This information is for the 2022/23 session.
This course is compulsory on the Executive MSc in Health Economics, Outcomes and Management in Cardiovascular Sciences. This course is not available as an outside option.
The course is intended to be an introduction to the theory and practice of management for certified moving into leadership roles in the health care field. It is intended to support the content and outcome orientation of core analytical and health policy courses, by providing relevant knowledge and skills for formulating and leading organizational development and change. We will argue that a holistic understanding of organisational phenomena, and an ability to critique and synthesise the lessons of theory are the basis of effective and reflective practice.
This course complements and supports the analytical and policy evaluation tools developed in other core courses, which focus on identifying and evaluating desired outcomes. In this course we will develop the managerial and leadership tools to complement these ‘what’ questions and explore the ‘who’ and ‘how’ questions of leading and implementing organisational change and development.
As it is a half unit that must cover a great deal of ground, the course is designed to provide a sound basis for effective action by focusing on fundamental theories while teaching foundational skills.
We will consider the nature of organisations in theory and practice, and how the development of each influenced the other. What are the properties and functions of modern organisations? What theories have been advanced to explain their existence and form? We will see that the relationship between theory and practice are complicated and reflexive, and why understanding this is an important first step in developing an effective managerial practice.
We will explore the knowledge set that has come to define managerial practice. How did the practice of management and leadership, and theories of organisation develop? What social science disciplines have contributed to it? We will see that the explanations and prescriptions of various schools of thought can be divergent or even contradictory. We will see how the ability to critique and synthesise the insights of diverse perspectives and tools is key to both formulating and implementing effective organisational change.
We will also explore the social construction of the ‘role’ of the manager. How do managers make sense of their world, and what theories have shaped what managers do (and what they think they should do)? We will discover how answers to these questions depend in part on our assumptions about the nature of organisations as social spheres and managers as actors and decision-makers and demonstrate the importance of ‘who’ and ‘how’ considerations in thinking about the ‘what’ questions of policy.
Finally, we will bring the course to a conclusion by considering the question of leadership and how we usefully employ the concept to draw together the lessons of theory in practice. What are leadership theories, and what are the lessons of what we have learned thus far for leadership practice? Students will be asked to consider their own synthesis in light of the content of the course and the requirements of the people and situations they know from their own experience.
10 hours of lectures, 10 hours of seminars and 7 hours and 30 minutes of workshops in the ST.
The lectures will develop an understanding of the core phenomena: organisation, management and leadership. We begin by considering organisational theories and present the simultaneous development of the managerial knowledge set and modern organisational forms and practices. We then consider the relationship between models of organisational behaviour and strategy and conceptions of the manager as an actor and decision-maker. Finally, we consider the question of leadership in multiple conceptions and theories to develop students’ understanding of the forces at play in the relationship between leaders and led.
Classes will develop a critique of management theories via the analysis of organisational situations. We will encourage the consideration and synthesis of eclectic theories across social science disciplines and levels of analysis to develop students’ holistic thinking about leadership in organisations.
The writing workshops will develop critical reading, thinking and writing skills that will enable further learning and reflective practice, as well as effective communication.
Students will be expected to produce 1 piece of coursework in the ST.
Skills for carrying out the essay will be developed in the exercises presented as part of the writing workshops. These exercises will also provide opportunities to explore and refine a syllabu that is suitable for the assignment with the course teacher.
After the course session, the formative submission will be a formal proposal and preliminary outline of the final paper, which will form the basis for feedback and further consultation with the course teacher.
Argyris, C. and D.A. Schön (1974). Theory in practice: Increasing professional effectiveness. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Bolman, L. G., and T. E. Deal (2013). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice and leadership (Sixth Edition). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Mintzberg, H., B. Ahlstrand and J. Lampel (2009). Strategy Safari. London: Prentice Hall.
Schein, E. (2010). Organisational culture and leadership (4th ed). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
Schön, D.A. (1987). Educating the reflective practitioner. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Wallace, M., and A. Wray (2012). Critical reading and writing for postgraduates (Second Edition). London: Sage.
Wren, D. A., and A. G. Bedeian (2020). The evolution of management thought. London: John Wiley & Sons.
Essay (100%, 3000 words) in the ST.
The summative assessment for this course will be one essay of 3,000 words (100%). This will be in the form of an essay, where the student will be expected to analyse an organisational challenge or situation drawn from the students’ own experience or observation. It will require the application of theory to explore how leadership helps to create and transform organisational situations.
Last week we published a post about how it was discovered through trial and error that Tektronix application modules are designed with laughable security. We’ll get to that part of it in a minute. We received a DMCA Takedown Notice from Tektronix (which you can read after the break) demanding that we remove the post. We have altered the original post, but we believe our coverage of this story is valid and we don’t agree that the post should be completely removed.
First off, Tektronix sells the modules to unlock the features already present on the Oscilloscope in questions. We’re operating on the moral assumption that using these features without paying their asking price is wrong. If you want the features they’ve developed you should pay for them.
The real story here is that Tektronix designed a woefully weak system for unlocking these modules. Learn from this. If you’re ever designing a hardware key, don’t do it like this!
An EEPROM, a connector, and a plain text string of characters which is already published publicly on their website is all that is necessary to unlock these “crippled” features. Let’s just say that again: apparently every hardware key is the same and just uses a plain-text string found on their website which is not encrypted or obfuscated. If you were selling these keys for $2.99 perhaps this would be adequate, but Tek values these modules at $500 apiece.
If you were designing this system wouldn’t it be worth using an encryption key pair based on the serial number or some other piece of unique information? How do you think this should have been done? Leave your comment below.
I am the Chief Intellectual Property Counsel at Test & Measurement group of companies including Tektronix, Inc.
I have been notified of a posting on the “Hack A Day” website concerning hacking of Tektronix’ copyrighted modules for use in oscilloscopes. Hacking those modules permits unauthorized access to and use of Tektronix’ copyrighted software by means of copying of Tektronix’ copyrighted code in those modules.
A copy of the offending posting is attached for your reference.
<Copied text removed>
The posting includes instructions for how to hack our modules and thereby violate Tektronix’ copyrights.
Tektronix has a good faith belief that there is no legal basis for this individual to provide such instructions to anyone, much less on a public forum.
I hereby submit that the above statements are true and accurate, and under penalty of perjury state that I am authorized to act on Tektronix’ behalf.
In view of the above, Tektronix demands that the posting identified above be expeditiously removed from the website.
Very Truly Yours,
We valued Alpha and Omega Semiconductor Limited (NASDAQ:AOSL) at $1.66b or $62 per share, representing a 51% upside from today, and a one-year price target at $70.
We believe that the current general pullback in stocks is a blunt market-wide event, which will be more expressed in smaller cap stocks. The fundamentals of stocks in this category, such as AOSL justify a larger valuation, and the stock is primed to appreciate once the market corrects. We will outline the business model, fundamentals and valuation in the sections below.
The chart below shows our estimated intrinsic value of the company vs the historical market cap:
AOSL is a U.S. headquartered company that sells power semiconductors - small chips that regulate power flow in electronics. AOSL primarily sells in the Asia Pacific region to a relatively small number of customers. This exposes it to geographical risk, and investors may like it better if the company grew the number of customers, as diversification can mitigate a possible decrease in demand.
The way it is set up, AOSL designs and patents, while a foundry manufactures, and then the company packages, tests and sells the products. Their main pitch is that they are needed to engineer increasingly complex power requirements of advanced electronics, which is what most of their U.S. operation does: design, engineering and sales. The company does produce most of its MOSFETs in their 8" Oregon Fab, and gets the rest (IC & MOSFET) from their fab partners.
The image below showcases some of AOSL's production capacities:
The company uses foundry services from Asia, where they buy their wafers and other finished products. These semiconductor foundries, "fabs", are built around the world, but concentrated in Taiwan, which may present a supply issue in the future, similarly as having concentrated natural gas supplies in Russia now presents a supply issue for Europe. This is why companies and governments are now on-shoring and investing in manufacturing capacities that are not dependent on Asia.
The company has two packaging and testing facilities in Shanghai, which were hit by the hard lockdowns, but gained permission to operate while shifting part of the workforce to temporarily live in the factories. Investors in AOSL are continuing to bear the risk of possible future lockdowns. However, for investors that believe that this is a temporary and unsustainable practice, they may be able to capitalize on a fear-driven failing stock price.
In order to get a general grasp of what AOSL produces, we can to think of their products as small component semiconductors that regulate the power flow of electronic devices. This means that the products are needed in any device that uses a power circuit, which is why AOSL's products have a such a large area of use. Application includes semiconductors for: smartphones, PCs, gaming devices, vehicles (internal combustion and electric), home appliances, TVs, laptops/notebooks, servers, solar panels, etc. In essence, electrical components that need a power flow can regulate it using AOSL products. This is important, as it means that the company can have a wide product portfolio, with multiple industry applications, which is exactly what we find in their documentation. AOSL's product portfolio has about 2400 semiconductor products, and are constantly expanding their product range in the direction of more efficiency, smaller size, and less power consumption.
The image below categorizes the product fit for AOSL:
While these are the product applications, we can use the revenue distribution to see where AOSL finds its market. In the chart below, we can see that the company has the most success with selling to the computing industry with notebooks, servers and graphics cards. The graphics cards segment was in high-demand in the past few years because of its utility for crypto mining. However, now that Bitcoin prices are down this venture is not as lucrative and the market may see discounts for new and used graphics cards, possibly impacting the demand for these components.
A diversified product portfolio protects against some cyclical headwinds, and in the case of AOSL it may be more valid to use expectations of future industry trends, as opposed to a single product forecast.
Considering geographical revenue, we can see that AOSL sells most (81% in the last quarter) of its products in Hong Kong, whose clients in-turn sell to domestic and international markets, meaning that the end consumer is not necessarily based in Hong Kong. We need this information in order to estimate business risk for the company, as different countries have different risk premiums, which we use in our valuation.
When constructing our risk picture of the company, besides the revenue streams, we can utilize the geolocation of assets. This gives us a better picture of risk exposure, as it allows us to combine the exposure of revenue streams and the location of hard assets.
We see that most of the company's assets are now located in the U.S., and we will analyze the reason for this in the next segment.
AOSL de-consolidated or sold a large portion of the Chinese assets, this is reflected in the change of the manufacturing machinery equipment assets line-item in the balance sheet.
This is because the company sold its controlling stake of its Chinese-based manufacturing plant. This plant was initiated as a joint venture (JV) between AOSL and 2 investment funds in 2016, which resulted in the building of a power semiconductor packaging, testing and 12-inch wafer fabrication facility in China. As of March 2022, AOSL owned 42.2% equity interest in the JV Company, down from 50.9% before divestiture. While the official reasoning given to investors is that this divestiture is resulting from an effort to allow the JV company to expand capacity by scaling up and preparing for an IPO, investors may justifiably interpret this as an M&A failure.
The more customers a company has, the better the risk profile. This is because a company can have an easier time making up for the lost revenues of one customer by possibly finding an increased demand in others. This is especially relevant, if the company sells to customers in different industries, because it can offset the cyclical headwinds in one industry with an increased demand in another. Finally, more customers indicate that the company can allocate more production capacity to the highest bidder, which pushes them towards higher-margin operations.
The table below shows the most exact distribution of accounts receivable streams by key customers:
While we don't have access to the exact customer list, the latest earnings webcast commented on Intel (INTC), HP Technologies (HPQ), Dell Inc. (DELL) as being key clients, likely in the personal computer and device space.
For AOSL, we can see that the top 5 customers make up 83% of the (quarterly) accounts receivable. This does imply some risk of customer walk-outs or decreases in demand, and investors may be happier if the company manages a larger number of customers. We can also see that pre-2022, only 3 customers made up the majority of accounts receivable (56.4%), while only 2 customers accounted for 63% of the latest quarterly revenues.
Up to December 2019, one client of the company was Huawei, to which AOSL ceased exports in order to comply with a U.S. Department of Commerce "DOC" investigation into the customer.
Based on the May 2022 forecast release from The World Semiconductor Trade Statistics, we can see that semiconductors are still in a growing market. In 2022, the global semiconductor market is expected to grow by 16.3%, and in 2023, it is expected to grow revenues by 5.1%.
Conversely, a report by PR Newswire estimates a 4% CAGR up to 2024 for semiconductors. Our third source, Any Silicon, cites a 6.7% CAGR semiconductor growth for manufacturers through 2026 - these are the foundries "fabs" we mentioned that take orders from international companies and stick to production. Nonetheless, this gives us a good indication on what to expect in the next few years going forward. What we need to estimate next is if AOSL will grow market share faster than the industry averages.
Finally, looking at the supply concentration from Any Silicon, we can see that semiconductor production and sales is concentrated in a few key companies. Of particular note, is the fact that most of the production is concentrated in Asia, which can cause bottlenecks if regional trade becomes hot in the future.
In conclusion, we estimate that AOSL is positioned within a growing industry, which even given extended headwinds in the PC and device segment, is still primed to expand on the back of innovation and energy efficiency. It is likely that we will see a short-term cyclical downtrend in the industry, but the long term market for semiconductors seems to be expanding. AOSL may also benefit from government onshoring incentives, which seek to strengthen the strategic interests of western businesses.
Note that in the charts below, all values are in billions USD unless specified. A copy of the full analysis & model can be found here. (When prompted, click "Make a copy" and login with a Gmail account. If you are having trouble accessing the sheet, click here for a preview-only HTML.) You may also try different value drivers to come up with your own valuation in the copy.
We have used our research thus far to gain a better understanding of the business. Next, we will review a set of key fundamentals, which will help us build a grounded DCF valuation model for AOSL.
In the last 12-months AOSL grew by 26.4%, and perhaps more importantly, managed to drive efficiencies in their business as revenue grew 11% more than COGS. The 5-year revenue CAGR is 15.1%, while the average growth within the industry has been about 6.6%.
The chart below, reveals the benefits of the supply-chain shortage in 2021-2022, with a peak in Q3, and currently decelerating by 32% YoY.
While the company likely has some organic expansion left, we can see how growth would slowly shift towards the industry average. We also evaluated the growth capacity based on the fundamentals e.g. how much can a company grow by reinvesting into the business, and found that the long-term fundamental growth rate is about 8%. Finally, given how the market is pricing the stock, we found an implied 12.5% growth rate for next year.
Given our analysis, we estimate a revenue growth rate of 12.5% next year, and 8% for the 4 years after that, finally converging on the risk-free rate of 3%. With this configuration, we are growing our base revenues by 100% in 10 years. A key risk with this assumption is that a recession hits harder than anticipated and revenues struggle to move higher than the inflation rate. We believe, that while our estimates can be wrong for individual years, a 10-year revenue target of about $1.5b is attainable by AOSL.
Please ignore the jump in the net income margin as it reflects proceeds from the sale of ownership stake in JV. A good indicator of the profitability for AOSL is the EBIT margin, which is currently at 14%. The industry average is about 21.2% for international semiconductor companies and 29% for U.S. based. We feel that we cannot justify converging to these averages given the lower position in the product hierarchy for power semiconductors v.s. GPUs and CPUs. That is why we have opted to estimate a convergence on 18% EBIT margin in the next 10 years. The chart below, shows a cyclical pattern every 3 years and it seems that AOSL is hovering around the peak of this cycle.
While profitability may cycle down in the future, it is likely that the built-in efficiencies of the company will help them sustain a higher base level in the future, and we may be able to expect a higher peak in the next cycle. This is the main rationale behind our 18% convergence margin estimate. Our estimate reflects an EBIT of $267m in 10 years, a 105% growth from the $131m R&D adjusted EBIT in the last 12 months.
While analyzing the cash flows we see that a significant reason for the caution expressed from the side of investors is the general absence of free cash flows to investors in the last 7 years. Management will have difficulties convincing investors that their venture is worth investing-in, as they have not established a profitable baseline for an extended period. We can see that the company engaged in extensive CapEx investment around the previous cyclical peak in 2018, but is now changing their story and divesting what it once presented as an opportunity to increase production capacity.
While operating cash flows have grown, the free cash flows to the firm haven't caught up. AOSL made $65m in FCFF in Q3 2021, and is now back to negative FCFF.
In the chart below, we can see how the company balanced TTM Cash Flows in the past (in millions USD):
This leads us to our final valuation model.
We estimate that the company has a good basis to meet their 2025 target revenue of $1 billion, and our model closely reflects this with a projected $987.5m by FY 2025 and $1.47b by FY 2032. We expect the EBIT margin to converge on 18% in the next 10 years (the company targets a 15% margin by FY 2025). For our cost of capital, we have calculated a value of 10.87% - we strive to estimate the cost of capital that reflects the risk of the business.
Our assumptions and analysis have yielded the following model:
This results in the following values:
This means that the company is some 51% undervalued as of today at $62.1 per share. By using the required rate of return we get a price target of $70 in the next 12 months, as well as a price target at maturity of $86.5. This indicates that the company is both undervalued by the market today, and will also keep creating value in the future.
In a valuation it is important to keep track of catalysts and risks. The main catalysts we see is the future bottoming of the equity risk premium (ERP)-driven bear market - with the assumption that earnings forecasts do not collapse. Additionally, as we discussed before, the company has a few key clients, and seems to be increasing their market presence. If news breaks that they have secured new (larger) clients, then this may help the price converge to value. Finally, we see potential for onshoring incentives for U.S. based stocks, and should trade tighten, then companies like AOSL may get priority support. The U.S. has approached the semiconductor industry as a strategic and security priority, which is an additional indicator of the CapEx investment potential in this industry.
There are multiple risks associated with AOSL. The company is led by an older generation CEO, which even though immensely competent, may have more of an interest to run a safe rather than a growing business. Should this structure of management persist, the company's expansion may be slower than if led by a younger team. We feel that this "management arbitrage" possibility is both a risk and an opportunity that investors should be aware of.
Next is the market outlook. Even though the semiconductor industry is projected to grow, this may change in the future as possible supply bottlenecks and decreased consumer purchasing power lowers demand and profitability. The cyclical aspect may take longer to recover and the company can be stuck in stagnation for longer than anticipated.
Finally, we have the competition. While AOSL is focused on engineering high-performance power semiconductors, competitors may develop and vertically integrate their own power semiconductors, which may be pushed to other device manufacturers as part of combined business deals. One way for AOSL to tackle this is to become a part of larger companies with more capital and bargaining power. However, this has its own drawbacks including a drop in innovation as the company's team motivation starts becoming someone else's problem.
In this section we strived to provide the most pertinent risk and opportunity factors. While AOSL has numerous risks which are characteristic of small-cap stocks, we estimate that the opportunities outweigh these risks, and that we have appropriately discounted the value of the stock in order to reflect these and other risk factors.
While we have issued a buy recommendation, this is not appropriate for all portfolios. Investors should be aware that the convergence to value may take some time to materialize, and we estimate an investment horizon of 2.5 to 3 years. Further, given the current state of the market, our pricing model estimates that there may be more downside in the next few months.
Our current implied EV to Sales is 0.5 with a 14% standard error. This means that in the short-term we expect the price to move in the range between $22.46 and 16.82. In order to mitigate this, a periodic investment approach may be more appropriate than investing in bulk. Finally, as a small cap stock, this should not make up a large stake in any portfolio, and investors may want to be mindful of an overlap with semiconductor companies and connected entities such as (INTC), (DELL), (HPQ) or other future clients, as this will lower the diversification benefits in a portfolio.
Thank you for reading our analysis; we hope it will be useful to you. If you have any companies with potential in mind, write them in a comment below and we will scan them for our next analysis.
All the best!
The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.
Jul 08, 2022 (The Expresswire) -- Global PFA Tubing Market (2022-2027) research report offers in-depth analysis on market size, share, drivers, restraints, and so on. Moreover, this report includes the approximate study of different segments in terms of overall growth, development, opportunity, business strategies, procedures etc. for the forecast period of 2027. The report contains the fundamentals produced and advancements by different application Share and The latest trend gaining momentum in the market that increases awareness about PFA Tubing market. The report supplies a comprehensive analysis of business aspects like global PFA Tubing market size, exact technological advances, and inventions. The research report consists of: introduction of the market, key players, opportunities, restraints, product and type classification, and overall market analysis.
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About PFA Tubing Market:
PFA tube is made of good clear PFA resins. Different from PTFE tube, it is transparent that you can observe the fluid flowing easily from the pipeline. It is more resistant to high temperature and corrosion. It is your best choice to against corrosive medium.
The Global PFA Tubing Market Size was estimated at USD 151.00 million in 2021 and is projected to reach USD 202.80 million by 2028, exhibiting a CAGR of 4.30% during the forecast period.
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Global PFA Tubing Market: Market Segmentation Analysis
The research report includes specific segments by region (country), manufacturers, Type, and Application. Market segmentation creates subsets of a market based on product type, end-user or application, Geographic, and other factors. By understanding the market segments, the decision-maker can leverage this targeting in product, sales, and marketing strategies. Market segments can power your product development cycles by informing how you create product offerings for different segments.
Here is List of BEST KEY PLAYERS Listed in PFA Tubing Market Report are:-● NICHIAS ● Parker ● Swagelok ● Nippon Pillar ● Yodogawa ● Altaflo ● Zeus ● Tef-Cap Industries ● Junkosha ● Polyflon Technology Limited ● Entegris ● Fluorotherm ● Habia Teknofluor ● Xtraflex ● AS StrÃ¶mungstechnik ● NES IPS (Integrated Polymer Solutions) ● PAR Group ● NewAge Industries ● Saint-Gobain ● EnPro Industries (Rubber Fab of Garlock Hygienic) ● AMETEK ● Adtech Polymer Engineering ● Grayline ● Holscot ● Bueno Technology ● IDEX (IDEX Health and Science)
PFA Tubing Market Segmentation By Type:● PFA Standard Tubing (Straight) ● PFA Standard Tubing (Corrugated) ● PFA HP (High Purity) Tubing ● Others
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PFA Tubing Market Geographic Segmentation: -● North America (USA, Canada, Mexico) ● Europe (Germany, UK, France, Russia, Italy, Rest of Europe) ● Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, South Korea, India, Southeast Asia, Rest of Asia-Pacific) ● South America (Brazil, Argentina, Columbia, Rest of South America) ● The Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria, South Africa, Rest of MEA)
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Chapter Outline of PFA Tubing Market: -
Chapter 1 PFA Tubing Market Report mainly introduces the statistical scope of the report, market division standards, and market research methods.
Chapter 2 PFA Tubing Market is an executive summary of different market segments (by region, product type, application, etc), including the market size of each market segment, future development potential, and so on. It offers a high-level view of the current state of the PFA Tubing Market and its likely evolution in the short to mid-term, and long term.
Chapter 3 makes a detailed analysis of the Market's Competitive Landscape of the market and provides the market share, capacity, output, price, latest development plan, merger, and acquisition information of the main manufacturers in the market.
Chapter 4 is the analysis of the whole market industrial chain, including the upstream and downstream of the industry, as well as Porter's five forces analysis.
Chapter 5 introduces the latest developments of the market, the driving factors and restrictive factors of the market, the challenges and risks faced by manufacturers in the industry, and the analysis of relevant policies in the industry.
Chapter 6 PFA Tubing Market Report provides the analysis of various market segments according to product types, covering the market size and development potential of each market segment, to help readers find the blue ocean market in different market segments.
Chapter 7 provides the analysis of various market segments according to application, covering the market size and development potential of each market segment, to help readers find the blue ocean market in different downstream markets.
Chapter 8 PFA Tubing Market provides a quantitative analysis of the market size and development potential of each region and its main countries and introduces the market development, future development prospects, market space, and capacity of each country in the world.
Chapter 9 introduces the basic situation of the main companies in the market in detail, including product sales revenue, sales volume, price, gross profit margin, market share, product introduction, exact development, etc.
Chapter 10 provides a quantitative analysis of the market size and development potential of each region in the next five years.
Chapter 11 provides a quantitative analysis of the market size and development potential of each market segment (product type and application) in the next five years.
Chapter 12 is the main points and conclusions of the report.
Detailed TOC of Global PFA Tubing Market Report 2022
1 Research Methodology and Statistical Scope
1.1 Market Definition and Statistical Scope of PFA Tubing
1.2 Key Market Segments
1.2.1 PFA Tubing Segment by Type
1.2.2 PFA Tubing Segment by Application
1.3 Methodology and Sources of Information
1.3.1 Research Methodology
1.3.2 Research Process
1.3.3 Market Breakdown and Data Triangulation
1.3.4 Base Year
1.3.5 Report Assumptions and Caveats
2 PFA Tubing Market Overview
2.1 Global Market Overview
2.1.1 Global PFA Tubing Market Size (M USD) Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
2.1.2 Global PFA Tubing Sales Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
2.2 Market Segment Executive Summary
2.3 Global Market Size by Region
3 PFA Tubing Market Competitive Landscape
3.1 Global PFA Tubing Sales by Manufacturers (2017-2022)
3.2 Global PFA Tubing Revenue Market Share by Manufacturers (2017-2022)
3.3 PFA Tubing Market Share by Company Type (Tier 1, Tier 2, and Tier 3)
3.4 Global PFA Tubing Average Price by Manufacturers (2017-2022)
3.5 Manufacturers PFA Tubing Sales Sites, Area Served, Product Type
3.6 PFA Tubing Market Competitive Situation and Trends
4 PFA Tubing Industry Chain Analysis
4.1 PFA Tubing Industry Chain Analysis
4.2 Market Overview and Market Concentration Analysis of Key Raw Materials
4.3 Midstream Market Analysis
4.4 Downstream Customer Analysis
5 The Development and Dynamics of PFA Tubing Market
5.1 Key Development Trends
5.2 Driving Factors
5.3 Market Challenges
5.4 Market Restraints
5.5 Industry News
5.6 Industry Policies
6 PFA Tubing Market Segmentation by Type
6.1 Evaluation Matrix of Segment Market Development Potential (Type)
6.2 Global PFA Tubing Sales Market Share by Type (2017-2022)
6.3 Global PFA Tubing Market Size Market Share by Type (2017-2022)
6.4 Global PFA Tubing Price by Type (2017-2022)
7 PFA Tubing Market Segmentation by Application
7.1 Evaluation Matrix of Segment Market Development Potential (Application)
7.2 Global PFA Tubing Market Sales by Application (2017-2022)
7.3 Global PFA Tubing Market Size (M USD) by Application (2017-2022)
7.4 Global PFA Tubing Sales Growth Rate by Application (2017-2022)
8 PFA Tubing Market Segmentation by Region
8.1 Global PFA Tubing Sales by Region
8.2 North America
8.4 Asia Pacific
8.5 South America
8.6 Middle East and Africa
9 Key Companies Profiled
10 PFA Tubing Market Forecast by Region
10.1 Global PFA Tubing Market Size Forecast
10.2 Global PFA Tubing Market Forecast by Region
11 Forecast Market by Type and by Application (2022-2028)
11.1 Global PFA Tubing Market Forecast by Type (2022-2028))
11.2 Global PFA Tubing Market Forecast by Application (2022-2028)
12 Conclusion and Key Findings
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