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Tara Duggan is a Project Management Professional (PMP) specializing in knowledge management and instructional design. For over 25 years she has developed quality training materials for a variety of products and services supporting such companies as Digital Equipment Corporation, Compaq and HP. Her freelance work is published on various websites.

Tue, 25 Jan 2022 18:03:00 -0600 en-US text/html
Killexams : Product Life Cycle Management Training

Tara Duggan is a Project Management Professional (PMP) specializing in knowledge management and instructional design. For over 25 years she has developed quality training materials for a variety of products and services supporting such companies as Digital Equipment Corporation, Compaq and HP. Her freelance work is published on various websites.

Wed, 18 Jul 2018 06:20:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : ITIL Certification Guide: Overview and Career Paths

The Information Technology Infrastructure Library, better known as ITIL, is the pre-eminent framework for managing IT service delivery around the world. ITIL defines a service lifecycle model that prescribes specific processes and activities during the design, development, delivery, and support of IT services. For the purposes of this discussion, IT services are any IT activities that deliver business value to a company’s end users, customers and other internal or external stakeholders. Examples of IT services include centralized corporate email and corporate websites based on back-end IT processes, such as server and network administration. The current version of ITIL is known as ITIL V3.

By adopting the ITIL framework, companies ensure that their services are delivered according to a set of consistent, well-defined processes that incorporate best practices and processes, resulting in a predictable level of service for users. The benefits of ITIL include reduced cost of service development and deployment, improved customer satisfaction with service delivery, increased productivity from IT personnel, quality improvements, better management metrics of services and increased flexibility in adapting services to changing business requirements.

ITIL Certification program overview

In July 2013, Axelos took ownership of ITIL. It now maintains the ITIL framework and accredits training and examination institutes. Hundreds of ITIL Accredited Training Organizations (ATOs) are available to deliver training, and ITIL certification exams may be administered at the end of a training course or by an Examination Institute (EI), many of which work directly with the ATOs.

ITIL offers five different certification levels:

  • Foundation
  • Practitioner
  • Intermediate (Service Lifecycle and Service Capability categories)
  • Expert
  • Master

Be aware that ITIL uses a credit system for the Foundation through Expert levels, in which each certification earns a certain number of credits. Ultimately, a total of 22 credits is required to achieve ITIL Expert certification. (The ITIL Master has its own set of requirements, which you’ll read about shortly). The following graphic shows the structure of that certification scheme and its corresponding credits.

Credit: Axelos

What is ITIL?

Before you read on for certification details, it’s important to understand how the ITIL IT service framework is structured and what it has to offer.

ITIL was first developed by the U.K. Government’s Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency (CCTA) in the 1980s as a set of standardized best practices for IT services used in government agencies. From that narrowly focused start, ITIL has been adopted, revised and expanded into a comprehensive framework for managing IT service delivery in companies and organizations of all sizes, across all industries and market sectors.

In fact, IT has become a mission-critical service delivery mechanism for companies that rely on complex computing resources to keep their businesses operating and generating revenue. ITIL allows companies to define and implement a documented, repeatable process that assists them in staying focused on the large and small details involved in rolling out new IT services and managing those services afterward.

The ITIL service lifecycle consists of five practice areas or phases, with supporting principles, policies and processes within each phase:

  • Service Strategy: This phase focuses on defining services as strategic assets, and then maintaining and implementing a coherent, deliberate strategy. Service strategy principles address business processes, corporate governance and compliance, policies, corporate culture and decision-making, and ensure that the business is geared for service improvement.
  • Service Design: This phase includes the assessment of business management processes (service level, availability, capacity, etc.) to design and develop new service offerings or Boost existing offerings.
  • Service Transition: This phase covers the transition from development to production operations, including testing and quality control.
  • Service Operation: This phase defines how to manage services once they’re in production use. It addresses service operation processes, such as event management, access management, incident response, the application lifecycle and helpdesk support.
  • Continuous Service Improvement: This phase defines new requirements for the preceding phases of ITIL based on operational feedback and service levels. It helps to ensure that policies and procedures are followed, that service level agreements are met and that operational lessons learned are incorporated into existing and future service refinements.

Don’t let the scope of ITIL scare you away from the overall value afforded by this comprehensive lifecycle for IT services. The ITIL framework gives companies the structure and discipline required to design, develop, deliver and manage new or improved services in a timely manner and, most importantly, on a budget. Before ITIL, a lack of service management discipline and expertise led many IT projects to suffer budget overruns, veer off course or fail outright due to scope-creep, mismanagement and a lack of repeatable results. ITIL solves these problems quite nicely. In fact, ITIL is widely regarded as the pre-eminent standard for IT service management frameworks.

ITIL Foundation certification

The ITIL Foundation certification covers the basics of ITIL and is where most newbies start the process of learning ITIL and becoming certified. The certification has no prerequisites, and anyone with an interest in the subject matter can sit for this exam. ITIL Foundation certification test prep can be accomplished via classroom or distance learning options, as well as via self-study. There is no requirement for you to complete a training course before you sit for the Foundations exam. The Foundation test consists of 40 multiple-choice questions that must be answered in 60 minutes with a grade of 65 percent, or 26 correct answers, required to pass the exam.

Although the certification covers all the five practice areas of the ITIL service lifecycle, including how the different lifecycle stages are linked to one another, an IT pro who completes the ITIL Foundation level will likely need to complete the Practitioner or Intermediate certification before being able to qualify for service management positions.

ITIL Practitioner

The ITIL Practitioner certification is the latest entry to the ITIL certification scheme. This test was offered for the first time in February 2016. As the name implies, the ITIL Practitioner certification is based on practical knowledge of ITIL processes and how those principles are implemented in the real world. An ITIL Practitioner can explain how to use the ITIL framework to support business objectives and focuses on organizational change management, communications, and measurement and metrics.

The ITIL Practitioner is considered the next step in the ITIL progression after achieving the ITIL Foundation (which is a prerequisite). It emphasizes the ability to adopt, adapt and apply ITIL concepts in an organization. Although the Practitioner certification is not required for upper-level ITIL credentials, achieving Practitioner certification provides three credits toward ITIL Expert certification. You can prepare for the Practitioner test through self-study, in-person classroom learning or online and distance learning options. The Practitioner test is 40 multiple-choice questions and requires a minimum score of 70 percent, or 28 correct answers,  to pass.

The ITIL Intermediate certification is module-based, each of which focuses on a different aspect of IT service management. Relevant modules are categorized as either Service Lifecycle or Service Capability.

The Service Lifecycle modules are:

  • Service Strategy (SS)
  • Service Design (SD)
  • Service Transition (ST)
  • Service Operation (SO)
  • Continual Service Improvement (CSI)

The Service Capability modules are:

  • Operational Support and Analysis (OSA)
  • Planning, Protection and Optimization (PPO)
  • Release, Control and Validation (RCV)
  • Service Offerings and Agreements (SOA)

To enable candidates to meet their own career goals, AXELOS lets you achieve qualification in one category or by choosing modules from both categories. AXELOS recommends that you have at least two years of IT service management experience. Note that you must complete your Intermediate test preparation by completing a training course offered by an accredited training organization (ATO), i.e., you cannot self-study then sit for the Intermediate exam.

ITIL Expert

The ITIL Expert is an advanced certification that encompasses the breadth and depth of ITIL processes and practices across all ITIL disciplines. ITIL Expert certification is a prerequisite for the ITIL Master certification.

To qualify for the ITIL Expert, you must obtain at least 17 credits from the Foundation, Practitioner and Intermediate modules, and pass the Managing Across the Lifecycle (MALC) exam, earning a total of 22 credits.

ITIL Master

The pinnacle ITIL Master certification demonstrates an ability to apply the ITIL framework in real-world situations. The ITIL Master encompasses all ITIL principles and processes covered in the Foundation through Expert certifications. An ITIL Master must demonstrate complete mastery of the ITIL framework by completing the following:

  • Achieve the ITIL Expert certification
  • Demonstrate at least five years of ITIL experience in a management or leadership role
  • Submit a proposal for a service improvement
  • Submit a work package that demonstrates your ability to apply ITIL principles to a real-world business case, including positive impacts to a business service
  • Successfully complete an interview with an ITIL assessment panel

The cost of the ITIL Master runs about $4,000, which you pay after an EI accepts your initial application. Given the expense of this certification and its stringent requirements, only serious candidates should pursue the ITIL Master. That said, earning this certification indicates you’ve reached the highest level of achievement in your field.

IT professionals who possess an ITIL certification have always been valued by large corporations who have adopted the ITIL framework as an internal IT standard. What is beginning to change is ITIL’s increasing proliferation. Many small- and medium-sized businesses also now recognize the value of employees with ITIL certifications under their collective belts.

As IT becomes more important, SMBs are realizing the biggest benefits of maintaining ITIL-trained personnel on staff. Though no company wants to see IT projects fail, larger companies can usually absorb the loss of productivity, time and money that accompanies a failed IT service project. SMBs may not have the financial luxury of allowing an important IT project to fail owing to poor management and lack of processes. Thus, the value of an ITIL certification may be greater for enlightened companies that cannot afford IT project failures.

The good news about ITIL certification is that it is a valuable skill for almost any IT professional, from system administrators to chief information officers (CIOs). Many large companies have dedicated ITIL coaches or mentors who help shepherd projects through the various steps of the ITIL framework. These ITIL gurus have a wide understanding of the IT landscape and can usually spot trouble with a service design document or implementation plan in a matter of minutes.

ITIL certification is also a valuable credential for IT project managers, who are in the IT service trenches every day. Most project managers are already familiar with the development lifecycle process, so the principles of ITIL come naturally to them. IT managers, architects and engineers might not ever become ITIL Masters, but even a basic knowledge of the ITIL framework can assist with understanding and supporting the ITIL process.

AXELOS provides a Career Paths chart that maps IT service management job roles with skill levels. This chart is handy for certification candidates interested in specific jobs who need to understand how they fit into the ITIL service lifecycle.

ITIL training

Each ITIL certification webpage provides links to relevant study guides and syllabi. Those pursuing the ITIL Foundation certification should read the three-part blog series on preparing for and taking the ITIL Foundation exam. Those who are thinking about pursuing the Intermediate certification should use the ITIL Intermediate Training Navigator to match desired job roles and skills with the appropriate modules.

Formal ITIL training is available in self-paced online courses, instructor-led distance learning and instructor-led classroom classes. The variety of ITIL training offered and the collection of certified companies offering ITIL training ensures that anyone who is interested in learning about ITIL or becoming ITIL certified has an option that fits their learning preferences.

Although non-accredited ITIL training is available, we strongly recommend that you only utilize an ITIL ATO when you pursue ITIL training. Find a complete list of such training providers on the Axelos ITIL website.


Axelos and the ITIL Development Group, made up of more than 2,000 ITIL stakeholders worldwide, began working on an update to ITIL V3 in late 2017. That work continued throughout 2018, and Axelos has announced upcoming changes to the ITIL certifications known as ITIL 4. ITIL 4 will provide sweeping changes to the ITIL certification program to better align with the growing complexity of modern IT. ITIL 4 also changes some of the certification program terms and titles to align with the new ITIL 4 program structure. Here is a look at the new ITIL 4 program overview:

Credit: Axelos

You’ll recognize some familiar terms as well as some new nomenclature incorporated into the ITIL 4 certification scheme. The certification still starts with the ITIL Foundation, and ITIL Master is still the highest level of ITIL certification, but how you get from Foundation to Master now allows two distinct paths, allowing you to choose the certification knowledge areas that best fit your interests and career goals.

The new Foundation test is scheduled to be released in Q1 of 2019, with additional certification test updates scheduled to be released in the second half of 2019. You can find more details on how existing ITIL V3 certifications map to the new program structure here: ITIL 4 Program Updates.

Note: We will update this article as the new ITIL 4 test preparation courses and certification exams are released by Axelos so check back here often to learn more about ITIL 4.

Credit: Ed Tittel

Ed Tittel

Ed is a 30-year-plus veteran of the computing industry, who has worked as a programmer, a technical manager, a classroom instructor, a network consultant and a technical evangelist for companies that include Burroughs, Schlumberger, Novell, IBM/Tivoli and NetQoS. He has written for numerous publications, including Tom’s IT Pro, and is the author of more than 140 computing books on information security, web markup languages and development tools, and Windows operating systems.

Credit: Earl Follis

Earl Follis

Earl is also a 30-year veteran of the computer industry, who worked in IT training, marketing, technical evangelism and market analysis in the areas of networking and systems technology and management. Ed and Earl met in the late 1980s when Ed hired Earl as a trainer at an Austin-area networking company that’s now part of HP. The two of them have written numerous books together on NetWare, Windows Server and other topics. Earl is also a regular writer for the computer trade press with many e-books, white papers and articles to his credit.

Thu, 04 Aug 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Free Student Laptop Programs And Technology Discounts For College

Editorial Note: We earn a commission from partner links on Forbes Advisor. Commissions do not affect our editors' opinions or evaluations.

As work and school have pivoted to remote environments in the last couple years, computer sales have soared to record highs. Laptops and mobile technology have become even more necessary in today’s households, offices and classrooms.

But for college students, new laptops often come at steep, unaffordable prices. Fortunately, there are ways to get a free laptop for college. Through scholarship opportunities, charitable donation programs and college student discount deals from top brands, tech is becoming more accessible to students.

What Is a Free Laptop Program?

Free laptop programs provide computers at no cost to students. Funded by colleges, educational nonprofits and scholarships from leading tech brands, these programs empower students with reliable tech to ensure academic and professional success.

Keep in mind: Most free laptop programs have specific eligibility requirements, including enrollment in an accredited four-year degree program.

Do Colleges supply Students Free Laptops?

Yes. Many colleges distribute free laptops at no cost to their students. The following are just a few examples of universities in the U.S. that ensure free technology to incoming students:

  • Moravian University issues MacBook Pros and iPads to students, including AppleCare coverage and the option to have regular repairs and service via Moravian’s IT help desk.
  • Full Sail University’s Project Launchbox gives every student a laptop loaded with professional creative software to promote an immersive, hands-on learning experience.
  • Chatham University’s first-year students receive a free, 13-inch MacBook Air laptop with AppleCare and SafeWare protection. They also get protective accessories and the option for on-campus repairs.

As you start applying to schools, check out their IT department websites. These usually outline any free or discounted laptop promotions for new students.

If your college or university doesn’t offer free laptops as a part of enrollment, check out your school’s library. Temporary laptop loans are typically available for students to use on campus. For commuter students who prefer to study off campus, local libraries are also a great option for borrowing free laptops.

Organizations that Provide Free Laptops

If you don’t have access to a laptop through school and you’re experiencing financial challenges, don’t worry. Several nonprofit organizations provide free laptops to students in need on a rolling basis.

The On It Foundation

Since 1999, the On It Foundation has provided free computers to low-income K-12 students in U.S. public schools. The nonprofit collaborates with educational institutions, businesses and local community members to collect and distribute donated computers. The organization also offers technology training and internet access to families.

To apply for a free computer, a parent or guardian should contact the On It Foundation via a letter or an email with a request that includes proof of financial need.

Computers with Causes

Receiving hundreds of requests per day, Computers with Causes gives over 20,000 donated computers annually as a part of the Giving Center Charity. Free computers are available to anyone. However, the organization prioritizes students and teachers, people experiencing housing insecurity, disabled veterans and military families.

Students can apply online and expect to receive confirmation of their free computer within a month.

Scholarships and Grants that Provide Free Laptops

High school students may be eligible for scholarship and grant opportunities that offer free laptops. These programs are often competitive and selective. Some are fairly accessible but require fundraising to cover the costs of technology.

Dell Scholars Program

Each year, the Dell Scholars Program provides high school graduates with a $20,000 educational scholarship, a free laptop, and textbook credits through Chegg—plus professional and personal resources to help navigate life challenges during the college years.

Applications open in October, so if you’re a rising high school senior, you can start submitting materials this fall. To qualify, candidates should have a minimum 2.4 GPA and be Pell Grant eligible. Applicants should also be on track to graduate in the same academic year they apply, and they should plan to enroll in a bachelor’s program immediately after graduation.

Laptops 4 Learning

Founded in 2015, Laptops 4 Learning (L4L) equips students with computer access to help them excel in school and the workplace. The mission-driven nonprofit also supports military veterans, who are also eligible for a laptop.

To obtain a free computer, register for an account on L4L’s website. From there, students should solicit their networks and local communities for donations to cover costs. Once sufficient funds are raised, students receive their free laptops.

Discounted Laptops for College Students

The following nonprofits and online platforms sell refurbished laptops at a discounted rate for students seeking reliable, affordable products. These are great options if you’re looking to save and invest in a device.

PCs for People

This nonprofit organization sells discounted desktop and laptop computers. It also provides a variety of tech services, including computer repair and recycling. With a mission to close the “digital divide”, PCs for People serves low-income families and individuals with disabilities.

Starting at $145 for a laptop, PCs for People currently offers brands like HP, Dell and Lenovo.

Dell Refurbished

Dell Refurbished sells an array of refurbished Latitude models at a discount. Offering thorough computer inspections plus “cosmetic grades” to ensure top-notch quality, bargain shoppers can snag a like-new laptop starting around $400.

Notebooks for Students

Originally founded by college students in California, Notebooks for Students (NFS) works with tech brands to provide refurbished, discounted laptops to students of all ages.

The organization’s homepage offers an extensive lineup of laptops categorized by school grade level and high-performance laptops. NFS offers both Mac and PC products, and prices start around $200.

Unlike most refurbished laptop sellers, NFS includes a free four-year warranty with the purchase of a laptop. This warranty includes full tech support to troubleshoot hardware repair, software installation and file recovery.


An e-commerce platform, ConnectAll aims to provide affordable, refurbished laptops and desktops to nonprofits and low-income individuals.

The organization’s laptop inventory is sortable by form factor, storage capacity, memory and operating system. With options for Mac and PC, prices range from about $100 to $1,000. This includes free shipping, a one-year extended warranty and pre-installed Microsoft Windows and Office software.

College Student Technology Discounts and Deals

If you’re set on purchasing a brand-new device, many trusted tech brands offer annual educational discounts that cater to college students. Some of these laptop offers include bundled add-ons like gift cards and pre-installed software.

Dell Student Discount

Dell’s student discount specials include savings of up to $200 on new models like the Inspiron 14. Dell offers a no-interest payment plan in their education pricing. The company also includes the option to install Microsoft Office software like Word, Excel and PowerPoint.

Microsoft Student Discount

Microsoft offers up to a 10% discount on select products for students, teachers, parents and the military. To access this discount, check your eligibility by logging in to your Microsoft account when prompted. From there, start shopping and the best price will appear as you browse.

Free access to Office 365 is also included when purchasing with a student discount. Note that this discount cannot be combined with other offers.

Apple Education Pricing

Apple is known for its educational discounts for students and parents, faculty and staff and even homeschool teachers. Shopping with a Checked email address and institutional affiliation can save students up to $100 on Apple products including iMac, MacBook Pro, Macbook Air and iPads.

Education pricing also includes an Apple gift card (up to $150 in value) when purchasing select items.

Samsung Education Offer Program

Through Samsung’s Education Offer Program, students can purchase a brand-new Galaxy Chromebook at a fraction of the retail cost, saving up to $575. Samsung’s back-to-school bargains are not limited to laptop deals. Students and educators can shop for tablets, phones, watches, audio accessories and more.

Sun, 31 Jul 2022 22:26:00 -0500 Ian Callahan en-US text/html
Killexams : Student Resources & Forms

The following is a summary of policies and procedures specific to the Department of Civil Engineering. Other University policies and procedures in the catalog also apply to Civil Engineering majors. These policies apply to all Civil Engineering students. It is the students' responsibility to understand these policies. The Department will not hear petitions for deviation from articulated policies made by students who disregard catalog policy.

Minimum Grade Requirements

The purpose of this requirement is to assure that all Civil Engineering majors attain the minimum level of competency in all their coursework required for a Bachelor of Science Civil Engineering Degree. All courses taken in the major must be completed with a grade of "C-" or better. In addition, the following minimum grade requirements must be met:

  1. A minimum grade point average of 2.0 ("C") is required in the major courses, presented for the degree.
  2. A minimum grade point average of 2.0 ("C") is required for courses used to meet general education requirements.
  3. A minimum grade point average of 2.0 ("C") is required for all courses attempted and for all courses attempted at CSUS.

Calculator Policy

Only current FE/EIT approved calculators will be allowed during in-class civil engineering exams. Use of an unapproved calculator will be considered an act of academic dishonesty. Per CE Department policy, the only calculators allowed for quizzes, tests, and exams are:

  • Casio: All fx-115 models; any Casio calculator with fx-115 in its model name is allowed.
  • Hewlett Packard: The HP 33s and HP 35s models are allowed. No other Hewlett Packard models are allowed.
  • Texas Instruments: All TI-30X and TI-36X models are allowed; any Texas Instruments calculator with TI-30X or TI-36X in its model name is allowed.


Mobile communication devices may not be substituted for calculators and are strictly prohibited from all quizzes and exams.

Incomplete Grades

Incomplete grades are issued only in accordance with University policy.

  1. The student must be passing the course at the time an "Incomplete" is requested.
  2. An Incomplete Petition must be submitted to the Department with the student's and the course instructor's signature.
  3. The Incomplete Petition (obtained in the Department office) must specify the work to be completed.
  4. It must also explain the basis by which the student's final grade will be determined
  5. The last date for completion of the incomplete work must be stated.
  6. An Incomplete grade that is not cleared by the set date will lapse to an F grade.
  7. An incomplete grade will revert to an F grade after two semesters.

University Repeat Limit Policy

Students may repeat no more than a total of 28 units at Sacramento State. (Students may repeat a maximum of 16 units for grade forgiveness, and students may repeat an additional 12 units for grade average beyond the 16 units of forgiveness, for a maximum of 28 total units.) Once the 28-unit limit has been reached, no exceptions will be granted.

Department Course Repeat Policy

Undergraduate engineering and civil engineering courses that are used to meet the Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering degree requirements may be repeated only twice (for a total of three attempts). Grades of the second and third attempt will be averaged in grade point calculations, and no grade can be earned after the third attempt.

Reinstatement Policy

Students seeking reinstatement to the Civil Engineering Major must complete a Reinstatement Petition (obtained at Admissions and Records). That petition will be reviewed by the Department Chair for approval or rejection. Note: The only basis for reinstatement is the expectation (supported by evidence provided by the student) that the student is now likely to progress towards the satisfactory completion of the Department's degree requirements in a timely manner.

Wed, 17 Jul 2019 21:03:00 -0500 en text/html
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The Times of India Education is a leading source that provides the reliable and latest news on education and jobs. Get the breaking news on CBSE, ICSE, Board Exams, colleges, universities, competitive exams, date sheet, admit card, answer key, result, admission, test analysis, job news, recruitment notifications, etc. The Times of India Education extensively covers subjects on Education news, Job news, CBSE, ICSE, Board Exams, Entrance Exams, Admission, Study Abroad, etc. Stay connected with The Times of India for the latest updates in the education sector.

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Killexams : Online Java Certification course

It was really great feeling after being a part of SiliconIndia Online Java Course. I think the course design is amazing, I feel that I was progressive each day to grasp all core concepts of Java and all concepts became easy to understand. After completing online java course, I came at SiliconIndia for Android classroom program for my Internship. Experience of this three-months classroom program was tremendous. Online Java Course was really helpful to learn Android. I really like this course. I learned all of the major components of Android development and would definitely recommend this course. I could not imagine what could be improved in this course. Thank you so much! I highly recommend SiliconIndia for Android training. My instructor was highly knowledgeable and the training exceeded all my expectations!

Sun, 16 Aug 2020 00:52:00 -0500 text/html
Killexams : UPSC (IAS) 2022: Sreenath K- The Coolie Who Cracked Civil Services Using Free WiFi

IAS Sreenath K's life is an inspiration for anyone who wishes to create an opportunity for themselves to achieve their goals and dreams in life. Check the life story of such a coolie of Mumbai Central who became an IAS officer. 

UPSC Success Story of a coolie who became an IAS using free WiFi: Who says mobile phones are demons that have driven the children astray? It cannot even harm adults only if used well. To prove this, we have a coolie who cracked UPSC Civil Services with the aid of only his mobile phone. It was his books, his syllabus, his study material and his practice papers. Take a look at IAS Sreenath K's success story which is so true yet unbelievable. 

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Who is IAS Sreenath K?

Sreenath K was a resident of Munnar and worked as a coolie in Ernakulam, Kerala. He is a man of a middle-class family and used to work as a porter on a railway station. He is the sole bread earner for his family. 

He had a tough job and a tough life as a young man. He was an authorised porter but at the age of 27 in 2018 he realised that the income of the porter was not sufficient to meet ends with his family. He had a one-year-old daughter at that time who he did not wish to face the perils of life, he had faced. So to supply her a good childhood he decided to do better. 

He began night shifts to increase his earnings from 400-500 per day to more than that. When even that could not be sufficient, it came across his mind to study for UPSC Civil Services. 

He had no money for coaching and tutoring so he decided to use whatever he could afford but he did not supply up the idea of becoming a Civil Servant. 

How did Sreenath K study for UPSC CSE?

The Government was providing free WiFi by 2016, so Sreenath decided to cash on that. He had a cell phone, a free WiFi connection which made him dream and achieve his goal. 

He came to Mumbai Central, where free wifi service was available to people and began his preparation for UPSC Civil Services. 

Sreenath spent his money, not on books but an earphone, a memory card, a sim card and a smartphone- Hence began his UPSC preparation.  

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Sreenath K's success:

Sreenath cracked the written test of Kerala Public Service Exam, KPSC using this technique. Sreenath wished to Boost his village and the condition of his family as well. It took him four tries to clear UPSC Civil Services Exam. He worked hard and never gave up. He did not supply up his job either. It was not an option for him at all to leave the job of a porter. He cleared Civil Services in his 4t attempt to become an IAS officer. 

Sreenath K’s life is an example for many who do not get equal opportunities but wish to create their own lives. 

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UPSC 2022: Best Optional Subject In UPSC Syllabus to Successfully Clear The IAS Exam

Wed, 05 Jan 2022 19:00:00 -0600 text/html
Killexams : The Princeton Review Promo Codes August 2022

ACT and SAT Success

The Princeton Review offers a combination of online tutoring and self-directed learning. Their most popular offerings are The Princeton Review Cracking the SAT and The Princeton Review ACT prep courses. These courses come with a money-back ensure if you don't get the results you want. The ACT 31+ Guaranteed product offers maximum results in two months, with 36 hours total of instruction. You can also complete The Princeton Review memorizing and writing workout for the SAT.

The courses also recommend using The Princeton Review Word Smart books, which help students develop an educated vocabulary to ace their SAT. The book is also useful in cultivating a vocabulary, allowing you to sound informed and educated in day-to-day conversations. 

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Killexams : Best life insurance companies for 2021Best life insurance companies for 2021

In the event of an untimely death, having your finances in order is important to help protect your loved ones. In addition to creating a will, a life insurance policy can bolster your family's financial security and ease the burden of latent expenses. 

Life insurance works like a contract. In exchange for the payment of a premium, an insurance carrier agrees to pay a specified amount of money, called the death benefit, to a beneficiary in the case of the policyholder's death. Purchasing a life insurance policy requires designation of beneficiaries who will receive monetary support after you die. Your premium, which is a fixed amount, can be paid either monthly or yearly. The amount of the death benefit and length of the coverage period are variables that figure into the price of your premium.

The two main types of life insurance are term life insurance and permanent life insurance. Term life insurance provides a certain amount of financial protection for a premium that's paid over an exact period of time, or term, such as 20 or 30 years.

Once the term is up, the policyholder can forgo protection or sign up for an additional policy with new terms and conditions. Term insurance generally provides the highest amount of financial protection for the lowest cost.

"If I need to make sure my family or business is protected in the case of my passing prematurely, I want to focus on term insurance," says David Gastwirth, an insurance strategist with American Business. "It's the fundamental cornerstone of one's insurance plan."

Death benefits for term life insurance typically start at $100,000 and go up to $3 million, which should be an adequate life insurance protection for most people. (In some cases, you can get a term life insurance policy with a $5 million benefit.) Gastwirth recommends erring on the side of more coverage since the cost of a life insurance policy increases as you age -- and if you develop health issue complications later in life, you could become uninsurable.

roll of money

Term life insurance is usually cheaper, while permanent life insurance can provide a return on your money.

Sarah Tew/CNET

Permanent life insurance includes whole life, universal life or any combination of policies that are designed to provide protection for the entire life of the policyholder, as long as premiums are paid. Most of these policies include an insurance portion and an investment portion.

Some companies will sell hybrid life insurance polices that bundle long-term care insurance. If long-term care isn't used, the remaining value of that portion of the insurance shifts to the death benefit. If long-term care is required, the death benefit will be reduced accordingly.

The cost of a life insurance policy -- and the pricing of your monthly or annual premium -- is primarily determined by the term length and size of the death benefit. Other factors that may come into play include your health and age at sign-up, gender, whether you're a smoker and where you live. Adults in good health under the age of 40 can expect to pay between $25 and $50 per month for a 20- or 30-year term life insurance plan with a death benefit around $500,000.

Most experts recommend buying a policy with a death benefit equal to 10 to 12 times their annual income and a term long enough to cover living expenses and future financial liabilities, such as mortgage payments and college tuition. 

After comparing coverage features, customer service rankings, corporate stability and the average price of a policy from 25 life insurance companies, we selected the six companies highlighted below. They all offer 20-year policies with a $500,000 death benefit for $23 to $32 per month (or $5,520 to $7,200 over the course of the term). The larger companies, including Northwestern Mutual and State Farm, are known for superior customer service and offer more expensive policies. All of the companies considered for our list offer policies to residents in every US state. 

Read on to discover our top picks for insurance companies.    

Best life insurance companies


We think Principal Financial Group offers the best combination of affordable coverage and customer satisfaction, which is why it tops our list of the best life insurance companies. It ranked 4th in J.D. Power's 2019 customer satisfaction survey and had far fewer customer complaints than the industry average, according to the National Association of Insurance Commissioners. 

Among the companies profiled here, Principal's insurance coverage monthly premium, with packages including universal life insurance, was the second least expensive. A 20-year, $500,000 term life policy for a healthy 35-year-old costs $23 per month -- compared with an average life insurance rate of $25.80. That, plus an A+ financial strength rating from A.M. Best and 140 years in the business, makes Principal a great insurance company choice for just about anyone looking to ensure that their loved ones have additional financial stability.

Principal offers life insurance plan term lengths of 10, 15, 20 and 30 years, with death benefits ranging from $200,000 to $5,000,000. The $200,000 minimum is a bit higher than others, but most people should opt for a policy with at least $250,000 of coverage, if possible.

State Farm

State Farm's prices are similar to Northwestern Mutual's, but this insurance company's more expensive policies earn excellent customer service marks and offer a lot of term length flexibility. You can also begin the life insurance coverage application process on the State Farm website, though in most cases you'll eventually need to speak with a State Farm representative to finalize your insurance product application. Like Haven Life, State Farm offers add-on riders that let the policyholder access a living benefit subtracted from the death benefit cash value should that person have a situation such as terminal illness or disability.

Haven Life

Haven Life Insurance Agency's policies are backed by MassMutual, one of the biggest and oldest insurance companies in the US. But its modern touches and unequaled convenience are what distinguish this insurance agency from the rest of the field.

Most insurers require you to meet in person with a financial advisor or a life insurance product agent before approving your policy. (Some won't even supply you a quote without a phone call first.) In the novel coronavirus era, shopping for term life insurance coverage, universal life insurance or a permanent life insurance policy from the comfort and safety of your own home is a particularly compelling prospect. Haven Life is one of the few life insurance company providers that will sell you a policy without requiring a doctor or lab visit first. Haven Life also offers policy riders that may let you access part of a policy's cash value death benefit in the event of a disability or terminal illness.

Most customers will need to complete a medical exam within 120 days after signing up, but coverage starts immediately after being approved online. Your responses must be accurate, as any discrepancies could create issues with payment of the death benefit. As long as you have a reasonably complete understanding of your family's health history (and your own), the application shouldn't take more than 15 to 20 minutes. 

Haven Life, a top life insurance agency, had the lowest term life price quote among all the providers listed here. A 20-year, $500,000 policy for a healthy 35-year-old costs $22.34, compared with an average of $25.80. Haven Life offers term life policies ranging from 10 to 30 years, with term insurance coverage benefits ranging from $100,000 to $3 million to help provide financial stability for your family. And MassMutual has a solid reputation for customer service and financial standing.


With an offering that's similar to Principal Financial Group's, Nationwide doesn't win any life insurance coverage category outright, but ranks consistently high in all life insurance product plans. The life insurance company's prices are right in line with the field, offering options for term life insurance, universal life insurance, whole life and variable life insurance. The insurer is known for good customer service and corporate stability. It also offers a large number of riders -- more than many competitors.

Banner Life/Legal and General America

Banner Life insurance policies are issued by Legal and General America, the American branch of the British multinational financial services company. Legal and General wasn't included in JD Power's survey but the life insurance company has been around since 1836 and has an excellent reputation for customer service and affordability. This insurance company provides both term life insurance and universal life insurance, a type of permanent insurance. And it's one of the few companies we've seen that offers 25-year terms.

Northwestern Mutual

Though each of these life insurance company options has earned a reputation for respectable customer service, Northwestern Mutual is known as the best in the business. The largest life insurer in the US, Northwestern topped JD Power's 2019 customer satisfaction survey and has been recognized by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners for having the fewest customer complaints on average of all life insurance coverage insurers. 

Most of Northwestern's term insurance policies span 10 to 20 years. Benefits start at $100,000 and go up to $5 million, though a company representative said on the phone that they're always adding new products and you should speak with a financial advisor about what life insurance product makes the most sense for your situation. 

Northwestern offers premium customer service -- but the insurance company's policies, including term life insurance, whole life insurance and universal life insurance, aren't cheap. With quotes that are roughly 20% higher than competitors', there are plenty of more affordable life insurance plan options. That noted, if exceptional customer service is your priority, Northwestern is the best choice.

Best life insurance companies, compared

Company Principal Financial Group State Farm Haven Life (MassMutual) Nationwide Banner Life / Legal and General America Northwestern Mutual
Best for Best overall Best in customer satisfaction Cheapest and fastest Most riders Most flexible terms Best for earning dividends
JD Power Customer Satisfaction Rank 10 1 7* 2 N/A 3
Monthly premium* $23.00 $30.44 $22.34 $23.57 $23.89 $31.75
Coverage terms 10, 15, 20 or 30 years 10, 20 or 30 years 10, 15, 20 or 30 years 10, 15, 20 or 30 years 10, 15, 20, 25 or 30 years 10 or 20 years
Death benefits $200,000 to $5 million Unspecified $100,000 to $3 million $100,000 to $1 million $100,000 to $10 million $100,000 to $5 million
Can you buy a policy online? No Yes Yes No No No

*This score is for MassMutual, which owns Haven Life.


Should I buy life insurance?

If anyone relies on you for financial support -- children, spouse or parent -- you should have life insurance. 

Many people buy a policy around the time of a major life milestone. When you take on debt to buy a house or send a child to college, a policy can help ensure that your obligations are paid even if you die. A life insurance policy can also help your dependents manage living expenses as well as include final expense insurance for burial and funeral costs.

I'm under 40 and in good health. Do I really need life insurance?

Yes. The best time to buy life insurance is when you are young and healthy, because it becomes more expensive as you become older.

What is a rider? Should I add one to my policy?

A rider is an optional feature that you can add to a standard policy; they're usually available only for a whole life or universal life insurance policy. A chronic illness rider, for example, provides the insured with a portion of their death benefit if they're diagnosed with a terminal illness. A disability rider waives or reduces the monthly premium if the policyholder becomes incapacitated. 

Though that may sound attractive, most riders aren't worth the expense. While they might only add a dollar or two to your monthly premium payment, that adds up over 10 or 20 years.

I have health problems or preexisting conditions. How should I shop for insurance?

It's worth shopping around to see if any life insurer offers a policy designed for your specific situation. Health insurance companies generally classify clients in one of four categories: Preferred Best (sometimes called "Super Preferred"), Second Best Preferred (or simply "Preferred"), Standard Plus and Standard. Current or recent smokers are classified as either Preferred Smoker or Standard Smoker. 

Each insurance company has its own approach to classifying customers; some may categorize you as a smoker even if you quit three years ago. Your categorization will help determine your life insurance coverage premium, so be honest and specific when speaking with an advisor or representative. And it's worth the effort to identify a life insurance company and policy that will cover you affordably and effectively, whatever your health status. 

How should I choose a life insurance term period?

You want a policy that covers the period of your greatest financial liabilities. If you're buying insurance today to ensure that you can pay college tuition for a 12-year-old child, for example, a 10-year policy would make sense. It's generally better to err on the side of a longer-term policy, since the cost and availability of products will change as you get older.

How should I choose a coverage amount?

There are two ways to approach this. An "income replacement" strategy provides your family with a payout that's sufficient to support them for 15 to 20 years, through a combination of principal and interest. An appropriate amount of coverage is roughly 10 to 12 times your current annual income. 

The alternative is "expense calculation," which correlates the size of the policy with your present and future financial obligations -- such as a mortgage or college tuition (which currently comes to around $175,000 on average for a private four-year institution). Both factors can help you when determining the size of your policy. Nationwide provides a useful online worksheet for a more in-depth look. 

What should I do if my financial situation changes significantly?

Life is unpredictable, and when your financial situation changes, you'll need to reassess your insurance coverage. If you no longer need insurance, you can always cancel your policy. If your obligations increase significantly -- you take on a mortgage or have kids, for example -- you can always purchase additional insurance. Even though life insurance is designed for the long term, there are plenty of supplemental options for when circumstances change. 

Should I buy a guaranteed life insurance policy?

For most people, the answer is no. Guaranteed life insurance policies are easy to get, even for older or less healthy people who may not need to take a medical exam. But the death benefit is typically very low and the premiums are high. Also, most guaranteed policies have a two-year waiting period: If you die during the first two years of coverage, the insurer will refund the cash value of the premiums you paid -- but not provide the death benefit.

What if my coverage term expires before I die?

Despite the name, life insurance is really more income insurance. It ensures uninterrupted financial support for your family. Once your children can support themselves, your mortgage is paid off and you've saved enough to cover retirement, you'll have less need for life insurance. 

How we chose the best life insurance companies

All the providers profiled here satisfy the minimum requirements for a life insurance company. Our analysis prioritized customer service, financial standing and price -- but each of these companies has earned respectable customer service grades from J.D. Power, a low complaint index from the National Association of Insurance Commissioners and an A++ or A+ rating for financial strength from A.M. Best. 

Though some of their policies are less expensive than others, all of these insurance product companies offer competitive premium rates. Note that the exact price of your life insurance policy will depend on your health, location, sex and age. The bottom line: You can confidently choose any of these insurance company options for a reasonably priced, comprehensive term life insurance policy. 

More financial advice

The editorial content on this page is based solely on objective, independent assessments by our writers and is not influenced by advertising or partnerships. It has not been provided or commissioned by any third party. However, we may receive compensation when you click on links to products or services offered by our partners.

Wed, 27 Jul 2022 05:26:00 -0500 en text/html
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