the PCB lettering is stored internally as vectors — using the original Hershey font format. I won’t go into the gory details, but the original Hershey format is peculiar, to say the least. Hershey used only printable letters, what we could call printable ASCII today, to describe the coordinates in very compact style. There is a letter-based Cartesian grid system with the letter R as zero. The letter S is 1, P is -2, etc. The letter H would appear as 508 9G]KFK[ RYFY[ RKPYP in this notation.


TurtlePlotBot Draws Using Hershey Fonts

I was recently playing around with Micropython on the ESP32-based TTGO module, in order to experiment with text on the tiny TFT screen. I discovered that user [Russ] used Hershey fonts in his Turtle Plot Bot. This gave me a great jump start for some of my experiments, and is yet another example of finding Hershey fonts under the hood of modern projects.

CRT Vector Drawing Machines

Oscilloscope Clock Using Hershey Fonts

CRT-based projects using vector graphics have become popular in latest years. There are clock projects and general purpose vector displays. This is yet another application where describing fonts with vectors matches nicely with the underlying operation of the display. And you won’t be surprised to learn that Hershey fonts are commonly found on these projects. For example, this tutorial by [Trammel Hudson] on vector display basics shows how to draw Hershey font letters on the screen.

The Hershey Legacy

What would Dr Hershey think about his simplistic single-stroke fonts still being used over 60 years later? Considering all the multi-stroke letters and Japanese symbols that he so meticulously designed by hand, he might be a little surprised if not disappointed. Let us know if you have encountered or used Hershey’s fonts in your projects. If you want to learn more, here is an interesting presentation by Frank Grießhammer about Dr Hershey himself and the development of his fonts .

Wed, 27 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 Chris Lott en-US text/html
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