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Exam Code: HP2-B102 Practice exam 2022 by Killexams.com team
HP Imaging and Printing Sales Fundamentals
HP Fundamentals study help
Killexams : HP Fundamentals study help - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/HP2-B102 Search results Killexams : HP Fundamentals study help - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/HP2-B102 https://killexams.com/exam_list/HP Killexams : The Last Scientific Calculator?

There was a time when being an engineering student meant you had a sword. Well, really it was a slide rule hanging from your belt, but it sounds cooler to call it a sword. The slide rule sword gave way to calculators hanging from your belt loop, and for many engineers that calculator was from HP. Today’s students are more likely to have a TI or Casio calculator, but HP is still in there with the HP Prime. It is hard to call it a calculator since the latest variant has a 528 MHz ARM Cortex A7, 256 MB of RAM, and 512 MB of ROM. But if you can’t justify a $150 calculator, there are some cheap and even free options out there to get the experience. To start with, HP has a free app that runs on Windows or Mac that works just like the calculator. Of course, that’s free as in no charge, not free as in open source. But still, it will run under Wine with no more than the usual amount of coaxing.

You might wonder why you need a calculator on your computer, and perhaps you don’t. However, the HP Prime isn’t just your 1980s vintage calculator. It also has an amazing number of applications including a complete symbolic math system based on xCAS/Giac. It is also programmable using a special HP language that is sort of like Basic or Pascal. Other applications include plotting, statistics, solvers, and even a spreadsheet that can hold up to 10,000 rows and 676 columns.

Portability

It is easy to think that HP provides the free PC software so you’ll go out and buy the real calculator, and that may be part of it. However, you can also get official apps for Android and iOS. They aren’t free, but they are relatively inexpensive. On iOS the cost right now is $25 and on Android it is $20. There are also “lite” versions that are free.

It appears that these apps are not emulating the actual calculator hardware, but are ports of the calculator code. So this isn’t a case of someone just writing a pretend calculator, these apps act like the real calculator because it is running the same source code. For example, there is an application, HP Connectivity Kit, that lets you talk to a real calculator over the network. The PC and phone versions will also connect just like a real device.

Programming

You can write programs on the device or if you have the HP Connectivity software (also free) you can write programs on your PC. You can even find some from the Internet. If you miss your old calculator, there is a define feature that lets you program like a key macro recording.

The programming language isn’t hard to pick up. Here’s a short snippet:


EXPORT AREAVOL()
BEGIN
LOCAL N1, N2, L1;
CHOOSE(N1, "Area or Volume?", "Area", "Volume");
IF N1 == 1 THEN
CHOOSE(N2, "Choose shape", "Rectangle", "Triangle", "Disk");
ELSE
CHOOSE(N2, "Choose solid", "Prism", "Cylinder", "Cone", "Pyramid", "Sphere");
. . .

Hacking and What’s Next?

You’d think that the real hardware would be a prime platform for hacking, but so far that’s still on the to-do list. The only really good hardware hack for the real calculator adds a Samsung battery with a higher capacity to the machine. There are also some enticing pads on the PCB that appear to support a buzzer and I2C communications, but there’s no firmware for it. There have been a few attempts to load alien firmware into the device, but there’s no full-blown development system. Getting to the JTAG port looks pretty intense. There’s also been the inevitable hacking of the communication protocol.

History is replete with products that seemed amazing for their day but turned out to be just a stopgap for something better. Cassettes gave way to CDs and then CDs gave way to digital music. Telephone answering machines gave way to voicemail. Calculators have that feel to them. How much longer will we need them? Are the virtual HP Prime applications going to overshadow the physical device?

Regardless, the Prime is state of the art and would shame a personal computer from a few years ago. You can only wonder if it will be the last great calculator, or if there are more yet to come. And a calculator still makes a nice project. Not all homemade calculators are simple.

Wed, 03 Aug 2022 11:59:00 -0500 Al Williams en-US text/html https://hackaday.com/2020/03/02/the-last-scientific-calculator/
Killexams : 9 Hidden Dividend Stock Gems Priced to Buy Now No result found, try new keyword!Good dividend stocks can help generate ... industry, its fundamentals remain fairly intact, meaning it could be a huge winner if it survives this crisis. 4. Helmerich & Payne (HP) - Get Helmerich ... Fri, 05 Aug 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en-us text/html https://www.thestreet.com/opinion/9-hidden-dividend-stock-gems-priced-to-buy-now-13504734 Killexams : Learn to Sail: School’s In for Charter and Beyond No result found, try new keyword!A good sailing school can prepare anyone for a bareboat charter or a switch to the liveaboard life. The post Learn to Sail: School’s In for Charter and Beyond appeared first on Cruising World. Tue, 02 Aug 2022 08:35:33 -0500 en-us text/html https://www.msn.com/en-us/travel/news/learn-to-sail-schools-in-for-charter-and-beyond/ar-AA10eTiL Killexams : The Flight That Made The Calculator And Changed The World

It was the fall of 1965 and Jack Kilby and Patrick Haggerty of Texas Instruments sat on a flight as Haggerty explained his idea for a calculator that could fit in the palm of a hand. This was a huge challenge since at that time calculators were the size of typewriters and plugged into wall sockets for their power. Kilby, who’d co-invented the integrated circuit just seven years earlier while at TI, lived to solve problems.

Fig. 2 from US 3,819,921 Miniature electronic calculator
Fig. 2 from US 3,819,921 Miniature electronic calculator

By the time they landed, Kilby had decided they should come up with a calculator that could fit in your pocket, cost less than $100, and could add, subtract, multiply, divide and maybe do square roots. He chose the code name, Project Cal Tech, for this endeavor, which seemed logical as TI had previously had a Project MIT.

Rather than study how existing calculators worked, they decided to start from scratch. The task was broken into five parts: the keyboard, the memory, the processor, the power supply, and some form of output. The processing portion came down to a four-chip design, one more than was initially hoped for. The output was also tricky for the time. CRTs were out of the question, neon lights required too high a voltage and LEDs were still not bright enough. In the end, they developed a thermal printer that burned images into heat-sensitive paper.

Just over twelve months later, with the parts all spread out on a table, it quietly spat out correct answers. A patent application was filed resulting in US patent 3,819,921, Miniature electronic calculator, which outlined the basic design for all the calculators to follow. This, idea borne of a discussion on an airplane, was a pivotal moment that changed the way we teach every student, and brought the power of solid-state computing technology into everyday life.

TI showed the Cal Tech prototype to a number of companies and Canon took an interest. Canon brought it to market as the Pocketronic, releasing it in Japan in October 1970 and the US in April 1971, selling for around $150 ($910 in 2017 dollars). It had three chips and a heat-sensitive paper tape readout. It was still just handheld though, not really pocket-sized, but sold very well.

By then a number of other handheld calculators were also hitting the market. In November 1970, the first calculator-on-a-chip, the Mostek MK6010, was announced, followed in February 1971 by the first truly pocket-sized calculator, the Busicom LE-120A “Handy” that used the chip. That same year, TI followed with their own calculator-on-a-chip and in 1972 TI started releasing its own calculators.

HP-35, the first scientific calculator
HP-35, the first scientific calculator, by Seth Morabito CC BY 2.0

In 1972 Hewlett-Packard released the HP-35, the first scientific calculator, one that could replace a slide rule. It used reverse Polish notation (which our own [Jenny List] recently wrote about), included scientific notation and had 35 buttons, hence its name. Despite a $395 price tag ($2,320 in 2017), 100,000 were sold in its first year. The HP-35, along with the release of TI’s equivalent SR-50 in 1974 for $150, spelled the end of the actual slide rule. (The SR stood for Slide Rule.)

Display technology also advanced through vacuum fluorescent displays, LEDs and LCDs. In the mid-1970s, twisted nematic (TN) LCDs gave calculators the now omnipresent dark numerals on a light background while decreasing the power requirements to the point where they could run on button cells.

Prices dropped as new features were added and sales doubled each year. By 1976, a four-function calculator cost only a few dollars. In 1972, 5 million calculators were sold in the US and within ten years there were more calculators in the US than people.

Why had the calculator become so popular? This was a clear case of a consumer product that was conceived for a market that wasn’t known to exist. When Haggerty conceived of the idea in 1965, calculators were heavy and took up significant space on a desktop, so perhaps the convenience of one which you could carry around played a part. They also needed no setup, no programming — simply flip the on/off switch and do some calculations. For the average person, they replaced the need to learn multiplication tables, necessary for working out how much a dozen apples would cost at $0.05 an apple. They also made it easier for the high school student to do the trigonometry in their physics homework. Though, in the early 1970s, given the initial high price, perhaps it was engineers and companies that bought them first.

TI-30
TI-30, by D. Meyer CC BY-SA 3.0

I can attest to the latter. I was just becoming a teenager back around 1976 when my father bought a TI-30 calculator for $25, or around $107 in 2017 dollars. The mining company at which he worked as an electrician had made them available. Before that, I recall using long division to divide up a long sheet of paper for a mural that was to be a backdrop for a school play. I would likely have gone on to learn to use a slide rule, but never did. After the calculator arrived, I’ve done long division on paper only once when no calculator was available, though I have done it for fun and to see if I remember how.

TI-81 graphing calculator
TI-81 graphing calculator, by Calcvids CC BY-SA 3.0

Through the decades that followed, calculators continued to gain functionality. In 1974, HP came out with their first programmable calculator, the HP-65. It had 100 functions and stored programs with a magnetic card reader. Starting in 1978, a company called Calculated Industries released very niche calculators such as the Loan Arranger for the Real Estate industry with functions for calculating payments and future values. Then later came the Construction Master with programmed functions for pitch, rise, run, feet-inch conversions and more. In the 1990s TI came out with the TI-81, a popular graphing calculator for algebra and precalculus courses and power by a Zilog Z80.

If memory serves, it was a programmable Sharp El-5040 with a single line formula display that I’d left behind in a University auditorium, hopefully having found a good home on an engineer’s desk. Now, my Sharp EL-531W, also with a single line formula that can be retrieved and edited, sits ever-present beside my computer monitor, getting daily use while a Casio fx-3600P that I’d thought I’d lost but later found, sits waiting for its turn in my desk drawer.

This being Hackaday, you no doubt have a calculator that gets frequent use. Or perhaps you have your own fond memories of one that got away or a family one that you grew up with. Or perhaps there’s one you’ve hacked, like this ESP8266-connected scientific calculator? Share your stories with us, we’d love to hear how the calculator has played a part in your life. We also wonder how much longer the calculator as a distinct piece of electronics will survive now that the infinite adaptability of smartphones has made calculator apps the go-to for today’s upcoming engineering candidates?

[Pocketronic photo used in main image via Dentaku-Museum]

Tue, 26 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 Steven Dufresne en-US text/html https://hackaday.com/2017/11/27/the-flight-that-made-the-calculator-and-changed-the-world/
Killexams : Startups News No result found, try new keyword!Showcase your company news with guaranteed exposure both in print and online Ready to embrace the fast-paced future we’re all experiencing? Join us for tech… Outstanding Women in Business are ... Sun, 07 Aug 2022 12:41:00 -0500 text/html https://www.bizjournals.com/news/technology/startups Killexams : The Fundamentals of AR and VR – and how the Military Is Using Them

Military operations across the world have long used AR and VR for equipment training, flight training, and weapons training. These tools can greatly reduce the cost of preparing soldiers to meet conditions that can’t be replicated in the real world outside of actual combat.

Emerging developments in AR and VR are having a major impact on military training. AR and VR developers are using technology to bring warfare concepts into reality. “The military sector has always been at the forefront of using emerging technological advancements for training and combat enhancements. Augmented reality is no exception,” said Michael Morozov founder and CEO of Jasoren, a VR software company producing AR tools, said in a report. “With the expanding possibilities of data and graphics processing, the number of uses of augmented reality in the military grows exponentially.”

Tactical Augmented Reality (TAR)

With TAR, all the crucial information – spatial orientation data and weapons targeting – is superimposed onto the visors of pilots so they do not have to look down at their panels all the time. The result is improved situational awareness.

The US Army is actively researching the potential of AR and VR technology both for training and for use out in the field. TAR equipment is becoming a big part of this development. “TAR looks like night-vision goggles, but it can offer much more possibilities,” said Morozov. “It can show soldiers their exact location in the field while also showing the positions of the allied and enemy forces.”

The system is mounted to the helmet the same way the goggles are and can operate during both night and day. TAR replaces the typical handheld GPS device and goggles. Soldiers don’t have to look down to check their GPS location. There is also a thermal site on the weapon that is wirelessly connected to the tactical augmented reality eyepiece and a tablet on the soldier’s waist. The system allows soldiers to see the target they’re aiming at and the distance to it.

The display can be split in two so that soldiers can see where their guns are pointing while also seeing the view from your frontal camera mounted on the helmet. A soldier can see around a corner or over the wall without any risk of getting a headshot. TAR also includes a wireless network that allows soldiers to share information among their squad members or input data whenever the situation changes. “Tactical augmented reality heads-up display can Strengthen the soldiers’ battlefield awareness, reduce the number of devices that must be carried, and help beat the tar out of your enemies more efficiently,” said Morozov.

HUD: A Helmet-Mounted AR Display

HUD – also called Enhanced Night Vision Goggles – is an AR device that provides soldiers with a better night sight and tactical information – such as enemy or allied units location – in the form of an overlay. The tool has a targeting reticle that is wirelessly linked to the rifle and shows where a soldier is aiming.

Wargames, where troops can practice fighting against each other, are expensive so they are not conducted often. In training, soldiers are using HUD technology as an inexpensive alternative. A new generation of HUD is being developed that is intended to be light, robust, compact, and customizable. The latter feature is essential for AR devices because what a regular shooter must see and what should be displayed to a squad leader are very different.

The Benefits of AR and VR

The advantages of using AR and VR in military training are widely recognized. The Official Naval Research conducted a study that shows people who do not play video games have a less developed field of vision, are worse at memorizing visual objects, and process new information slower compared to gamers. Given that, they believe game-like simulations with the help of AR and VR can significantly boost cognitive abilities and put virtual training in line with field practices.

AR and VR also benefit the leaders that manage the operations and field soldiers. They can get a better perspective on large-scale missions since they are provided with real-time information superimposed on their visors by augmented reality systems.

The ability to conduct training without using expensive and often fragile equipment is also a major benefit. Instead of getting real vehicles out in the field, AR can offer a flexible training platform that can be even more effective when it comes to getting a better feel of what war is like.

Additional advantages of AR and VR include:

  • Safer training environments
  • More accessed mission rehearsals
  • Terrain diversity and customization
  • Real-time targeting aid
  • Enhanced spatial awareness
  • Engaging in mission planning.

Downsides to AR and VR

There are concerns that people responsible for making key decisions might rely too much on AR enhancements. Should that happen, then any type of disruption or destruction of augmented reality systems will allow the enemy to gain a significant advantage. So, in addition to using AR and VR technologies, basic decision-making tools like maps must be maintained.

Security is also an issue. Securing the communication and data storing by AR and VR systems has always been one of the main concerns in the military along with the policy of AR and VR applications and equipment and their accreditation.

All in all, AR and VR tools are used widely in the military. More and more AR and VR heads-up displays and comprehensive training platforms are emerging on the concept level and with prototypes. Futuristic scenes of warfare are becoming more feasible, even while AR and VR technology is new and requires further research and development.

Mon, 18 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.designnews.com/automation/fundamentals-ar-and-vr-and-how-military-using-them
Killexams : Ethernet Switches Global Market Status, By Players, Types, Applications And Forecast To 2028 | HP Enterprise, New H3C Group, NEC

New Research Study “”Ethernet Switches Market 2022 analysis by Market Trends (Drivers, Constraints, Opportunities, Threats, Challenges and Investment Opportunities), Size, Share and Outlook“” has been added to Coherent Market insight

The Ethernet Switches Market report is based on first-hand data, qualitative and quantitative analysis by industry analysts, and inputs from industry experts and players across the entire chain. The research examines parent market trends, macroeconomic data, and controlling forces, as well as market attractiveness in different segments. The qualitative influence of various market factors on market segments and regions is also mapped out in the study. The market’s base year is estimated to be between 2022 and 2027.

Request for sample Report @ https://www.coherentmarketinsights.com/insight/request-sample/1815

The report firstly introduced  the fundamentals of Ethernet Switches market, such as definitions, classifications, applications, and a market overview. It then covered product specifications, production procedures, cost structures, raw materials, and other information. Then it looked at the major market conditions around the world, such as the cost, profit, production, supply, and demand of the product, as well as the market’s projected growth rate. The report’s final sections covered investment feasibility and return analyses, as well as SWOT analyses of new projects.

Major Key players in this Market:

◘ Cisco
◘ Huawei Technologies
◘ HP Enterprise
◘ Arista Networks
◘ New H3C Group
◘ HPE
◘ Juniper Networks
◘ NEC
◘ Lenovo
◘ Dell

Drivers & Trends

You must know that the market drivers play an essential role in the growth of a market. They are mainly the underlying forces that compel consumers to purchases products and pay for the services. This report includes the trend that makes the Ethernet Switches market develop and grow in an effective manner for a particular forecast period of 2022-2030. For the convincing success of the industries, the market driver report is essential. The standard and effective market rivers are consumer demand, demand, government policy, and much more. Furthermore, the primary role of the market drivers is to influence consumer purchasing decisions.

Get PDF Brochure @ https://www.coherentmarketinsights.com/insight/request-pdf/1815

Detailed Segmentation:

Global Wind Turbine Blade Inspection Services Market, By Location:

Global Wind Turbine Blade Inspection Services Market, By Services:

  • Quality assurance & quality control
  • Nondestructive examination (NDE)
  • Condition assessment/inspection
  • Process safety management
  • Welding & corrosion engineering

Regions Covered:

• North America
o US
o Canada
o Mexico

• Europe
o Germany
o UK
o Italy
o France
o Spain
o Rest of Europe

• Asia Pacific
o Japan
o China
o India
o Australia
o New Zealand
o South Korea
o Rest of Asia Pacific   

• South America
o Argentina
o Brazil
o Chile
o Rest of South America

• Middle East & Africa
o Saudi Arabia
o UAE
o Qatar
o South Africa
o Rest of Middle East & Africa

Research methods

Effective market research methods help to evaluate the feasibility of a new product or service. The research is conducted for an Ethernet Switches market directly through potential consumers. It allows the industries or businesses to discover the target, make an informed decision, and document opinions. Furthermore, the market research method includes surveys, interviews, customer observation, and interviews. These types of research are effective for getting the perfect research report of the Ethernet Switches market for a particular period of 2022-2028. Many businesses use different research methods for getting the accurate report. It not only helps the business to get the target market but also enhances their business growth in the Ethernet Switches market. The market research mainly makes use of analytical and statistical techniques and methods to gather and interpret information in an organization efficiently and quickly.

The following are the study objectives for this report:

◘ SWOT Analysis focuses on worldwide main manufacturers to define, assess, and analyse market competition. By kind, application, and region, the market is defined, described, and forecasted.
◘ Examine the global and main regional market potential and advantage, opportunity and challenge, constraints and risks.
◘ Determine whether trends and factors are driving or limiting market growth.
◘ By identifying high-growth categories, stakeholders would be able to analyse market potential.
◘ Conduct a strategic study of each submarket’s growth trends and market contribution.
◘ Expansions, agreements, new product launches, and acquisitions in the market are all examples of competitive developments.
◘ To create a strategic profile of the main players and analyse their growth plans in depth.

Buy Now @ https://www.coherentmarketinsights.com/insight/buy-now/1815 

Table of Contents with Major Points:

1. Overview

1.1 Ethernet Switches

1.2 Segmentation of Agrochemicals

2. Global Ethernet Switches Market

2.1 Global Ethernet Switches Market by Value

2.2 Global Ethernet Switches Market Forecast by Value

2.3 Global Ethernet Switches Market by Crop Type

2.4 Global Ethernet Switches Market by Type

2.5 Global Ethernet Switches Market by Product Type

2.6 Global Ethernet Switches Market by Region

3. Regional Market

3.1 Asia/Pacific

3.1.1 Asia/Pacific Ethernet Switches Market Forecast by Value

3.1.2 Asia/Pacific Ethernet Switches Market Forecast by Value

3.1.3 India Ethernet Switches Market Forecast by Value

3.1.4 India Ethernet Switches Market by Type

3.2 Latin America

3.2.1 Latin America Ethernet Switches Market by Value

3.2.2 Latin America Ethernet Switches Market Forecast by Value

3.2.3 Brazil Ethernet Switches Market Forecast by Value

3.2.4 Brazil Ethernet Switches Market by Type

3.3 Europe

3.3.1 Europe Ethernet Switches Market by Value

3.3.2 Europe Ethernet Switches Market Forecast by Value

3.4 NAFTA

3.4.1 NAFTA Ethernet Switches Market by Value

3.4.2 NAFTA Ethernet Switches Market Forecast by Value

3.5 Middle East/Africa

3.5.1 Middle East/Africa Ethernet Switches Market by Value

3.5.2 Middle East/Africa Ethernet Switches Market Forecast by Value

4. Market Dynamics

4.1 Growth Drivers

4.1.1 Increasing Global Population

4.1.2 Rising Urbanization

4.1.3 Rising Global Economy

4.1.4 Decreasing Arable Land

4.1.5 Growing Agriculture Production

4.2 Trends & Opportunities

4.2.1 Industry Consolidations

4.2.2 Increased Focus on R&D

4.2.3 High Growth Prospects in Emerging Economies

4.3 Challenges and Issues

4.3.1 Stringent Government Regulations

4.3.2 High Prices of Raw Materials

5. Competition

5.1 Global Market

5.1.1 Global Ethernet Switches Market Share by Company

5.2 Latin America

5.2.1 Brazil Ethernet Switches Market Share by Company

5.3 Asia/Pacific

5.3.1 India Ethernet Switches Market Share by Company

6. Company Profiles

6.1 key player 1

6.1.1 Business Overview

6.1.2 Financial Overview

6.1.3 Business Strategies

6.2 key player 2

6.2.1 Business Overview

6.2.2 Financial Overview

6.2.3 Business Strategies

6.3 key player 3

6.3.1 Business Overview

6.3.2 Financial Overview

6.3.3 Business Strategies

6.4 key player 4

6.4.1 Business Overview

6.4.2 Financial Overview

6.4.3 Business Strategies

6.5 key player 5

6.5.1 Business Overview

6.5.2 Financial Overview

6.5.3 Business Strategies

….

Contact Us:

Mr. Shah
US +12067016702 / UK +4402081334027
Email: [email protected]

Fri, 22 Jul 2022 01:57:00 -0500 Coherent Market Insights en-US text/html https://www.digitaljournal.com/pr/ethernet-switches-global-market-status-by-players-types-applications-and-forecast-to-2028-hp-enterprise-new-h3c-group-nec
Killexams : Internet of Things MSc

Afghanistan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Master Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 80%; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70%; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Albania
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Algeria
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licence; Diplome de [subject area]; Diplome d'Etudes Superieures; Diplome de Docteur end Pharmacie; or Diplome de Docteur en Medecine from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Angola
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Grau de Licenciado/a (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 17 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 15 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 13 out of 20

Argentina
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo/ Grado de Licenciado/ Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 7.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6.5 out of 10

Armenia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 87 out of 100
UK 2:1 degree: 75 out of 100
UK 2:2 degree: 61 out of 100

Australia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) or Bachelor Honours degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: High Distinction; or First Class with Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Distinction; or Upper Second Class with Honours
UK 2:2 degree: Credit; or Lower Second Class with Honours

Austria
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 1.5 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: 2.5 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5.0

The above relates to grading scale where 1 is the highest and 5 is the lowest.

Azerbaijan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%; or GPA 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 80%; or GPA 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 70%; or GPA 3.5 out of 5

Bahamas
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from the University of West Indies.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours

Bahrain
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or 90 out of 100
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0; or 80 out of 100
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.3 out of 4.0; or 74 out of 100

Bangladesh
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.2 to 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 to 3.3 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.3 to 2.7 out of 4.0

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  For some institutions/degrees we will ask for different grades to above, so this is only a guide. 

Barbados
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from the University of West Indies, Cave Hill or Barbados Community College.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours*; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0**
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours*; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0**
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours*; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0**

*relates to: the University of West Indies, Cave Hill.

**relates to: Barbados Community College.

Belarus
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9 out of 10; or 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 7 out of 10; or 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 5 out of 10; or 3.5 out of 5

Belgium
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80% or 16/20*; or 78%**
UK 2:1 degree: 70% or 14/20*; or 72%**
UK 2:2 degree: 60% or 12/20*; or 65%**

*Flanders (Dutch-speaking)/ Wallonia (French-speaking)
**German-speaking

Belize
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from the University of West Indies.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours

Benin
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Maitrise or Masters from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Bolivia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Bachiller Universitario or Licenciado / Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 85%* or 80%**
UK 2:1 degree: 75%* or 70%**
UK 2:2 degree: 65%* or 60%**

*relates to: Titulo de Bachiller Universitario

**relates to: Licenciado / Titulo de [subject area] 

Bosnia and Herzegovina
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7.5 out of 10

Botswana
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 5 years) or Master Degree from the University of Botswana.

UK 1st class degree: 80%
UK 2:1 degree: 70%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

Brazil
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Título de Bacharel / Título de [subject area] or Título de Licenciado/a (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8.25 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 7.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6.5 out of 10

The above grades assumes that the grading scale has a pass mark of 5.

Brunei
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours

Bulgaria
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 5.75 out of 6.0
UK 2:1 degree: 4.75 out of 6.0
UK 2:2 degree: 4.0 out of 6.0

Burundi
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diplome d'Etudes Approfondies from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 85%; or 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 75%; or 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 60%; or 12 out of 20

Cambodia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80%; or GPA 3.5 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 70%; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 60%; or GPA 2.35 out of 4.0

Cameroon
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree; Licence; Diplome d'Etudes Superieures de Commerce; Diplome d'Ingenieur de Conception/ Travaux; Doctorat en Medecine/ Pharmacie; or Maitrise or Master 1 from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20; or GPA 3.6 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Canada
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Bachelor Honours Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.6 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.2 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

China
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 85 to 95%
UK 2:1 degree: 75 to 85%
UK 2:2 degree: 70 to 80%

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  Generally, we do not accept applications from students studying at Affiliate Colleges.

Colombia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado en [subject area] or Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.60 out of 5.00
UK 2:1 degree: 4.00 out of 5.00
UK 2:2 degree: 3.50 out of 5.00

Congo, Dem. Rep. of
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diplome d'Etudes Approfondies or Diplome d'Etudes Speciales from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20; or 90%
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20; or 80%
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20; or 70%

Congo, Rep. of
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diplome d'Etudes Superieures or Maitrise from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Costa Rica
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachiller or Licenciado from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7.5 out of 10

Croatia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Advanced Diploma of Higher Education Level VII/1 (Diploma - Visoko obrazovanje) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.5 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3 out of 5

Cuba
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado/ Arquitecto/ Doctor/ Ingeniero from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5

Cyprus
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8 out of 10; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 7.0 out of 10; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 6.0 out of 10; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Czech Republic
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 1.2 out of 4
UK 2:1 degree: 1.5 out of 4
UK 2:2 degree: 2.5 out of 4

The above relates to grading scale where 1 is the highest and 4 is the lowest.

Denmark
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 12 out of 12 (2007 onwards); or 11 out of 13 (before 2007)
UK 2:1 degree: 7 out of 12 (2007 onwards); or 8 out of 13 (before 2007)
UK 2:2 degree: 4 out of 12 (2007 onwards); or 7 out of 13 (before 2007)

Dominican Republic
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado/ Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 95/100
UK 2:1 degree: 85/100
UK 2:2 degree: 78/100

Ecuador
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado / Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%; or 9/10; or 19/20; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 80%; or 8/10; or 18/20; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70%; or 7/10; or 14/20; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Egypt
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 85%; or GPA 3.7 out of 4
UK 2:1 degree: 75%; or GPA 3.0 out of 4
UK 2:2 degree: 65%; or GPA 2.5 out of 4

El Salvador
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado/ Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 5 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 7.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6.5 out of 10

Eritrea
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Estonia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree; University Specialist's Diploma; or Professional Higher Education Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.5 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 3.5 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 2 out of 5

The above grades assumes that 1 is the pass mark. 

Eswatini
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80%
UK 2:1 degree: 70%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

Ethiopia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Fiji
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from one of the following institutions: Fiji National University, the University of Fiji, or the University of South Pacific, Fiji.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.0 out of 5.0*; or overall grade A with High Distinction pass**; or GPA 4.0 out of 4.5***
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.33 out of 5.0*; or overall grade B with Credit pass**; or GPA 3.5 out of 4.5***
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.33 out of 5.0*; or overall grade S (Satisfactory)**; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.5***

*relates to Fiji National University

**relate to the University of Fiji

***relates to the University of South Pacific, Fiji

Finland
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree/ Kandidaatti/ Kandidat (minimum 180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution; or Bachelor degree (Ammattikorkeakoulututkinto/ Yrkeshögskoleexamen) from a recognised University of Applied Sciences.

UK 1st class degree: 4.5 out of 5; or 2.8 out of 3
UK 2:1 degree: 3.5 out of 5; or 2 out of 3
UK 2:2 degree: 2.5 out of 5; or 1.4 out of 3

France
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licence; Grade de Licence; Diplome d'Ingenieur; or Maitrise from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 12 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 11 out of 20

Gambia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80%; or GPA 4.0 out of 4.3
UK 2:1 degree: 67%; or GPA 3.3 out of 4.3
UK 2:2 degree: 60%; or GPA 2.7 out of 4.3

Georgia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 91 out of 100; or 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 81 out of 100; or 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 71 out of 100; or 3.5 out of 5

Germany
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 1.5 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: 2.5 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5.0

The above relates to grading scale where 1 is the highest and 5 is the lowest.

Ghana
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: First Class
UK 2:1 degree: Second Class (Upper Division)
UK 2:2 degree: Second Class (Lower Division)

Greece
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Degrees from recognised selected institutions in the University sector or Degrees (awarded after 2003) from recognised Technological Educational Institutes.

UK 1st class degree: 8 out of 10*; or 9 out of 10**
UK 2:1 degree: 7 out of 10*; or 7.5 out of 10**
UK 2:2 degree: 6 out of 10*; or 6.8 out of 10**

*Relates to degrees from the University Sector.
**Relates to degrees from Technological Educational Institutes.

Grenada
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from the University of West Indies.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours

Guatemala
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado / Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%
UK 2:1 degree: 80%
UK 2:2 degree: 70%

The above grades assumes that the pass mark is 61% or less.

Guinea
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Master; Maitrise; Diplome d'Etudes Superieures; or Diplome d'Etudes Approfondies from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Guyana
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Graduate Diploma (Postgraduate) or Masters degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Honduras
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado/a / Grado Academico de Licenciatura (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%; or 4.7 out of 5; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 80%; or 4.0 out of 5; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70%; or 3.5 out of 5; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Hong Kong
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours

Hungary
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor degree (Alapfokozat) or University Diploma (Egyetemi Oklevel) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.75 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5

Iceland
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor degree (Baccalaureus or Bakkalarprof) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8.25 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 7.25 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6.5 out of 10

India
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 70% to 80%
UK 2:1 degree: 60% to 70%
UK 2:2 degree: 50% to 60%

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  For some institutions/degrees we will ask for different grades to above, so this is only a guide.  

For India, offers may be made on the GPA scale.

We do not consider the Bachelor of Vocation (B. Voc.) for Masters entry.

Indonesia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Sarjna I (S1) Bachelor Degree or Diploma IV (D4) (minimum 4 years) from selected degree programmes and institutions.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.6 to 3.8 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 to 3.2 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.67 to 2.8 out of 4.0

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from and the degree that you study.

Iran
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 17.5 to 18.5 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 15 to 16 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 13.5 to 14 out of 20

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  

Iraq
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 85 out of 100
UK 2:1 degree: 75 out of 100
UK 2:2 degree: 60 out of 100

Ireland
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Honours Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours
UK 2:1 degree: Second Class Honours Grade I
UK 2:2 degree: Second Class Honours Grade II

Israel
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%
UK 2:1 degree: 80%
UK 2:2 degree: 65%

Italy
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Laurea (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 110 out of 110
UK 2:1 degree: 105 out of 110
UK 2:2 degree: 94 out of 110

Cote D’ivoire (Ivory Coast)
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diplome d'Ingenieur; Doctorat en Medicine; Maitrise; Master; Diplome d'Etudes Approfondies; or Diplome d'Etudes Superieures Specialisees from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Jamaica
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from the University of West Indies (UWI) or a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or First Class Honours from the UWI
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0; or Upper Second Class Honours from the UWI
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0; or Lower Second Class Honours from the UWI

Japan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: S overall* or A overall**; or 90%; or GPA 3.70 out of 4.00
UK 2:1 degree: A overall* or B overall**; or 80%; or GPA 3.00 out of 4.00
UK 2:2 degree: B overall* or C overall**; or 70%; or GPA 2.3 out of 4.00

*Overall mark is from the grading scale: S, A, B, C (S is highest mark)
**Overall mark is from the grading scale: A, B, C, D (A is highest mark)

Jordan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 85%; or GPA of 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 75%; or GPA of 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70%; or GPA of 2.5 out of 4.0

Kazakhstan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 3.8 out of 4.0/4.33; or 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 3.33 out of 4.0/4.33; or 4.0 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 2.67 out of 4.0/4.33; or 3.5 out of 5

Kenya
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours; or GPA 3.6 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: Second Class Honours Upper Division; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: Second Class Honours Lower Division; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Kosovo
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7.5 out of 10

Kuwait
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.67 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.67 out of 4.0

Kyrgyzstan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5; or GPA 3.7 out of 4
UK 2:1 degree: 4.0 out of 5; or GPA 3.0 out of 4
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5; or GPA 2.4 out of 4

Laos
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Latvia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (awarded after 2002) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 7.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6 out of 10

Lebanon
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree; Licence; or Maitrise from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90% or Grade A; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or 16 out of 20 (French system)
UK 2:1 degree: 80% or Grade B; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0; or 13 out of 20 (French system)
UK 2:2 degree: 70% or Grade C; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.0; or 12 out of 20 (French system)

Lesotho
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours Degree (minimum 5 years total HE study); Masters Degree or Postgraduate Diploma from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 80%
UK 2:1 degree: 70%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

Liberia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90% or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 80% or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70% or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Libya
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 85%; or 3.7 out of 4.0 GPA
UK 2:1 degree: 75%; or 3.0 out of 4.0 GPA
UK 2:2 degree: 65%; or 2.6 out of 4.0 GPA

Liechtenstein
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 5.6 out of 6.0
UK 2:1 degree: 5.0 out of 6.0
UK 2:2 degree: 4.4 out of 6.0

Lithuania
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Luxembourg
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Macau
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (Licenciatura) (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Macedonia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diploma of Completed Higher Education - Level VII/1 or Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Madagascar
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Maîtrise; Diplome d'Ingenieur; Diplôme d'Etat de Docteur en Médecine; Diplôme d’Etat de Docteur en Chirurgie Dentaire; Diplôme d'Études Approfondies; Diplôme de Magistère (Première Partie) – also known as Master 1; or Diplôme de Master – also known as Master 2 from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Malawi
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 80% or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 70% or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 60% or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Malaysia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: Class 1; or 3.7 out of 4.0 CGPA
UK 2:1 degree: Class 2 division 1; or 3.0 out of 4.0 CGPA
UK 2:2 degree: Class 2 division 2; or 2.6 out of 4.0 CGPA

Maldives
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (awarded from 2000) from the Maldives National University.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Malta
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Bachelor Honours Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours; or Category I
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours; or Category IIA
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours; or Category IIB

Mauritius
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: Class I; or 70%
UK 2:1 degree: Class II division I; or 60%
UK 2:2 degree: Class II division II; or 50%

Offer conditions will vary depending on the grading scale used by your institution.

Mexico
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado/ Titulo (Profesional) de [subject area] from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.0 to 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8.0 to 8.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7.0 to 7.5 out of 10

Offer conditions will vary depending on the grading scale your institution uses.

Moldova
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (Diploma de Licenta) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6.5 out of 10

Monaco
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Mongolia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.6 out of 4.0; or 90%; or grade A
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.2 out of 4.0; or 80%; or grade B
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.8 out of 4.0; or 70%; or grade C

Montenegro
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diploma of Completed Academic Undergraduate Studies; Diploma of Professional Undergraduate Studies; or Advanced Diploma of Higher Education from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8.5 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Morocco
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diplome d'Ecoles Nationales de Commerce et de Gestion; Diplome de Docteur Veterinaire; Doctorat en Medecine; Docteur en Medecine Dentaire; Licence; Diplome d'Inegeniuer d'Etat; Diplome de Doctorat en Pharmacie; or Maitrise from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 13 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 11 out of 20

Mozambique
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Grau de Licenciado (minimum 4 years) or Grau de Mestre from from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Myanmar
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80% or GPA of 4.7 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: 70% or GPA of 4.0 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: 60% or GPA of 3.5 out of 5.0

Namibia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours Degree or Professional Bachelor Degree (NQF level 8 qualifications) - these to be awarded after 2008 from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80%
UK 2:1 degree: 70%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

Nepal
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 80%; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 65%; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 55%; or GPA of 2.4 out of 4.0

Bachelor in Nursing Science are not considered equivalent to UK Bachelor degrees.

Netherlands
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 7 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 6 out of 10

New Zealand
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) or Bachelor Honours Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: A-*; or First Class Honours**
UK 2:1 degree: B*; or Second Class (Division 1) Honours**
UK 2:2 degree: C+*; or Second Class (Division 2) Honours**

*from a Bachelor degree
**from a Bachelor Honours degree

Nigeria
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.50 out of 5.00; or GPA 6.0 out of 7.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.50 out of 5.00; or GPA 4.6 out of 7.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.80 out of 5.00; or GPA 3.0 out of 7.0

Norway
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: Overall B grade with at least 75 ECTS (of 180 ECTS min overall) at grade A or above.
UK 2:1 degree: Overall B grade
UK 2:2 degree: Overall C grade

Oman
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Pakistan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.0 to 3.8 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 2.6 to 3.6 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.0 to 3.0 out of 4.0

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  For some institutions/degrees we will ask for different grades to above, so this is only a guide. 

Palestine, State of
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90% or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 80% or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70% or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Panama
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado / Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 91%
UK 2:1 degree: 81%
UK 2:2 degree: 71%

Papua New Guinea
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: Class I
UK 2:1 degree: Class II, division A
UK 2:2 degree: Class II, division B

Paraguay
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado / Titulo de [professional title] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out fo 5

Peru
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Grado Academico de Bachiller or Titulo de Licenciado/ Titulo (Professional) de [subject area] from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 17 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Philippines
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions or Juris Doctor; Bachelor of Laws; Doctor of Medicine; Doctor of Dentistry/ Optometry/ Veterinary Medicine; or Masters Degree from recognised institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 3.6 out of 4.0; or 94%; or 1.25 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 3.0 out of 4.0; or 86%; or 1.75 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 2.5 out of 4.0; or 80%; or 2.5 out of 5

The above 'out of 5' scale assumes 1 is highest mark and 3 is the pass mark.

Poland
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licencjat or Inzynier (minimum 3 years) - these must be awarded after 2001 from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.8 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: 4.5 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: 3.8 out of 5.0

The above grades are based on the 2 to 5 scale, where 3 is the pass mark and 5 is the highest mark.

Portugal
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado (minimum 180 ECTS credits) or Diploma de Estudos Superiores Especializados (DESE) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Puerto Rico
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90/100 or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 80/100 or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 70/100 or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Qatar
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or GPA 4.4 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0; or GPA 3.6 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0; or GPA 2.8 out of 5.0

Romania
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.75 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8.0 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7.0 out of 10

Russia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4.0 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5

Rwanda
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours Degree (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 85%; or 17 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 70%; or 15 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 60%; or 13 out of 20

Saudi Arabia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.75 out of 5.0; or GPA 3.75 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.75 out of 5.0; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 5.0; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Senegal
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Maîtrise; Master II; Diplôme d'Études Approfondies (DEA); Diplôme d'Études Supérieures Specialisées (DESS); Diplôme d'État de Docteur en Médecine; Diplôme d'Ingénieur; Diplôme de Docteur en Chirurgie Dentaire; or Diplôme de Pharmacien from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16/20
UK 2:1 degree: 14/20
UK 2:2 degree: 12/20

Serbia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Advanced Diploma of Higher Education from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Sierra Leone
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (Honours) or a Masters degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: First Class honours; or GPA 4.7 out of 5; or GPA 3.75 out of 4
UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class honours; or GPA 4 out of 5; or GPA 3.25 out of 4
UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours; or GPA 3.4 out of 5; or GPA 2.75 out of 4

Singapore
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) or Bachelor Honours degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.3 out of 5.0; or GPA 3.6 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.8 out of 5.0; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 3.3 out of 5.0; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Slovakia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 93%; or 1 overall (on 1 to 4 scale, where 1 is highest mark)
UK 2:1 degree: 86%; or 1.5 overall (on 1 to 4 scale, where 1 is highest mark)
UK 2:2 degree: 72%; or 2.5 overall (on 1 to 4 scale, where 1 is highest mark)

Slovenia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Univerzitetni Diplomant (180 ECTS credits) (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Somalia
Bachelor degrees from Somalia are not considered for direct entry to our postgraduate taught programmes. Holders of Bachelor degrees from Somali National University can be considered for our Pre-Masters programmes on a case by case basis.

South Africa
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: NQF Level 8 qualifications such as Bachelor Honours degrees or Professional Bachelor degrees from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 75%
UK 2:1 degree: 70%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

South Korea
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.2 out of 4.5; or GPA 4.0 out of 4.3; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.5 out of 4.5; or GPA 3.3 out of 4.3; or GPA 3.2 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.5; or GPA 2.8 out of 4.3; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Spain
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo Universitario Oficial de Graduado en [subject area] (Grado) or Titulo Universitario Oficial de Licenciado en [subject area] (Licenciatura) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8.0 out of 10; or 2.5 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 7.0 out of 10; or 2.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 6.0 out of 10; or 1.5 out of 4.0

Sri Lanka
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (Special or Honours) or Bachelor Degree (Professional) (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.5 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Sudan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours degree from a recognised institution or Bachelor degree in one of the following Professional subjects: Architecture; Dentistry; Engineering; Medicine/Surgery from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 80%
UK 2:1 degree: 65%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

Sweden
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (Kandidatexamen) or Professional Bachelor Degree (Yrkesexamenfrom) (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: Overall B grade with at least 75 ECTS at grade A or above (180 ECTS minimum overall); or at least 65% of credits graded at VG overall
UK 2:1 degree: Overall B grade (180 ECTS minimum overall); or at least 50% of credits graded at VG overall
UK 2:2 degree: Overall C grade (180 ECTS minimum overall); or at least 20% of credits graded at VG overall.

Switzerland
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 5.5 out of 6; or 9 out of 10
UK 2:1 degree: 5 out of 6; or 8 out of 10
UK 2:2 degree: 4.25 out of 6; or 7 out of 10

Syria
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 85%
UK 2:1 degree: 75%
UK 2:2 degree: 65%

Taiwan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions.

UK 1st class degree: 85 to 90%
UK 2:1 degree: 70 to 75%
UK 2:2 degree: 65 to 70%

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  

Tajikistan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Specialist Diploma or Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4.0 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5

Tanzania
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.4 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.5 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.7 out of 5.0

Thailand
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.40 to 3.60 out of 4.00
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.00 to 3.20 out of 4.00
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.40 to 2.60 out of 4.00

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.

Trinidad and Tobago
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or First Class Honours from the University of West Indies
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0; or Upper Second Class Honours from the University of West Indies
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0; or Lower Second Class Honours from the University of West Indies

Tunisia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licence; Diplome National d'Architecture; Maitrise; Diplome National d'Ingeniuer; or Doctorat en Medecine / Veterinaire from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20
UK 2:1 degree: 13 out of 20
UK 2:2 degree: 11 out of 20

Turkey
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.40 to 3.60 out of 4.00
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 2.80 to 3.00 out of 4.00
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.30 to 2.50 out of 4.00

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.

Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.60 out of 4.00
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.00 out of 4.00
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.50 out of 4.00

Turkmenistan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Diploma of Higher Education (awarded after 2007) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 4.0 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5

Turks and Caicos Islands
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (accredited by the Council of Community Colleges of Jamaica) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or 80%
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.3 out of 4.0; or 75%
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.7 out of 4.0; or 65%

Uganda
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.4 out of 5.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 4.0 out of 5.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 5.0

Ukraine
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 10 out of 12; or 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 12; or 4.0 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 6 out of 12; or 3.5 out of 5

United Arab Emirates
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

United States of America
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.2 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Uruguay
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado/ Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 10 to 11 out of 12
UK 2:1 degree: 7 to 9 out of 12
UK 2:2 degree: 6 to 7 out of 12

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.

Uzbekistan
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%; or 4.7 out of 5
UK 2:1 degree: 80%; or 4.0 out of 5
UK 2:2 degree: 71%; or 3.5 out of 5

Venezuela
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado/ Titulo de [subject area] from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 81%
UK 2:1 degree: 71%
UK 2:2 degree: 61%

Non-percentage grading scales, for example scales out of 20, 10, 9 or 5, will have different requirements. 

Vietnam
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 8.0 out of 10; or GPA 3.7 out of 4
UK 2:1 degree: 7.0 out of 10; or GPA 3.0 out of 4
UK 2:2 degree: 5.7 out of 10; or GPA 2.4 out of 4

Yemen
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters (Majister) degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 90%
UK 2:1 degree: 80%
UK 2:2 degree: 65%

Bachelor Degrees from Lebanese International University (in Yemen) can be considered for entry to postgraduate taught programmes - please see Lebanon for guidance on grade requirements for this.

Zambia
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 75%; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0
UK 2:1 degree: 65%; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0
UK 2:2 degree: 55%; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Zimbabwe
We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) or Bachelor Honours degree from a recognised institution.

UK 1st class degree: 75%
UK 2:1 degree: 65%
UK 2:2 degree: 60%

Sat, 02 Nov 2019 21:23:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.qmul.ac.uk/postgraduate/taught/coursefinder/courses/internet-of-things-data-msc/
Killexams : Can a fee curb groundwater exploitation

The public notice issued recently by the Central Groundwater Authority (CGWA), under the Ministry of Jal Shakti, rattled groundwater users. It essentially says that all the users of groundwater for drinking and domestic use — residential apartments/group housing societies/government water supply agencies in urban areas, bulk water suppliers, industrial/infrastructure/mining projects, swimming pool whether existing or new — are required to take permission for groundwater drawal from the CGWA latest by June 30, 2022.

All the existing users are given a one-time opportunity to register their groundwater drawal by June 30, by paying a registration fee of ₹10,000; the completed application must be submitted before September 30. It further says that strict action shall be initiated against users who continue to draw groundwater without seeking a no-objection certificate (NOC) from the CGWA, and such groundwater drawal will be considered illegal.

Is the fee for using groundwater justified? How did we reach this situation?

Groundwater use for various purposes has increased tremendously over time. India’s annual groundwater draft is the largest in the world. Estimated at 245 billion cubic meter (bcm), it is about 64 per cent of the total groundwater potential (398 bcm) in 2020. States like UP, Punjab, MP, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Gujarat together accounted for about 144 bcm (59 per cent) in the total draft of groundwater (see Table).

About 89 per cent of groundwater is used for irrigation alone. Along with the increased exploitation, the net irrigated area using groundwater also increased from 7.30 million hectares (mha) in 1960-61 to about 48 mha in 2018-19.

While the benefits of groundwater are huge, its continuous exploitation has brought many negative externalities, particularly to farmers. A study by NASA (2009) showed that the groundwater level had been declining about one meter every three years in States like Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana. Shockingly, between 2002 and 2008, about 109 cubic km of groundwater reportedly vanished from these regions due to continuous exploitation.

With increasing groundwater drawal every year, not only has the quality of water deteriorated but the number of overexploited blocks has also increased. CGWB data show that the number of blocks classified as other than safe has increased from 1,645 (28.74 per cent) in 2004 to 2,538 (36.44 per cent) in 2020.

Most of these over-exploited blocks are located in Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu. The total number of blocks categorised as saline water also increased from 30 to 100 during this period. Importantly, a World Bank (2010) study, ‘Deep wells and prudence: Towards pragmatic action for addressing groundwater exploitation in India’, cautioned that about 60 per cent of India’s aquifers will reach a critical stage by 2032. Can these unprecedented changes be ignored?

Groundwater exploitation has been rising since the introduction of Green Revolution. But faulty electricity pricing followed by successive governments is one of the key reasons for the overexploitation of groundwater. The provision of heavily subsidised or free electricity often encourages users (not only farmers) to exploit more groundwater as the marginal cost of lifting water from aquifers is close to zero.

This is evident from the level of groundwater exploitation in States such as Punjab, Haryana and Tamil Nadu, where electricity is supplied free for irrigation for many years now. The average stage of groundwater development (that is, the ratio of annual groundwater draft and net annual groundwater availability) in the three States was as high as 127 per cent in 2020; these States have fewer number of safe blocks as well. If preventive actions are not taken to control the reckless exploitation of water, will it not affect the agricultural sector?

Besides increasing the subsidy burden of the States, free electricity does more harm than good, particularly to farmers having shallow tube-wells. As deep bore-wells exploit more groundwater, the water in shallow wells gets depleted and then they become defunct. The depleting water level shortens the life of the wells, which has a huge impact on resource-poor farmers who cannot install deep bore-wells with larger HP pump-sets.

According to the 5th Minor Irrigation Census (2017), a total of 4.14 lakh open wells in India became defunct between 2006-07 and 2013-14.

Now, considering the ever-increasing exploitation of groundwater, the government has introduced a registration fee for using groundwater. Will this be enough to control the over-exploitation of groundwater? The answer is ‘no’, because this nominal fee will not have any impact on the large users.

Instead of having a uniform fee for all users, a discriminated fee can be fixed for agriculture, industry and domestic users keeping in view the ability-to-pay principle. For non-agricultural purposes, the fee can be fixed based on the level of exploitation of water, depth of the well and HP of the pump-set. For agriculture, the fee can be fixed by farm size or HP of the pump-set or based on the consumption of electricity. In any case, the fee alone will not be sufficient to control the over-exploitation of groundwater.

Groundwater exploitation and electricity pricing policies are intertwined. Most States that provide electricity free or at a low unit cost for irrigation are experiencing over-exploitation of groundwater. Therefore, there is a need to revisit the electricity pricing policies. While free electricity may be provided for marginal farmers having pump-set capacity of less than 5 HP capacity, progressive pro-rata (kWh-based tariff) pricing may be fixed for all other farmers. This may also discourage the farmers from cultivating water-intensive crops, which is the root cause for the increased exploitation of groundwater.

Wherever free electricity is supplied, judicious rationing has to be followed in its supply. Studies show that solar-powered irrigation pumps help reduce the exploitation of groundwater besides saving huge subsidies on electricity. An ambitious scheme, PM-KUSUM, was introduced in 2019 with a budget of ₹34,422 crore, and with a huge subsidy component, for the installation of solar pumps. The benefits of solar-powered pumps need to be communicated to all the stakeholders.

Any measure introduced to control the reckless exploitation of groundwater will hugely benefit the farmer and the government.

The writer is former full-time Member (Official), Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices, New Delhi. The views are personal

Published on July 21, 2022

Thu, 21 Jul 2022 02:24:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/opinion/can-a-fee-curb-groundwater-exploitation/article65667108.ece
Killexams : How Buffett Stocks Beat S&P 500: ETF Strategies to Follow

Buffett is famous for his incredible investment ideas. If you an ardent follower of the investment guru Warren Buffett, you might find his latest investments intriguing. Normally, Buffett takes interest in companies trading below what he believes is their intrinsic value. He aims for long-term outperformance and apparently ignores short-term downturns.

Notably, Buffett’s investments beat the S&P 500 by a wide margin this year, apart from the bank stocks. Chevron (CVX) (up 21.7%), HP (HPQ) (up 75.9%), Coca-Cola (KO) (up 6.6%) beat the S&P 500 (down 18.1%). Only Citigroup (C) (down 22.5%) and Bank of America (BAC) (down 23%) underperformed the S&P 500 (down 18.1%).

In the past three months, BAC (down 18%) and CVX (down 16%) underperformed the S&P 500 (down 13.1%). Other companies Coca-Cola (down 1.4%), HP (down 7.8%), Citigroup (down 7.8%), Chevron (down 16%) outperformed the S&P 500.

However, in the past one month (as of Jul 8, 2022), only Coca-Cola is up 0.03% while the S&P 500 is down 5.2%. Other companies like C, BAC, CVX and HP lost about 8.7%, 11.2%, 21.2% and 22.6%, respectively.

And finally, Berkshire’s biggest holding is still Apple, making up nearly 41% of its stocks’ portfolio. The stock outperformed the S&P 500 past month and were almost in line with the S&P 500 in the year-to-date and past three-month frame.

ETF Strategies in Focus

Based on the above price performance below we highlight a few ETF investing strategies.

Tap Staples

Coca Cola has been a part and parcel of Buffett's portfolio for a long time. Coca-Cola’s performance has been the most consistent. After all, this comes from the most stable sector – consumer staples. In times of recession, staples stocks offer the most protection. Dividend yield of Coke is decent at 2.79%.

Coca-Cola has exposure too iShares Evolved U.S. Consumer Staples ETF (IECS) (12% focus), iShares U.S. Consumer Staples ETF IYK (11.54% focus) and Consumer Staples Select Sector SPDR Fund XLP (10.94% focus).

Buy the Dip in HP-Heavy ETFs?

HP is heavy on American Customer Satisfaction ETF (ACSI) (exposure 3.76%), Invesco Dynamic Market ETF (PWC) (exposure 3.55%) and 3D Printing ETF PRNT (exposure 3.17%). Though HP shares are not resistant to the brad-based tech selloff, the latest rally in tech shares may boost HP shares and the related ETFs. HP yields 3.11% annually.

Bank of America & Citigroup-Heavy ETFs

Though bank stocks suffered a lot, these may be up for a gain on cheap valuation. U.S. financial institutions are trading at bargain-basement prices and continue to present a solid buying opportunity despite near-term market volatility, Oppenheimer said recently as quoted on Barrons.com (read: Time for Bank ETFs on Cheaper Valuation & Decent fundamentals?).

The analyst sees a favorable fundamental trends for the U.S. financial sector over the course of the year, and believes banks could successfully sail through a challenging macroeconomic environment.

Bank of America and Citigroup yield 2.64% and 4.36% annually. Bank of America has exposure to ETFs like Invesco KBW Bank ETF KBWB (exposure of 7.65%), iShares U.S. Financial Services ETF IYG (exposure of 6.63%) and Financial Select Sector SPDR Fund (XLF) (exposure to 6.29%). Citigroup has focus on KBWB (7.94% exposure), Global Beta Smart Income ETF (GBDV) (exposure 4.52%) and First Trust Nasdaq Bank ETF (FTXO) (exposure 3.92%).

Chevron: Yet Another Dividend King

The stock yields as much as 3.98%. The stock has a Zacks Rank #3 and VGM score of A. Needless to say, the energy stock belongs to an upbeat sector and industry. Energy ETFs like XLE and FENY are heavy on Chevron.

Apple: The Cherry on the Icing

Berkshire’s biggest holding was still Apple, making up nearly 41% of its stocks’ portfolio. In 2017, Buffett said consumers ‘want the product’ despite its prices. This gives Apple the leeway to pass on the rising costs to consumers (which won’t hurt sales) due to sheer brand name.

Plus, Information Technology business normally does not require recurrent capital investments, which makes it an inflation-friendly investment. Even though rising rates are concerns for the tech stocks, Apple is strong enough to weather any rout. Despite a volley of concerns, Apple is still the best-performing FAAMG stock this year.

One can bet on Apple ETFs like Technology Select Sector SPDR Fund XLK, Fidelity MSCI Information Technology Index ETF FTEC and Vanguard Information Technology ETF (VGT).

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Energy Select Sector SPDR ETF (XLE): ETF Research Reports

Technology Select Sector SPDR ETF (XLK): ETF Research Reports

Consumer Staples Select Sector SPDR ETF (XLP): ETF Research Reports

Invesco KBW Bank ETF (KBWB): ETF Research Reports

iShares U.S. Financial Services ETF (IYG): ETF Research Reports

iShares U.S. Consumer Staples ETF (IYK): ETF Research Reports

Fidelity MSCI Energy Index ETF (FENY): ETF Research Reports

Fidelity MSCI Information Technology Index ETF (FTEC): ETF Research Reports

3DPRINTING ETF (PRNT): ETF Research Reports

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Wed, 13 Jul 2022 07:28:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://finance.yahoo.com/news/buffett-stocks-beat-p-500-170005782.html
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