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Every fall, new students join the lab, eager to learn about consciousness and the brain. At this time of the year, I always ask myself, "What are the fundamental ideas about consciousness and the brain that should be taught first?" I always find myself revising, updating, streamlining, and making clearer the ideas in introductory lectures and the lab manual (Morsella, 2022). Below are the four fundamentals that, over the years, have always been presented first, both in the manual and in lab discussions.

The first thing to learn is what a “conscious content” is. Any particular thing one is conscious of has been referred to as a “conscious content.” A conscious content could be the sight of a coffee cup, an afterimage, a song that keeps playing in one’s mind, a percept, an urge (e.g., to scratch a sunburn), the smell of an ice cream sundae, or an autobiographical memory (e.g., memory of last summer’s camping trip).

The term “conscious content” refers to the most basic form of consciousness: If a creature is capable of having an experience of any kind—pain, nausea, a pleasant dream, or the sound of a bell—then it possesses this basic form of consciousness (Morsella, 2022). In short, to have an experience of any kind is to have some kind of conscious content. Sometimes people refer to this kind of basic consciousness as “awareness,” which means the same thing: Being aware of a cup or ringing in the ears is to experience these conscious contents.

The second thing to learn is the term “conscious field.” The conscious field is made up of all the conscious contents that are activated at one moment in time: the sight of an ice cream sundae plus the smell of coffee plus the feeling of the chair on which one is sitting plus the song that one cannot get out of one’s mind plus the memory of the doctor reminding one to cut down on sweets.

We are not aware of, and have no conscious contents for, many things going on in the brain or body—peristalsis in the gut, how the pupils in the eye are controlled, and many other activities in the nervous system (e.g., motor and syntactic programming). These processes are said to be unconscious. There is usually no experience about them. We know of these processes mainly through practicing about them in textbooks. We have no direct experience about them. In short, “unconscious events are those processes that, though capable of systematically influencing behavior, cognition, motivation, and emotion, do not influence the organism’s subjective experience in such a way that the organism can directly detect, understand, or self-report the occurrence or nature of these events” (from Morsella & Bargh, 2011).

Knowledge of unconscious process leads to the third important fundamental about consciousness and the brain: Not all brain processes and regions are associated with consciousness. Consciousness is associated with only a subset of the regions and processes. Researchers are attempting to home in on these circuits associated with consciousness (e.g., Morsella et al., 2016; Morsella, 2022).

The fourth fundamental is an observation that holds some clues about why one needs a fully operational conscious field, one in which many conscious contents are presented: Each conscious content activates brain processes, including, to some extent, behavioral inclinations. Consider the classic Stroop task (Stroop, 1935). In the task, subjects are instructed to name the color in which a word is written. When the word and color are incongruent (e.g., RED presented in blue), “response conflict” leads to increased error rates and response times. The response conflict arises because, though one intends to name only the color in which the word is printed, the stimulus (RED) activates involuntarily the “word reading” action plan (to utter “red”).

Because conscious contents can activate processes that influence behavior, it is essential that one conscious content (e.g., a tasty ice cream sundae) not be presented alone to have too much influence on behavior. Such a monopoly would not lead to adaptive behavior. Each content should be “checked” by other conscious contents (e.g., the memory that the doctor recommended cutting down on sweets). (This is called a “frame check”; Morsella et al., 2016.) Because voluntary behavior is influenced by the many conscious contents in the field, we respond to a given stimulus (the tasty sundae) not in isolation but in light of the other contents (e.g., memory of doctor) composing the conscious field.

With these four fundamentals, incoming students not only understand new terms but also begin to appreciate the important role of the conscious field in yielding adaptive actions that are context-sensitive. Over the years, these four fundamentals have consistently appeared at the beginning of the lab manual (Morsella, 2022), and I can’t foresee an introduction to the lab without them.

Tue, 11 Oct 2022 12:14:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/consciousness-and-the-brain/202210/the-first-4-fundamentals-about-consciousness-and-the-brain
Killexams : HP 14 Laptop Review

Here’s a two-word summary: pretty well!

Upon opening the box you definitely get the feeling that this is more Timex than Rolex: It’s a mass-market device aimed at everyday consumers who don’t necessarily need (or even want) a premium laptop. It’s quite plasticy with a bit of flex to it. It sounds hollow when you tap it. The bezel (the border that frames the display itself) is pretty big compared with higher-end laptops. It’s covered in stickers. 

All of the above are signs of a laptop that was designed to hit a low price. But you know what? When you’re actually using the laptop, it isn’t half bad.

In terms of specs, it has an Intel Core i3 processor, 8GB of memory, and 256GB of solid-state storage. On paper, you’d be forgiven for thinking the laptop would be somewhat underwhelming.

Guess again. Browsing around the web, even on today’s ad-laden websites, proceeds smoothly. Watching HD video on YouTube is more or less identical to the experience you’d get on a much more powerful PC (such as the gaming PC this review is being written on), although you can really hear the laptop’s fans whirring while doing so.

Switching between different apps like Edge, Adobe Photoshop Elements, and Word either using the keyboard shortcut alt-tab or by clicking the Windows Task Bar? No problems there, showing that despite being a lower-priced laptop, its everyday performance is more than adequate.

If you’re the type of person who immediately downloads a tool like GeekBench or Prime95 to see how fast your computer actually is, well, none of this may be too impressive. But if you’re not that person (and most of us aren’t), then it’s hard to find much fault here.

Fri, 07 Oct 2022 05:07:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.consumerreports.org/electronics-computers/laptops-chromebooks/hp-14-laptop-review-a2506971195/
Killexams : Best HP Laptops for 2022

HP laptops offer something for you, whether you're a creative looking to edit photos, a gamer in search of a powerful laptop or a student in need of a small, lightweight laptop.

Many of the best HP laptops have features designed for remote or hybrid work such as improved webcams and microphones, better audio quality, longer battery life, faster charging and the fastest Wi-Fi 6 wireless.

Like other PC makers such as Dell, Lenovo, Acer and Asus, HP is in the midst of updating the processors in its laptops and two-in-ones. That means Intel-based models are moving from 11th-gen to 12th-gen CPUs, while AMD Ryzen systems are switching from 5000-series chips to 6000-series. It also means it's generally a good time to look for deals on older models of the best HP laptops. However, we've also seen big performance improvements with the new processors. An updated model might cost a little more but will add to the overall longevity. 

CNET

Spectre is HP's top consumer laptop line so you're getting the best of the best with this 16-inch two-in-one. 

  • Beautiful design
  • Lots of features for home and office work
  • Great webcam
  • Active pen and laptop sleeve included

Of course, a premium two-in-one like the Spectre x360 comes at a relatively high price; it starts at around $1,200. The top-end configuration we reviewed was good but not great considering its $2,030 price. This is definitely one we recommend getting with the 12th-gen Intel processors and Intel Arc graphics if you're going to go all-in. Read our HP Spectre x360 16 review.

James Martin/CNET

HP's Victus 16 is a surprisingly robust and powerful gaming laptop that keeps up with the latest games at a more affordable price. Compared to HP's high-end Omen gaming laptop line, the Victus is more of an all-purpose laptop but still configured for gaming with a price starting at less than $1,000. HP offers several configurations with graphics chip options ranging from Nvidia's entry-level GeForce GTX 1650 up to a midrange RTX 3060 or AMD Radeon RX 6500M. We like almost everything about it except for its flimsy display hinge and underwhelming speakers. Read our HP Victus 16 review.

Josh Goldman/CNET

There are plenty of convertible Chromebooks, where the screen flips around to the back of the keyboard so you can use it as a tablet. But Chrome tablets with removable keyboards like the HP Chromebook x2 11 are still a rarity. It offers long battery life and performance that rises (slightly) above the competition. The main downside is that it's expensive; the model we reviewed is $599. However, that price did include both the keyboard cover and USI pen and it's regularly on sale for $200. If you're interested make sure to wait for one of those deals. Read our HP Chromebook x2 11 review.

Josh Goldman/CNET

If you're making a laptop aimed at creatives, it's not enough to just put discrete graphics and a strong processor in a slim body. The extra performance really should be paired with a good screen, and that's what you get with the HP Envy 14. The laptop's 16:10 14-inch 1,920x1,200-pixel display not only gives you more vertical room to work, but is color-calibrated at the factory and covers 100% of the sRGB color gamut. The result: a well-rounded option for creatives looking for on-the-go performance at a reasonable price. This model is due for a refresh, though, so keep an eye out for updated models. Read our HP Envy 14 review.

Fri, 24 Jun 2022 23:01:00 -0500 See full bio en text/html https://www.cnet.com/tech/computing/best-hp-laptops-for-2022/
Killexams : HP Envy 16 Review Mon, 10 Oct 2022 02:32:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.pcmag.com/reviews/hp-envy-16 Killexams : FFXIV Beginner Tank Guide © Provided by CBR

Every adventuring party in Final Fantasy XIV needs a tank. The stalwart spearheads of the group, tanks lead the party through the battlefields. The primary purpose of the tank is simply to draw enmity (or aggro) away from the party. Effectively, the tank functions as the leader of the party, and how the dungeon, trial, or raid goes can ultimately be up to their discretion.

The idea of being at the forefront of all the damage and leading the party can be extremely daunting, however. Tanking can feel like too much responsibility for newer players or the uninitiated, but like with all learning processes, it's best to take one step at a time. This guide will break down the basics that any aspiring tank will need to begin their mighty journey. So long as these fundamentals are understood, tanking can be a fun and rewarding experience.

RELATED: Final Fantasy XIV: Did Island Sanctuary Live Up To the Hype?

Understanding Tank Stance Is Crucial

The first -- and yet undoubtedly the most crucial -- step to tanking is understanding Tank Stance. For Gladiators/Paladins, it's Iron Will, for Marauders/Warriors, it's Defiance, for Dark Knights, it's Grit, and for Gunbreakers, it's Royal Guard. At level 10, players unlock the tank stance, which increases enmity generation, ensuring that the tank maintains aggro so long as they keep doing damage. This is incredibly essential to tanking. In light parties of four players, the tank must always ensure this is on. In full parties of eight players, one tank must have this on (designated the main tank or MT), and the other tank (designated the off tank or OT) must start the duty with this off to not steal enmity from the main tank.

If there is a singular tank, this stance must always be on. Enmity generation is what keeps the enemy from decimating the rest of the party. To maintain enmity, all tanks need to do is keep doing damage, usually by repeating Area Of Effect attacks ad nauseam. If all is done right, the tank won't ever lose enmity.

RELATED: Final Fantasy XIV: How To Work the Market Board

Get a Handle on Mitigations

The next integral step in tanking is understanding mitigations. Tanks are given plenty of skills solely to help lessen the amount of damage they take during fights. Though these skills may seem small in concept, a good mitigation understanding is very often the difference between life and death. Strategically using and spacing out rotations makes both the tank and the healer's job easier, so it is a good idea to get a handle on the nuance of damage mitigators.

All tanks share three kinds of mitigation: Rampart at level 8 (lowers damage done to tank), Reprisal at level 22 (lowers damage from nearby enemies) and Arm's Length at level 32 (nullifies knockback and slows enemy attacks). Each of these mitigations has a particular use and should be spaced out accordingly, so there is always one handy when needed. Under no circumstances should a tank ever stack mitigations, as their benefits are multiplicative and thus offer diminishing returns.

RELATED: Final Fantasy XIV: 3 Buried Memory Theories That Will Blow You Away

Learn to Pull the Mobs

In dungeons, enemies are grouped up into packs. The tank's job is to grab (or pull) the attention of these packs as the party burns them down. Ideally, the best way to do this is to walk forward until the dungeon no longer allows the tank to advance while doing an AoE attack on any enemies they pass (known as a Wall-to-Wall Pull). The main reason for this is that the more enemies that are hit by an AoE, the more damaging the AoE becomes. On longer pulls, tanks may find that they begin to lose enmity, but this is okay so long as the tank just keeps moving. The tank can recover all of it once they reach the end of the pull.

However, wall-to-wall pulls can be intensive for both healers and tanks alike, so if newer tanks are anxious about jumping into the deep end, a good place to start is to pull two packs of enemies, mitigate damage, defeat the enemies and repeat. Pulling a single pack of enemies is not recommended, as it doesn't make the best usage of AoE attacks. Overall, it slows the dungeon down. A good rule of thumb that all players should remember is that if there are three or more enemies, do an AoE.

RELATED: Crisis Core's Worst Gameplay Mechanic Has Finally Been Fixed

Keep Positioning in Mind

In boss fights and raids, the tank is going to be the center of attention for all the enemies, so it's a good idea to keep positioning in mind. Generally, when the tank has the boss aggroed, the tank will want to turn the boss away from the party and stop moving. Facing the boss away easily avoids cleaving the party with a wide attack, which means less work for the healers. Additionally, keeping the boss still and pointing away makes life much easier for DPS classes with positional attacks.

As for positioning in dungeons, the big thing tanks need to look out for is their positioning relative to the healer. If the tank walks out of range or leaves the line of sight of the healer, it could spell imminent doom, even with the Twelve's blessing. Newer tanks must also watch their positioning to not accidentally aggro additional enemy packs that they aren't prepared for.

RELATED: Final Fantasy XIV: Are the Dragoon and Astrologian Reworks Necessary?

Use Invulnerabilities When Necessary

Sometimes, things just go wrong. Sometimes, the party does everything right, and still, it comes to a wipe. Not to fear, invulnerabilities are skills for tanks that stop or delay a tank's untimely demise. These abilities come with a lengthy recast timer, so tanks must ensure that they only use these skills when a wipe is imminent.

Not all invulns are built the same, however. The Gladiator/Paladin gets Hallowed Ground, which simply negates all damage for 10 seconds. The Marauder/Warrior gets Holmgang, which doesn't allow the tank to go below 1 HP for 10 seconds. The Dark Knight gets Living Dead, which, when they die, gives them 10 seconds where all their attacks heal. If they heal a total equaling their max HP, they don't die. The Gunbreaker gets Superbolide, which reduces the tank's HP to 1 but nullifies all damage for 10 seconds. When planning to use Superbolide, it's important to inform the healer so as to not waste any heals.

Following this guide will prepare any new tanks for the long journey ahead of them. Tanking can be daunting to the uninitiated, but so long as these basics are followed and understood, there's little that can keep a new tank down. If new tanks are struggling to digest all this information, they just need to remember this sequence of events: stance, pull, mitigate, and repeat.

Sat, 15 Oct 2022 02:15:12 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/technology/ffxiv-beginner-tank-guide/ar-AA12ZPxH
Killexams : Fundamentals of Building Information Modeling Killexams : Access Denied You don't have permission to access "http://www.usnews.com/education/skillbuilder/fundamentals-of-building-information-modeling-1_course_v1:PurdueX+CE522001+1T2022_verified" on this server.

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Thu, 08 Sep 2022 13:57:00 -0500 text/html https://www.usnews.com/education/skillbuilder/fundamentals-of-building-information-modeling-1_course_v1:PurdueX+CE522001+1T2022_verified
Killexams : HP Elite Dragonfly G3 Review Wed, 21 Sep 2022 00:28:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.pcmag.com/reviews/hp-elite-dragonfly-g3 Killexams : Oil prices seesaw as traders await expected OPEC+ cut

Oil futures ended Wednesday at their highest price in three weeks after OPEC+ agreed to reduce output by 2 million barrels a day and U.S. data revealed a second straight weekly decline in crude supplies.

Still, traders were unsure of just how much the group of major producers will really manage to cut output given that they have been unable to reach their previous production quotas.

Price action
  • West Texas Intermediate crude for November delivery rose $1.24, or 1.4%, to settle at $87.76 a barrel on the New York Mercantile Exchange after posting a gain of 3.5% Tuesday.
  • December Brent crude the global benchmark, was added $1.57, or 1.7%, to end at $93.37 a barrel on ICE Futures Europe. Front-month prices for Brent and WTI ended the session at their highest since Sept. 14, according to Dow Jones Market Data.
  • Back on Nymex, November gasoline declined by 0.5% to $2.6685 a gallon, while November heating oil added 4.3% to $3.6869 a gallon.
  • November natural gas rose 1.4% to $6.93 per million British thermal units.
Market drivers

Crude prices had spent the first days of the week rallying on expectations OPEC+ — made up of Saudi-led OPEC and other major producers, led by Russia — would deliver a large cut to output at its meeting, held Wednesday in Vienna.

On Wednesday, the group said it agreed to reduce production by 2 million barrels a day starting in November. That’s the largest reduction since the start of the pandemic in 2020, which led to declines in energy demand amid travel restrictions.

“The quota cut agreement is material and sends a clear signal that Saudi Arabia and the group together are willing to stabilize and support oil markets,” said Shin Kim, head of oil supply and production analytics at S&P Global Commodity Insights, in emailed comments.

Read: What’s next for oil prices after OPEC+ delivers a big production cut

Even so, analysts note that with several OPEC+ members already producing below their production target, the genuine reduction from current output levels would likely be smaller.

Read: Why an OPEC+ oil production cut could be less than meets the eye

The cut “compensates for the lack of oil demand growth from China during 2022,” said Rob Thummel, portfolio manager at Tortoise. He said that China’s oil demand may not show growth this year even though, typically, it climbs by around 600,000 barrels a day on average every year.

Oil prices have “rebounded by 7% in the first few days of the fourth quarter as the current OPEC+ production cut has been priced into oil prices already,” he told MarketWatch.

The OPEC+ group is also under-producing its current quota by 3.5 million barrels per day, with OPEC itself under-producing by 1.2 million barrels per day and allied countries under producing by 2.4 million barrels a day, led by Russia, said Thummel.

Given that, the genuine cut to current production is around one million barrels per day, he said.

Crude prices fell last week to an eight-month low but have bounced sharply this week, with WTI up more than 10% and Brent rising more than 9%.

In reaction to the move, U.S. President Joe Biden said he is “disappointed by the shortsighted decision” to cut production while the global economy is dealing with the continued negative impact of Russian President Vladimir Putin’s invasion of Ukraine. Biden, after a controversial visit to Saudi Arabia in July, said at the time he expected the kingdom to boost output.

Supply data

Also Wednesday, the Energy Information Administration on Wednesday reported weekly declines for U.S. crude, gasoline and distillate inventories.

Domestic crude inventories fell by 1.4 million barrels for the week ended Sept. 30. On average, analysts forecasted a decline of 1.5 million barrels, according to a poll conducted by S&P Global Commodity Insights. The American Petroleum Institute, an industry group, late Tuesday said U.S. crude inventories fell by 1.8 million barrels last week, according to news reports.

The EIA also reported weekly inventory declines of 4.7 million barrels for gasoline and 3.4 million barrels for distillates The S&P Global Commodity Insights survey had called for decreases of 2.3 million barrels for gasoline and 1.8 million barrels for distillates.

Crude stocks at the Cushing, Okla., Nymex delivery hub edged up by 300,000 barrels for the week, the EIA said, while crude stocks in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve fell by 6.2 million barrels to 416.4 million barrels.

Tue, 04 Oct 2022 23:27:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.msn.com/en-us/money/markets/oil-prices-seesaw-as-traders-await-expected-opec-2b-cut/ar-AA12CO0Z
Killexams : HP targets construction sites with autonomous floorplan-printing robots

HP has put forward a small robot it says can dramatically speed up construction work, by autonomously printing guidelines straight from the blueprints onto the floor. Rugged, roadworthy and extremely accurate, Siteprint is a super-quick layout tool.

The robot replaces the time-consuming manual process of site layout, using a variety of different inks to place precise lines, exact curves and faithful reproductions of complex shapes on all kinds of floors, from porous surfaces like concrete and plywood to terrazzo, vinyl or epoxy.

It doesn't require a perfectly smooth or clean floor – indeed, it can handle a certain degree of surface irregularity and obstacles up to 2 cm (0.8 in) high. It runs built-in obstacle and cliff drop sensors for fully autonomous operation, and will work around barriers even if they're not in the plans.

As well as layout lines, it's capable of printing more or less whatever else you need on the floor too, including text notes. Operators set it up using cloud-based tools for job preparation, fleet management and tracking, and can run it on site with a touch-screen tablet and a tripod-mounted "totalstation."

HP claims the SitePrint robot replicated seven hours of manual layout work in 45 minutes in testing, with extreme accuracy

HP

“The existing manual layout process can be slow and labor intensive,” said Albert Zulps, Director of Emerging Technology at Skanska - a global construction and development company currently using the SitePrint system for two of its US projects. "Despite being done by specialists, there is always the risk of human error, which can result in costly reworks. Layout experts are a scarce resource who add a lot of value in terms of planning and strategy, but often end up dedicating most of their time to manual execution. HP SitePrint lets us do more with less, helping reduce schedules thanks to a much faster layout process, and allowing senior operators to focus on other critical activities like quality control.”

While HP hasn't announced pricing, we assume the printer robot itself will be surprisingly cheap, but the ink's gonna be a killer. Yuk yuk.

Check out Siteprint in the video below.

HP SitePrint Skanska testimonial | HP

Source: HP

Thu, 15 Sep 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://newatlas.com/robotics/hp-siteprint-building-blueprint/
Killexams : Breast cancer awareness fundamentals

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