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Killexams : IBM Applications- course outline - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/LOT-922 Search results Killexams : IBM Applications- course outline - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/LOT-922 https://killexams.com/exam_list/IBM Killexams : Software supply chain security takes center stage at Black Hat 2022

black-hat-2022-software-supply-chain-securityBlack Hat is best known for hardware and traditional software exploits, but this year it showcases more software supply chain security issues—marking the shift in the threat landscape.

Black Hat, the annual gathering of hackers and information security pros in Las Vegas, kicks off next week — the 25th such gathering. It comes after two years of COVID-inspired cancellations and delays. Over the years, Black Hat and its sister conference, DEF CON, have made headlines by showcasing high-profile exploits of hardware and software — from Cisco routers and ATMs to enterprise platforms like Oracle, SQL Server, and Active Directory. 

You can find plenty of those talks this year, also. But they will share the stage with a growing number of discussions of cyber threats, vulnerabilities and potential attacks on developers, open source modules and the underlying infrastructure supporting modern DevOps organizations. Together, the talks mark a shift in the threat landscape and the growing prominence of security threats to the software supply chain.

Here are the talks related to software development and supply chain risk, and some of the themes that emerged.

Development teams in the crosshairs

The security of tools and platforms used by DevOps organizations is a clear theme at this year’s Black Hat Briefings, with a number of talks addressing specific threats to source code management systems for both closed- and open source software. 

On Wednesday, for example, NCC Group researchers Iain Smart and Viktor Gazdag will present their talk, RCE-as-a-Service: Lessons Learned from 5 Years of Real-World CI/CD Pipeline Compromises. In the talk, the two leverage years of work testing the security of development groups within a range of organizations – from small businesses to Fortune 500 firms. 

Describing CI/CD pipelines as the “most dangerous potential attack surface of your software supply chain,” the pair will argue that these development platforms are the crown jewel in any company’s IT infrastructure, providing attackers with a way to turn tools meant to accelerate software development into a malicious “Remote Code Execution-as-a-Service” platform. The pair will also talk about the best approach for defending CI/CD pipelines from attacks and compromises. 

Also picking up the theme of “threats to DevOps environments” is the Thursday presentation by researcher Brett Hawkins of IBM X-Force. Brett will dig into the various ways that source code management (SCM) systems like GitHub Enterprise, GitLab Enterprise and Bitbucket might be attacked and compromised.

Hawkins’ talk, Controlling the Source: Abusing Source Code Management Systems, presents research that has uncovered a variety of attack scenarios that can deliver malicious actors access to SCM systems. He will also release open source tools to facilitate SCM attacks including reconnaissance, manipulation of user roles, repository takeovers, and user impersonation. Hawkins will also provide guidance on how to defend SCM systems from attack. 

Open source: risky business

Given the software industry’s heavy reliance on open source software to facilitate development, and the growing prevalence of threats and attacks via open source platforms and code, it is no surprise that open source cyber risk is another central theme at this year’s Black Hat Briefings. Data compiled by the firm Synopsys, for example, found that the average software application in 2021 depended on more than 500 open source libraries and components, up 77% in two years. Attackers have taken notice. As we have noted, there have been numerous software supply chain attacks playing to developers (and development teams) heavy reliance on open source repositories like PyPi and npm

The agenda at Black Hat picks up on this trend, with talks that explore the risks posed by open source code and propose remedies. 

For example, researchers Jonathan Leitschuh, Patrick Way and Shyam Mehta use their talk to tackle a key problem in open source security: how to scale security response to meet the challenge of massive open source platforms like GitHub. While modern tools might allow us to automate vulnerability scanning and identification, the output of such endeavors often overwhelms the mere homo sapiens who are tasked with assessing, triaging and responding to the flood of identified flaws. 

Leitschuh, Way and Mehta propose one solution: automated bulk pull request generation, as well as tools such as the Netflix developed OpenRewrite that can help security teams scale their security response. Check out their talk, Scaling the Security Researcher to Eliminate OSS Vulnerabilities Once and For All, on Thursday at 3:20 PM. 

And, as companies let AI loose on the vast repository of open source code in the hopes of developing coding bots that might one day replace developers, the presentation In Need of ‘Pair’ Review: Vulnerable Code Contributions by GitHub Copilot deserves your attention. The work of a group of researchers from NYU and the University of Calgary, the talk analyzes the output of “Copilot,” an ‘AI-based Pair Programmer’ released by GitHub in 2021.

Copilot leverages a deep learning model trained on open-source GitHub code. But, as the researchers note, much of that code “isn’t great.” And, as Microsoft learned with its AI-based chatbot for Twitter, artificial intelligence is great at absorbing input and teasing out patterns, but terrible at assessing the underlying quality of the information it is being fed.  

An analysis of Copilot code revealed a high preponderance of common flaws, among them SQL injection, buffer overflow and use-after-free vulnerabilities. In fact, of 1,689 suggestions generated across 89 different scenarios using the Copilot AI, the researchers found approximately 40% to be vulnerable.

The talk has implications for development organizations that would look to offload low-level coding work to bots, of course. But the high density of flaws in GitHub repositories is also a red flag to organizations that more scrutiny is needed to assess the quality and stability of open source components before dependencies are created, rather than after. 

Developers: the elephant in the security living room

The elephant in the living room of DevOps security is, of course, the developer themself. While Source Code Analysis tools can Strengthen security assessments of proprietary and open source code, and vulnerability scans can identify flaws and weaknesses in developed code, the best security “fix” comes in the form of better written, high quality code. 

That’s the subject that researcher Adam Shostack tackles in his talk A Fully Trained Jedi, You Are Not, on Wednesday, August 10 at 11:20. Shostack, an expert in threat modeling, secure development and DevOps, talks about the ‘boil the ocean’ problem that many organizations face as they try to train up developers in the intricacies of secure development without sacrificing other priorities, like developing usable code on time and on budget. 

In this talk, Shostack talks about how organizations can operationalize security training for developers. The goal is not to produce a staff of “Jedi-quality” secure developers, but to Strengthen the security awareness and skills of the broad population of developers, with a goal of reducing common but still prevalent security issues that plague developed applications. 

“A rebellion doesn’t run on a single Jedi,” Shostack notes. To that end, he’ll present the broad outlines of a “knowledge scaffolding and tiered approach to learning” that is scalable across development organizations. 

Keep learning

*** This is a Security Bloggers Network syndicated blog from ReversingLabs Blog authored by Paul Roberts. Read the original post at: https://blog.reversinglabs.com/blog/software-supply-chain-security-takes-center-stage-at-black-hat-2022

Wed, 03 Aug 2022 02:46:00 -0500 by Paul Roberts on August 3, 2022 en-US text/html https://securityboulevard.com/2022/08/software-supply-chain-security-takes-center-stage-at-black-hat-2022/ Killexams : Enterprise Knowledge Management System Market 2022 Depth Investigation And Analysis Report On Key Players 2030

The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.

Aug 01, 2022 (Alliance News via COMTEX) -- Key Companies Covered in the Enterprise Knowledge Management System Research are Alfanar, Chris Lewis Group, Cisco, Enlighted, GoTo Room, IQBoard, Komstadt, Logitech, Microsoft, Poly, Scenariio, Smart Systems(Smarthomes Chattanooga), TecinteracaBloomfire, Callidus Software Inc., Chadha Software Technologies, ComAround, Computer Sciences Corporation(APQC), EduBrite Systems, EGain Ernst Young, IBM Global Services, Igloo, KMS Lighthouse, Knosys, Moxie Software, Open Text Corporation, ProProfs, Right Answers, Transversal, Yonyx, Glean, IntraFindtive, TIS Control, Vox Audio Visual, Webex, Yealink and other key market players.

The global Enterprise Knowledge Management System market size will reach USD million in 2030, growing at a CAGR of % during the analysis period.

As the global economy recovers in 2021 and the supply of the industrial chain improves, the Enterprise Knowledge Management System market will undergo major changes. According to the latest research, the market size of the Enterprise Knowledge Management System industry in 2021 will increase by USD million compared to 2020, with a growth rate of %.

Request To Free sample of This Strategic Report:-https://reportocean.com/industry-verticals/sample-request?report_id=AR9965

The global Enterprise Knowledge Management System industry report provides top-notch qualitative and quantitative information including: Market size (2017-2021 value and 2022 forecast). The report also contains descriptions of key players, including key financial indicators and market competitive pressure analysis.

The report also assesses key opportunities in the market and outlines the factors that are and will drive the growth of the industry. Taking into account previous growth patterns, growth drivers, and current and future trends, we also forecast the overall growth of the global Enterprise Knowledge Management System market during the next few years.

Types list
On-Cloud
On-Premise

Application list
SMEs
Large Enterprise

The accurate analysis by Report Ocean on the global Enterprise Knowledge Management SystemMarket Report 2021 revolves around various aspects of the market, including characteristics, size and growth, segmentation, regional and country breakdowns, competitive landscape, market shares, trends, strategies, etc. It also includes COVID-19 Outbreak Impact, accompanied by traces of the historic events. The study highlights the list of projected opportunities, sales and revenue on the basis of region and segments. Apart from that, it also documents other syllabus such as manufacturing cost analysis, Industrial Chain, etc. For better demonstration, it throws light on the precisely obtained data with the thoroughly crafted graphs, tables, Bar &Pie Charts, etc.

Get a report on Enterprise Knowledge Management SystemMarket' (Including Full TOC, 100+ Tables & Figures, and charts). -Covers Precise Information on Pre & Post COVID-19 Market Outbreak by Region

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Our tailormade report can help companies and investors make efficient strategic moves by exploring the crucial information on market size, business trends, industry structure, market share, and market predictions.

Apart from the general projections, our report outstands as it includes thoroughly studied variables, such as the COVID-19 containment status, the recovery of the end-use market, and the recovery timeline for 2020/ 2021

Analysis on COVID-19 Outbreak Impact Include:
In light of COVID-19, the report includes a range of factors that impacted the market. It also discusses the trends. Based on the upstream and downstream markets, the report precisely covers all factors, including an analysis of the supply chain, consumer behavior, demand, etc. Our report also describes how vigorously COVID-19 has affected diverse regions and significant nations.

Report Include:

  • Market Behaviour/ Level of Risk and Opportunity
  • End Industry Behaviour/ Opportunity Assessment
  • Expected Industry Recovery Timeline

For more information or any query mail atsales@reportocean.com

Each report by the Report Ocean contains more than 100+ pages, specifically crafted with precise tables, charts, and engaging narrative: The tailor-made reports deliver vast information on the market with high accuracy. The report encompasses: Micro and macro analysis, Competitive landscape, Regional dynamics, Operational landscape, Legal Set-up, and Regulatory frameworks, Market Sizing and Structuring, Profitability and Cost analysis, Demographic profiling and Addressable market, Existing marketing strategies in the market, Segmentation analysis of Market, Best practice, GAP analysis, Leading market players, Benchmarking, Future market trends and opportunities.

Geographical Breakdown:The regional section of the report analyses the market on the basis of region and national breakdowns, which includes size estimations, and accurate data on previous and future growth. It also mentions the effects and the estimated course of Covid-19 recovery for all geographical areas. The report gives the outlook of the emerging market trends and the factors driving the growth of the dominating region to deliver readers an outlook of prevailing trends and help in decision making.

Nations:Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, UAE, UK, USA, Venezuela, Vietnam

Thoroughly Described Qualitative COVID 19 Outbreak Impact Include Identification and Investigation on:Market Structure, Growth Drivers, Restraints and Challenges, Emerging Product Trends & Market Opportunities, Porter's Fiver Forces. The report also inspects the financial standing of the leading companies, which includes gross profit, revenue generation, sales volume, sales revenue, manufacturing cost, individual growth rate, and other financial ratios. The report basically gives information about the Market trends, growth factors, limitations, opportunities, challenges, future forecasts, and information on the prominent and other key market players.

(Check Our Exclusive Offer: 30% to 40% Discount) :- https://reportocean.com/industry-verticals/sample-request?report_id=AR9965

Key questions answered:This study documents the affect ofCOVID 19 Outbreak: Our professionally crafted report contains precise responses and pinpoints the excellent opportunities for investors to make new investments. It also suggests superior market plan trajectories along with a comprehensive analysis of current market infrastructures, prevailing challenges, opportunities, etc. To help companies design their superior strategies, this report mentions information about end-consumer target groups and their potential operational volumes, along with the potential regions and segments to target and the benefits and limitations of contributing to the market. Any market’s robust growth is derived by its driving forces, challenges, key suppliers, key industry trends, etc., which is thoroughly covered in our report. Apart from that, the accuracy of the data can be specified by the effective SWOT analysis incorporated in the study.

A section of the report is dedicated to the details related to import and export, key players, production, and revenue, on the basis of the regional markets. The report is wrapped with information about key manufacturers, key market segments, the scope of products, years considered, and study objectives.

It also guides readers through segmentation analysis based on product type, application, end-users, etc. Apart from that, the study encompasses a SWOT analysis of each player along with their product offerings, production, value, capacity, etc.

List of Factors Covered in the Report are:
Major Strategic Developments: The report abides by quality and quantity. It covers the major strategic market developments, including R&D, M&A, agreements, new products launch, collaborations, partnerships, joint ventures, and geographical expansion, accompanied by a list of the prominent industry players thriving in the market on a national and international level.

Key Market Features:
Major subjects like revenue, capacity, price, rate, production rate, gross production, capacity utilization, consumption, cost, CAGR, import/export, supply/demand, market share, and gross margin are all assessed in the research and mentioned in the study. It also documents a thorough analysis of the most important market factors and their most accurate developments, combined with the pertinent market segments and sub-segments.

List of Highlights & Approach
The report is made using a variety of efficient analytical methodologies that offers readers an in-depth research and evaluation on the leading market players and comprehensive insight on what place they are holding within the industry. Analytical techniques, such as Porter’s five forces analysis, feasibility studies, SWOT analyses, and ROI analyses, are put to use to examine the development of the major market players.

Inquire more and share questions if any before the purchase on this report at :- https://reportocean.com/industry-verticals/sample-request?report_id=AR9965

Points Covered in Enterprise Knowledge Management SystemMarket Report:

........and view more in complete table of Contents

Thank you for reading; we also provide a chapter-by-chapter report or a report based on region, such as North America, Europe, or Asia.

Request Full Report :-https://reportocean.com/industry-verticals/sample-request?report_id=AR9965

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We are the best market research reports provider in the industry. Report Ocean believes in providing quality reports to clients to meet the top line and bottom line goals which will boost your market share in today's competitive environment. Report Ocean is a 'one-stop solution' for individuals, organizations, and industries that are looking for innovative market research reports.

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COMTEX_411339872/2796/2022-08-01T05:20:10

The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.

Sun, 31 Jul 2022 21:20:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.marketwatch.com/press-release/enterprise-knowledge-management-system-market-2022-depth-investigation-and-analysis-report-on-key-players-2030-2022-08-01
Killexams : Industrial Cybersecurity Market 2022 Reach Huge Growth And Tremendous Demand In Next Coming Years By 2030

The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.

Aug 01, 2022 (Alliance News via COMTEX) -- Key Companies Covered in the Industrial Cybersecurity Research are IBM, Honeywell, ABB, Cisco, Schneider Electric, McAfee, Siemens, Dell, Symantec, Rockwell, Kaspersky Lab, Startup Ecosystem and other key market players.

The global Industrial Cybersecurity market size will reach USD million in 2030, growing at a CAGR of % during the analysis period.

As the global economy recovers in 2021 and the supply of the industrial chain improves, the Industrial Cybersecurity market will undergo major changes. The latest research shows that the Industrial Cybersecurity industry market size will be million US dollars in 2021, and will grow to million US dollars in 2028, with an average annual growth rate of %.

Request To Free sample of This Strategic Report:-https://reportocean.com/industry-verticals/sample-request?report_id=AR8579

The global Industrial Cybersecurity industry report provides top-notch qualitative and quantitative information including: Market size (2017-2021 value and 2022 forecast). The report also contains descriptions of key players, including key financial indicators and market competitive pressure analysis.

The report also assesses key opportunities in the market and outlines the factors that are and will drive the growth of the industry. Taking into account previous growth patterns, growth drivers, and current and future trends, we also forecast the overall growth of the global Industrial Cybersecurity market during the next few years.

Types list
Network Security
Application Security
Endpoint Security
Wireless Security
Cloud Security
Others

Application list
Power
Energy & Utilities
Transportation Systems
Chemical and Manufacturing
Others

The accurate analysis by Report Ocean on the global Industrial CybersecurityMarket Report 2021 revolves around various aspects of the market, including characteristics, size and growth, segmentation, regional and country breakdowns, competitive landscape, market shares, trends, strategies, etc. It also includes COVID-19 Outbreak Impact, accompanied by traces of the historic events. The study highlights the list of projected opportunities, sales and revenue on the basis of region and segments. Apart from that, it also documents other syllabus such as manufacturing cost analysis, Industrial Chain, etc. For better demonstration, it throws light on the precisely obtained data with the thoroughly crafted graphs, tables, Bar &Pie Charts, etc.

Get a report on Industrial CybersecurityMarket' (Including Full TOC, 100+ Tables & Figures, and charts). -Covers Precise Information on Pre & Post COVID-19 Market Outbreak by Region

Download Free sample Copy of 'Industrial CybersecurityMarket' Report :- https://reportocean.com/industry-verticals/sample-request?report_id=AR8579

Key Segments Studied in the Global Industrial CybersecurityMarket

Our tailormade report can help companies and investors make efficient strategic moves by exploring the crucial information on market size, business trends, industry structure, market share, and market predictions.

Apart from the general projections, our report outstands as it includes thoroughly studied variables, such as the COVID-19 containment status, the recovery of the end-use market, and the recovery timeline for 2020/ 2021

Analysis on COVID-19 Outbreak Impact Include:
In light of COVID-19, the report includes a range of factors that impacted the market. It also discusses the trends. Based on the upstream and downstream markets, the report precisely covers all factors, including an analysis of the supply chain, consumer behavior, demand, etc. Our report also describes how vigorously COVID-19 has affected diverse regions and significant nations.

Report Include:

  • Market Behaviour/ Level of Risk and Opportunity
  • End Industry Behaviour/ Opportunity Assessment
  • Expected Industry Recovery Timeline

For more information or any query mail atsales@reportocean.com

Each report by the Report Ocean contains more than 100+ pages, specifically crafted with precise tables, charts, and engaging narrative: The tailor-made reports deliver vast information on the market with high accuracy. The report encompasses: Micro and macro analysis, Competitive landscape, Regional dynamics, Operational landscape, Legal Set-up, and Regulatory frameworks, Market Sizing and Structuring, Profitability and Cost analysis, Demographic profiling and Addressable market, Existing marketing strategies in the market, Segmentation analysis of Market, Best practice, GAP analysis, Leading market players, Benchmarking, Future market trends and opportunities.

Geographical Breakdown:The regional section of the report analyses the market on the basis of region and national breakdowns, which includes size estimations, and accurate data on previous and future growth. It also mentions the effects and the estimated course of Covid-19 recovery for all geographical areas. The report gives the outlook of the emerging market trends and the factors driving the growth of the dominating region to deliver readers an outlook of prevailing trends and help in decision making.

Nations:Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, UAE, UK, USA, Venezuela, Vietnam

Thoroughly Described Qualitative COVID 19 Outbreak Impact Include Identification and Investigation on:Market Structure, Growth Drivers, Restraints and Challenges, Emerging Product Trends & Market Opportunities, Porter's Fiver Forces. The report also inspects the financial standing of the leading companies, which includes gross profit, revenue generation, sales volume, sales revenue, manufacturing cost, individual growth rate, and other financial ratios. The report basically gives information about the Market trends, growth factors, limitations, opportunities, challenges, future forecasts, and information on the prominent and other key market players.

(Check Our Exclusive Offer: 30% to 40% Discount) :- https://reportocean.com/industry-verticals/sample-request?report_id=AR8579

Key questions answered:This study documents the affect ofCOVID 19 Outbreak: Our professionally crafted report contains precise responses and pinpoints the excellent opportunities for investors to make new investments. It also suggests superior market plan trajectories along with a comprehensive analysis of current market infrastructures, prevailing challenges, opportunities, etc. To help companies design their superior strategies, this report mentions information about end-consumer target groups and their potential operational volumes, along with the potential regions and segments to target and the benefits and limitations of contributing to the market. Any market’s robust growth is derived by its driving forces, challenges, key suppliers, key industry trends, etc., which is thoroughly covered in our report. Apart from that, the accuracy of the data can be specified by the effective SWOT analysis incorporated in the study.

A section of the report is dedicated to the details related to import and export, key players, production, and revenue, on the basis of the regional markets. The report is wrapped with information about key manufacturers, key market segments, the scope of products, years considered, and study objectives.

It also guides readers through segmentation analysis based on product type, application, end-users, etc. Apart from that, the study encompasses a SWOT analysis of each player along with their product offerings, production, value, capacity, etc.

List of Factors Covered in the Report are:
Major Strategic Developments: The report abides by quality and quantity. It covers the major strategic market developments, including R&D, M&A, agreements, new products launch, collaborations, partnerships, joint ventures, and geographical expansion, accompanied by a list of the prominent industry players thriving in the market on a national and international level.

Key Market Features:
Major subjects like revenue, capacity, price, rate, production rate, gross production, capacity utilization, consumption, cost, CAGR, import/export, supply/demand, market share, and gross margin are all assessed in the research and mentioned in the study. It also documents a thorough analysis of the most important market factors and their most accurate developments, combined with the pertinent market segments and sub-segments.

List of Highlights & Approach
The report is made using a variety of efficient analytical methodologies that offers readers an in-depth research and evaluation on the leading market players and comprehensive insight on what place they are holding within the industry. Analytical techniques, such as Porter’s five forces analysis, feasibility studies, SWOT analyses, and ROI analyses, are put to use to examine the development of the major market players.

Inquire more and share questions if any before the purchase on this report at :- https://reportocean.com/industry-verticals/sample-request?report_id=AR8579

Points Covered in Industrial CybersecurityMarket Report:

........and view more in complete table of Contents

Thank you for reading; we also provide a chapter-by-chapter report or a report based on region, such as North America, Europe, or Asia.

Request Full Report :-https://reportocean.com/industry-verticals/sample-request?report_id=AR8579

About Report Ocean:
We are the best market research reports provider in the industry. Report Ocean believes in providing quality reports to clients to meet the top line and bottom line goals which will boost your market share in today's competitive environment. Report Ocean is a 'one-stop solution' for individuals, organizations, and industries that are looking for innovative market research reports.

Get in Touch with Us:
Report Ocean:
Email:
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COMTEX_411340438/2796/2022-08-01T05:33:27

The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.

Sun, 31 Jul 2022 21:33:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.marketwatch.com/press-release/industrial-cybersecurity-market-2022-reach-huge-growth-and-tremendous-demand-in-next-coming-years-by-2030-2022-08-01
Killexams : IBM still breaking new ground at Wimbledon

IBM’s Watson is being used by the All England Lawn Tennis Club (AELTC) as it strives to attract and retain digital audiences to the 154-year-old Wimbledon tennis championship.

After more than 30 years of providing the AELTC with technology for collecting statistics, as well as the IT foundations underpinning them, IBM is constantly working to help the organisation automate digital services and engage with fans.

Today, IBM Watson artificial intelligence (AI), sitting in IBM Cloud, is personalising content to encourage fans who try out digital platforms to do so again and again.

“Our main goal is to ensure we are maintaining Wimbledon’s relevance, attracting online audiences and providing them with the opportunity to engage with the event and keep coming back,” she told Computer Weekly.

Serving fans through AI

The partnership with IBM, also a sponsor, has come a long way since the original agreement in 1990 saw IBM generate rudimentary stats for the AELTC. “IBM has helped us ensure we have the foundations to do that from a broader technology perspective, and [with IBM] we are continually challenging ourselves to innovate on what we have today and that we are adapting the way we provide for fans,” added Willis.

IBM Watson AI creates tailored highlight reels automatically

Watson is the nucleus of much of the latest innovation, with personalised services. For instance, today Watson is automatically creating highlight reels tailored for individual fans, using a combination of structured and unstructured data.

The ability of AI to automate the creation of personalised reels of match action is perhaps the most overt example of progress. In the past, the creation of highlight reels for broadcasters required humans to manually go through matches and pick out the key moments, which was very time-consuming. But today, Watson can create a reel automatically that is personalised for individual fans.

“These two-minute reels are automatically created by Watson through a combination of stats, listening to the crowd reaction and looking at the gestures of the players,” said Kevin Farrar, IBM UK sports partnership lead. “We then make it available to the Wimbledon digital team.”

“We work with the club to bring the beauty and drama of Wimbledon to life for digital fans around the world. It is essentially a massive data operation. It all starts with the data”
Kevin Farrar, IBM

A huge amount of data is generated across the 18 courts at Wimbledon, and without in-depth knowledge, it is difficult for the average digital fan to fully appreciate a game. “It’s all reaching slightly different audiences, which was our goal, rather than preaching to the converted,” said Willis.

This is where IBM data scientists, combined with tennis experts, come in. “We take the tennis stats and combine it with other data sources, such as the Hawkeye system tracking the player and ball movements throughout a rally. We then create insights which are shared to different audiences,” said Farrar.

“We work with the club to bring the beauty and drama of Wimbledon to life for digital fans around the world,” he added. “It is essentially a massive data operation. It all starts with the data. Turning it into meaningful and engaging insights that we can put out on digital global platforms.”

A huge amount of data is generated across the 18 courts at Wimbledon

Another popular digital offering is the IBM Power Index which ranks player momentum, form and performance of players in the lead-up to and during the championships. It looks at structured data such as results, but also unstructured data, including the buzz is in the media. It then applies an AI algorithm which comes up with a ranking for players.

“The Power Index was designed to help fans work out who to follow, and there has been good engagement with that,” said Willis. “Then, once fans have taken an interest in a player, we wanted to educate them on what to look out for in a match.” Another tool, Match Insights, presents fans with facts and allows them to challenge Watson and other users in making match predictions based on the detailed stats they receive.

There has been success in building audiences through digital platforms like these, according to Willis. “We have seen steady growth of digital platforms,” she said. “When I started here about 10 years ago, we were getting an audience of about 11 million unique devices. In 2016, we had a record of 21 million unique devices connect, when Andy Murray won. We are on course for a very successful tournament this year.”

“Beyond scale, it is about demographics and location. We are proud to be a global brand and our audience reflects that,” she added. “In terms of a younger audience, we are developing things using AI to help young people better understand tennis, so when they stumble upon it they are fans for life.”

Wimbledon is part of IBM’s global sports portfolio, which includes the Masters golf and the US Open tennis. It has teams that work all year around from the UK and Atlanta, US.

Thu, 07 Jul 2022 09:37:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.computerweekly.com/news/252522454/IBM-still-breaking-new-ground-at-Wimbledon
Killexams : Buckle up for Black Hat 2022: Sessions your security team should not miss

buckle-up-black-hat-2022-talks

Black Hat is set to return next week with two years of pent up cybersecurity research and discoveries. Here are the talks you don’t want to miss. 

Just because cybersecurity’s biggest conferences halted their productions these past two years, cybersecurity itself did not take a backseat. Continued advancements in the industry, plus non-stop cybercriminal activity have left the community with much to discuss as we reflect on the events that have unfolded since the start of the pandemic (think SolarWinds, Colonial Pipeline, and Log4j … just to name a few). 

After two years of cancellations and a halting return, Black Hat USA 2022 is set to return to Las Vegas next week in something close to its former glory. And with two years of pent up cybersecurity research and discoveries, there’s lots to look forward to. 

To help you plan your itinerary, we’ve compiled the Black Hat sessions we’re eager to attend, broken down by category.  

Keynotes

Chris Krebs: Black Hat at 25: Where Do We Go From Here?

Thursday at 9:00am

Since being unceremoniously sacked by then-President Trump for confirming that the 2020 presidential election was free of hacking incidents or tampering, Chris Krebs has been on the front lines helping private sector firms address their cyber risks, as a Founding Partner of Krebs Stamos Group (with former Facebook CISO Alex Stamos).

Krebs’ unique perspective as the Federal Government’s former top expert on cybersecurity and a highly valued private sector consultant makes his Black Hat keynote this year a “must see” event. In this talk, Krebs will reflect on where the InfoSec community stands today after convening in the desert for 25 years. His thoughts on where we stand? Not good. Krebs will outline how the industry needs to both shift its mindset and actions in order to take on the next 25 years of InfoSec. 

Kim Zetter: Pre-Stuxnet, Post-Stuxnet: everything Has Changed, Nothing Has Changed

Thursday at 9:00am

In the “deep perspective” category, Thursday’s keynote by award winning investigative cybersecurity journalist Kim Zetter is another “must see” event at Black Hat. Zetter has covered cybersecurity and national security since 1999, writing for WIRED, Politico, PC World and other publications. She is the author of Countdown to Zero Day, the definitive account of the creation of the Stuxnet malware, which was deployed against Iran. 

Zetter’s talk will focus on cyberattacks on critical infrastructure (CI) dating back to Stuxnet in 2010. Despite all of the changes in cybersecurity since Stuxnet was discovered, Zetter argues that nothing has really changed: continuous attacks on CI come as a surprise when the community should have seen these attacks coming. In this talk, Zetter will argue that attacks like Colonial Pipeline were foreseeable, and that the future’s attacks will be no different. 

Cyberwar

With a kinetic war ravaging cities and towns in Ukraine, the specter of cyberwar has taken a back seat. But behind the scenes, offensive cyber operations have played a pivotal role in Russia’s war on Ukraine, since long before Russian troops rolled across the border this past February. This year’s Black Hat has a number of interesting talks delving into the cyber aspects of the Ukraine conflict. They include: 

Industroyer2: Sandworms Cyberwarfare Targets Ukraine’s Power Grid Again

Wednesday at 10:20am

ESET’s Robert Lipovsky and Anton Cherepanov take us on a tour of the multiple forms of cyberwarfare that have taken place throughout Russia’s military operations against Ukraine, dating back to 2016 with the launch of the original Industroyer malware. Recently, a new version of the malware was discovered, known as Industroyer2, with the same goal of triggering electricity blackouts. In this talk, the ESET researchers will deliver a technical overview of this new malware, as well as the several other wiper malwares they discovered impacting Ukraine this past year.

Real ‘Cyber War’: Espionage, DDoS, Leaks, and Wipers in the Russian Invasion of Ukraine

Wednesday at 3:20pm

Experts have been in agreement that cyber is a new threat of operation in military conflicts, but have disagreed on what form an actual cyberwar might take. Russia’s war on Ukraine is putting much of that debate to rest. In this talk, SentinelOne’s Juan Andres Guerrero-Saade and Tom Hegel will deliver an overview of what cyberwarfare really is, versus what society’s collective assumptions are about the role of cyber in modern warfare.

They will specifically discuss the strains of wiper malware that have impacted Ukraine in 2022, considering that nation-state wiper malware prior to Russia’s war on Ukraine was rare. This discussion of various strains of wiper malware will help to show what we can realistically expect from cyberwarfare in the modern era. 

Securing open source and the software supply chain

The security of software supply chains and development organizations is another dominant theme at this year’s Black Hat Briefings, with a slew of talks addressing various aspects of supply chain risk and attacks (check out our analysis of the supply chain thread at Black Hat here). If you’re interested in learning more about how malicious actors may target your organization by exploiting weaknesses in your software supply chain, here are some talks to consider: 

Don’t get owned by your dependencies: how FireFox uses in-process sandboxing to protect itself from exploitable libraries (and you can too!)

Thursday at 2:30pm

PhD Student Shravan Narayan and Research Scientist Tal Garfinkel of UC San Diego’s Black Hat talk will focus on the threat of memory safety vulnerabilities in third party C libraries, which are a major source of zero-day attacks in today’s applications. Their research team has been using Firefox to test sandbox capabilities that could mitigate this threat, which led them to create RLBox: an open source language level framework. Their presentation will discuss how they came up with this tool, and how it can be applied to other applications.  

Scaling the security researcher to eliminate OSS vulnerabilities once and for all

Thursday at 3:20pm

Moderne Inc.’s Patrick Way, plus HUMAN Security’s Jonathan Leitschuh and Shyam Mehta will present their talk on how to manage open source software (OSS) in a way that best leverages researchers’ time, knowledge, and resources. The solution they propose is bulk pull request generation, which they will demonstrate on several real-world OSS projects during their presentation. Their goal is to fix vulnerabilities on a large, reasonable scale. 

Controlling the source: abusing source code management systems

Thursday at 3:20pm

Brett Hawkins, a Red Team Operator a part of IBM X-Force Red’s Adversary Simulation will discuss an overlooked, widely-used system that threat actors can exploit to carry out software supply chain attacks: Source Code Management (SCM) systems. His presentation will demonstrate how popular SCM systems can be easily exploited by attackers. Brett will also share an open source tool and defensive guidance that can be used to mitigate this threat. 

Threat hunting

It wouldn’t be Black Hat without discussions of vulnerabilities, threats, attacks and cyber defense. And this year’s show doesn’t disappoint. One clear theme in the schedule of talks is the growing prominence of “right of boom” tools and approaches in the cybersecurity community. A number of talks delve into new approaches to Strengthen the quality of incident response and threat hunting. They include:  

The Open Threat Hunting Framework: Enabling Organizations to Build, Operationalize, and Scale Threat Hunting

Wednesday at 2:30pm

The definition of threat hunting, and the practical application of it, varies across industries and technologies, making it difficult to start a threat hunting program from scratch that works best for your organization. But, too often, threat hunting floats above the security “poverty line” — inaccessible to organizations without sizable information security budgets and teams.

In this presentation, John Dwyer, Neil Wyler, and Sameer Koranne of IBM Security X-Force will share a new, free threat hunting framework. The team’s hope is that this framework will help to detect incidents that can be prevented by a reliable threat hunting program. 

No One Is Entitled to Their Own Facts, Except in Cybersecurity? Presenting an Investigation Handbook To Develop a Shared Narrative of Major Cyber Incidents

Wednesday at 3:20pm

Do the stories we tell ourselves (and others) about cyber incidents affect our ability to respond to them? Of course they do! In fact, developing a shared understanding of cyber incidents is critical to making sure they don’t happen again. Fortunately, we can look to other industries for the best way to do this.

In this talk, Victoria Ontiveros, a Researcher at Harvard Kennedy School talks about the findings of a report by Harvard’s Belfer Center that looks at how the aviation industry draws lessons from aviation incidents, and applies these lessons to cybersecurity incidents. This allowed her team and Tarah Wheeler, CEO of Red Queen Dynamics, Inc to create the Major Cyber Incident Investigations Playbook. In this talk, Ontiveros and Wheeler will be presenting this playbook, which is meant to make cyber incident investigations more actionable among the industry. 

A New Trend for the Blue Team — Using a Practical Symbolic Engine to Detect Evasive Forms of Malware/Ransomware

Wednesday at 4:20pm

Blue Teams have it rough. Constrained by time, staffing and budget, they need to choose carefully when deciding which threats to investigate and how best to direct their reverse engineering talent against suspected malware or ransomware binaries, while also navigating efforts by malicious actors to misdirect or even attack them.

In this talk, TXOne Networks Inc.’s Sheng-Hao Ma, Mars Cheng, and Hank Chen will highlight the efforts of actual Blue Teams and share a new tool for the Blue Team known as the Practical Symbolic Engine, which they argue offers the best threat hunting techniques in a fully static situation. 

Come say hello to ReversingLabs at the show

The ReversingLabs team will be at Black Hat 2022. Stop at booth 2460 to chat with us. Our team will be giving out demos, presentations, plus limited-edition schwag. See you there!

Keep learning

*** This is a Security Bloggers Network syndicated blog from ReversingLabs Blog authored by Carolynn van Arsdale. Read the original post at: https://blog.reversinglabs.com/blog/buckle-up-for-black-hat-2022-here-are-the-sessions-your-security-team-should-not-miss

Thu, 04 Aug 2022 02:38:00 -0500 by Carolynn van Arsdale on August 4, 2022 en-US text/html https://securityboulevard.com/2022/08/buckle-up-for-black-hat-2022-sessions-your-security-team-should-not-miss/ Killexams : Cloud Data Security Software Market Size, Share, Service Technology, Future Trends and Forecast 2028

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2. Impact on Cloud Data Security Software Market Industry
3. Cloud Data Security Software Market Competition
4. Cloud Data Security Software Market Production, Revenue by Region
5. Cloud Data Security Software Market Supply, Consumption, Export and Import by Region
6. Cloud Data Security Software Market Production, Revenue, Price Trend by Type
7. Cloud Data Security Software Market Analysis by Application
8. Cloud Data Security Software Market Manufacturing Cost Analysis
9. Internal Chain, Sourcing Strategy and Downstream Buyers
10. Marketing Strategy Analysis, Distributors/Traders
11. Market Effect Factors Analysis
12. Cloud Data Security Software Market Forecast (2022-2028)
13. Appendix

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Fri, 22 Jul 2022 00:40:00 -0500 Newsmantraa en-US text/html https://www.digitaljournal.com/pr/cloud-data-security-software-market-size-share-service-technology-future-trends-and-forecast-2028
Killexams : GovCloud: The Future of Government Work

WRITTEN BY: Charlie Tierney, Steve Cottle & Katie Jorgensen

Wind back the clock to 1971. Jane, a freshly minted college graduate, joins the government as a clerk. Jane’s work consists largely of entering information into databases and creating reports, which requires her to spend the better part of her work day seated at a terminal near a mainframe computer that fills an entire room. Jane and her colleagues are expected to be at their desks from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m., five days a week. Jane is grateful to have a steady 9-to-5 job, and plans to spend her entire career with her agency.

Flash forward 40 years and meet Jane’s grandson, Ian. He carries a slim tablet wherever he goes, which has more computing power than the mainframe with which Jane worked. Ian is constantly tethered to the Internet and works 24/7, from wherever he is. Ian expects to switch from project to project and office to office as his career develops and his interests evolve. If he feels he has reached the limit of his ability to learn or grow in one role, he will look elsewhere for a new opportunity. What if the government could deliver Ian the opportunities and experiences he seeks?

The GovCloud concept proposed in this paper would restructure government workforces in a way that takes advantage of the talents and preferences of workers like Ian, who are entering the workforce today. The model is based on a large body of research, from interviews with public and private sector experts to best practices from innovative organizations both public and private.

“This is the first generation of people that work, play, think, and learn differently than their parents… They are the first generation to not be afraid of technology. It’s like the air to them.”

— Don Tapscott, author of Grown Up Digital

This report details trends in work and technology that offer significant opportunities for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of the government workforce. It lays out the GovCloud model, explaining how governments could be organized to take advantage of its flexibility. It examines how work would be performed in the new model and discusses potential changes to government HR programs to support GovCloud. Other sections provide resources for executives, including a tool to help determine cloud eligibility, steps they can take to pilot the cloud concept, and future scenarios illustrating the cloud in action.

The GovCloud model represents a dramatic departure from the status quo. It is bound to be greeted with some skepticism. Without such innovation, however, governments will be left to confront the challenges of tomorrow with the workforce structure of yesterday. The details of the GovCloud model are open for debate. The purpose of this paper is to jumpstart that debate.

HOW WE WORK TODAY—AND TOMORROW

Forty years ago, more than half of employed American adults worked in either blue-collar or clerical jobs. Today, less than 40 percent work in these same categories, and the share continues to shrink.1 Jobs requiring routine or manual tasks are disappearing, while those requiring complex communication skills and expert thinking are becoming the norm.2 Increasingly, employers seek workers capable of creative and knowledge-based work.

“We should ask ourselves whether we’re truly satisfied with the status quo. Are our workday lives so fulfilling, and our organizations so boundlessly capable, that it’s now pointless to long for something better?”

— Gary Hamel, author of The Future of Management

The next generation of creative knowledge workers has already entered the job market. These “Millennials” came of age in a rapidly and radically changing world. They are the first true digital “natives.” They have grown up with instant access to information through technology. As such, Millennials have considerably different expectations for the kind of work they do and the information they use. The pursuit for variety in work has led Millennials to cite simply “needing a change” as their top reason for switching jobs.3

Advances in technology have also  changed the actual ways in which people perform work. The ability to crowdsource tasks is one example of this change. Since its founding in 2001, volunteers have produced and contributed to over 19 million articles in 281 languages on Wikipedia.4 Built around this concept, a burgeoning industry is developing around “microtasking,” dividing work up into small tasks that can be farmed out to workers. Amazon’s Mechanical Turk, rolled out in 2005, allows users to post tasks to a platform where registered workers can accept and complete them for a small fee. When this paper was written, more than 195,000 tasks were available on Mechanical Turk.5

Such technologies may offer suitable possibilities for the public sector. Microtask, a Finnish cloud labor company, maintains Digitalkoot, a program that helps the Finnish National Library convert its image archives into digital text and correct existing errors. It does so with volunteered labor; participants simply play a game in which they are shown the image of a word and then must type it out to help a cartoon character cross a bridge. In doing so, they are turning scanned images into searchable text, greatly improving the search accuracy of old manuscripts.6 At present, more than 100,000 people have completed over 6 million microtasks associated with this project.7

As the pace of computing power and machine learning increases, professors Frank Levy and Richard Murnane contend that more tasks will move from human to computer processing.8 Skeptics need look no further than IBM’s Watson, a computer that can answer questions posed in natural language. In February 2011, Watson defeated two all-time champions of the quiz show Jeopardy! This was not solely a publicity stunt; IBM hopes to sell Watson to hospitals and call centers to help them answer questions from the public.9

Around the globe, more and more governments are looking to increase telework among employees. In 2010, the U.S. government passed legislation calling for more telework opportunities for government employees. Likewise, the Australian government, in order to attract and retain information and communications technology workers, instituted a teleworking policy in 2009 requiring agencies to implement flexible work plans.10 Other countries, including Norway and Germany, are also focusing on flexible work arrangements to Strengthen public sector recruiting.11 In Canada, the government has an official telework policy that recognizes “changes are occurring in the public service workforce with a shift towards more knowledge workers,” and “encourages departments to implement telework arrangements.”12

Cloud definitions

Cloud computing: “Internet-based computing, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices on-demand, like electricity.”

— Amazon

Crowdsourcing: “Neologistic compound of crowd and outsourcing for the act of taking tasks traditionally performed by an employee or contractor, and outsourcing them to a group of people or community, through an “open call” to a large group of people (a crowd) asking for contributions.”

— Wikipedia

GovCloud: “A new model for government based on team collaboration, whereby workforce resources can be surged to provide services to government agencies on-demand.”

— GovLab

Source: Frank Levy and Richard J. Murnane, The New Division of Labor: How Computers are Creating the Next Job Market, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004), p. 50.

Figure 1: Trends in routine and non-routine tasks in the U.S. 1960-200213


These are all powerful steps in the right direction for employees whose natural work rhythms are not locked into “9 to 5.” Some companies have taken telework one step further. British Telecom is pushing the concept of “agile working” through its Workstyle Project, where employees decide what work arrangements best suit them—rather than a rigid definition by location and hours. BT Workstyle is one of the largest flexible working projects in Europe, with over 11,000 home-based workers. BT has found that its “home-enabled” employees are, on average, 20 percent more productive than their office-based colleagues.14

Similarly, U.S. electronics retailer Best Buy experimented with a “Results Only Work Environment” (ROWE). In a ROWE, what matters is not whether employees are in their office, but rather that they complete their work and achieve measurable outcomes. In a ROWE, salaried employees must put in as much time as is actually needed to do their work—no more, no less.

The decline in routine and manual tasks and the rise of new ways of working is not isolated to the private sector. In 1950, the U.S. federal workforce largely comprised clerks performing repetitive tasks. About 62 percent performed these tasks, while only 11 percent performed more “white-collar” work. By 2000, those relationships were reversed. Fifteen percent performed repetitive tasks, compared to 56 percent in the white-collar categories.16 Similarly, in 1944, the number of workers in the UK civil service considered “industrial” totaled 505,000. By 2003, this number fell to 18,200, with “non-industrial” workers reaching 538,000 in 2004.17 And in Canada, in 2006, knowledge-based workers represented 58 percent of federal workers in the Core Public Administration, up from 41 percent 11 years earlier.18

The swelling ranks of “non-industrial” government workers indicate a shift in public sector jobs toward creative, collaborative, and complex work. The workforce structure, however, designed for clerks of the last century, remains largely the same. With limited flexibility to distribute resources, governments often address change by creating new agencies and programs. This can be seen following major events like the outbreaks of the Avian flu and SARs in the past decade, 9/11, and the financial crisis of 2008.

Source: United States Office of Personnel Management, A Fresh Start for Federal Pay: A Case for Modernization (April 2002), p. 5. http://www.opm.gov/strategiccomp/whtpaper.pdf

Figure 2: The changing U.S. federal workforce 1950–200015


Given increasing budgetary pressures and burgeoning national debts, the conventional model of creating new agencies or permanent structures in response to new challenges is unsustainable. This is exacerbated by our inability to accurately predict future needs and trends. Consider a 1968 Business Week article proclaiming that “the Japanese auto industry isn’t likely to carve out a big share of the market for itself,” or the president of Digital Equipment Corporation, who in 1977 said, “[t]here is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home.”19

The world is full of experts who attempt to predict the future—and fail.20

Instead of endeavoring to predict the future, governments can choose to create a flexible workforce that can quickly adapt to future work requirements. To accomplish this, the  government can learn from a game-changing concept in the technology world: cloud computing.

Major organizations and small startups alike increase their flexibility by sharing storage space, information, and resources in a “cloud,” allowing them to quickly scale resources up and down as needed. Why not apply the cloud model to people? The creation of a government-wide human cloud could provide significant benefits, including:

  • The ability to apply resources when and where they are needed
  • Increased knowledge flow across agencies and a new focus on broad, government-wide missions
  • A reduction in the number of permanent programs
  • Fewer structures that stifle creativity and interfere with the adoption of new technologies and innovations

A cloud-based government workforce or “GovCloud” could include workers who perform a range of creative, problem-focused work. Rather than being slotted into any single government agency, cloud workers would be true government-wide employees.

BREAKING UP BUREAUCRACIES

This section outlines the organizational structure of the GovCloud model, which rests on three main pillars: a cloud of government workers, thin executive agencies, and shared services.

The cloud

Most government workforce models tend to constrain workers by isolating them in separate agencies.

Consider the 2001 outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in the United Kingdom and the subsequent slaughter of more than 6 million pigs, sheep, and cattle. The problem of an impacted food supply is complicated. In most countries, multiple agencies focus on agriculture, food production, and public health. In the United Kingdom, the army and even tourism ministries were impacted by the outbreak as agencies became overwhelmed by the number of animals in need of disposal and by the cordoning off of tourist areas to prevent the spread of the disease.Yet the structure of government agencies often confines employees to work in information silos, creating inherent operational inefficiencies. In a cloud workforce model, experts in each area could be pulled together to support remedies and propose coordinated corrective measures.

“I want someone saying: ‘Did you know that the Ministry of Justice is doing that, or could you piggy-back on what the communities department is doing, or had you thought about doing it in this way?’ You’ve got to get away from thinking about centralized command and control.”  

— Dame Helen Ghosh, Permanent Secretary, UK Home Office 21

The FedCloud model


The GovCloud model could become a new pillar of government, comprising permanent employees who undertake a wide variety of creative, problem-focused work. As needed, the GovCloud model could also take advantage of those outside government, including citizens looking for extra part-time work, full-time contractors, and individual consultants.

Cloud workers would vary in background and expertise but would exhibit traits of “free-agent” workers—self-sufficient, self-motivated employees who exhibit a strong loyalty to teams, colleagues, and clients. Daniel Pink, author of Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us, argues that 33 million Americans—one-quarter of the workforce— already operate as free agents.22

According to the white paper, “Lessons of the Great Recession,” from Swiss staffing company Adecco, contingent workers—those who chose non-traditional employment arrangements23—are expected to eventually make up about 25 percent of the global workforce.24These more autonomous workers, according to Pink, are better suited to 21st-century work, and are more productive—even without traditional monetary incentives.25

Benefits of the cloud

The fluid nature of the cloud can provide significant benefits:

  • Knowledge exchange: Avoids “trapping” knowledge within any single agency. The fluidity of the cloud allows for the quick connection of knowledge with the people who need it.
  • Adaptability: Allows the government to concentrate resources where needed. The cloud would make federal work more adaptable and focused on cross-cutting outcomes.
  • Collaboration: Encourages collaboration, whether in person or virtually, through the expanded use of video conferencing, collaborative tools, and electronic communication.
  • Focus resources: Teams can be formed quickly and dissolved when their work is concluded, reducing the likelihood of government structures continuing to operate after they are no longer needed.26

The nature of the cloud—teams forming and dissolving as their tasks require—encourages workers to focus on specific project outcomes rather than ongoing operations.

Benefits of thin agencies

Thin agency structures could lead to:

  • Simplified mission accountability and responsibility
  • A greater focus on mission outcomes rather than on back-office management

Benefits of shared services

Greater use of shared services could allow the federal government to:

  • Reduce redundant back-office structures
  • Consolidate real estate obligations and data centers
  • Create a government-wide support structure capable of supporting the GovCloud

The need to support some ongoing missions will remain, of course. These missions will be carried out by thin agencies.

Under the cloud concept, federal agencies would remain focused on specific missions and ongoing oversight. These agencies, however, would become “thinner” as many of their knowledge workers transfer into the cloud. Thin agencies could also create opportunities to streamline organizations with overlapping missions.

Employees working in thin agencies could fall into two main categories:

  • Mission specialists: These are subject matter experts who possess knowledge central to the mission of the agency or tied to one geographic location. Examples include agency executives, policy experts, and others with knowledge that is closely aligned with the mission of a specific agency (e.g., foresters, tax code specialists). Mission certified also could enter the cloud, based on the specific needs of other agencies.
  • Frontline workers: These are employees who represent the “face” of government to citizens—law enforcement officers, investigators, regulators, entitlement providers, etc.—and who interact with citizens on a regular basis. As the nature of frontline work typically does not lend itself to the cloud, these employees would still align with individual agencies.

GovCloud could change the highest levels of public sector workers as we know them today. The Senior Executive Service in the United States, Permanent Secretaries and Directors General in the United Kingdom and Australia—all such senior officials could rotate between agencies, shared services, and the cloud, which would reflect the original intent behind many of these high-level offices: giving executives a breadth of experience in roles across government to help develop shared values and a broad perspective. An important benefit of rotation would be the ability to tap into cloud networks to assemble high-performing teams.

To further focus agencies on specific missions, many of their back-office support functions could be pulled into government-wide shared service arrangements.

The use of shared services in government has come and gone in waves—usually dictated by fiscal necessity. Most countries in Europe, as part of their e-government strategies, have placed increased focus of late on developing shared services, whether through an executive agency or a CIO, as well as working with EU coordination activities. And while the decentralized governments of some EU countries—such as Germany—make shared services more difficult, these countries are using states and agencies to pilot innovative approaches.27

Other efforts around the world include the U.S e-Government Act of 2002, which examined how technology could be used to cut costs and Strengthen services. More recently, the New Zealand government appointed an advisory group in May 2011 to explore public sector reform to Strengthen services and provide better value. In their report, “Better Public Services,” the advisory group recommended the use of shared services to Strengthen effectiveness in a variety of government settings, including policy advice and real estate.29 Following up on this, three New Zealand agencies—the Department of the Prime Minister, the State Services Commission, and the Treasury—announced in December 2011 that they would share such corporate functions as human resources and information technology.30 And though shared services in Western Australia were shut down, other projects in South Australia are moving ahead and already showing savings.31

Shared Services Canada

In August 2011, the government of Canada announced the launch of Shared Services Canada, a program that seeks to streamline and identify savings in information technology. Among its first targets is something as mundane as email. But with more than 100 different email systems being used by government employees, the potential savings and boost to efficiency could be significant. Not only do these incompatible systems cost money by requiring individual departments to negotiate and maintain separate licenses and technical support, it also makes it difficult for government employees to communicate with one another and with the public. And with no single standard, ensuring the security of information transmitted over email becomes more challenging. Shared Services Canada will move the government to one email system as well as consolidate data centers and networks—ultimately looking for anticipated savings of between CA$100 million and CA$200 million annually.28

While the idea of using shared services is not a novel one, it is central to the GovCloud model. The GovCloud model envisions building upon effective practices and those shared services already in operation to deliver services like human resources, information technology, finance, and acquisitions government-wide. Workers in these shared services would include subject matter experts in areas like human resources and information technology, as well as generalists, who support routine business functions.

The potential for shared services continues to grow. As seen with IBM’s Watson and Microtask’s Digitalkoot, new technologies provide an opportunity to accelerate the automated delivery of basic services. Some agencies already have begun capitalizing on these trends. For example, NASA has moved its shared service center website to a secure government cloud, facilitating greater employee self-service and helping to reduce demand on finite call center resources.32

WHO BELONGS IN THE CLOUD?

This decision tool is designed to help leaders determine which employees are appropriate for each of the three structures in the GovCloud model—the cloud, thin agencies, and shared services.

To the cloud…


GovCloud Project Lifecycle


REINVENTING HR

Managing employees in the cloud will require governments to reinvent human resource management. Individual and team performance evaluations, career development, pay structures, and benefits and pensions would need to change to support GovCloud. This section examines possibilities for HR reinvention, including performance management, career development, workplace flexibility, and benefits.

Performance and career management

Employees working in the cloud would require an alternative to determine pay and career advancement. The government could take its cues from the gaming world and evaluate cloud workers with a point system.

“The manager as we know it will disappear— to be replaced by a new sort of business operative whose expertise is assembling the right people for particular projects.”

—Daniel Pink, author of Free-Agent Nation 33

An HR management system that incorporates the accumulation of experience points (XP) through effective work on cloud projects, training, education, and professional certifications could replace the tenure-centric models for cloud employees.

Why experience points (XP)?

  • Rewards team players: Creates incentives not only to perform well as an individual but also to be a valuable collaborative team member and to continue one’s personal development
  • Manages performance: Allows governments to shift focus from time in grade to a more holistic performance management scheme
  • Fits work style: Capitalizes on the work style of Millennials, who value performance over tenure
  • Creates right incentives: Takes advantage of “gamification” concepts to incentivize desired behaviors
  • Lets workers own their careers: Allows workers to take personal ownership over the management of their careers, including their professional development and work-life integration

As employees accumulate XP, they could “level up” and take on additional responsibilities in future projects. Workers in the cloud could earn XP in four ways:

  • Education and training: Employees earn XP based on advanced degrees, continuing education courses, and professional certification.
  • Social capital: Employees could earn XP with high social capital scores based on their participation in GovCloud collaboration and networking.
  • Leadership: taking on additional leadership responsibilities in cloud teams could raise individual XP scores.
  • Projects: Projects in the cloud could be worth a certain number of XP, based on their scope and complexity and team performance. Project managers could award additional XP based on employee level, individual performance, and peer evaluation.

Breaking down silos: DEFRA

After some high-profile incidents—slow responses to outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease, flooding that may have been preventable, and a farming subsidy system that seemed to result in more chaos than aid—the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) was looking to reinvent itself. In 2006, the department launched DEFRA Renew. One of its key goals was to bring the department’s policymaking closer to actual delivery to create more responsive processes.

Organized, mainly by policy, with fixed teams, DEFRA had been unable to redeploy resources as needed in response to a crisis. As part of DEFRA Renew, a new operating model was implemented that used flexible resourcing where staff were assigned to specific projects for fixed periods. This allowed management to measure and build the required capabilities and competencies needed and to allocate resources efficiently to Strengthen overall service quality. New roles were also created to support sustainable staff development and resource management in the new model.

To create buy-in for such a fundamental culture shift within the department, a facilitative approach to decision-making was employed. Change management programs and mentoring were extended to all levels of the department, including leadership. New mechanisms—such as approval panels for resources and the use of business cases—also worked to push changes among staff and promote collaborative behavior.

DEFRA Renew was widely recognized as a key enabler in the department meeting required efficiency improvement targets set by the UK government. DEFRA moved to a more project-based approach, with fewer staff in core teams. According to Dame Helen Ghosh, former Permanent Secretary of DEFRA, they could be more responsive now that “the management board won’t be made up of director generals with individual policy silos.”34

Just as XP could be gained through learning new skills, it could be lost in the following three ways:

  • Failure to apply skills: Workers could earn XP for training, but lose these points if they do not use the resulting skills on projects.
  • Down time: One would expect some cloud employees to be between projects at any given time, and indeed this provides the capacity to surge when demands require. That said, employees who spend too much time away from project work could lose XP.
  • Poor project performance: Employees who receive less-than-satisfactory ratings on individual performance reviews, peer evaluations, or team performance could lose XP.

Salary and benefits

Any serious discussion about creating a new class of government employees requires a fresh look at employee benefits and compensation. For example, XP could be used to help determine workers’ salaries, but additional research into alternative pension and benefit programs is needed. While any discussion on compensation could be contentious, a healthy debate among stakeholders from across the government should be welcomed.

Career paths

As new roles emerge in the cloud, so too could new career paths. Career emphasis could move away from time served in a particular pay grade and toward milestones that are meaningful for employee development.

Each worker may have different career aspirations. For instance, not all workers aspire to management; some may seek to master a particular subject area instead. Career advancement in the cloud would not equate to moving up a ladder, but rather moving along a lattice.

Lattice GovCloud Model


Here’s how the lattice could work for Ian, who we met in the introduction.

  • The early years: A few years after being hired into the human resources shared service straight out of school, Ian has been exposed to a wide variety of agencies. Through these interactions, he realizes he has become passionate about the field of social work.
  • Seeking a change: Ian decides to leave federal service and pursue a master’s degree in social work, and then take a job at his state’s social services agency. After a few years, Ian accepts a position as director of a mid-sized non-profit.
  • Returning to GovCloud: After years of running the non-profit, Ian begins thinking about government service again. He decides to join GovCloud by working just a few hours a week. After working part-time on projects that require social work experience, Ian decides to return full-time. To more effectively manage social programs, Ian seeks out all the performance measurement training he can find.
  • Finding a niche: Ian becomes well versed in performance measurement, first for social programs, but he quickly learns how to apply those concepts elsewhere. When his social work experience isn’t needed, he can also lend performance measurement knowledge from the cloud.
  • Winding down: As he nears retirement, Ian wants to help train the next generation of social workers by teaching one course per semester at a local university. However, he is able to remain connected to GovCloud and spend one or two days a week working with social programs and measuring the performance of other projects.

“Think of the lattice as a jungle gym. The best opportunities to broaden your experience may be lateral or even down. Look every which way and swing to opportunities.”

— Pattie Sellers, Fortune editor at large

Cathleen Benko and Molly Anderson, the authors of The Corporate Lattice, argue that the corporate ladder is giving way to a lattice that accommodates flatter, more networked organizations; improves the integration of career and life; focuses on competencies rather than tenure; and helps increase workforce loyalty.35 The lattice metaphor allows employees to choose many ways to “get ahead.”

Learning

It is unlikely that all workers will thrive in the new GovCloud environment right out of the gate. As such, it would be important to assess a worker’s readiness before placing her in GovCloud and providing training on core competencies critical to cloud success. There could also be opportunities to start workers, especially those at earlier stages of a career, within an agency or shared service to build up expertise in some area before “graduating to the cloud.” Once in the cloud, new workers could be paired with mentors, who are more experienced, to help navigate the cloud experience itself.

There should be an emphasis on continuous learning in the cloud. It would be important for cloud workers to continue to refine their skills, develop additional expertise, and adapt to new ways of working. Not only could continuous learning affect workers’ career mobility by increasing the depth and breadth of their skills, but it could also impact their salary and level by increasing their XP.

Learning and development in the cloud could take on many themes of “next learning.” Next learning focuses on creating personalized learning experiences that leverage the latest technologies and collaborative communities to deliver education and learning programs that build knowledge bases and promote learning as a focus and passion, not just a checkbox in a career.36

To broaden cloud worker skills and the ability to handle multiple tasks and work on a variety of projects, cloud learning could include the following principles:37

  • Video: The use of video learning could bring an in-person feel to trainings for cloud workers. Further, it could allow for more meaningful mentor relationships, even over long distances. This is an important component of a highly virtual workplace.
  • Social and collaborative learning: Use the wisdom of the cloud (and beyond) to create a collaborative learning environment.
  • Learning projects: In an environment where cloud workers are completing microtasks or participating in projects, design training to reflect this, helping to hone collaboration and other skills that will be important in the cloud.
  • Learning and leading in a distributed workplace: Workers who ascend to positions of leadership will need more than the traditional essentials of leadership to get them there. They will need to learn how to motivate and manage employees in a distributed environment, which requires an emphasis on communication, accountability, trust, and performance.
  • Building knowledge bases and connectivity for learning:Elective knowledge management will be critical in the Gov Cloud environment. This is just as important for training as for project information. Make knowledge gained in one area available elsewhere by tagging and promoting content for others to see. This can complement social learning by allowing users to bookmark or promote effective learning channels.

Workplace flexibility

In the cloud, careers and expertise will be built in new ways and work will be something we do, rather than a place we go to. As such, the cloud will deliver workers more control over their schedules and workloads. By creating a flexible workplace, governments could shed a significant amount of physical infrastructure and create shared workspaces. Many buildings could be converted into co-located spaces; teams could use collaboration spaces or videoconferencing centers.

Some workers might rarely set foot in a government building, instead conducting cloud tasks at home and interacting with project teams virtually. With advancing communications and mobile technology, distance no longer hinders collaboration. It no longer matters whether all workers are at an office between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m.; what matters is whether project teams produce results and whether everyone contributes.

A more flexible workplace could also take advantage of resources governments might not otherwise have access to. Some retiring workers may not want to quit working altogether, and a flexible model could be an enticing way to keep their expertise on retainer. Alternatively, the model could take advantage of would-be government employees unwilling to relocate or unable to work a regular schedule. By increasing flexibility, governments could increase their available resource pool, allowing agencies to access the skills and knowledge they need, when they need it. For an example of how a retiree could interact with the cloud, see Appendix C: National Security Case Study.

U.S. State Department pilots the cloud

Don’t think governments will ever take to the cloud? At the U.S. Department of State, the idea could soon be a reality. The Office of eDiplomacy is preparing to pilot a cloud component to its e-internship model for American students as part of the Virtual Student Foreign Service (VSFS), beginning this year. The VSFS currently offers e-internships to U.S. university students of multiple month duration. By using a new micro-volunteering platform, State Department offices and embassies around the world will be able to create non-classified tasks that take anywhere from a couple of minutes to a couple of days to complete. Each task will be tagged by region and/or issue and will automatically populate the profiles of students who have indicated those interests. Students can then select the tasks that interest them the most or that fit into their schedule.

To see that the most pressing work is performed first, offices and embassies will be able to prioritize their tasks, so critical items appear at the top of the queue. Imagine a small embassy preparing for a high-profile, multilateral meeting. The preparations for such an event could be daunting for a small staff. The power of the cloud could augment an individual embassy’s capacity to prepare for a major event and ensure that related items are performed ahead of those that are less critical.

While there are plenty of incentives for participating in the VSFS micro-volunteering platform—from an impressive line on a student’s resume to the chance to make a difference by working on syllabus of interest—thought is being put into how to creatively incent high performance. One idea is to simply invoke students’ competitive spirit. Competition could be encouraged by a monthly leader board, which results in bragging rights and, potentially, even a low-cost, but high-impact reward. Transparency is also key to competition: with ratings available to State Department staff and other cloud interns and the ability to make short thank you notes from embassies publicly available, interns would be hurry to make a good impression.

The potential applications of this type of program are significant. Imagine if offices throughout the State Department could tap into the language and cultural expertise of the thousands of foreign national staff members around the globe. Providing a platform for those employees to contribute even a small amount of time to discreet tasks that require their expertise could unlock a world of knowledge.38

TAKING THE FIRST STEPS

Creating the GovCloud model will require bold leadership and the ideas and initiatives of entrepreneurial executives. While a GovCloud model may be years in the making, agencies can begin adopting cloud concepts today.

  • Build collaboration spaces: Make interoffice collaboration easier. Create physical spaces in your office where employees can casually spend time sharing information across departments. Provide employees with several hours per week to devote to collaborative efforts with other areas of the agency that interest them.
  • Rotate your people: Embrace the Millennials’ aptitude for change. Create a rotational program that allows staff members to work across departments and specialties. As your organization realizes the value of a broader perspective, you can pursue rotation among agencies or even secondments (rotations between the nonprofit, private, and public sectors).
  • Start a volunteer cloud: Plant the seeds for the cloud by allowing workers to seek tasks beyond their current responsibilities. Start by providing a platform for managers to post issues or problems they need help in solving. Allow employees to help with projects or tasks that interest them. This will allow them to expand their networks, build new skills,   and chase their passions.
  • Pilot a GovCloud: Only experience will bring people to understand the power of the cloud. A few agencies could bring the cloud to life by moving resources to a pilot cloud workforce. This would allow them to document lessons learned and determine the viability of the cloud on a wider scale. Use the GovCloud decision tree to help determine who could thrive in the cloud.

One step toward the cloud: Secondments and temporary project teams

The Ontario Public Service (OPS) has significant experience with building as-needed project teams to support specific, high-priority projects using staff brought in from other departments for short-term secondments. What allows this to work is a flexible HR framework that supports and facilitates staff secondments as developmental opportunities. The HR framework contributes to a culture that recognizes and rewards the experience secondees gain in these high-profile work assignments. OPS employees are generally eager to participate in these projects and are typically rewarded throughout their careers for the skills they acquire.39

Implementing GovCloud

The GovCloud concept is designed to be versatile as well as applicable to a wide range of entities. Depending on your organization, government executives wishing to employ GovCloud may choose to apply the concept first to a unit, before expanding to other branches or divisions, entire agencies, or the whole of government.

Often, GovCloud principles are most effectively implemented as part of a larger reform program within a particular agency—as with the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs’ Renew program, as described earlier in this report. On a smaller scale, the UK Cabinet Office used flexible resourcing (FR) in its Economic Reform Group (ERG), with a staff of about 400, as part of its cost-reduction plans. Using a simple database that it had developed and a strong program of communications, FR is now used and embraced by all core ERG employees, with strong, clear ownership from the top—another key implementation factor. Says Ian Watmore, the UK Cabinet Office’s former permanent secretary, FR means “we are able to deploy people much more quickly to priority projects.”40

Figure 3 outlines how GovCloud can apply to a variety of organizations.

THE ROAD AHEAD

Most government workforces haven’t undergone a broad restructuring in decades. In that time, the world has been transformed by computers, the Internet, and mobile communications.

To respond to a variety of challenges, governments have created scores of new organizations. However, in today’s world of budget cuts and increased fiscal scrutiny, the constant creation of new, permanent structures is not sustainable.

The GovCloud model could offer a new way to use government resources. A cloud of government-wide workers could coalesce into project-based teams to solve problems and separate when their work is done. This could allow governments to concentrate resources when and where they are needed. By using this model in conjunction with thinner agencies and shared services, governments can reduce back-office redundancies and let agencies focus on their core missions.

This model capitalizes on the work preferences of Millennials—the future government workforce—who value career growth over job security or compensation.41 The GovCloud model allows employees to gain a variety of experiences in a shorter amount of time and to self-select their career direction.

To support GovCloud, governments could establish the processes by which cloud teams would form, work, and dissolve. New ways to evaluate performance and help workers gain skills and build careers should be considered. Today’s employee classification system stresses job descriptions and time in service; this could be transformed with an XP model that emphasizes the individual’s ownership of his or her career.

The GovCloud model will undoubtedly be controversial. Many stakeholders, from governing bodies to public employee unions, must weigh in to shape the future government workforce. The transition to a cloud model will not happen overnight or maybe even in the next five years, but the conversation starts today.

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

Charlie Tierney

Charlie Tierney is a Manager in Deloitte Consulting LLP’s Federal Human Capital Practice and a former GovLab Fellow. He has served clients in the intelligence community. He graduated from the University of Kansas with a BA in Chinese History and minor in Mandarin, and is currently pursuing his Masters in Business Administration at the University of Maryland’s Smith School of Business.

Steve Cottle

Steve Cottle was a GovLab Fellow and a Senior Consultant in Deloitte Consulting LLP’s Federal Strategy & Operations practice. There, he served multiple clients within the Department of Homeland Security. Steve graduated from Boston College with a BA in International Studies and German and received a Fulbright Grant to study international security in Germany. Steve is currently pursuing his Masters in Public Policy at the Georgetown Public Policy Institute.

Katie Jorgensen

Katie Jorgensen was a GovLab Fellow and Consultant in Deloitte Consulting LLP’s Federal Strategy & Operations practice. There, she served multiple clients in the Federal Railroad Administration and Transportation Security Administration. Katie received her BA in American Studies from Georgetown University. Katie is currently pursuing her Masters in Business Administration at Duke University’s Fuqua School of Business.

Originally published by Deloitte University Press on dupress.com. Copyright 2015 Deloitte Development LLC.

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Killexams : IDX Complete Review Tue, 12 Jul 2022 15:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.pcmag.com/reviews/idx-privacy Killexams : 2020, China’s Big Decade: Lessons for Nigeria, Africa

Samuel J. Samuel

Overview

Over the past few decades, China has experienced exponential growth over the past few, breaching the fences of a closed economy to evolve into a manufacturing and exporting hub of the world. Going by its huge manufacturing and export base, it is often referred to as the “world’s factory”. According to the Economic Complexity Index (ECI), China is the largest export economy in the world and the 33rd most complex economy. In 2019, in terms of GDP (PPP), the Chinese economy was measured at $25.27 trillion and it is expected to stay above 6% in 2020 (China Press). It is, therefore, based on the aforementioned that the below listed factors could suggest that 2020 might be a decade for China’s further global economic expansion.   

1) Tech Manufacturing: In October 2019, China’s manufacturing sector, which is the backbone of its economy, grew at an annual rate of 4.7%. High-tech manufacturing centres on technology. High-tech manufacturing creates the technologies that are indispensable to the nations. As innovation and new technology increasingly drives this industry more than others in the manufacturing sector, the Chinese government has set up a $21 billion state-backed fund to boost its manufacturing industry. The new fund will be invested in corporations working on various areas of technology, especially next-generation information technology and electrical equipment. These are part of the 10 priority sectors highlighted by “Made in China 2025”, a government-led industrial initiative designed to dominate high-tech industries, including robotics, aerospace and computer chips, amidst the US-China “trade war”. The Trump administration has frowned at China’s initiative, criticising Xi Jinping for using the plan to deliver its country’s tech companies undue advantage over foreign rivals.

Being the world’s largest importer and consumer of semiconductors, China has made its ambition known to dominate the global technology market such as artificial intelligence and 5G, which is expected to further build up demand for high-end chips. Currently, the country produces just 16% of the semiconductors, fuelling its tech boom. However it has plans to produce 40% of all semiconductors it uses by 2020, and 70% by 2025, an ambitious plan that is unconnected to the trade dispute with the US.

2) Scientific Research and Discovery: China’s new political leadership has placed science, technology and innovation at the frontrunner of the reform of its economic system (UNESCO Science Report). China has set itself the target of devoting 2.5% of GDP to research and development (R&D) by 2020. Over the past two decades, the Chinese government has been massively investing in science. In 2000 the number of Chinese graduates in science and engineering courses increased from 359,000 to 1.65 million in 2014.

In fact, a UNESCO report showed that nearly one in five of the world’s researchers resides in China. Between 2007 and 2013, the country saw a meteoric rise in research and development (R&D) and thereby overtook the U.S in terms of the number of researchers of any country in the world. The UNESCO Science Report asserted that China increased its global share of research spending by 42%, a development which contributes marginally to global research expenditure (19.6%), even above the global population (19.3%). China’s researcher density has scaled-up by 11%, near to the world average in 2013 (1 073) to 1 206 whole-time corresponding researchers per million inhabitants in 2016 (UNESCO Institute for Statistics).

At the beginning of the last decade in 2011, Chinese engineers and scientists have recorded some unprecedented feats. In December 2013, China’s Chang’e 3 became the first robotic landing on the Moon. Chang’e 3 is a robotic lunar exploration mission operated by the China National Space Administration, incorporating a robotic lander and China’s first lunar rover. In September 2014, China’s State Council disclosed an Energy Development Strategy Action Plan to 2020 that fixes some strict targets for the development of modern infrastructure. James C. C. Chan won the 2018 IEEE Transportation Technologies Award for his contributions to the advancement of electric vehicle technologies. Likewise, in 2017, the State Council of the People’s Republic of China honoured Pan Jianwei for his work on quantum optical technology. Equally, toward reaching sustainable global food safety, Chinese researchers have found a growth-regulating transcription factor GRF4 that has the opposite effect of a growth-inhibiting protein called DELLA in crops. GRF4 and DELLA existed in a balance that regulated plant growth and nitrogen metabolism.

In 2017, the Chinese government spent US$279 billion just on research and development, a development that showed 70% increase in comparison to its 2012 spending. In the same vein, in 2017, a report by the US National Science Foundation revealed that China had outshined the US in the number of science publications. Likewise, Nature Index rated China’s leading scientific institution, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, as the institution with the most research outputs for the same year, ahead of America’s Harvard University and Germany’s Max Planck Society.

3) Number of Registered Patents: Innovation remains a fundamental source of national and global power. A country’s aptitude to develop new products and fashion new procedures or approaches of production automatically enables it to produce and create the desired goods needed by other countries. Hence innovation promotes technological advancement creates wealth in divers ways. China’s fast growing global influence is not unconnected to its innovation. One major way to measure innovation is through intellectual property (IP) protection in the form of patents. Patents secure exclusive rights to an invention, and thus offer insight into key areas of innovation. This feature evaluates the relationship between patents and innovation by exploring trends in patent applications.

In 2016, China’s National Intellectual Property Administration (CNIPA) processed 42.8 % of all patent applications in the world. With over 1.3 million total applications, China processed 121 % more applications than the U.S. China has been the main driver of global growth and the main source of growth in worldwide IP filings in 2018. In 2017, China became one of the top five US patent recipients for the first time, leaving behind US, Japan, South Korea and Germany. In 2018, China’s National Intellectual Property Administration received the highest number of patent applications—a record 1.54 million. The development amounted to the combined total of the IP offices of other countries ranked from 2nd to 11th place. According to World Intellectual Property Organization (Oct 2019), China’s patent applications accounted for almost half of the global total.

The number of patents filed in China has sustained a high growth rate throughout much of the last two decades. A large percentage of this growth in patent applications stems from a flood of domestic applications, which corresponded with Xi Jinping’s “Made in China 2025”. The development aims to upgrade key domestic industries in order to compete with advanced economies in high-tech sectors. The result of this strategy can be seen by comparing corporate patents from a global perspective. According to the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the two Chinese telecom giants, Huawei and ZTE, have been the top PCT applicants since 2015, followed by Intel, Mitsubishi, and Qualcomm.

4) Tech Skills: “For a country like China, with a population of more than 1.3 billion and a labor force of over 800 million, the issues of employment and human resources development are ones of important strategic significance,”—Wang Xiaochu, Vice Chairman, Foreign Affairs Committee, National People’s Congress & Former Vice Minister of Human Resources and Social Security. Likewise, in 2016, at the World Economic Forum, Fan Gang, Director of the National Economic Research Institute & Chairman of the China Reform Foundation, told the audience of some 250 business leaders that China must not only Strengthen the overall abilities of its people so that they are equipped with knowledge and skills, but also the ability to adapt to new technologies.

In 2015, China’s State Council added Artificial Intelligence (AI) to its Internet Plus Initiative, a programme designed to modernise and transform traditional industries. In 2017, Chinese government unveiled the details of a three-stage road map designed to make China a world leader in AI by 2030. It is obvious that the Chinese government is determined to reshape the national skills development system in order to reduce the skills discrepancy, encourage waged and self-employment for young people and mobilise different ways of learning in order to cope with the need for highly skilled workers.

5) Vocational Skill Capacity: One of the reasons that makes China a manufacturing superpower is its aggressive policy on Vocational Education and Training (VET) system. China has various laws that encourage VET.  The Vocational Educational Law of 1996, which mandates nine years of compulsory education, lays out a clear design for implementation of VET.

Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) is mainly provided for in the Vocational Education Law of the People’s Republic of China adopted in 1996. It contains regulations on vocational school education at various levels and on vocational education in various forms. Also, Private Education Promotion Law of the People’s Republic of China (adopted in 2002) establishes non-public schools that mainly provide vocational skills, including training for vocational qualifications. National Plan for Medium and Long-term Education Reform and Development of the People’s Republic of China (2010-2020): outlines development priorities in all forms of education including TVET. Decision of the State Council on Accelerating the Development of Modern Vocational Education (issued in 2014): the government should guide the transformation of a batch of general undergraduate education institutes towards applied technology higher education institutes, Strengthen enterprise participation mechanisms, and require teachers to possess both teaching qualification and vocational qualification. Equally, Planning for Building Modern Vocational Education System (2014-2020) sets the strategic short-term and long-term goals of establishing a modern vocational education system, including improvement on the legal system and standardization system of Chinese vocational education. In addition, as stated in the Vocational Education Law of the People’s Republic of China an enterprise shall, in light of its actual conditions, provide systematic vocational education and training for its own employees and for persons to be employed

6) Military Mind: It is not uncommon that China and the US are rivals in many ways, especially the quest for global dominant. As the two countries are in races to develop and commercialise deep learning and other Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies, it appears that China is not taking it slow to surpass the US.  China is on the fast track to increase its capacities in AI and autonomy to military weapons systems.

China has set a goal of 2020 as the date to achieve what its terms “mechanisation” and “informisation”. Quite what China means by this is latter term is unclear, but Beijing has been watching the developing role of information in warfare and seeking to adapt this to its own particular circumstances. Chinese weapons manufacturers already are selling armed drones with significant amounts of combat autonomy.” From ultra-long-range conventional ballistic missiles to fifth generation fighter jets, China’s progress and technical abilities are outstanding. 

In April 2017, China launched its first domestically built aircraft carrier. China is developing a very long-range air-to-air missile designed specifically to strike at tanker and command and control aircraft that now orbit out of harm’s way. The development is known as “fifth generation fighter”. It incorporates stealth technology and has a supersonic cruising speed; it is highly integrated avionics.

It has been reported that China’s air-to-air missile developments by 2020 will likely force the US and its regional allies to re-examine not only their tactics, but also techniques, procedures and the direction of their own combat-aerospace development programmes.

The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS, London) Military Balance once reported that China has sold its armed UAVs to a number of countries, including Egypt, Nigeria, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Myanmar, among others. The US and Western arms exporters see China as a growing commercial threat. China is, however, willing to enter markets which many Western manufacturers, or their governments.

China is also trying to develop weaponry tailor-made to specifically for African countries, whose roads and infrastructural deficits would not be able to cope with many of the heavier models offered by others.

7) Innovation: In June 2016, speaking at the national congress of the China Association for Science and Technology, Chinese president Xi Jinping outlined his vision for China to become the leading global leader in innovation, especially in science and technology by 2030. According to him “Great scientific and technological capacity is a must for China to be strong and for people’s lives to improve. China and, even humankind, won’t do without innovation nor will it do if the innovation is carried out slowly.” 

In agriculture, Crop science is an essential component of agricultural science and also the key to ensuring world food security, stimulating sustainable utilisation of agricultural resources, and effectively protecting agricultural environments. Statistics has shown that China now produces 25% of the world’s food, feeding about 22% of the world’s population with 9% of the world’s arable land, and has completed the transition from a food-aid recipient country to a food-aid donor.

Furthermore, China is poised not just to lead in autonomous vehicles but to dominate this emerging global market in the decades ahead. According to an annual report on the nation’s innovation economy by the South China Morning Post, China is likely to emerge as the world’s largest market for autonomous vehicles and mobility services, worth more than $500 billion by 2030. 

In July 2017, China’s State Council issued the “New Generation Artificial Intelligence Development Plan,” outlining an ambitious roadmap for China to lead the artificial intelligence sector, with a priority on the development of AVs as a “strategic frontier.” Five months later, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT) enhanced the roadmap by announcing the Three-Year Plan for Promoting Development of a New Generation Artificial Intelligence Industry (2018–2020). The action plan includes plans to develop key technological components of AVs, such as automotive smart chips, vehicle intelligence algorithms, and advanced driver assistant systems.

In 2018, China sold more electric cars than in the rest of the world combined. The Chinese government has spent nearly $60 billion in the last decade to create an industry that builds electric cars, while also reducing the number of licenses available for gasoline-powered cars to increase demand for electric cars. China now has more than 100 electric-car makers, along with hundreds of additional companies that supply components for electric cars. Also, in 2018, China set an economic-policy designed to have half the new cars on China’s roads be partially or fully autonomous by the end of 2020.

Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are revving up in China. Companies in China and around the world want to tap into the lucrative autonomous technology market that could reach $2.3 trillion by 2030. More than 30 key standards that are critical to advanced driver-assistance systems and low-level autonomous driving will be defined by 2020 and a system of over 100 standards for higher level autonomous driving will be set by 2025.

In addition, China is now the world’s No. 1 investor in renewable energy, and the largest-ever floating solar plant. The $151 million Three Gorges project can power 94,000 homes at full capacity, located on an old coal mine in the eastern province of Anhui. Also, in February 2018, China launched the world’s first autonomous passenger drone took in Lianyungang. The Ehang 284 is capable of flying at speeds of up to 80 miles per hour. In the same vein, China is set to launch the world’s largest Waste-to-Energy Plant when it becomes operational in 2020. The plant will burn a third of the sprawling city’s waste and power up to 100,000 homes.

In April 2018, researchers at Tongji University announced the world’s first lung regeneration therapy, a great medical feat that could transform the lives of people living with lung disease; the stem-cell treatment uses mice cells to regenerate damaged lung tissue. China is also the first country in the world to create the first forest city designed to curb the challenge of global air pollution. The verdant urban area in Guangxi Province will boast 40,000 trees capable of absorbing 10,000 tons of carbon dioxide a year.

8) Quantum Physics: Quantum physics is a world-changer technology. A technology called quantum encryption is the dream of perfectly secure communication, which is increasingly becoming a reality. In other words, quantum encryption is a technology that makes it impossible to hack or overhear communications. The phenomenal technology could help free the world from online scam, cyber-attacks and electronic eavesdropping. In a world of unbreakable encryption, all human electronic communication could become entirely private.

On September 29, 2017, a team of cryptographers and physicists from the Chinese Academy of Sciences held a half-hour video call with their counterparts in Vienna, using quantum encryption. While experts’ reports say that the major technical innovations in quantum technology are still being produced in such Western institutions as IBM in Armonk, New York, the University of California and the Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands, China appears to be the only country that is ahead of others in terms of implementation. So, it is not a happenstance that the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA) and the U.S. Department of Defense are the biggest investors in quantum encryption. According to reports, at least 600 top Chinese ministers and military officials use quantum-encrypted links for all confidential communications.

A Chinese manned space station, planned for 2022, is scheduled to carry an experimental quantum-communications payload that human operators can maintain and upgrade. The ultimate goal is a set of geostationary satellites that span the world. So far, only China has invested the billions of dollars needed to bring quantum encryption to real-world use. It is clear that any country in the world that is serious about establishing fully secure communications would need to commit huge sums to the development. “Whoever controls information controls the world”—Artur Ekert, a professor at the University of Oxford and inventor of the model on which the Chinese based their system. Based on that saying, it appears the future of quantum physics belong to China.

9) Mass Transportation Technology: The US President, Donald Trump, once admitted that China is beating the US on everything. If Trump’s admission of China’s superiority is something to go by, one of the areas where China is actually beating the US is in the area of resilient transportation systems. Resilient transportation can be fueled by multiple energy sources. The system can run on electricity powered by the sun or the wind. Thus it uses fossil fuels sparingly, which helps to lessen climate change, reduce future disasters that may threaten transportation infrastructure or fuel sources. 

China’s Five-Year Plan calls for five million electric and hybrid cars on the road by 2020. In 2015, the Chinese bought 188,000 electric vehicles (EVs). China’s EV market is growing faster than in other countries. Equally, electric buses are on the rise. Converting buses to electric power reduces particulate matter thereby providing health benefits to global population. More than 100,000 electric buses, which equates one-fifth of the country’s total, are on China’s roads. At this rate, China’s entire bus fleet could be electric by 2025. With new models that can charge in just 10 seconds and run for 5 km on a single charge, it is clear that China is ahead of the innovation on the bus technology.

Also, in China, Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems moves over 4.3 million people every day in comparison to less than 500,000 in the U.S. In Changzhou, 25% of commuters use BRT. The Bus Rapid Transit is much cheaper to construct than light rail or metro rail, and can offer the same level of service. The most successful BRT systems use designated centre lanes, so buses can move smoothly from station to station without having to compete with automobile traffic.

In today’s interconnected world, easy transportation within and outside cities cannot be overemphasised. High-Speed Rail (HSR) systems are capable of covering distances that cannot be covered by city buses or metro lines. Also, HSR contributes to urban resilience and it can help people’s movement in times of disaster or out of harm’s way. By designing integrated transit systems, China’s high-speed rail network and its inter-city transit systems are connected in almost every city. By 2020, over 50% of new vehicles produced in China will have Driver Assistance (DA), Partial Automation (PA), or Conditional Automation (CA) systems, with over 10% connected to an Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS).

China provides great success stories on how to develop and scale resilient transportation systems. The commercial use of 5G wireless technologies will accelerate its industrial application. China is building a floating train (new magnetic levitation, MAGLEV) that could be faster than air travel. China’s fastest bullet trains currently travel at speeds of over 600 km/h is new high-speed train designed to carry passengers at a speed of 600 to 800kp kilometers per hour. The super-fast train is set to roll off the production line in 2020 while it is set to go into commercial production in 2021. There are also plans for maglev trains to halve the journey time from Tokyo to Osaka by 2045. It is important African leaders, particularly Nigeria, should take a cue from China and mobilise Nigerians’ ingenuity to build our own resilient transportation systems for the 21st century.

10) Urban Development: Going by the speed of economic development in China, it is clear that urbanisation is one of the driving forces that is fostering the Chinese economy in accurate time. There is no doubt that economic activities in the cities will invariably have huge impact on the economic well-being of the entire country. Recently, China indicated that urbanisation would be a priority in its agenda in the next decade.

Historically, statistics has showed that there is a strong relationship between the percentage of the population that is engaged in agriculture and the country’s per capita GDP. In other words, what happens in Chinese cities is critical to the country’s economic development in terms of environmental sustainability.

By 2010, the urban share of the population had grown to 45% and it is projected to reach 70% by 2030. According to reports, “By 2030, up to 70% of the Chinese population will be living in cities”—“Urban China: Toward Efficient, Inclusive and Sustainable Urbanization”, Klaus Rohland, World Bank Country Director for China. The Urban China: Toward Efficient, Inclusive and Sustainable Urbanization, includes six priority areas for a new model of urbanisation:

•Reforming land management and institutions

•Reforming the hukou household-registration system to provide equal access to quality services for all citizens and create a more mobile and versatile labor force

•Placing urban finances on a more sustainable footing, while creating financial discipline for local governments

•Reforming urban planning and design

•Managing environmental pressures

•Improving local governance

•Samuel is a Senior Partner, Sensale Research Limited

Tue, 26 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2020/02/17/2020-chinas-big-decade-lessons-for-nigeria-africa/
Killexams : The Cloud Iceberg: What You Can’t See Can Hurt You

Vice President, Head of Commercial Strategy at Expedient, one of the nation's premier hybrid cloud providers.

Organizations all over the world are in a mad rush to move to "the cloud," with an urgency only exasperated given today’s business challenges. But as I talk to analysts and travel around the country talking to CIOs and cloud leaders, most organizations seem to be struggling to get over one-third of their workloads into a hyperscale cloud.

Why is that? I believe it is primarily because of the common misperception that hyperscale = cloud.

Just like you have choices when you walk down the cereal aisle, you also have choices when it comes to your cloud providers. There are, of course, three primary hyperscale providers (AWS, Azure, GCP), and each has been designed to work at a massive global scale and architected to leverage microservices capabilities. They each have their unique strengths and weaknesses, but their primary underlying architectures are similar in the cloud-native arena, supporting high levels of variability in workloads, enabling rapid scalability and innovation, and providing unique and powerful PaaS capabilities.

These strengths work well when you are building new applications or when you are rebuilding applications as you undergo a major digital transformation. They also work when you have seasonal applications where you need the ability to rapidly scale up and down to support demand. But for the bulk of your workloads, it is like using a Ferrari to take your kids to school when a minivan might work much better.

That is what organizations who have been on this cloud journey for a while are finding out—if you choose one-size-fits-all in the cloud, the entire financial model breaks down. I liken this to a “cloud iceberg," which would look something like this:

Above The Water:

• Applications with highly variable workloads

• Net New applications

• Customer-facing applications requiring regular change

• Seasonal applications

Below The Water:

• E-Commerce applications

• Applications requiring heavy data transfer

• Core operational applications (ERP, finance, HR, etc.)

• IBM Power Systems applications

• Mainframe applications

When looking to move workloads and applications to the cloud, it's what lies beneath the surface that can really “hurt” you. That’s why I like to use an iceberg analogy. About one-third of enterprise applications and workloads work well in cloud-native environments. But this is just the tip of the iceberg. It’s the two-thirds of ice below the waterline that should keep you up at night. These are the mission-critical and core legacy applications that would benefit from a cloud operating model but are simply not cost effective when placed in a hyperscale cloud environment.

Beyond that, there are all those steady-state, mission-critical applications like your ERP in manufacturing, policy systems in insurance or electronic medical records in healthcare or your finance or HR systems in every industry. Refactoring these applications (even if possible) could take years and add minimal value to the business. For these sorts of workloads, a hyperscale cloud is typically overkill, and an alternate cloud can be just the landing spot to meet your needs.

451 Research clearly outlines this new market segment and the value of a multi-cloud approach when targeting transformation on your cloud journey. Many of these alternate clouds are specifically architected to support these "under the waterline" workload types. For example, the Virtustream Cloud is specifically architected for SAP workloads and the Expedient Enterprise Cloud, my company's cloud software, is specifically architected for VMware-based workloads. Knowing what your workload needs are and finding the right cloud to meet those needs is critically important.

Even with that, there is that “hard ice” at the bottom of the cloud iceberg: the legacy systems like mainframes and power series. To put this into perspective, there are currently 10,000 mainframes actively being used around the world, including those being used by 71% of Fortune 500 companies. These aren't the shiny new applications but the back-end digital plumbing that is the lifeblood of organizations still leveraging this technology. These are often the last workloads standing when it comes to getting you out of your data center. There aren’t many good ways to move these workloads to the cloud yet, so a co-location partner may be the best way to get you out of your data center and deliver the highest return on your cloud journey.

What I, along with other analysts, are seeing is that improper placement of these workloads comes back to haunt you in a cloud migration. This is not the time for broad proclamations and hand waving by IT leaders. Organizations need to leverage a data-driven approach to build intelligent business cases, identifying key objectives and then clearly communicating the expected benefits of this critical initiative. Remember to view cloud adoption as a journey, not a destination.


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Fri, 08 Jul 2022 01:01:00 -0500 Michael Fulton en text/html https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbestechcouncil/2022/07/08/the-cloud-iceberg-what-you-cant-see-can-hurt-you/
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