Download Free HP0-M53 brain dumps and PDF Questions

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Exam Code: HP0-M53 Practice exam 2022 by Killexams.com team
HP BSM Operations Manager on Windowsx 9.x Software
HP Operations teaching
Killexams : HP Operations teaching - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/HP0-M53 Search results Killexams : HP Operations teaching - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/HP0-M53 https://killexams.com/exam_list/HP Killexams : The Last Scientific Calculator?

There was a time when being an engineering student meant you had a sword. Well, really it was a slide rule hanging from your belt, but it sounds cooler to call it a sword. The slide rule sword gave way to calculators hanging from your belt loop, and for many engineers that calculator was from HP. Today’s students are more likely to have a TI or Casio calculator, but HP is still in there with the HP Prime. It is hard to call it a calculator since the latest variant has a 528 MHz ARM Cortex A7, 256 MB of RAM, and 512 MB of ROM. But if you can’t justify a $150 calculator, there are some cheap and even free options out there to get the experience. To start with, HP has a free app that runs on Windows or Mac that works just like the calculator. Of course, that’s free as in no charge, not free as in open source. But still, it will run under Wine with no more than the usual amount of coaxing.

You might wonder why you need a calculator on your computer, and perhaps you don’t. However, the HP Prime isn’t just your 1980s vintage calculator. It also has an amazing number of applications including a complete symbolic math system based on xCAS/Giac. It is also programmable using a special HP language that is sort of like Basic or Pascal. Other applications include plotting, statistics, solvers, and even a spreadsheet that can hold up to 10,000 rows and 676 columns.

Portability

It is easy to think that HP provides the free PC software so you’ll go out and buy the real calculator, and that may be part of it. However, you can also get official apps for Android and iOS. They aren’t free, but they are relatively inexpensive. On iOS the cost right now is $25 and on Android it is $20. There are also “lite” versions that are free.

It appears that these apps are not emulating the genuine calculator hardware, but are ports of the calculator code. So this isn’t a case of someone just writing a pretend calculator, these apps act like the real calculator because it is running the same source code. For example, there is an application, HP Connectivity Kit, that lets you talk to a real calculator over the network. The PC and phone versions will also connect just like a real device.

Programming

You can write programs on the device or if you have the HP Connectivity software (also free) you can write programs on your PC. You can even find some from the Internet. If you miss your old calculator, there is a define feature that lets you program like a key macro recording.

The programming language isn’t hard to pick up. Here’s a short snippet:


EXPORT AREAVOL()
BEGIN
LOCAL N1, N2, L1;
CHOOSE(N1, "Area or Volume?", "Area", "Volume");
IF N1 == 1 THEN
CHOOSE(N2, "Choose shape", "Rectangle", "Triangle", "Disk");
ELSE
CHOOSE(N2, "Choose solid", "Prism", "Cylinder", "Cone", "Pyramid", "Sphere");
. . .

Hacking and What’s Next?

You’d think that the real hardware would be a prime platform for hacking, but so far that’s still on the to-do list. The only really good hardware hack for the real calculator adds a Samsung battery with a higher capacity to the machine. There are also some enticing pads on the PCB that appear to support a buzzer and I2C communications, but there’s no firmware for it. There have been a few attempts to load alien firmware into the device, but there’s no full-blown development system. Getting to the JTAG port looks pretty intense. There’s also been the inevitable hacking of the communication protocol.

History is replete with products that seemed amazing for their day but turned out to be just a stopgap for something better. Cassettes gave way to CDs and then CDs gave way to digital music. Telephone answering machines gave way to voicemail. Calculators have that feel to them. How much longer will we need them? Are the virtual HP Prime applications going to overshadow the physical device?

Regardless, the Prime is state of the art and would shame a personal computer from a few years ago. You can only wonder if it will be the last great calculator, or if there are more yet to come. And a calculator still makes a nice project. Not all homemade calculators are simple.

Thu, 14 Jul 2022 12:01:00 -0500 Al Williams en-US text/html https://hackaday.com/2020/03/02/the-last-scientific-calculator/
Killexams : Former CT educator eyes private school for LGBTQ students

NEW HAVEN — Thirteen years after onetime school principal and Ansonia “Teacher of the Year” Patricia “Patty” Nicolari began trying to create a school that would be a safe space for gay, lesbian and transgender students, its time finally may have come.

More than a decade after the previous effort stalled, the idea is back — with a full head of steam — in slightly different form, with a full board of directors and a Community Advisory Council both now in place.

This time around, Nicolari, 64, envisions what she proposes to call “PROUD Academy” as a private school supported by donations that would build an endowment. The previous effort would have been a state-supported charter school.

PROUD Academy incorporated in June 2021 and has applied for nonprofit status, she said. The goal is to open as a school, most likely in New Haven, with 120 students to start, in September 2023.

If PROUD Academy were to become a reality, it would be the fourth such school specifically for LGBTQ+ youth in the nation, Nicolari said.

The others are Harvey Milk School in New York, which was founded in 1995, The Alliance in Milwaukee, which was founded as a high school in 2005 and added a middle school in 2008, and Magic City Acceptance Academy in Homewood, Ala., she said.

Nicolari, who lives at City Point, recently was named executive director of PROUD Academy Inc., which has other people involved on the board of directors.

The latest effort came about as Nicolari was working in a mentoring program that was part of the Governor’s Prevention Partnership, and she got a referral from the state Department of Children and Families that included three transgender children, along with others who were LGBTQ, all of whom were in foster homes, she said.

One thing that is unique about PROUD Academy — an acronym for “Proudly Respecting Our Unique Differences” — is that many of the people trying to make it happen know what it’s like to face bullying, intimidation and pressure in school.

Nicolari had been a teacher for 15 years when she came out as a lesbian in 1997. That spurred both an outpouring of support and encouragement in her life, as well as some blowback from people who had a problem with her sexual orientation, she said.

The board of directors and the Community Advisory Council are a mix of gay, straight and transgender people.

“It’s very exciting” and “it is exciting to be on the ground floor,” said board President Kassandra Hernandez of Madison, philanthropic engagement manager for New Reach of New Haven, which works with people experiencing homelessness. She said she met Nicolari at a Greater New Haven Chamber of Commerce event.

“It was something I thought was very important,” said Hernandez, 28, who grew up in Arizona and Connecticut and works with LGBTQ+ kids “who are being rejected by their families.”

There are particularly high suicide rates among LGBTQ+ youths and that “needs to be addressed,” Hernandez said.

PROUD Academy board Vice President Chelsea Reid, 29, a college friend of Hernandez who also lives in Madison and is operations manager for New Reach, ran into Nicolari at the Middletown Pride Festival, where Nicolari had an informational table.

“I think the idea of safety” for kids coming to terms with their sexual identities “gets taken for granted very often,” said Reid, who remembers who own feelings and experiences growing up gay in New York City in the 1990s.

In Reid’s case, her immediate family was accepting, “but I also am a Black female from the West Indies, where it is still illegal,” she said.

Ironically, one of the things that stalled the previous effort was a new wrinkle in Nicolari’s own identity.

“The reason this school didn’t happen” then “was because after 28 years of relationships with women, I fell in love with a man,” Nicolari said.

That led Nicolari to ask herself, “Who am I now?” with a period of introspection that followed, she said.

Time went by “and I just let it go by the wayside,” said Nicolari, who spent 28 years involved with women and now more than 10 years with men. She now considers herself to be bisexual.

Others on the board of directors include Secretary Henrietta Small, Treasurer Ayanna Belton, Brandon Iovene, Devonne Canaday, Barbara Duncan, Michael Fiorello, a Stratford English teacher, and John Rose, former city corporation counsel during Mayor Toni Harp’s administration, Nicolari said.

Among those on the Community Advisory Council are Newhallville Alder Devin Avshalom-Smith, D-20, who is transgender; retired openly gay Staples High School Principal John Dodig; writer and retired openly gay former Staples soccer coach Dan Woog; and Patricia Clissia-Lanzaro of Shelton, mother of a 13-year-old trans boy.

“The part that resonates most with me is Patty’s desire to service a lot of LGBTQ kids who are kicked out of their homes,” said Avshalom-Smith, 33, who came out as a lesbian while a high school student at Northwest Catholic High School at age 16 and realized she was destined to be a he at age 17 or 18.

“It was not easy,” Avshalom-Smith said. “I faced a lot of scrutiny from my peers, teachers. It was definitely a very challenging time in my life. ... I think it would possibly have been helpful to be in an open and affirming space where I didn’t have to face stigma.

“The key words for me are ‘open’ and ‘affirming’ ... so that they can focus on things like their studies and self-esteem rather than worrying about things like criticism,” he said. “Everybody’s personal journey to finding their sexual identity is unique. ... No one person is the same.”

For Clissia-Lanzaro, who is on the PROUD Academy Parents Committee — and has been having trouble finding a competent counselor for her trans child, Vincent, who goes to Shelton Intermediate School — “I just love the idea of having a school that works with kids like my kid.”

She wants Vincent to be PROUD Academy’s first student.

“There are not a lot of counselors that work with transgendered kids, or LGBTQ kids,” said Clissia-Lanzaro, who works as a case manager for Community Action Agency in New Haven.

How long has Vincent, who was born with a female identity and the name Valentina, known that he was destined to be male?

“I think he always did — always,” Clissia-Lanzaro said. “Ever since he was little, he never wanted to wear dresses or girls’ clothes — ever. He always played with his brother’s toys and his brothers trucks ... and he wanted to wear boys’ clothes.

“When kids played house as kids, all the girls wanted to have a wife and a baby,” she said. “Vincent had a wife and a dog. ... He was always a boy at heart.”

Vincent initially came out as gay at age 11, and “I think he did suffer a lot when he was 11.”

When he moved on to intermediate school, “he went completely looking like a boy.”

But “some of the kids continued to call him (Valentina) and said, ‘I met you as Valentina and you’re always going’” to be that, she said.

Being in a school like PROUD Academy “would make all the difference” in Vincent’s case, Clissia-Lanzaro said. “First of all, he would feel at home” with other children and staff “to help guide him, help him navigate this world. He would have a support group, people that experience the same things ... every day.”

Nicolari said the goal is to set up and endowment and make use of foundation funds. She also said there are many two-income LGBTQ couples with no kids who might be willing to help.

“Our hope is that 60 percent of the kids will go tuition-free and 40 percent will pay the tuition,” which is expected to be about $37,000 a year, “which is the average private school tuition,” Nicolari said.

Iovene, 22 — the youngest member of the board of directors — grew up gay in Higganum and just graduated from Southern Connecticut State University with a degree in English. He didn’t come out as gay until January of his senior year.

Now living in North Branford, he will begin work soon as an intern at Southern’s SAGE (Sexuality and Gender Equality) Center.

Iovene was introduced to Nicolari through his grandmother, a real estate agent.

When he entered college, “I thought about going into teaching but thought that as an openly effeminate, queer man” it might be difficult, Iovene said.

When he heard about PROUD Academy, he saw it as another way to educate people.

“I like to make waves because I see it as a wave to make positive change,” he said.

“Growing up as a closeted queer person ... was challenging, to say the least,” Iovene said. Even after he came out, he faced “hatred and bigotry and a lot of unintentional ignorance.”

“As dramatic as this might sound, I truly believe that something like PROUD Academy would be a solution for a lot of life-or-death situations,” Iovene said.

“Growing up and ... knowing that you are different from those around you ... that is a really challenging experience,” he said.

Having a school like PROUD Academy “can save lives.”

Woog, who 30-some-odd years ago was one of the first openly gay high school coaches in the country and wrote the book, “Schools Out,” on gay issues in schools, ran into Nicolari at the Norwalk Pride celebration in June.

“We caught up and she told me what she was doing with PROUD Academy,” said Woog, who for 22 years co-ran a youth program at Norwalk’s Triangle Community Center. “Immediately, I said, ‘I want to be involved.’”

Having a school like PROUD Academy could have a “dramatic” effect on education in the state, he said.

“As good as some schools are and as good as others are becoming, it’s still not easy to be an LGBTQ youth,” Woog said. “Some have issues at home, some have issues at school and you can’t reach your potential ... if you can’t concentrate at school.”

School “is where they become who they are. If they have to spend a large amount of their social energy” dealing with bullying or other forms of non-acceptance, “they’re not going to fully participate and they’re not going to get out” of school what they need to, he said.

“I’m proud that Connecticut is the next place” where a school for LGBTQ+ kids may sprout, he said.

mark.zaretsky@hearstmediact.com

Sun, 10 Jul 2022 14:51:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.thehour.com/news/article/Former-CT-educator-eyes-private-school-for-LGBTQ-17293506.php?t=306d2c52b6&src=nwkhppromostrip
Killexams : Product Focus: Classroom Collaboration Tools

Product Focus: Classroom Collaboration Tools

Sponsored by

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Interactive WhiteBoard (IWB) as Collaboration Tools

IWBs or "a smartboard" (SmartBoard™ is actually just a trademarked brand name of IWBs, there are many manufacturers such as 3M, DYMO (Mimio), Hitachi, HP, Lenovo, Panasonic, eInstruction, and more) is a white or marker board that has been designed and manufactured to be projected on by a projector and used as an input device. IWBs typically build in one or more of the following technologies:

  • Resitive touch
  • Infrared (IR) touch (also called IR scan)
  • Electomaganetic pens
  • Touch-free camera-based

IWBs, when used with a projector and computer, allow users to interact with a presentation right on the whiteboard as well as control their computer from the whiteboard (which is typically mounted on the wall or on a rolling floor stand). IWBs are sort of like a giant graphics tablet. IWBs are great for teaching and collaboration as they allow instructors to annotate and capture notes during a presentation or even videoconferencing. If used with an audience response system (also known as "clicker") presenters can directly get feedback by polling their audience or giving quizzes during their presentation.

Alternatives to IWBs:

1) Interactive Projection

There are some projectors with built-in Interactive whiteboard technology, which turns the projector screen surface or wall (whatever they are projecting on) into an interactive surface. Both Epson and InFocus were the first to bring this technology to market (InFocus was this first to bring it to market in late 2009 but Epson was not far behind with their solution in spring 2010) but now there are units from Optoma, ViewSonic, Hitachi, BenQ, Dell, and, Luidia, Boxlight as well. Some of the solutions, like Epson’s, are pen-based which means you need to be at the board or screen, while others are wand-based, which means you can interact from almost anywhere in the room within 30 to 40 feet. Like interactive whiteboards, these solutions work similarly to graphics tablets or optical mice in that they work off a digital grid. Once the projector and pen or wand are calibrated, the user can interact with, annotate, create, and more with the presentation content.

2) Touch displays

Touch capable LCD or plasmas are offered by most of the display manufacturers like Samsung, NEC, Sony, HP, Planar, ViewSonic and ELO. This displays work like any other large format display (30" or larger) but they have the added feature of touch screen just like an iPhone or Droid. The largest single display is 82" offered by Samsung but users can also utilize multiple smaller screens to make an interactive video wall. For instance four 55-inch touch screens in a 2 high x 2 wide tile would yield a 110-inch diagonal touch screen. The combinations are endless.

Some of the manufacturers, like Samsung and Infocus, even offer units specifically for education as alternatives to IWBs, but in theory any touch monitor can deliver you the same capabilities as a traditional IWB.

Collaborative devices/solutions for IWBs

There are numerous add-on collaborative products that are both pen-based and tablet-based that can be used with existing projectors to allow you to interact with your presentations. Some of these require you to be at the whiteboard and some work from anywhere. Ebeam from Luidia has a device you mount to a traditional whiteboard and using a Ebeam pen interactive on the whiteboard. The Q300 Mirrorboard is a 10-inch wireless screen or slate that allows users to see what is being projected on a large format display and interact with it from up to 30-feet away from the receiver (which is hooked to the computer). This allows teachers to walk around the room and not even have to face the board to see what they are doing. There are many different types of interactive whiteboard devices available from manufacturers like Avermedia, Luida, Optoma, Hitachi, eInstruction and more.

The database presented here offers products that GovConnection sells specifically for the education market.


Virtual Ink Mimio Interactive

Virtual Ink Mimio Interactive

mimio Interactive is a portable and low cost device that attaches to any whiteboard (up to 4'x8' in size), connects to your PC and when used with a projector, allows you control your desktop applications and documents directly from the board.

With the included ergonomic mimio Mouse stylus, controlling your interactive whiteboard has never been easier. The mimio Mouse stylus has a teflon tip to glide across any surface and two integrated buttons with user selectable functions, such as hover and right-click.

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Panasonic Panaboard 83", Interactive Multi-Touch

Panasonic Panaboard 83", Interactive Multi-Touch

The elite Panaboard is an advanced educational tool that helps you grab students' attention. It makes it easy to create effective, eye-catching teaching materials and it promotes active, visual-based teaching and learning that make the classroom fun for both teacher and students. By connecting a PC with Internet access and a projector, you can bring the huge amount of information available on the Web or any information on your PC right into your classroom. Panasonic's Elite Panaboard opens the door to a kind of active, visual-based education.

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Panasonic UB-8325 Interactive Whiteboard with USB Interface

Panasonic UB-8325 Interactive Whiteboard with USB Interface

White-"bored"? We've got just the solution. Panasonic's UB-8325 Interactive Panaboard will energize your meetings, keeping your audience focused and your ideas flowing. Complete with an abundance of interactive technological advancements, the benefits of the UB-8325 are without bounds.

Save written and projected notes from the board directly into your PC. Remote PC operations lets you control your Windows applications from your host PC. Easy-to-install utility software includes an electronic pen used in the same way as a computer mouse. Pen strokes can be recorded, captured, saved and replayed on top of PC applications. Experience a real time global teleconference solution using the Microsoft NetMeeting software platform. Draw ideas from all of your resources around the world simultaneously.

Panaboard Mode lets you increase efficiency and reduce meeting time by simply writing on the board and printing out the information for easy distribution. Whiteboard Mode helps you distribute consistent information by using the power of your PC to save meeting notes and then send the information electronically via email or to a printer. Projector Mode allows you to interact with projected images while controlling Windows applications directly from the board for convenient and practical analysis.

Included colorful electronic pens track meeting notes and important words to emphasize critical issues in color. The screen displays crisp data and video images with minimal light reflection. A built-in printer allows for materials to be distributed to the audience in seconds.

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ViewSonic Ebeam Edge eBeam Edge Interactive Projector/Whiteboard Solution by Luidia

ViewSonic Ebeam Edge eBeam Edge Interactive Projector/Whiteboard Solution by Luidia

If you walked into a classroom where ViewSonic's PJ-PEN-002 eBeam Edge For Education was being used you're realize almost instantly what was going on. What you might not realize is how it was going on.

You know what a whiteboard is. There must be one in just about every classroom in America. Although they're far less common than ordinary whiteboards, you might know what an interactive whiteboard is too.

With an interactive whiteboard, a computer and a projector you can display PowerPoint slide shows, computer-based lessons and other programs on the board and navigate through them, manipulate them and annotate them. With many you can save your work along with your notes in a variety of file formats.

eBeam for Education turns any ordinary whiteboard into an interactive whiteboard. Here's how it works:

After you've installed the software into your Mac or PC you connect your computer to your USB-equipped projector. (Cable available separately) Then you place the eBeam receiver on the edge of your whiteboard. It's less than eight inches long (200 mm) 1.6 inches (41 mm) wide and less than a half inch thick (10.5 mm). If you have a metal-edged board you can attach it magnetically. Otherwise you can use the included mounting brackets. Run the included 16 foot (4.87 meters) long USB cable from the receiver to your computer and you're ready to go.

Once you're set up you can project PowerPoint and Keynote slideshows, lesson plans, and other computer-based learning materials. Pick up the stylus and navigate, annotate and manipulate what's on the board just as you would with an genuine interactive whiteboard.

The eBeam system includes a complete package of software that makes your eBeam even more valuable. Included in the software is eBeam Scrapbook, a multi-media organizer for gathering, preparing, presenting, and sharing your content.

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Hitachi StarBoard FX-TRIO-77 Whiteboard

Hitachi StarBoard FX-TRIO-77 - Whiteboard - infrared - wired - USB

The key to the FX-TRIO interactive whiteboard is a multi-touch surface. Use your finger, stylus or electronic pen to annotate on the whiteboard and easily navigate through computer applications, websites and multi-media content. Up to three users can operate the board and perform the same task simultaneously. Moreover the hard electronic-free surface of the FX-TRIO makes it almost unbreakable and usable as a dry-wipe whiteboard.

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Panasonic 55 in x 65 in Panaboard - Plain Paper Model with USB Interface Port

Panasonic 55 in x 65 in Panaboard - Plain Paper Model with USB Interface Port

Connect your meetings, brain storming sessions, scheduling and training with this 55" by 65" plain paper Panaboard. It features a 35.4" by 55.1" panel size with four endless type panel surfaces and includes one non-glare screen for projectors. File Document Management System software easily archives, retrieves and disseminates your meeting notes. For your convenience, this Panaboard can be wall-mounted or used with the mobile floor stand (sold separately).

This model comes standard with Document Manager and Document Viewer utility software. Meeting content that appears on the Panaboard screen can become your meeting minutes with notes through the Document Viewer feature. Using Document Manager, you can quickly and easily file and distribute the meeting minutes by converting the file into common electronic file formats, including BMP, TIFF, JPG, PNG and PDF.

With the included Printer Driver, this Panaboard can also work as a PC printer. If you need to print documents during a meeting, the built-in Plug and Play USB port makes it easy to print out your documents right from the Panaboard. In addition, with the included TWAIN driver, you can scan the image on the Panaboard screen as image data to your computer with just one click. You can also control the Panaboard operation right from your computer.

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Virtual Ink MimoTeach Interactive System

Virtual Ink MimioTeach Interactive System

The MimioTeach interactive system transforms any dry erase board into a fully interactive whiteboard. The patented infrared and ultrasound sensor technology fits neatly into a small, unobtrusive bar that attaches easily to a board. Combine it with a projector and computer, and it becomes a fully interactive system. Lightweight yet durable, the MimioTeach system is easy to handle and transport.

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Hitachi StarBoard WT-1 Interactive Wireless Tablet

Hitachi StarBoard WT-1 Interactive Wireless Tablet

The WT-1 Interactive Wireless Tablet's compact and portable design allows you to comfortably control your computer and present up to 30 feet away – even while standing up. Whether you're in the boardroom or in a meeting, you can quickly jot down notes – from mathematical formulas to flow charts. Easily mark up Word documents, PowerPoint presentations, and highlight information with digital inks. Then, reorganize your notes and recall them later to share with colleagues. Skip the frustration of trying to set-up a wireless connection. The WT-1's Radio Frequency technology takes the guess work out of pairing devices and easily connects to your computer. The integrated rechargeable battery provides up to 16 hours of wireless operation and can be charged via USB.

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Mitsubishi Bundle XD250U-ST Portable DLP Projector with Ebeam Edge

Mitsubishi Bundle XD250U-ST Portable DLP Projector with Ebeam Edge

  • 2700 ANSI lumens / 2000:1 Contrast Ratio / 1024 x 768 Max Resolution
  • 4:3, 16:9 Image Aspect Ratio / Digital Light Processing (DLP) Display
  • Remote control, Single speaker, Speaker Included, Blackboard mode, Whiteboard mode / 3 Years Warranty

This bundle includes (1) XD250U-ST DLP projector and (1) eBeam Edge.

In the past, attempting to show large projected presentations in small rooms could prove quite difficult, as a projector would need to take up a lot of desk space in order to show a sufficiently large image. Thanks to the short throw projector from Mitsubishi Electric however, this problem is a thing of the past. Requiring only an 83cm distance to deliver a 1.5m projection image, the XD250U-ST can be placed right at the edge of a table top, eliminating the loss of workspace commonly associated with conventional projectors. The XD250U-ST's lightweight and compact design also makes it ideal for sales presentations on the move or easy transfer between classrooms.

Great images in limited area aren't the only thing going for the XD250U-ST, as it also features an outstanding range of value-added functions. The built-in 10W speaker effectively eliminates the need for an external audio system in small rooms, while the "Audio Mix" feature allows the user to connect two audio inputs to the projector (e.g. a microphone and DVD player) and control each of the input volumes separately. The projector can be connected to a local area network for remote monitoring and control, and the visual PA feature allows messages to be simultaneously broadcast to multiple Mitsubishi projectors on the network. Low operating costs are also a standout feature of the XD250U-ST, with a staggering lamp life of up to 6000 hours ensuring far fewer lamp changes, and a filter free design meaning less downtime for maintenance.

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Optoma TW675UTi-3D Ultra Short Throw Interactive Multimedia Projector

Optoma TW675UTi-3D Ultra Short Throw Interactive Multimedia Projector, 3200 Lumens

  • 3200 ANSI lumens / 3000:1 Contrast Ratio / 1600 x 1200 Max Resolution
  • 16:9, 4:3, 16:10 Image Aspect Ratio / Digital Light Processing (DLP) Display / P-VIP Lamp
  • Remote control, 3D, Speakers Included, Dual speakers / 3 Years Warranty

Now you can make your conference room or classroom an interactive learning environment without the cost or complication of installing an electronic whiteboard. The Optoma TX675UTi-3D, an XGA ultra short-throw multimedia projector with interactive 3D function, upgrades plain whiteboards and screens (or even a bare wall) into an immersive learning experience. The high-performance projector and pen combination integrates the features that educators and business presenters need to meet today's day-to-day demands and tomorrow's emerging technologies.

With high brightness, contrast and sharpness, the TX675UTi-3D engages the audience by producing crystal clear images that keep audiences connected. The ultra short-throw design minimizes shadows, while the sleek styling hides cables from view. This fully-loaded projector delivers an all-in-one solution that meets your needs.

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Mitsubishi Bundle XD221U-ST(D) 3D-Ready DLP Projector with Ebeam Edge

Mitsubishi Bundle XD221U-ST(D) 3D-Ready DLP Projector with Ebeam Edge

  • 2000 ANSI lumens / 2000:1 Contrast Ratio / 1024 x 768 Max Resolution
  • 4:3, 16:9 Image Aspect Ratio / Digital Light Processing (DLP) Display
  • Remote control, Single speaker, Speaker Included, Blackboard mode, Whiteboard mode / 3 Years Warranty

This bundle includes (1) XD221U-ST(D) 3D-Ready DLP Projector and (1) eBeam Edge.

At last, a multimedia projector that goes right to the front of the class. The XD221U-ST DLP 3D-ready projector takes classroom presentations to a new level, with ultra short-throw capabilities, sharp image reproduction, incredibly quiet operation, low cost of operation and more.

With the XD221U-ST multimedia projector instructors no longer worry about casting a shadow on the whiteboard or face the bright glare of the projector. An ultra-powerful short-throw lens can project an amazing 60-inch diagonal image from a distance of just 33-inch, an asset whether the room is large or small.

Near-silent 26 decibel operation in low mode ensures that the XD221 doesn't compete with the presenter. A high-volume, 10 watt built-in speaker eliminates the need for an external speaker. The optional microphone reproduces the presenter's voice loud and clear in real-time while the audio mix feature enables the microphone's audio to lay over the sound from another input source.

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Panasonic 77" Diagonal Interactive Board with MultiTouch

Panasonic 77" Diagonal Interactive Board with MultiTouch

The elite Panaboard is an advanced educational tool that helps you grab students' attention. It makes it easy to create effective, eye-catching teaching materials and it promotes active, visual-based teaching and learning that make the classroom fun for both teacher and students. By connecting a PC with Internet access and a projector, you can bring the huge amount of information available on the Web or any information on your PC right into your classroom. Panasonic's Elite Panaboard opens the door to a kind of active, visual-based education.

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HP TeamBoard Resistive Touch 4:3 62" x 50" Interactive Whiteboard

HP TeamBoard Resistive Touch 4:3 62" x 50" Interactive Whiteboard

TeamBoard RT (4:3) Interactive Whiteboard for Business with Finger Touch Interactivity. Combining state of the art resistive touch (RT) technology with award wining EVS projection and dry-erase surface, TeamBoard RT is an industry-leading learning solution. TeamBoard RT comes with a detachable controller that easily slides on and off for simple upgrading or replacement.

The interactive whiteboard is easy does it with TeamBoard RT 4:3 – robust construction, reliable finger-touch interactivity, a guaranteed-to-clean surface, and an integrated Action Bar that needs no special pens or parts. TeamBoard is a global leader in the interactive whiteboard market. TeamBoard's award-winning interactive whiteboards are designed to accelerate learning by increasing engagement, improving retention and fostering an enthusiasm for learning. TeamBoard RT has been designed with today's classroom in mind.

TeamBoard RT (4:3 aspect ratio) models are user-friendly interactive whiteboards. You do not have to worry about losing any proprietary gadgets, pens or tools. All features are controlled with the touch of a finger. The standard 4:3 aspect ratio is familiar and compatible with most existing projectors and computer set ups.

The low-glare VersaSurface is perfectly suited for projection. The image can be viewed from any angle and seat in the room. The matte-white surface ensures that there will be no visible hot spots or glare–even without dimming the lights. TeamBoard's award wining Versa presentation surface is a unique dry-erase writing and projection surface. The VersaSurface is guaranteed-to-clean; even permanent marker, if used by mistake, is easy to erase.

TeamBoard RT's removable controller allows for quick upgrades and replacements. There is no need to wait for a technician to visit nor will you be burdened with the responsibility of having to send back your interactive whiteboard should you experience technical difficulties.

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Optoma TX665UTi-3D Ultra Short Throw Interactive Multimedia Projector

Optoma TX665UTi-3D Ultra Short Throw Interactive Multimedia Projector, 3000 Lumens

  • 3000 ANSI lumens / 3000:1 Contrast Ratio / 1600 x 1200 Max Resolution
  • 16:9, 4:3 Image Aspect Ratio / Digital Light Processing (DLP) Display / P-VIP Lamp
  • Remote control, 3D, Speakers Included, Dual speakers / 3 Years Warranty

Now you can make your conference room or classroom an interactive learning environment without the cost or complication of installing an electronic whiteboard. The Optoma TX665UTi-3D, an XGA ultra short-throw multimedia projector with interactive 3D function, upgrades plain whiteboards and screens (or even a bare wall) into an immersive learning experience. The high-performance projector and pen combination integrates the features that educators and business presenters need to meet today's day-to-day demands and tomorrow's emerging technologies.

With high brightness, contrast and sharpness, the TX665UTi-3D engages the audience by producing crystal clear images that keep audiences connected. The ultra short-throw design minimizes shadows, while the sleek styling hides cables from view. This fully-loaded projector delivers an all-in-one solution that meets your needs.

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Hitachi iPJ-AW250N Interactive Ultra Short-Throw WXGA Projector

Hitachi iPJ-AW250N Interactive Ultra Short-Throw WXGA Projector, 2500 Lumens

  • 2500 ANSI lumens / 1600 x 1200 Max Resolution
  • UHP Lamp
  • 3 Years Warranty

Project a clear image in any classroom or conference room with Hitachi iPJ-AW250N. It features an Ultra Short Throw lens which will project an 80" image at 10" from the edge of the projector. This not only prevents shadows caused by obstructions but also means no shadows and no light shining in the presenter's eyes.

For better performance, both an IR sensor and Ultra Sonic technology are used. This increases reliability as well as eliminating lag time from pen to projection for a more natural writing experience.

Digital connectivity allows for highest image quality from your HD device.

Perfect Fit 2 allows the user to adjust the four corners and four sides of the image one by one. This feature helps correct geometrical and complicated distortions. Some geometric limitations apply.

Template function projects lines onto the screen, making it easier to write on a whiteboard or blackboard.

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InFocus IN3916 Interactive Projector

InFocus IN3916 Interactive Projector, 2700 Lumens

  • 2700 ANSI lumens / 3200:1 Contrast Ratio / 1920 x 1200 Max Resolution
  • 16:10, 16:9, 4:3, 5:4 Image Aspect Ratio
  • Remote control, Keystone correction, Dual speakers, Speakers Included / 5 Years Warranty

Engage your audience with an IN3916 interactive projector instead of a cumbersome and expensive interactive whiteboard or smartboard. Turn any surface into an engaging, collaborative interactive workspace. It's like an interactive whiteboard without the board.

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3M 65" Digital Board

3M 65" Digital Board

This innovative digital whiteboard allow you to electronically capture notes to save and distribute instantly. The board electronically captures notes in color which you can then save, print, or e-mail in various file formats instantly, including: ESB, JPEG, TIFF, HTML, PDF, vector PDF, BMP 256 color, WBD, PowerPoint (ppt and pps), and metafile (emf). You can import files from most business programs (including Excel and Word), annotate and save changes. A Playback feature allows you to review all drawings on the board, including erased items. Designed for long-term durability with a porcelain enamel surface over steel design, the board will be your preferred note-taking tool for years to come.

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HP TeamBoard RT 85" 16:10 WhiteBoard

HP TeamBoard RT 85" 16:10 WhiteBoard

The TeamBoard RT 16:10 TMWM7450EM offers a robust construction, reliable finger-touch interactivity, a guaranteed-to-clean surface, and an integrated Action Bar that needs no special pens or parts! It also brings you compatibility with the newest projectors, with full widescreen functionality that offers 20% more interactive workspace than a standard interactive whiteboard. TeamBoard is a global leader in the interactive whiteboard market. Inspired by teachers, students, professionals and facility experts, TeamBoard's interactive whiteboards are designed to accelerate learning by increasing engagement, improving retention and fostering an enthusiasm for learning. TeamBoard has been designed with today's classroom in mind. It provides the power of interactivity to learning–made easy.

TeamBoard RT models are the most user-friendly interactive whiteboards. You do not have to worry about losing any proprietary gadgets, pens or tools. All features are controlled with the touch of a finger. The low-glare VersaSurfacetm is perfectly suited for projection. The image can be viewed from any angle and seat in the room. The matte-white surface ensures that there will be no visible hot spots or glare–even without dimming the lights. TeamBoard's award wining Versa presentation surface is a unique dry-erase writing and projection surface. The VersaSurface is guaranteed-to-clean; even permanent marker, if used by mistake, is easy to erase. TeamBoard RT's removable controller allows for quick upgrades and replacements (usually within 24 hours). There is no need to wait for a technician to visit nor will you be burdened with the responsibility of having to send back your interactive whiteboard should you experience technical difficulties.

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Sony Bundle SW125 Short-Throw 3D LCD Projector with Ebeam Edge portable Interactive solution

Sony Bundle SW125 Short-Throw 3D LCD Projector with Ebeam Edge portable Interactive solution

  • 2600 ANSI lumens / 3800:1 Contrast Ratio / 1400 x 1050 Max Resolution
  • 16:10 Image Aspect Ratio / LCD Display / UHP Lamp
  • Single speaker, Speaker Included, Remote control, Keystone correction / 3 Years Warranty

This bundle includes the VPL-SW125 WXGA projector and the Ebeam Edge interactive projector/whiteboard solution.

The VPL-SW125 WXGA projector is an ideal choice for close projection applications in the corporate and educational markets. The model has a low brightness mode which reduces power consumption and extends the lamp lifetime to approximately 6000 hours, which means lower operating costs across the board.

Excellent contrast, consistent colour stability, high picture quality and longer durability will Strengthen visibility and enhance teaching quality. This projector is easy to install in small or difficult spaces, and has easy to operate controls.

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Panasonic Panaboard 83" Interactive Whiteboard

Panasonic Panaboard 83" Interactive Whiteboard

The elite Panaboard is an advanced educational tool that helps you grab students' attention. It makes it easy to create effective, eye-catching teaching materials and it promotes active, visual-based teaching and learning that makes the classroom fun for both teacher and student! Panasonic and the elite Panaboard open the door to a kind of active, visual-based education.

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Panasonic Panaboard 63" Whiteboard, USB

Panasonic Panaboard 63" Whiteboard, USB

This advanced color Panaboard supports a variety of business situations with a wide range of functions. You can save the information written on the board onto a PC, an SD memory card, or USB flash memory, and distribute it as electronic data to your colleagues from a PC, all in color. Operation is done using easy-to-understand icons. Panaboard gives you maximum power in presentations and conferences.

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ViewSonic PJD7383i Short-Throw XGA DLP Interactive Projector with Speaker

ViewSonic PJD7383i Short-Throw XGA DLP Interactive Projector with Speaker, 3000 Lumens

  • 3000 ANSI lumens / 2000:1, 3000:1 Contrast Ratio / 1024 x 768 Max Resolution
  • 4:3, 16:9 Image Aspect Ratio / Digital Light Processing (DLP) Display
  • Keystone correction, Remote control, Single speaker, Speaker Included / 3 Years Warranty

The PJD7383i is an advanced short throw DLP projector which includes BrilliantColor technology to produce more vibrant colors, while the high brightness and contrast ratios make this projector shine in virtually any lighting situation.

The PJD7383i delivers 3000 lumens with a 1024 x 768 XGA native resolution. Priced at just a fraction of the cost of a traditional 77” interactive white board, the ViewSonic iProjector provides ultimate flexibility for interactive learning.

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Hitachi StarBoard Link EZ Interactive Whiteboard System

Hitachi StarBoard Link EZ Interactive Whiteboard System

StarBoard Link EZ turns any dry erase board or surface into a fully functioning Interactive Whiteboard. Easy to set up. Easy to use. Attach your StarBoard Link EZ system to any flat surface, connect it to a computer, connect the computer to a projector, a quick set-up routine and you are ready to start teaching with a fully functioning IWB.

StarBoard Link EZ secures to any flat surface in minutes to transform a static wall into an interactive environment. The size of active area is adjustable, from 45'' if the surface is limited, to 90'' for the rooms where a bigger size of projection and work space is required. Use your finger, stylus or any object to easily navigate through activities, websites, and multi-media content. Use your finger to annotate, fist to scroll and two fingers to erase or zoom in and out.

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Mitsubishi Bundle EW230U-ST DLP Projector with Ebeam Edge portable Interactive solution

Mitsubishi Bundle EW230U-ST DLP Projector with Ebeam Edge portable Interactive solution

  • 2500 ANSI lumens / 1600 x 1200 Max Resolution

The issue of presenting in environments with limited projection space can now be eliminated with the EW230U-ST. This native WXGA projector is equipped with an ultra-powerful short-throw lens that can project an amazing 60-inch diagonal image from a distance of just 63cm from the screen. With such an amazingly short projection distance, previous concerns about presenters casting their shadow on the screen are now eliminated.

The EW230U-ST is a WXGA projector with 1280 x 800 pixel resolution specially tuned to screen aspect ratios that support the shift towards wide-screen computer monitors. It reproduces a display area 1.3 times that of conventional XGA projectors, ensuring full compatibility with wider screens and eliminating the need for left-right screen adjustment. Depending on the software installed, dual-screen projection, such as simultaneously viewing the menu and previews, is possible. DVD images can also be reproduced directly without requiring signal compression, thus providing sharper, clearer images.

The EW230U-ST is equipped with a built-in LAN (RJ-45) terminal for remote operation when connected to a network. Additionally, when used with Crestron software, integrated control of up to 250 projectors including power on/off control, message display on multiple projectors and confirmation of lamp service hours is possible using RoomViewTM/e-Control applications.

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Hitachi 17" StarBoard T-17SXL Interactive Pen Display

Hitachi 17" StarBoard T-17SXL Interactive Pen Display

The T-17SXL is a compact, ergonomic, pen-driven, SXGA resolution 17-inch LCD display provided with the StarBoard Software suite of presentation and collaboration tools. The T-17SXL raises the bar in tablet presentation technology with a 17-inch LCD display screen that boasts SXGA resolution, excellent color and contrast, and a thin screen that assures natural, accurate operation. Other technological innovations include built-in video pass-through permitting the connection of projectors and computers with the StarBoard system without requiring an external video splitting amplifier.

Eight hardware function buttons permit full screen operation without requiring constant use of on-screen menus. The T-17SXL is connected to a standard PC via USB link and comes with a smoothly adjustable tilt stand.

Perhaps the most powerful innovation is the inclusion of the latest in the StarBoard suite of professional presentation and collaboration software. StarBoard Software's intuitive, icon-driven interface enables presenters to easily operate in a whiteboard mode or to annotate right over Windows applications or digital video on the display. Collaboration software lets the T-17SXL easily communicate with other StarBoard systems and allows for simultaneous viewing and annotation by multiple systems connected either locally or across the Internet.

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Optoma TW675UTiM-3D Ultra Short Throw Interactive Multimedia Projector with ST Mount

Optoma TW675UTiM-3D Ultra Short Throw Interactive Multimedia Projector with ST Mount, 3200 Lumens

  • 3200 ANSI lumens / 3000:1 Contrast Ratio / 1600 x 1200 Max Resolution
  • 16:9, 4:3, 16:10 Image Aspect Ratio / Digital Light Processing (DLP) Display / P-VIP Lamp
  • Remote control, 3D, Speakers Included, Dual speakers / 3 Years Warranty

Now you can make your conference room or classroom an interactive learning environment without the cost or complication of installing an electronic whiteboard. The Optoma TX675UTi-3D, an XGA ultra short-throw multimedia projector with interactive 3D function, upgrades plain whiteboards and screens (or even a bare wall) into an immersive learning experience. The high-performance projector and pen combination integrates the features that educators and business presenters need to meet today's day-to-day demands and tomorrow's emerging technologies.

With high brightness, contrast and sharpness, the TX675UTi-3D engages the audience by producing crystal clear images that keep audiences connected. The ultra short-throw design minimizes shadows, while the sleek styling hides cables from view. This fully-loaded projector delivers an all-in-one solution that meets your needs.

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Samsung 65" 650TS-2 E-Board Touch Solution, Full HD LCD Touch Display with Speakers

Samsung 65" 650TS-2 E-Board Touch Solution, Full HD LCD Touch Display with Speakers, Black

The Samsung 650TS-2 LCD Touch Screen display features fast and accurate touch sensitive infrared (IR) technology. With a fast screen response time, you can get the information you need with just the touch of a finger.

The touch-sensitive display is protected by a sheet of protective glass, so your touchscreen display will deliver information for years to come. Full HD 1920 x 1080 resolution allows you to display the highest resolution content.

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Panasonic UB-T780BP 77" 4:3 Interactive Electonic Whiteboard

Panasonic UB-T780BP 77" 4:3 Interactive Electonic Whiteboard

The elite Panaboard is an advanced educational tool that lets you grab students' attention. It makes it easy to create effective, eye-catching teaching materials and it promotes a style of active, visual-based teaching and learning that makes the classroom fun for both teacher and students. By connecting a PC with Internet access and a projector, you can bring the huge amount of information available on the web or any information on your PC right into your classroom.

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Panasonic Panaboard 76" Whiteboard, USB, Color

Panasonic Panaboard 76" Whiteboard, USB, Color

This advanced color Panaboard supports a variety of business situations with a wide range of functions. You can save the information written on the board onto a PC, an SD memory card, or USB flash memory, and distribute it as electronic data to your colleagues from a PC, all in color. Operation is done using easy-to-understand icons. Panaboard gives you maximum power in presentations and conferences.

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ViewSonic PJD7583wi WXGA Short-Throw DLP Interactive ProjecProjector

ViewSonic PJD7583wi WXGA Short-Throw DLP Interactive Projector, 2500 Lumens

  • 2500 ANSI lumens / 2000:1, 3000:1 Contrast Ratio
  • 16:10, 4:3 Image Aspect Ratio / Digital Light Processing (DLP) Display
  • Remote control, Single speaker, Speaker Included, Keystone correction / 3 Years Warranty

The PJD7583wi is an advanced short throw DLP widescreen projector which includes BrilliantColor technology to produce more vibrant colors, while the high brightness and contrast ratios make this projector shine in virtually any lighting situation. The PJD7583wi delivers 2500 lumens with a 1280 x 800 WXGA native resolution. The short throw lens allows it to project a 95" image, from a distance of just 1 meter, and built-in interactivity lets you turn any surface into an interactive white board.

Priced at just a fraction of the cost of a traditional 77" interactive board, the ViewSonic iProjector provides ultimate flexibility for interactive learning. With 120Hz/3D ready support, a host of display options such as display over RJ-45, USB Plug ‘n Play, and PC-less thumb drive, your content comes alive and encourages the entire class to be more engaged in the learning process.

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Sony Bundle SX125 Short-Throw 3D LCD Projector with Ebeam Edge portable Interactive solution

Sony Bundle SX125 Short-Throw 3D LCD Projector with Ebeam Edge portable Interactive solution

  • 2500 ANSI lumens / 3800:1 Contrast Ratio
  • LCD Display / UHP Lamp
  • Remote control, Single speaker, Speaker Included / 3 Years Warranty

This bundle includes the VPL-SX125 XGA projector and the Ebeam Edge interactive projector/whiteboard solution.

The VPL-SX125 XGA projector is an ideal choice for close projection applications in the corporate and educational markets.

This model has a low-brightness mode which reduces power consumption and extends the lamp lifetime to approximately 6000 hours, which means lower operating costs across the board.

This projector is easy to install in small or difficult spaces, and has easy to operate controls.

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InFocus IN3914 Interactive Projector with Speakers

InFocus IN3914 Interactive Projector with Speakers, 2700 Lumens, Black

  • 2700 ANSI lumens / 3200:1 Contrast Ratio / 1920 x 1200 Max Resolution
  • 16:10, 16:9, 4:3, 5:4 Image Aspect Ratio
  • Remote control, Keystone correction, Dual speakers, Speakers Included / 5 Years Warranty

Engage your audience with an IN3914 interactive projector instead of a cumbersome and expensive interactive whiteboard or smartboard. Turn any surface into an engaging, collaborative interactive workspace. It's like an interactive whiteboard without the board.

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Optoma TX665UTiM-3D Ultra Short Throw Interactive Multimedia Projector with Mount

Optoma TX665UTiM-3D Ultra Short Throw Interactive Multimedia Projector with Mount, 3000 Lumens

  • 3000 ANSI lumens / 3000:1 Contrast Ratio / 1600 x 1200 Max Resolution
  • 16:9, 4:3 Image Aspect Ratio / Digital Light Processing (DLP) Display / P-VIP Lamp
  • Remote control, 3D, Speakers Included, Dual speakers / 3 Years Warranty

Now you can make your conference room or classroom an interactive learning environment without the cost or complication of installing an electronic whiteboard. The Optoma TX665UTi-3D, an XGA ultra short-throw multimedia projector with interactive 3D function, upgrades plain whiteboards and screens (or even a bare wall) into an immersive learning experience. The high-performance projector and pen combination integrates the features that educators and business presenters need to meet today's day-to-day demands and tomorrow's emerging technologies.

With high brightness, contrast and sharpness, the TX665UTi-3D engages the audience by producing crystal clear images that keep audiences connected. The ultra short-throw design minimizes shadows, while the sleek styling hides cables from view. This fully-loaded projector delivers an all-in-one solution that meets your needs.

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Virtual Ink PAD WIRELESS INTERACTIVE TABLETWRLS

Virtual Ink PAD WIRELESS INTERACTIVE TABLETWRLS

mimio pad interactive stylus pen

USB mini-B cable

USB RF wireless receiver

Pen tip extractor tool with 2 replaceable pen tips

Rechargeable Nokia type battery

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Hitachi FXTRIO-88W Whiteboard

Hitachi FXTRIO-88W Whiteboard

Students absorb concepts better when they can hear, see and touch them. Eliminate distractions and dive right into your lessons with the FXTRIO interactive whiteboard. Use your finger or a stylus to easily navigate through activities, websites, and multi-media content that connects with today's digital learners.

Transform lessons into creative opportunities to inspire imaginations with a library of interactive tools that allow you to make notes, draw diagrams, and illustrate your point with digital ink. Have students collaborate on the board simultaneously with the FXTRIO's multi-touch technology.

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3M 78" Digital Board

3M 78" Digital Board

This innovative digital whiteboard allows you to electronically capture notes to save and distribute instantly. The board electronically captures notes in color which you can then save, print, or email in various file formats instantly, including: ESB, JPEG, TIFF, HTML, PDF, vector PDF, BMP 256 color, WBD, PowerPoint (ppt & pps), and metafile (emf). You can import files from most business programs (including Excel and Word), annotate and save changes. A Playback feature allows you to review all drawings on the board, including erased items. Designed for long-term durability with a porcelain enamel surface over steel design, the board will be your preferred note-taking tool for years to come.

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Thu, 03 Mar 2022 15:43:00 -0600 en text/html https://campustechnology.com/directory/list/classroom-collaboration-tools/classroom-collaboration-tools-home.aspx
Killexams : Words of Wisdom : The 10 (11) key principles of extrusion The following are important principles to keep in mind regarding extrusion. They should help save money, yield higher quality products, and use equipment more efficiently.

1. The mechanical principle.
The basic mechanics of extrusion are simple—a screw turns in a barrel and pushes the plastic forward. A screw is really an inclined plane, or ramp, wound around a central core. The intent is to multiply the force so that a great resistance can be overcome. In the case of an extruder, there are three resistances to overcome: the rubbing of solid particles (the feed) against the barrel wall and each other in the first few turns of the screw (the feed zone); the adhesion of the melt to the barrel wall; and resistance to flow within the melt as it is pushed forward.

Sir Isaac Newton explain-ed that if a thing is not moving in a given direction, the forces on it are balanced in that direction. The screw does not move in an axial direction, although it may be turning rapidly in the cross direction around the circumference. So, the axial forces on the screw are balanced, and if it is pushing forward with great force on the plastic melt it must be pushing backward on something with equal force. In this case, it is pushing on a bearing behind the feed entry called the thrust bearing.

Most single screws are right-hand thread, like the screws and bolts used in carpentry and machinery. They turn counter-clockwise, if viewed from behind, as they try to screw themselves backward out the barrel. In some twin-screw extruders, two screws turn in opposite directions in a double barrel and intermesh, so that one must be right-handed and the other left-handed. In other intermeshing twin-screws, both screws turn in the same direction and therefore must have the same orientation. In all cases, however, there are thrust bearings to take the backward force, and Newton's principle still applies.

2. The thermal principle.
Extrudable plastics are thermoplastics—they melt when heated and become solid again when cooled. Where does the heat to melt the plastics come from? Feed preheating and barrel/die heaters may contribute, and are critical at startup, but motor energy input—frictional heat generated inside the barrel as the motor turns the screw against the resistance of the viscous melt—is by far the most important source of heat for all except very small systems, slow-moving screws, high-melt-temperature plastics, and extrusion-coating applications.

For all other operations, it is important to realize that the barrel heaters are not the primary source of heat during operation, and therefore have less effect on extrusion than we might expect (see principle 11). The rear barrel temperature may remain important because it affects bite, or the rate of solids conveying in the feed. Head and die temperatures should normally be at or near the desired melt temperature, unless they are used for a specific purpose such as gloss, flow distribution, or pressure control.

3. The speed reduction principle.
In most extruders, screw speed is changed by modifying motor speed. Motors typically turn at around 1750 rpm at full speed, but this is much too fast for an extruder screw. If it were turned that fast, it would generate too much frictional heat, and the residence time of the plastic would be too short to prepare a uniform, well-mixed melt. A typical reduction ratio is between 10:1 and 20:1. The first stage may use either gears or a pulley set, but the second stage always uses gears and the screw is set in the center of the last, big gear.

In a few slow-moving machines (such as twins for UPVC), there may be three stages of reduction, and the top speed may be as low as 30 rpm or less (with ratios up to 60:1). On the other extreme, some very long twins used for compounding may run at 600 rpm or more, so that a very low reduction ratio is needed, as well as a lot of intense cooling.

Sometimes the reduction ratio is mismatched to the job—there is power going unused—and it is possible to add a set of pulleys between the motor and the first reduction stage to change the top speed. This either increases screw speed beyond the prior limits or reduces top speed to allow the system to run at a greater percentage of that top speed. This increases available power, reduces amperage, and avoids motor problems. In both cases, output may be increased, depending on the material and its cooling needs.

4. The feed acts as the coolant.
Extrusion is a transfer of energy from the motor—and sometimes the heaters—to the cool plastic, thus converting it from a solid to a melt. The entering feed is cooler than the barrel and screw surfaces in the feed zone. The barrel surface in the feedzone, however, is almost always above the melting range of the plastic. It is cooled by contact with the entering particles, but is kept hot by the conduction of heat backward from the hot front end, as well as by controlled barrel heating. Even when the front end is kept hot by viscous friction and no barrel heat input is needed, the rear heaters may need to be on. The most important exception is the grooved-feed barrel, used almost exclusively for HDPE.

The screw root surface is also cooled by the feed and is insulated from the barrel wall by the plastic feed particles (and the air between them). If the screw suddenly stops, the feed stops too, and the screw surface gets hotter in the feedzone as heat travels backward from the hotter front end. This may cause sticking of the particles to the root, or bridging.

5. Stick to the barrel and slip on the screw, in the feedzone.
For maximum solids conveying in the feedzone of a smooth-barrel, single-screw extruder, the particles should stick to the barrel and slip on the screw. If the particles stick on the screw root there is nothing to pull them off; channel volume and the infeed of solids are then reduced. Sticking to the root is also undesirable because the plastic may cook there and produce gels and similar contaminant particles, or stick and break loose intermittently with corresponding changes in the output rate.

Most plastics naturally slip on the root because they come in cool and the root is not heated as much by friction as the barrel wall. Some materials are more likely to stick than others: highly plasticized PVC, amorphous PET, and certain polyolefin copolymers with adhesive properties that are often desired in their end uses.

As for the barrel, the plastic needs to stick there so it can be scraped off and pushed forward by the screw flights. There should be a high coefficient of friction between particles and barrel, which in turn is strongly influenced by the rear barrel temperature. If the particles did not stick they would just roll around and not move forward—this is why slippery feed isn't good.

Surface friction isn't the only thing that affects infeed. Many particles never touch the barrel or the screw root, so there must be friction and mechanical and adhesive interlocking within the pellet mass.

Grooved barrels are a special case. The grooves are in the feedzone, which is thermally isolated from the rest of the barrel and intensely water-cooled. The flights push the pellets down the grooves and thus develop very high pressure in a surprisingly short distance. This increased bite permits lower screw rpm for the same output, hence less frictional heat is generated at the front end, giving a lower melt temperature. This may mean faster production in cooling-limited blown film lines. Grooves are especially suited to HDPE, which is the most slippery of all common plastics except for fluoroplastics.

6. Material is the greatest expense.
In some cases material costs represent as much as 80 percent of the total manufacturing cost—more than all other factors put together—except for a few products such as medical catheters where quality assurance and packaging are unusually important. This principle naturally leads to two further conclusions: Processors should reuse as much trim and scrap as possible in ways that replace virgin material, and keep very close thickness tolerances as anything greater than the aim thickness is wasted and anything less risks product failure.

7. Power costs are relatively unimportant.
Despite the popular fascination and the real problems on a plant level with rising power costs, the power needed to run an extruder is still a very small proportion of total manufacturing cost. This will always be so because material cost is much higher, an extruder is an efficient system, and if excess energy is introduced the plastic will soon get too hot to process properly.

8. Pressure at the screw tip is important.
This pressure reflects the resistance of everything downstream of the screw: screens and contamination, breaker plate, adapter, transfer tubes, static mixers (if used), and the die itself. It depends not only on the geometry of these components, but also on the temperatures in the system, which in turn affect resin viscosity and throughput rate. It does not depend on screw design, except as it affects temperature, viscosity, and throughput.

Measuring pressure is important for safety reasons—if it gets too high, the head and die might blow off and hurt or damage people or machines nearby.

Pressure is good for mixing, especially in the last (metering) zone in single-screw systems. However, higher pressure also means more energy is taken through the motor—thus higher melt temperature—which may dictate the pressure limit. In twin screws, the intermeshing of the two screws is a more efficient mixer, so pressure isn't needed for this purpose.

In making hollow items, such as pipe with a spider die that uses arms to hold the central core in place, high pressure must be generated in the die to help the split streams weld together again. Otherwise, the product may be weaker along these weldlines and could fail in service.

9. Output = displacement of the last flight, +/- pressure flow and leakage.
The displacement of the last flight is called the drag flow, and depends only on screw geometry, screw speed, and melt density. It is modified by the pressure flow, which really consists of the effect of the resistance (indicated by head pressure) to reduce output, and the effect of any overbite in the feed to increase output. Leakage over the flights may also be in either direction.

It is also useful to calculate output per rpm, as this shows any deterioration of the screw's pumping capacity with time. Another related calculation is the output per hp or kW of power used. This is the efficiency and enables estimation of the production capacity of a given motor and drive.

10. Shear rate plays a key role in viscosity.
All common plastics are shear-thinning, which means that the viscosity gets lower as the plastic moves faster and faster. Some plastics show this effect dramatically. Some PVCs, for example, flow 10 or more times as fast with just a doubling of the push. LLDPE, by contrast, does not shear-thin as much, and the same doubling of the pushing force increases its flow by only three to four times. The reduced shear-thinning effect means higher viscosity at extrusion conditions, which in turn means more motor power is needed. This explains why LLDPE runs hotter than LDPE.

Flow is expressed in terms of shear rate, which is around 100 sec-1 in the screw channels, between 100 and 1000 sec-1 in most die lips, and much more than1000 sec-1 in the flight-to-wall clearances and some tiny die gaps. Melt index is a common measure of viscosity but is inverted (i.e., flow/push instead of push/flow). Unfortunately, it is measured at shear rates of 10 sec-1 or less and may not be a true measure in an extruder where melt is flowing much faster.

11. The motor opposes the barrel, the barrel opposes the motor.
I started out with the 10 key principles of extrusion, but this one was so important that I had to include it, too. The Eleventh Law is why barrel control isn't always as effective as desired or expected, especially in the metering zone. If the barrel is heated, the layer of material at the barrel wall becomes less viscous and the motor needs less power to turn in this more lubricated barrel. Motor current (amps) goes down. Conversely, if the barrel is cooled, the melt at the barrel wall becomes more viscous, the motor must work harder, amps go up, and some of the heat removed through the barrel is put right back again by the motor. Usually, the barrel controllers do have the effect on the melt that is desired, but nowhere as much as the zone change amount. It's best to measure melt temperature to really understand what is happening.

The Eleventh Law does not hold in the head and die because there is no screw turning there. This is why external temperature changes are more effective there. However, these changes are from the outside in and are thus not uniform unless homogenized in a static mixer, which is an effective device for melt temperature change as well as mixing.

Editor's note: Allan Griff has been teaching extrusion since 1979, both for the SPE and his own sponsorship (see www.griffex.com for a seminar schedule). Griff also provides legal expert work and is the author of the Plastics Extrusion Operating Manual, which is now in its 15th edition and is available in English, Spanish, and French.

Contact Information

Edison Technical Services and Griff Extrusion Seminars
Bethesda, MD
Allan Griff; (301) 654-1515
[email protected]

Wed, 13 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.plasticstoday.com/words-wisdom-10-11-key-principles-extrusion
Killexams : Save Money And Have Fun Using IEEE-488

A few months ago, I was discussing the control of GPIB equipment with a colleague. Based on only on my gut feeling and the briefest of research, I told him that the pricey and proprietary GPIB controller solutions could easily be replaced by open-source tools and Linux. In the many weeks that followed, I almost abandoned my stance several times out of frustration. With some perseverance, breaking the problems into bite-sized chunks, and lots of online searching to learn from other people’s experiences, my plan eventually succeeded. I haven’t abandoned my original stance entirely, I’ve taken a few steps back and added some qualifiers.

What is GPIB?

Example of HP-IB block diagram from the 1970s, from hp9845.net

Back in the 1960s, if test equipment was interconnected at all, there weren’t any agreed-upon methods for doing so. By the late 60s, the situation was made somewhat better by card-cage controller systems. These held a number of interface cards, one per instrument, presenting a common interface on the backplane. Although this approach was workable, the HP engineers realized they could significantly Strengthen the concept to include these “bridging circuit boards” within the instruments and replacing the card cage backplane with passive cables. Thus began the development of what became the Hewlett-Packard Interface Bus (HP-IB). The October 1972 issue of the HP Journal introduced HP-IB with two main articles: A Practical Interface System for Electronic Instruments and A Common Digital Interface for Programmable Instruments: The Evolution of a System.

To overcome many of the problems experienced in interconnecting instruments and digital devices, a new interface system has been defined. This system gives new ease and flexibility in system interconnections. Interconnecting instruments for use on the lab bench, as well as in large systems, now becomes practical from the economic point of view.

HP subsequently contributed HP-IB to the IEC, where it became an international standard. Within a few years it become what we know today as the GPIB (General Purpose Interface Bus) or IEEE-488, first formalized in 1975.

The Task At Hand

Why did I need to use a 50-year old communications interface? Since GPIB was the de-facto interface for so many years, a lot of used test equipment can be found on the second-hand market for very reasonable prices, much cheaper than their modern counterparts. Also, the more pieces of test equipment ending up on lab benches means less of them end up in the recycling system or landfills. But I don’t need these justifications — the enjoyment and nostalgic feeling of this old gear is reason enough for me.

Diagram of a typical digipot, the TPL0501 (from Digikey Article Library)

But why would you want to talk to your test equipment over a computer interface in the first place? In my case, I had a project where I needed to calibrate the resistance of a digipot at each of its programmable wiper positions. This would let me create a calibration algorithm based on measured data, where you could input the desired ohmic value and obtain the corresponding wiper register value. Sure, I could make these measurements by hand, but with 256 wiper positions, that would get tedious real fast. If you want to learn more about digipots, check out this article from the Digikey’s library on the fundamentals of digital potentiometers and how to use them.

Used Keithley 195A Bench DMM from c.1982

I scored a used Keithley 195A digital multimeter from the early 1980s. This is a 5-1/2 digit bench DMM, and my unit has the Model 1950 AC/Amps option installed.

Plan of Action

While searching around, I found a thesis paper (German) by [Thomas Klima] on using an easy-to-build GPIB interface shield on a Raspberry Pi or a Pi Zero to communicate with lab instruments. His project is open source and well documented on GitHub pages (Raspberry Pi version here and Pi Zero version here) his elektronomikon website.

It is a simple circuit, supporting my gut-feeling assertion that GPIB is not that complicated and you could probably bit-bang it with an 8051. I assembled the project, and I had a Raspberry Pi Zero-W all ready to go.

Software wise, the shield utilizes the existing Linux kernel module linux-gpib. It looked easy to install and get running on the Pi in short order. After a couple of hours installing PyVisa and some instrument-specific libraries, I should be automatically recording data with Python scripts in less than a day. Alas, reality doesn’t always match our expectations.

GPIB Architecture

Bob “Mr Fancy Pants” Stern Operating a Rack of HP-IB Equipment in 1980

A little background perspective will be helpful in understanding the concept of GPIB. If we visited an electronics lab in the 60s, using a computer to control repetitive test sequences was the exception rather than the rule. Instead, you might see magnetic tape, paper tape, magnetic cards, or even cards onto which commands were marked in pencil. And for some setups computer control might not even be needed. For example, a temperature sensor might directly plot on a strip chart recorder or save values on a magnetic tape drive. If you remember that this is the world in which the HP engineers were immersed, the architecture makes sense.

OMR for the HP-3260A Marked Card Programmer (from Prof Jones’s Punch Card Collection, Univ of Iowa)

The GPIB is a flexible interconnection bus using 15 signals: 8 bit data bus and 7 bits of control lines. Any device on the bus can be a passive listener or an active talker. A talker can speak to multiple devices at the same time, and devices can raise an interrupt if they have an event that needs to be serviced. Devices are interconnected using cabling and connectors which were small for their day, but are a nuisance compared to today’s USB, Ethernet, and serial cabling. The 24-pin Centronics connector allows for easy daisy chaining of devices, but is a hefty beast — in a pinch, you could use a GPIB cable effectively as nunchucks.

GPIB Cables Can Serve as Nunchucks in a Pinch

The traditional use of GPIB was a central control computer connected a chain or star cluster of test gear. This has historically influenced the available GPIB interface hardware. For decades, ISA and later PCI interface cards were installed in computers, or the GPIB interface might be integrated if you were using an HP computer. They tended to be a bit expensive, but since one interface board controlled all the instruments, you only needed one card in a given test setup. National Instruments has became the leader in the GPIB world of both interface cards and supporting drivers and software, but their proprietary software and reputation for steep prices is a bit off-putting for many small companies and home labs.

You can certainly implement an automatic test setup entirely using GPIB cabling, 1970s-style. Many such legacy systems still exist, in fact, and still have to maintained. But more than likely, our use of GPIB these days would be to adapt one or two instruments so they can be used in your non-GPIB test setup, be that LAN, USB, serial, or some combination thereof. This turns the economics of the situation upside down, and is why low-cost GPIB adaptors for just one instrument are sought after.

Let the Problems Begin

The Pi Zero-W has built-in WiFi — in fact, that’s the only LAN connection unless you connect up external circuitry. But I couldn’t get it to connect to my WiFi router. For the longest time, I thought this was an operator error. I have quite a few Raspberry Pi 3s and 4s using WiFi mode with no issues. As I started troubleshooting the problem, I learned that the network management tools in Debian / Raspberry Pi OS have changed over the years. There are many tutorials showing different ways configure things, some of them being obsolete.

A headless Pi Zero-W was really dead without any LAN connection, so I assembled a rat’s nest of USB cabling and an HDMI adaptor so I could at least get a prompt, and ordered a couple of USB-LAN adaptors to get me online temporarily. Hours and hours of searching and testing ideas, I finally found a couple of obscure posts which suggested that the Pi Zero-W’s radio had problems connecting in some countries — South Korea was on that list.

Indeed this was the issue. I could temporarily change my router’s WiFi country to the USA, and the Pi Zero-W would connect just fine. I couldn’t leave it like that, so I switched back to South Korea and continued using wired LAN cabling for my immediate work. This particular problem does have a good ending, however. On the Raspberry Pi forums, one of their engineers was able to confirm the bug, and submitted a change request to Cypress Semiconductors. Some weeks later, we got a proposed updated firmware to test. It solved the problem and hopefully will be added in an upcoming release.

Router Goes Crazy

At this point, I have a couple of Pi Zeroes, a Pi 4B, and a few USB-LAN adaptors all working. Since these USB-LAN adaptors can move around — an adaptor could be on computer ABC today and on computer XYZ tomorrow — I carefully labeled each adaptor and entered its particulars into the /etc/hosts and /etc/ethers files on my router. And my network promptly died. This was tough to solve, because surprise, extracting information from the router is awkward when the network is frozen. I finally figured out that I had mistakenly crossed up two entries for the USB-LAN adaptors in the router’s tables, and this drove OpenWRT crazy.

USB-LAN Interfaces Get MAC Address Labels

This took so long to find and solve, my solution was a bit overboard in hindsight. First of all, I completely wiped the router and re-installed the firmware from scratch. I also took the time to better organize my hostname and static lease data. I found this Gist from [Krzysztof Burghardt] that converts your /etc/hosts and /etc/ethers into OpenWRT’s /etc/config/dhcp file, and tweaked it to suit my needs. I bought a second backup router that I can quickly swap over if this happens again. And last, but not least, I broke down and bought a label printer to clearly mark these USB-LAN adaptors with their MAC addresses.

Ready to Go

Let’s Measure!

Finally, I’m ready to do real work on my project. Ignore the flying leads in the background are just for fun – they go to an Analog Discovery 2 logic analyzer to observe the GPIB signals. The wristwatch is a nod to my laziness — I put an old smartphone on a tripod to watch the meter in the lab, and monitored it from my office desktop PC while testing Python scripts. Every once in awhile the video would lock up, and I used the second hand as a sign of whether things were running smoothly or not. In part two of this saga, I’ll wrap up the measurement story, deliver some more information on GPIB and its revisions, and show graphs from my automated test setup.

Wed, 13 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 Chris Lott en-US text/html https://hackaday.com/2022/01/31/save-money-and-have-fun-using-ieee-488/
Killexams : How HP Designers Think About Sustainable PCs

A visit to HP’s Design Studio, where the team takes creative leaps and deliberate steps in the quest for good-looking and eco-positive products.

Northampton, MA --News Direct-- HP Inc.

Stacy Wolff outside the CMF (colors, materials, fabric) library.

In a conference room at HP’s Silicon Valley campus, a cornucopia of materials is placed all around. On the table and walls are swatches in fashion-forward colors (teal green, scarlet, rose gold) and novel textures (mycelium foam, crushed seashells, recycled rubber from running tracks, fabric from recycled jeans). Even more unexpected: pairs of high-end athletic shoes, and lots of them; luggage and backpacks, teapots and totes; stacks of gorgeous coffee-table books on courses ranging from furniture to architecture — all to inspire the look and feel of devices that HP has yet to imagine.

Being able to touch, test, and debate about these items in person is part of the process, a creative collaboration Global Head of Design & Sustainability Stacy Wolff and his talented team of designers are grateful to be able to do side by side again inside their light-filled studio in Palo Alto. With each iteration of an HP laptop, desktop, or gaming rig, they endeavor to push the bounds of sustainable design while offering consumers a device that they’re proud to use each day.

For the last few years, HP’s design work has gained recognition, evidenced by the studio’s gleaming rows of awards. But there’s not a single name listed on any of them. “Everything we do is by collective effort. We win as a group, and we lose as a group,” says Wolff. “If you won an award, someone else had to do maybe a less glamorous job to deliver you the freedom to do that.”

The team of 73 creatives in California, Houston, and Taipei are from backgrounds as varied as design, engineering, graphics, anthropology, poetry, ergonomics, and sports journalism. There’s one thing they have in common, though. Disagreements are dealt with by amping up their communication and doubling down on what they know to be their source of truth. “If we let the customer be the North Star, it tends to resolve almost all conflict,” Wolff says.

HP’s head of design has led a massive shift in how HP approaches design since its split from HPE in 2015, steering the company toward a more unified, yet distinct, visual identity, and a willingness to experiment with both luxury and mass-market trends. Wolff’s team is responsible for delivering the award-winning HP Spectre and ENVY lines, including the HP Spectre 13 (at the time of launch, hailed as the world’s thinnest laptop); the HP Spectre Folio (the first laptop with a leather chassis); the HP ENVY Wood series (made with sustainably-sourced, genuine wood inlays); and the HP Elite Dragonfly (the world’s first notebook to use ocean-bound plastic). Among the honors: In 2021, HP received seven Green Good Design Awards from the European Centre for Architecture Art Design and Urban Studies and the Chicago Athenaeum: Museum of Architecture and Design.

Today, Wolff and his team are in their recently outfitted studio, which opened late last year in HP’s Palo Alto headquarters. In the common areas, there is an inviting atmosphere of warm wood and soft, textured surfaces. Designers are tapping away at their keyboards, breaking off to share quick sketches and notes in an informal huddle around a digital whiteboard. In the gallery — an airy space that looks a lot like an upscale retail store — foam models, proof-of concept designs, and an array of laptop parts, keycaps, speakers, and circuit boards are splayed out on stark white countertops. Light from the courtyard pours in from the floor-to-ceiling windows.

“The studio has become a home,” says Wolff, who’s been with the company for 27 years. “When you think about a house, where does everybody go? Where is the love, and creation, and the stories being told? All that is shared in the kitchen.”

Granted this kitchen also has a really, really nice espresso maker.

The new space, like the kitchen, bubbles with energy and fuels the collaborative process, which was somewhat stifled when everyone was working remotely. “Creativity is a magical thing,” Wolff says. “That’s why it’s so important to design in a common space. We took for granted the process of organic product development. When you work from home, it becomes almost serial development. There’s no serendipity.”

After months of improvising the tools they needed to work together, the team finds that being back in the office is where they can be most creative and efficient. “Designers are very hands-on,” says Kevin Massaro, vice president of consumer design. “Everything in the studio is tactile.”

Yet, the time spent working remotely produced valuable insights that are informing future products, such as a PC camera disaggregated from the monitor so it can be manipulated to capture something on a person’s desk (like a sketch); super-wide-screen displays with integrated light bars that offer a soft backlight for people working late at night; and monitors that adjust to taller heights, to better accommodate a standing desk.

In accurate years, the team has also turned its sights toward defining — and redefining — what sustainable design means for HP. In 2021 HP announced some of the most aggressive and comprehensive climate goals in the technology industry, bringing new complexity — and new gravitas — to what Wolff and his team are aiming to accomplish.

“You’re no longer just a company that’s manufacturing technology, you’re a company that’s helping to better people’s lives,” Wolff says. Working toward HP’s goal to become the most sustainable and just technology company is less about integrating greater percentages of recycled materials into new products, and more about an accounting of the entire life cycle of a device, from the electricity used over its lifetime and the minerals mined for its batteries, to the chemicals used in its painted powder coating and what exactly happens to a product when returned for recycling.

When a customer opens a box made of 100% recycled molded fiber packaging to reveal the premium Elite Dragonfly PC, which made waves for being the first notebook with ocean-bound plastic, that’s where this team’s efforts become tangible.

The Dragonfly isn’t only a triumph of design, it proved that circularity can be an integral part of mass-manufacturing for personal electronics. The third generation of that same device, released in March (see “How the HP Elite Dragonfly Took Flight,” page 36), raised the bar for battery life and weight with a new process that fuses aluminum and magnesium in the chassis, the latter of which is both lightweight and 100% recyclable.

This was a feat of engineering alchemy, says Chad Paris, Global Senior Design Manager. “Not only do you have different properties of how these metals work together, it was a challenge to make sure that it’s seamless,” he says. The team innovated and came up with a thermofusion process that lends a premium feel to the Dragonfly while keeping its weight at just a kilogram.

This inventiveness dovetails with Wolff’s pragmatic approach to sustainability. Not only does each change have to scale for a manufacturer the size of HP, it has to strike the right balance between brand integrity and forward-leaning design. “We can take waste and make great things,” Wolff says, gesturing at a pile of uniform plastic pellets that used to be a discarded bottle. “But ultimately, we want our products to live longer, so we’re designing them to have second lives.”

A sustainable HP notebook, no matter what materials it’s made from, needs to look and feel like HP made it, says Sandie Cheng, Global CMF Director. The CMF (colors, materials, finishes) library holds thousands of fabric swatches, colored tiles, and paint chips and samples, which Cheng uses as inspiration for the look and feel of fine details such as the touch pad on a laptop, the smooth glide of a hinge, or the sparkle of the HP logo peeking through a laser-etched cutout.

Cheng and her team head out on scouting trips to gather objects from a variety of places and bring them back to the studio, composing their own ever-changing mood board. In the CMF library, there are Zen-like ceramic-and-bamboo vessels picked up from an upscale housewares boutique in San Francisco alongside scores of upholstery samples in chic color palettes, hunks of charred wood, and Nike’s Space Hippie trainers.

Most of these materials will never make it to production, but they offer up a rich playground for the team’s collective imagination. Foam made from mycelium (i.e., fungi threads) is an organic material that can be grown in just two weeks. Perhaps one day it could be used as material to cover the Dragonfly chassis, even if right now it couldn’t survive the daily wear and tear we put on our PCs. Or its spongy, earthy texture might inspire a new textile that lends a softer feel to an otherwise hard-edged device on your desk.

“We as designers have to think outside the box to stay creative and inspired, but we also have to develop materials that can be used for production,” Cheng says. “It’s a balance of staying creative and also being realistic.”

The same holds true for how the materials are made. Manufacturing with fabric is notorious for producing massive amounts of waste because of the way patterns are cut, but HP wants to change that with its own soft goods, such as the HP Renew Sleeve. It’s made with 96% recycled plastic bottle material, and importantly, the 3D knitting process used to make the laptop sleeve leaves virtually zero waste, generating only a few stray threads.

Earlier this month, Cheng and her team went to Milan, Italy, for fresh inspiration. They attended Salone del Mobile 2022, one of the industry’s largest textile, furniture, and home design trade shows, to get a sense of the big design trends of the next few years, including what Cheng calls “the centered home,” which evokes feelings of comfort, coziness, and calm.

She explains that the blurring of work and life means that what consumers want in their next device, whether it’s one issued by their company or selected from a store shelf, is something that looks and feels like it fits into their personal spaces. “Your PC should be really versatile and adapt to whichever environment you’re in and how you want to use it,” she says.

Consumers also want to feel good about their purchase, which increasingly means choosing brands that care for the finite resources on our shared planet. A 2021 report by research firm IDC found that 43% of 1,000 decision-makers said sustainability was a critical factor in their tech-buying choices.

As the Personal Systems designers charge ahead into a sustainable future — whatever it brings — they’ll surely do it in their iterative, measured, and collaborative way.

“When it comes to sustainability, it’s all about forward progress, and everyone’s job is a sustainability job,” Wolff says. “As founder Dave Packard said, ‘The betterment of our society is not a job to be left to the few. It’s a responsibility to be shared by all.’”

View additional multimedia and more ESG storytelling from HP Inc. on 3blmedia.com

View source version on newsdirect.com: https://newsdirect.com/news/how-hp-designers-think-about-sustainable-pcs-440842278

Wed, 06 Jul 2022 03:20:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://finance.yahoo.com/news/hp-designers-think-sustainable-pcs-151009878.html
Killexams : USING E-BOOKS IN SCHOOL:

21st Century Classroom: Transforming the Textbook

In 21st century classrooms, blackboard chalk is on the endangered list, the pop quiz has been replaced with clicker questions, and bowling alley technology (overhead projector transparencies) has disappeared, thanks to digital projectors and document cameras.

But if you’re going to point to any aspect of the classroom that still hasn’t covered much ground on its trip into the 21st century, it has to be the textbook. This ubiquitous accessory has been beset by editorial controversy as we have seen recently in Texas; has seen consistently high price increases of an average of six percent per year; and still inspires parental derision for the outdated information often portrayed.

And then there’s the matter of weight. The heft of textbooks was the subject of a 21-page report written in 2004 in California for the state’s board of education. According to researchers, the combined weight of textbooks in the four “core” subjects (social studies, math, reading/ language arts, and science) ran, on average, from eight pounds at the first grade level to 20 pounds at the 11th grade level. Legislation to mandate weight limitations quickly followed in that state.

As this comparison of two school districts on opposite sides of the country and economic spectrum illustrates, in a world rich with alternative methods of delivery of content exemplified by digitized conversation, Google books, the Kindle and iPad, the textbook is the next classroom object worthy of transformation.

Realigning the Budget with Netbooks

“Everyone has a different 1:1 approach,” says Gary Brantley, chief information systems officer for the Lorain City School District. “Ours was to eliminate the books.”

Lorain City Schools is located in a city 35 miles from Cleveland. The district has 18 schools and 8,400 students. By moving to digital delivery of textbooks Superintendent Cheryl Atkinson saw an opportunity to address several larger district challenges than simply replacing outdated texts. A majority of families are low-income; its schools were struggling to meet yearly academic progress measures; and the district had just come out from under a state-mandated “fiscal watch.”

And, recalls Brantley, Atkinson was sincerely concerned about the weight of the textbooks being hauled around by the kids in her schools.

That was the atmosphere under which initial discussions began, he says. The district quickly realized that adopting a 1:1 program with digital textooks at the heart of the initiative could reduce textbook expenses and help bring students into the 21st century. “We’re an inner city school district,” says Brantley. “We saw this as a way to level the playing field for our kids and deliver them equal access and opportunities with technology.”

After a pilot program in 2007 and 2008, the district went after a federal grant to partially fund a full rollout to 9th and 10th graders for the following year. In January 2009, the district used federal Title 1 and Ohio state educational technology grant funds to lease Dell Inspiron 910 netbooks. The following year that program was expanded to 6th, 7th, 8th, and 11th grades, and the district switched to Acer Aspire One AOD150-1577 netbooks. This fall the district hopes to add 12th graders to the program.

The publishers the district is working with on the program are the traditional ones: Pearson Prentice Hall; Holt McDougal; and McGraw-Hill/Glencoe. They have provided versions of the texts, Brantley says, that go beyond simply being a PDF of the book. “It’s interactive. For example, if you have someone like Martin Luther King or John F. Kennedy in a history book, you can click on a picture, and it will tell you information about [that person] or [you can] do a search from the book to get more information about that particular person.”

Brantley is quick with numbers. He says that for 2,600 math books—the number of texts needed for grades nine through 12—the cost was going to be about $182,000. That’s $70 per book. The e-book edition for that same math book was about $15,000. The savings on that one text alone covered a large part of the expense of that first rollout of digital textbooks. The savings don’t stop there. An English textbook was priced at $163,673.05 for 2,475 books—about $66 per book. The digital version of the same volume was a fourth of the cost—$36,554.45.

Explains Brantley, Superintendent Atkinson “was very persistent” that the district find a content supplier for the program, even if it wasn’t one of the three or four big textbook publishers. The publishers were willing to try the program in pilot mode. “A lot of trust was built on both sides to make this happen,” he says.

Now, says Brantley, students don’t have to travel to labs to gain access to computers. “Basically, there’s a lab in every classroom. Every kid is using that netbook as a textbook and as a computer.”

Brantley knows the technology is making an impact. “I think it’s pushed us a long way. It’s allowing the students to become a lot more creative in what they do and how they do it. It’s also leveled the playing field. A lot of these kids don’t have computers or internet access at home. Because the books are loaded on the hard drive, [Superintendent Atkinson] has given kids the ability to work on things they’d only have access to in a limited time within the classroom or in the lab.”

Although Brantley says student testing scores have gone up, he can’t confidently point to quantifiable results tied directly to the digital textbooks. “We brought different pieces of technology into the district in the same period, so we have to let the program run for a little while,” he explains.

“But Why Do We Care?”

The Campbell Union High School District, next door to San Jose in California’s Silicon Valley consists of six sites, five of which have been designated by the state as excellent. During the 2009-2010 school year, they performed a pilot program to experiment with the replacement of textbooks with e-readers. Director of Technology Charles Kanavel and his IT team of five distributed 270 Sony Reader Touch model PRS-600s into English classes across the district’s sites.

“These kids get technology. They go home and look at YouTube all day. An e-reader isn’t that hard for them,” Kanavel explains. The goal of the pilot was to get a “true sense of what’s it like for the everyday student to use one of these things in terms of wear and tear and what they wanted to see on the device.”

The effort was spurred by the Williams Settlement, Kanavel says. That California statute calls for California schools to have sufficient educational materials and conditions to meet curriculum standards. In order to meet standards of currency, textbooks need to be replaced every seven years—an expensive proposition in a district with 8,000 students. “It’s $180 for a biology textbook. That’s just one. With e-readers and how ubiquitous they’ve become,” Kanavel recalls asking, “Why do they need to carry 80 pounds worth of books around, when we have the technology to do this differently?”

But that initial test might never have come about if Kanavel hadn’t persisted in trying to woo Sony to participate in the proof of concept, a process that took seven months. The Campbell director focused on Sony because of its durability, price, and open platform. “Kindle, if you drop it, it’s game over,” he says. “With the Nook you have to buy everything from Barnes & Noble. The [Apple] iPad with 32 or 64 Gb, that’s $600 to $800. With one iPad, I can get four e-readers from Sony at around $200 each.”

But persuading the manufacturer to pay attention to education’s needs wasn’t an easy sell. Kanavel, who has a background in investment banking, studied the company’s financial reports and figured out how many e-readers had probably been sold through its nearby Silicon Valley area store, the largest Sony store in the United States.

When he approached the company about doing a test, it replied, “Yeah, yeah, yeah, interesting. But why do we care?” In response, he used this argument: “You sold 14,000 at the Valley Fair store in a three month period. Those are respectable numbers. But realistically, our district is 8,000 kids. You’d sell me 8,000 units. Then I’d have to buy a quarter of that every year forever. Once I start on it, I can’t get off.” He also pointed out that Campbell was only a medium-sized district. “Take San Jose Unified —55,000 students right next door. That would make your store numbers look like nothing. And there are 32 districts in Santa Clara County alone. Think of the entire country. Then they started caring.”

Once Sony was on board, the next hurdle was the textbook publishers trying to safeguard the pricing model, according to Kanavel. He estimates that a single school might have 300 copies of a particular book. On average the textbook will cost $120 on the low side and $180 on the high side. That’s a total outlay of $36,000 to $54,000 for a single textbook in a single school in the Campbell district.

For English classes, however, many of the books contained classic works of literature that are now in the public domain and available on various digital book websites. “Shakespeare is Shakespeare. The guy’s not writing a new version,” Kanavel says. He has been able to make a deal with Houghton Mifflin Harcourt for some digital textbooks in PDF format; but others—particularly novels —came from the Sony Reader Store; on Project Gutenberg (a good source for Shakespeare, he says); and via the OverDrive School get Library.

The challenge faced by textbook publishers, he points out, is that they have to change their business model. Kanavel wants to set up a site license with the publishers, but so far those negotiations are still on-going, and, besides, many still have to convert their textbooks into the epub format.

But the financials, as this former numbers guy points out, still work out nicely for the district. “For example, historically we have paid $9 a book for paperback copies of Macbeth and 70 to 80 percent of them come back unusable at the end of the year. Now with the e-reader, that replacement cost goes to zero.”

On average 15 out of every 100 books in the district need to be replaced because they’re damaged, lost, or stolen. Often, the same student loses multiple books when he or she loses a backpack. “If you’re a parent, you have to pay to replace all of those books. If your student loses a history book, biology book, math book, and English book, that’s about $600,” Kanavel says. “If they lose an e-reader or it breaks, you pay for the replacement cost of the e-reader —$200 -- then we just get the content.” This, he adds, “has long-term implications for budgeting and funding.”

So far, Kanavel says, the pilot has been successful with students. “They’ve taken good care of them. I’ve only had three break out of 270, which is pretty good.” He plans to add an additional 200 e-readers to the district for the next school year. “One thing I’ve been very focused on with this pilot is offsetting the cost of textbook replacement with this device and making it easier on the kids.” He believes the district is on the right track.

Teachers and students are discovering other advantages. The e-readers have built-in dictionaries. If a reader has a visual impairment, text can be upsized quickly. Users can annotate, draw, and take notes—something that’s forbidden with traditional textbooks. When the year is over, the kids will return the devices, and that added material can be wiped from the hard disk.

But e-readers still aren’t perfect, he adds. First, not every book is available in a digital format. He cites a high school classic, Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart, as an example. Many textbooks have already been put on CD, but those are designed to be used in a PC. Publishers haven’t made huge inroads into converting their materials into the standard epub format that works with the major e-readers. But Kanaval is hopeful those gaps will diminish with time.

With the expected expansion of the pilot, negotiations with Sony continue. “We’ve proven that the kids can take care of them. The technology does work,” Kanavel says. “The next thing is to get Sony to build something bigger—an eight and a half by 11 inch format. And there are a lot of features that we don’t use. We’ve given them feedback on those things. There may be ways to cut cost by eliminating feature sets that can help them balance the cost of manufacturing.”

Textbook Smackdown

So given the experiences of these two districts—and others—how does a standard textbook stack up against an e-book? If a publisher needs to repair the mistakes introduced in the text, as happened with math books issued in Sacramento County in spring 2010, it won’t have to arrange to destroy the outdated books and incur shipping costs for the new ones; it can correct the errors and electronically distribute new versions of the content. In the face of a quickly evolving business model, publishers will be forced to adjust their pricing schemes—no doubt, to the advantage of the districts. In the matter of weight— well, the Acer netbook comes in under three pounds, and the Sony device is a little over 10 ounces. Those are metrics anyone can use no matter how much digital content sits on the devices.


Building the E-Book Structure

Although every e-book initiative shares common aspects—hardware, bandwidth, content, and professional development—how the program unfolds in your district will be unique. For example, should you connect e-readers to the internet?

In order to have a successful 1:1 implementation, you need hardware, bandwidth, content, and teacher professional development and buy in. But each district will be unique in its approach to implementing each aspect and the entire program. The question of when in implementation a district allows connection to the internet is a case in point. Campbell Union High School District in Silicon Valley wants students to stay on task as it implements e-books. Therefore, the Sony Reader Touch devices being used there don’t include web access. Although Sony does make a model of its e-reader that includes WiFi, according to Director of Technology Charles Kanavel, the decision to leave that feature out helps simplify the transition teachers have to make in integrating the device in the classroom.

“If I’m a teacher and I have these new devices in class, it affects my lesson planning,” he explains. “Without administrative control of access to the internet, some smart kid will make the thing text another e-reader. Then once that kid knows, all the kids will know. In class, instead of reading, they’re texting each other, surfing MySpace, and doing everything else. Have I just disrupted an entire class with this device? So let’s get the adoption in first. Let’s get the hurdles out of the way surrounding usage of content, usage of technology, and how it integrates into your standards in the classroom. Once that’s outlined, then we’ll figure out how to do WiFi.”

That absence of web access has also streamlined professional development. The district had 270 devices, which it handed out in English classes spread fairly evenly across its six sites. To ensure that the pilot wouldn’t get put on the back-burner by teachers uninterested in using the ereader, Kanavel had the principals at those sites nominate teachers to participate who were a “little bit tech savvy.”

From there, his IT team called teachers in for a demonstration of the Sony product they’d be using with their students. “That was it,” he says. “Maybe 30 minutes of Q&A with teachers, and off we went. The devices aren’t that complicated. You turn it on, pick your book, turn to the page, and that’s it.”

To make sure the program is on track, Kanavel has been doing evaluation of it in “real time.” “It’s not something we threw out there and said we’ll come back to you in six months. Every couple of weeks I’m pinging these teachers. They have direct lines back to me. As they’ve noticed things, they’ve emailed me.” Along with that, device maker Sony has put out surveys for the users too.

It’s Complicated

What complicates implementation of digital content in a 1:1 program is when the device being deployed is used for other purposes too. That’s the case at Lorain City School District in Ohio, which has distributed Acer netbooks to 9th, 10th, and 11th grade students. The goal there is to deliver its students access to technology and the wider world it can deliver. Many don’t have computers or an internet connection at home. Therefore, Chief Information Systems Officer Gary Brantley has chosen to implement WiFi on the devices.

The devices, which cost about $300 with software and maintenance, are loaded with a gigabyte of RAM, a 150 Gb or 160 Gb hard drive, an Intel Atom processor, a webcam, Windows XP Professional, Microsoft Office, a couple of calculators, 802.11 b/g WiFi, and, of course, digital textbooks.

Teachers have an interest in educating students about social networking, so, although access to the internet is filtered, the devices do allow access to sites such as Twitter, and Facebook. But that, says Brantley, “is being carefully monitored.”

Also, connectivity is necessary for implementation of CompuTrace, a program from Absolute Software that provides a service for tracking down lost, stolen, or missing devices. “We were finding that we were spending a lot of money replacing textbooks,” Brantley explains. “Now, we actually are spending less. If CompuTrace doesn’t find the netbook within 60 or 90 days, they pay for it. I can tell you they have found every single one.”

To simplify operations, the district uses only two images for the netbooks. Every middle school book in use is on every middle school netbook; and the same with all high school books. That approach, says Brantley, makes IT’s work easier since they don’t have to worry about granular inventory or “fool around” with what books any given student should be able to access.

The district has tackled the challenge of teacher acceptance from multiple sides. First, there was a teachers’ union aspect. Would it promote the change in teaching approaches necessary for success? To gain support, Brantley took the head of the union to a 1:1 conference to show her what could be done. After that, he says, “She came on board for the professional development piece.”

The next aspect was putting together programs and teams for professional development. Since the district has an “early release” day once a week, “that’s the block of time that increasingly is being dedicated to helping teachers learn how to integrate the technology into their classes. Gaining traction in that area is a longer haul,” Brantley admits. “It takes a while to get teachers on board with this.”

Next up for the Lorain district: implementation of a teacher recognition program and some type of graduate credit to motivate the teachers to try out new methods of instruction.

An area where Brantley has seen success is having the kids teaching the teachers. “That’s one thing that we’ve been trying to push,” he says. “Don’t be afraid to let the kids show you something as well. It becomes a collaborative effort.”

Challenges have surfaced in two IT areas. First, the sheer number of new devices has put a strain on Brantley’s department, which has 10 employees. “We’ve doubled the number of computers in the district but didn’t add one staff member,” he says. Second, IT has to be able to supply technical support to students in a timely manner. “Turnaround can’t be longer than a day. Even though we have spares, we still have to turn around these machines really quickly, so kids aren’t left without their books.”

But these burdens aren’t slowing down the district’s dreams. Brantley says eventually the netbook and digital textbook program could be expanded to every student in the district, from the fourth grade up.

Sat, 09 Jul 2022 04:48:00 -0500 en text/html https://thejournal.com/pages/cdwg/21st-century-classroom_e-books.aspx
Killexams : Elementary level remedial classes to begin in MCD schools

New Delhi: The Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) has chalked out an elaborate plan for improvement of literacy and numerical skills among school children at the elementary level

New Delhi: The Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) has chalked out an elaborate plan for improvement of literacy and numerical skills among school children at the elementary level. As part of this plan, remedial classes to be conducted in July and August for age groups of 4 -7, the corporation said on Sunday.

After the successful implementation of the ‘Mission Buniyaad’ campaign, the current academic session will focus on strengthening the students’ base and improving their understanding of different subjects.

“MCD’s education department has started a programme titled ‘Foundation to Excellence Learning’ for qualitative improvement in education. All corporation schools have been informed about its outline,” an MCD official said. A monthly teaching framework, and an evaluation plan have already been prepared to bring uniformity in teaching across all MCD schools. Apart from curricular activities, proper attention will be given to co-curricular activities as well.

“All teaching activities in corporation schools will take place during regular periods. In addition, a separate period for the Foundation Literacy & Numeracy (FLN) course will be demarcated,” the official said.

Officials from MCD’s education department, along with mentors and school teachers have already been trained for this initiative. “All corporation schools will assess academic progress made by students every week and make curriculum plans accordingly. An inclusive design of curricular and co-curricular activities has been planned to ensure all =-round development of students,” another MCD official said.

Every Wednesday has been designated as co-curricular activity day to develop leadership and competency skills among students through theatre, dance, music and folk arts. The civic agency has also decided to organize community festivals to increase participation of parents in school activities and get better acquainted with them. .

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Sun, 03 Jul 2022 06:28:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.hindustantimes.com/cities/delhi-news/elementary-level-remedial-classes-to-begin-in-mcdschools-101656872934700.html
Killexams : Highland Park begins slow healing process after mass shooting

Reports released by the City of Highland Park through a Freedom of Information Act request shed further light on previous contact police had with July 4th parade shooting suspect Bobby Crimo.

An April 29, 2019, report on a wellbeing check on Crimo, then 18, indicated that he had a history of suicide attempts and had attempted suicide by machete the week before. A complaint and the alleged suicide attempt were handled by mental health professionals, and police were sent a week later as a result of a "delayed third party complaint." There were no threats of harm made by Crimo against himself or others on the day police were contacted, the report said.

Read the documents

Police came to the Crimo family home again on Sept. 5, 2019, according to another report. An officer reported that Crimo had said he had made a threat to the household and said he was going to "kill everyone." The report was partially redacted, but there was reference to someone reporting they were afraid to go home because of the threat, and to a collection of knives in a bedroom.

Officers talked with Crimo and his mother, and Crimo admitted to being depressed three days earlier and to having a history of drug use the report said. The report said Crimo was "not forthcoming as to the language that he used on Monday, nor was his mother."

Police said they learned the knives belonged to Crimo's father, who agreed to turn over a collection of 16 knives that were stored in a tin can lunch box, a 12-inch dagger, and a 24-inch Samurai-type blade that was stored in the younger Crimo's bedroom for safe keeping, the report said.

The younger Crimo was asked if he felt like harming himself or others and he said no, the report said. Crimo was told to contact police if he needed their assistance, or medical assistance, the report said.

The report said a Clear and Present Danger form was submitted to Illinois State Police at that point.

A Clear and Present Danger restriction requires a preponderance of evidence that a FOID applicant poses a danger – which is a higher burden than probable cause, Illinois State Police Director Brendan Kelly explained earlier Wednesday. State Police said in Crimo's case, both Crimo and his mother disputed the threat of violence and Crimo told police did not feel like hurting himself or others. State Police also noted that the Highland Park police report indicated that the knives belonged to Crimo's father and they were turned over to him.

"As stated by Highland Park Police, there was no probable cause to arrest," state police said in a news release "Upon review of the report at that time, the reviewing officer concluded there was insufficient information for a Clear and Present Danger determination."  

Kelly further emphasized that between the time of Crimo's September 2019 encounter with police and the point three months later when Crimo filed for a FOID card, "there was nothing new in between."

"So from the time of that report, knowing that information, there was nothing new that changed anything about what was in that report. Again, no new arrests. No new confrontations with law enforcement. No new crime committed. No new order of protection. No new firearms restraining order. So there was nothing that added to that at the time the decision was made to issue the FOID card," Kelly said. "So again, having nothing change from that original report in the interim, there was no circumstance where that original Clear and Present Danger report would have impacted the decision at that point the FOID card was issued."

Wed, 06 Jul 2022 23:56:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.cbsnews.com/chicago/live-updates/highland-park-begins-slow-healing-process-after-mass-shooting/
Killexams : Does Elon Musk Have a Strategy?

During Elon Musk’s dramatic, sometimes pugnacious, occasionally baffling campaign to acquire Twitter, we heard many of the same questions from both his followers and his critics. Why did he want to buy the company in the first place, and what was he planning to do with it? Will he make a lot of money or will he lose all of it? Many questions simply boiled down to: “What is he thinking?!” Or, put another way, is Musk out there just winging this, or does he have a strategy? And if so, what is the Musk strategy?

We can all learn a lot — both good and bad — from Musk’s other businesses: Tesla, SpaceX, Hyperloop, OpenAI, The Boring Company, and NeuraLink. Based on our research and teaching on strategy for innovation, technology, and growth, we see (some) method to the madness. Musk’s strategy can be characterized by common themes across three areas: what fits into his vision for problems to solve, how he designs an organization as a solution to those problems, and why he can so effectively mobilize resources towards those solutions.

In understanding the strategy across his many businesses — and the significant risks of that strategy — executives can apply those lessons to launching and growing their own groundbreaking businesses. Investors can also use these ideas to make more thoughtful decisions when providing resources to entrepreneurs in nascent markets, such as Web3 and the metaverse. Finally, this framework gives us a lens to think about the attempt to acquire Twitter — which Musk is now trying to walk away from — in the context of Musk’s broader strategy.

Vision

The most effective strategies often have a common trait: they build from a bold and clear vision of the future that gives the business a purpose today. In 1980, Bill Gates famously articulated a bold, clear vision for “a computer on every desk and in every home.” Each Musk-affiliated company has its own sense of that boldness and clarity: Tesla’s is to, “to accelerate the world’s transition to sustainable energy” and SpaceX’s is to, “make humanity interplanetary.” But to really understand Musk, we need to have a sense for the overall Musk vision that spans his many businesses as a whole.

Problems, Not Solutions

While we conventionally think of a vision as being in pursuit of a specific type of solution, Musk seems to take a different approach: he pursues a specific type of problem. Specifically, he seems drawn to problems that involve navigating scale and overcoming complexity.

First, navigating scale means he selects problems that can only be solved through the commitment of massive fixed-cost investments. Consider Tesla’s behemoth “gigafactories.” The idea behind these factories is that mass producing electric vehicles at costs that make them viable for a broad commercial market requires massive scale. Giga Texas, the fifth Tesla Gigafactory, is the largest factory in the world by floor area.

Second, overcoming a great deal of complexity — resolving dealing with multiple interdependent moving parts — requires the commitment of time and stamina for failure. Building reusable rockets, like Musk is focused on at SpaceX, is incredibly hard. For a rocket to be reusable, it must be able to slow from nearly 3,000 mph to a safe landing speed and nail a bullseye landing.

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These types of problems have a clear potential for a sustainable competitive advantage — if you can solve the problem. A long stream of research by our colleagues and others suggests that a commitment to reaching critical scale and overcoming complexity can serve as sustainable sources of competitive advantage. But solving these problems is not for the faint of heart: it requires taking “big bets,” as our colleague David Yoffie documents in his extensive research about Elon Musk.

Problems as the Solution

A vision dedicated to these high-scale and high-complexity problems provides several advantages.

Predictable road to performance.

Even though solving high-scale problems is hard, performance and unit costs can predictably decrease as you increase production volume and build units over time — combined effects that are known as the “experience curve.” (Moore’s Law, which states that computing power can double every two years, might be the best-known example of an experience curve.)

It’s clear that Musk relies — at least implicitly — on the presumption that the experience curve will deliver. Musk wants to cut battery costs in half by massively ramping up battery manufacturing capacity himself, relying on technological economies of scale from improved production methods.

Motivation for the long drive.

Pursuing solutions to big problems can be motivating for an organization, pushing employees to achieve wildly ambitious results. Still, there’s a reason most people find them prohibitively intimidating. They seem so hard that it is not even worth starting or trying.

Musk is uniquely willing to go after these, and employees at his companies are well aware that they are trying to achieve seemingly impossible stretch goals. Musk famously asked Steve Davis, a SpaceX engineer, to build a part for the Falcon 1 rocket, which Davis estimated would cost $120,000, for $5,000. Davis eventually delivered the part for $3,900. Yet Musk maintains he makes achievable asks. “I certainly don’t try to set impossible goals. I think impossible goals are demotivating,” he’s said.

Problems as the Problem

A vision grounded on the tackling high-scale high-complexity problems brings about its own problems. Here, we’ll focus on just two.

Bumps in the road.

Most people are pretty bad at making accurate predictions. Humans extrapolate linearly, but complexity increases much faster than that. The result — as Wu’s research with HBS doctoral student Aticus Peterson shows — is that entrepreneurs consistently struggle to set realistic timelines, particularly on complex projects.

Musk, by his own admission, is no exception. Starlink, a satellite internet company operated by SpaceX, is still far short of Musk’s 2015 predictions for where the company will be a decade later. As of March 2022, Starlink had just 0.625% of its subscriber and 1% of its revenue goal for 2025. So far, the markets have given Musk an exceptional amount of leeway to survive being consistently inconsistent, but this kind of missed projections would spell doom for most managers.

Running out of fuel.

The downside of pursuing a grand problem is that the road to a solution is long and the setbacks along the way are many. Burnout and disillusionment are real risks. A former production manager at Tesla said working 70 hours a week was not unusual and that getting fired from Tesla was the best thing that had happened to his marriage. According to Ashlee Vance, Musk’s biographer, a hiring manager would tell new SpaceX recruits, “If you want as hard as it gets, then great. If not, then you shouldn’t come here.”

Ultimately, the open question is whether Musk’s organizations can sustain these types of working conditions over the many more years needed to reach the promised land.

Organization

Everything, By Yourself

The most identifiable and consistent characteristic of the Musk strategy is how he organizes his businesses. Specifically, he engages in a strategy of vertical integration and closed technology.

Vertical integration.

A firm that is vertically integrated directly owns and operates the various stages of a business value chain. SpaceX manufactures about 70% of their Falcon 9 rocket in house. In comparison, United Launch Alliance, which launches NASA spacecraft, only provides system integration and launch operations, relying on 1,200 subcontractors for all other operations. Tesla has an ambition to backwards integrate into lithium mining. In contrast, traditional automotive OEMs rely on third parties in the marketplace to supply critical components.

Closed technology.

A firm that has a closed technology strategy builds proprietary technology that is not interoperable with other firms. SpaceX’s Starlink satellites use a highly proprietary technology that makes them effectively inoperable with other satellite dishes. Tesla’s charging network in the U.S. is not interoperable with vehicles from other manufacturers. In contrast, an open strategy seeks to set a standard for the ecosystem by being interoperable with other firms. Nearly all the largest technology companies in the world rely on a more open strategy than Musk. For example, Google is working with HP, Acer, and Intel to launch fast pairing support between an Android phone and a Windows PC. The advantage of the open strategy is the potential for value-creating network effects that can lead to increasing returns and a winner-take-all-market.

Total Control

These organizational choices have specific advantages that we can learn from.

Launching a new ecosystem.

Bringing a new technology to market presents a chicken-or-egg problem: the product needs a supply of complementary offerings, but the suppliers and complementors don’t exist yet, and no entrepreneur wants to throw their lot in with a technology that isn’t on the market yet.

There are two ways of “solving” this problem. First, you can time the market and wait until the ecosystem matures — though you risk waiting a long time. Second, you can drive the market, or supply all the necessary inputs and complements yourself. Consider the early days of electrification: it’s hard to sell power turbines if there are no light bulbs and electric washing machines. Thus, in the early twentieth-century, General Electric offered both generators and the products to use electricity.

With Tesla, Musk chose to drive the market (no pun intended) by supplying both the electric vehicles and charging stations that the vehicles depend on.

Capturing more value.

By controlling the whole ecosystem, firms can capture excess value. Apple, for instance, can make extra profits by making its own proprietary charging cable, whereas companies that use the open USB standard cannot. Moreover, someone with several lightning cables in the drawer might find it convenient to keep buying Apple devices. Much like Apple, the proprietary charging adapters used by Tesla vehicles and charging stations (in the national network and at home) enable value capture down the road. Someone who has already installed a Tesla charging station at home might find it more convenient to stick with a Tesla vehicle on their next purchase.

The Risk of Going Solo

While we can justify Musk’s strategy of doing everything in the short term, in the long term, this strategy sets him up for serious risks.

Missing out on the benefits of the market.

By doing everything yourself, you run the risk of not being able to leverage the market when third parties eventually emerge that can offer inputs and complements at a better price or pioneer new innovations. While GE’s broad offerings made sense in the early days, laundry machines and windmills don’t need to be under the same roof anymore.

Intel suffers from this problem today. For decades, Intel maintained a vertically integrated strategy of doing both the designing and manufacturing of its processors. This strategy puts it in a bind today: when its manufacturing technology fell behind manufacturing-specialist TSMC, Intel’s chip designers were both technically and organizationally limited because they’re stuck with Intel’s in-house manufacturing capabilities.

Musk could run into similar issues. Should a new battery breakthrough come from outside the company, Tesla could incur significant unnecessary long-term costs because it would be stuck “buying” its own batteries.

Impairing network effects in the ecosystem.

Technology firms face a fundamental trade-off between value creation in the long-term and value capture in the short term: choosing a proprietary approach inherently limits how third parties can contribute to the ecosystem. For instance, The Boring Company’s planned 12-foot-wide tunnels are 5 feet narrower than the standard width used for city metros, and thus incompatible with existing trains. If the company’s own transit system works, it will lock in reliance on its tech. If it doesn’t, there’s no alternative use for the tunnels or machines, and no outside assistance available.

Resources

The only way to pursue high-scale, high-complexity problems with vertically integrated and closed organizational design is to have access to massive amounts of patient capital. And wow, does Musk have access to capital. Across eight of his companies, he has raised over $34 billion dollars. Neuralink alone has raised more than triple the amount of capital raised by Amazon.

This relationship between Musk and his investors is the core factor that enables his strategy. It’s also the hardest to replicate. Most Wall Street analysts struggle to rationalize how it works, and most CEOs watch as markets cut Musk slack they could never get themselves.

How does he do it? To understand Musk’s mastery of persuasion — and where the persuasion fails — we turn to Aristotle. Aristotle laid out three modes of persuasion: ethos, pathos, and logos.

Ethos.

Ethos is an appeal to the authority or honesty of the speaker. “He’s got $13 million in.” That’s what employees of Musk’s second startup, X.com (eventually PayPal), would tell recruits. He had invested most of the wealth he had made in the sale of his first company, and Musk has consistently had a lot at stake in his companies. His initial investment into SpaceX was $100 million of the $175.8 million earned from the sale of PayPal. He would continue to invest his entire personal wealth into SpaceX and Tesla until 2008, when he ran out of money and had to borrow from friends.

Pathos.

Pathos is an appeal to the audience’s emotions. What Musk has achieved with his businesses is to develop an inspirational worldview, which Musk’s biographer Vance describes as that of “a mad genius on the grandest quest anyone has ever concocted.” Musk’s showmanship gives him unorthodox abilities to marshal resources. Today, Elon Musk’s tweets can arouse millions of retail investors. One analyst recently noted of Musk’s capacity to stir emotion, “Retail [investors] will follow Elon to the gates of hell and back.

Logos.

Logos is an appeal to logic, or at least the simulation of logic. This is where Musk’s Wall Street critics might say he’s weakest. Many of his businesses don’t articulate a clear logic, which is demonstrated by the unpredictable way these businesses ultimately reach solutions or products. For instance, the initial motivation for SpaceX was to get people interested in space by growing the first plant on Mars. The idea was to modify a greenhouse which could be launched to Mars on a Russian rocket. No one in the aerospace industry believed he could get this done. Yet, engineers and investors fascinated with his vision joined the company.

This example illustrates the logical ambiguity of his approach. Musk has spelled out some of his prior logic in a set of “Master Plans,” but most of the logical basis on exactly how he will succeed remains ambiguous. But this isn’t Musk’s necessarily fault or negligence per se: when pursuing new technologies, particularly ones that open up a new market, there is no one who can anticipate the full set of possibilities of what that technology will be able to do (and what it cannot do). Musk’s investors tend to focus on the future, and are motivated primarily by the appeal of Musk’s authority and their own emotions towards him and their aspirations for the future. Fortunately for Musk, these are the kind of investors you want to have around when pursuing the problems his companies are trying to tackle.

Twitter and Musk’s Strategy?

Back to Musk’s attempt to buy Twitter. We may never know what a Musk-owned Twitter would look like and how it might work. He is trying to abandon the deal, and Twitter has sued, setting the stage for a legal battle. But did Musk buying Twitter ever really make sense given the strategy outlined above?

“We wanted flying cars. Instead, we got 140 characters,” Peter Thiel, PayPal co-founder and venture capitalist, famously quipped about Twitter in 2013. Musk has generally cast himself as more of a flying car guy. What could he possibly want with Twitter? The thing is, over the last decade, the technological landscape has changed, and how and when to moderate speech has become a critical problem — and an existential problem for social media companies. In other words, moderating speech has looked more and more like the kind of big, complex strategic problem that captures Musk’s interest.

That said, it’s also a different kind of problem. For one, there’s little evidence that the experience curve effects apply here. YouTube was founded 17 years ago. Reddit 16 years ago. Facebook employs more content reviewers than there are people working for SpaceX. These companies alone have poured tremendous money and time in an attempt to solve the content moderation problem. And while interest in Twitter jobs jumped more than 250% after Musk’s announcement, Musk has no track record of organizational change. He didn’t build Twitter, and the organization today doesn’t have the extreme work culture of his other companies. It’s unclear whether his ownership would be motivating or just demoralizing.

Then there’s the question of whether a reorganization along the lines of this other companies — taking everything in-house and making it proprietary — would work at Twitter. Most companies decide to insource AI moderation tools, which are scalable, and outsource human content moderation, because it’s grueling and doesn’t require technical skills. But vertically integrating mission critical, non-technical tasks at Musk’s companies — such as welding at SpaceX —has led to improvement in both the task itself, as well as adjacent processes. It’s less clear how Musk’s tendency towards closed systems, on the other hand, might capture extra value.

What is clear is that Musk’s capacity to mobilize resources remains strong. He made a substantial personal investment in Twitter — about 10% of his net worth — reinforcing that he is aligned with investors and the long-term future of the business (ethos). On the other hand, Musk’s appeal to emotion (pathos) has also been a bit complicated, generally polarizing people along ideological lines. Despite offering only vague plans and claiming that buying Twitter wouldn’t be about making money (logos), investors still seem to defer to his record and his authority.

We may never know whether Musk’s strategies might bear fruit at Twitter. But, the saga offers another useful lesson: Many an investor has lost money by following inspirational leaders who ultimately failed to deliver, and whose logic could never be, and never was, explained. In other words, the difference between genius and insanity is blurry and often unknowable until it is too late. What is clear is this: Musk has achieved already great things that no one thought were really possible, and he’s done it through his own consistent, audacious strategy.

Fri, 15 Jul 2022 18:38:00 -0500 text/html https://hbr.org/2022/07/does-elon-musk-have-a-strategy
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