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Exam Code: HP0-M49 Practice exam 2022 by Killexams.com team
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The best rummage sale purchase I ever made was a piece of hardware that used Reverse Polish Notation. I know what you’re thinking… RPN sounds like a sales gimmick and I got taken for a fool. But I assure you it’s not only real, but a true gem in the evolution of computing.

Best rummage sale find ever!
Best rummage sale find ever!

Sometime in the 1980s when I was a spotty teen, I picked up a calculator at a rummage sale. Protected by a smart plastic case, it was a pretty good condition Sinclair Scientific that turned out when I got it home to have 1975 date codes on its chips, and since anything with a Sinclair badge was worth having it became mine for a trifling amount of money. It had a set of corroded batteries that had damaged one of its terminals, but with the application of a bit of copper strip I had a working calculator.

And what a calculator! It didn’t have many buttons at a time when you judged how cool a scientific calculator was by the prolific nature of its keyboard. This one looked more akin to a run-of-the-mill arithmetic calculator, but had button modes for trigonometric functions and oddly an enter key rather than an equals sign. The handy sticker inside the case explained the mystery, this machine used so-called Reverse Polish Notation, or RPN. It spent several years on my bench before being reverently placed in a storage box of Sinclair curios which I’ve spent half a day turning the house over to find as I write this article.

Jan Łukasiewicz. Anonymous, [Public domain].
[Jan Łukasiewicz]. Anonymous, [Public domain].
I was reminded of my Sinclair Scientific recently when I read a Hackaday comment which introduced the inventor of RPN, Jan Łukasiewicz, as an engineer rather than a mathematician. I had not previously encountered him so this opened up a fascinating exploration of his work, plus a revisiting of RPN as an adult rather than as a soldering-iron-wielding teen. Simply put, RPN is a specific method of writing math equations that is still human while being suitable for input into a computer with limited memory.

The first thing to learn about RPN is that the “Polish” part comes from Łukasiewicz’s nationality. Perhaps we Anglophones should put in a bit of effort to learn how to pronounce his name. Then the second lesson is that the “Reverse” part is important, but a smokescreen that relates only to the direction in which it is written. Write the expression one way round and it’s Polish notation, the other way and it’s Reverse Polish notation.

The feature which makes PN and RPN special is that the operator  does not come between operands, but follows them. So for example, where you might be used to writing  2+2=  to get 4, in PN you would write  + 2 2 , and in RPN you would write  2 2 + .

[Łukasiewicz] was a logician, and his notation was designed with the purpose of removing parentheses when each function has a constant number of arguments. Thus, we’re used to writing  (2+2)*3  to get 12. In PN we write * + 2 2 3 or * 3 + 2 2 , and in RPN we write  2 2 + 3 *  or 3 2 2 + * . (The latter versions work b/c multiplication is commutative.)

PN and RPN might be one of those slightly interesting mathematical factoids some of us in our community have heard about in passing some time in our education. But in fact is it much less obscure than that because RPN has a very useful property. It lends itself to use with a stack, to perform calculations. The operands and operator are in effect ready lined-up to be to be distinguished from each other by their order of precedence, meaning that a device such as a calculator could be produced more easily using RPN than conventional notation. While those of us who still use a physical calculator are used to conventional notation as an input, some earlier calculators used RPN to do more with less.

Which brings us back to my Sinclair Scientific mentioned above. When people think of an RPN calculator, it’s likely that they’ll single out Hewlett-Packard as a manufacturer. You can still buy an HP that uses RPN, and indeed not so long ago their adherence to RPN was considered a significant selling point by HP. But the Sinclair is a little different. Clive Sinclair always made a speciality of extracting the maximum performance from the minimum of components to deliver the lowest price, even if sometimes the quality or utility of his products suffered as a result.

This calculator then is a Sinclair product at its finest, featuring a cheap arithmetic calculator chip from Texas Instruments, the TMS0805, coaxed into offering trigonometric and logarithmic functions by some astounding coding from Sinclair employee Nigel Searle. The result was a single chip scientific calculator at a fraction of the cost of those from TI or HP, but with the penalty of reduced speed and floating-point accuracy. We covered [Ken Shirriff]’s reverse engineering of a Sinclair Scientific a few years ago, even today it’s an intriguing machine.

In use it’s a frustrating exercise in learning RPN again on the fly, that turns into something close to a mathematical puzzle as the minutes tick by and that LED display drinks power from its 4 AAA batteries. That would have been no laughing matter in 1975, as a set of 4 alkaline AAAs would have been considerably more expensive in real terms than they are now. Once you are in the RPN Zone it really is extremely logical and easy to use, but the same can’t quite be said for the Sinclair. A complex sequence of keys is required for most of its functions, meaning that its novelty wears off after a while. Still, with early ’70s design aesthetic, at least it’s quite attractive to look at.

Technically the Cambridge has 3 chips, the TMS0805 and a couple of display drivers. But they’re ancillary to the processor, and the HP calculator at the time used a 5-part processor chipset.

HP9100A image, the first Hewlett-Packard calculator to use RPN, Rama, [CC BY-SA 2.0].

Mon, 01 Aug 2022 12:00:00 -0500 Jenny List en-US text/html https://hackaday.com/2017/10/24/reverse-polish-notation-and-its-mildly-confusing-elegance/
Killexams : The best student discounts we found for 2022

Your college years can be some of the best of your life, but we know it can be tough to enjoy them when you’re scrounging every dollar for textbooks, food and (if you’re lucky) the occasional outing with friends. Money is tight when you’re a student, and that financial stress can be compounded by the reality of having to stay on top of your studies.

If there’s a silver lining, it’s student discounts. Many companies offer their products and apps for less to those struggling through lectures, writing term papers and studying for finals. We’ve compiled a list of the best deals you can get on useful services, along with some things you’ll enjoy in your down time. Just keep in mind that most of these offers require you to prove your status as a student either by signing up with your .edu email address or providing some form of student identification.

Shopping

Amazon Prime Student

Amazon Prime Student

If you’re not piggybacking off of your parents’ Amazon Prime account, you can have the subscription for less while you’re in school. College students can get Prime Student for free for six months, then it costs only $7.49 per month after that. That comes out to about $90 per year, and the membership includes the same perks as regular Prime does, including free two-day shipping, free same-day delivery in select areas, and access to the entire Prime Video library.

Buy Prime Student at Amazon - $90 a year

Best Buy

While it doesn’t offer a specific student discount, Best Buy has Student Deals that you can sign up to receive. Aside from proving your student status, the only requirement is for you to be a My Best Buy member; that program is free to enroll in. We actually recommend that most people sign up for My Best Buy because some items, especially during site-wide sales, will be even cheaper for members. All student deals will appear in the Member Offers page in your account.

Sign up for Student Deals at Best Buy

Apple

Apple offers some deals to students and educators in the form of knocking down the prices of its most popular laptops and tablets. There isn’t a flat percentage rate across all products; the discounts vary by device. For example, right now students can get a MacBook Air M1 starting at $899, which is $100 less than the normal starting price, and the iPad Pros start at $749, which represents a $50 discount. These are decent savings if you must have a brand new Apple product, but those with tighter budgets should also consider Apple’s refurb program. Also for 2022, students can get up to a $150 gift card and 20 percent off AppleCare when they purchase a qualifying Mac or iPad.

Shop Apple’s back-to-school promos

Samsung

Much like Apple, Samsung doesn't offer a blanket discount across all of its products for students. But you can save depending on what you're looking to buy. For example, you can save hundreds on the latest Galaxy S22 smartphones, and the discount will be deeper if you have a handset to trade in. On the laptop-and-tablet side of things, you can get a Galaxy Chromebook 2 for as low as $350 or a Galaxy Tab S8+ for. as low as $200.

Shop Samsung’s back-to-school promos

Microsoft

Microsoft also provides students and educators with up to 10 percent off its gadgets, including the already affordable Surface Go 2 and the Surface Headphones 2. And Microsoft’s online store doesn’t only sell Surface devices: You can also find Windows PCs from Lenovo, HP, Acer and others there at discounted prices.

Shop Microsoft’s back-to-school promos

Streaming

Spotify

Spotify

Spotify Premium’s student plan gives you a lot for only $5 per month. Besides access to millions of songs, it also includes Hulu’s ad-supported tier and Showtime’s ad-free service. You’d spend roughly $27 a month if you paid for all three separately at their full prices, making this student offer one of the best you can get.

Buy Spotify Premium Student - $5 a month

Pandora

Pandora also offers students its Premium membership for $5 per month. Pandora’s offering doesn’t include any additional services, but you do get an ad-free experience, personalized music, unlimited skips and unlimited offline play. Plus, you’ll get 60 days of free use before your payments kick in.

Buy Pandora Premium Student - $5 a month

Apple Music

Apple also slashes 50 percent off its Apple Music subscription for students, bringing it down to $5 per month. The offer is available for up to 48 months so you can enjoy the rate for the entirety of your college experience. What’s more, the company bundles Apple TV+ in this student offer, so you can watch Apple originals like Ted Lasso and Severance.

Buy Apple Music Student membership - $5 a month

Paramount+

Paramount+’s student discount knocks 25 percent off the Essentials monthly plan, so you’ll end up paying around $3.75 per month for access to the service’s content with limited commercials. With this subscription, you can watch shows like Star Trek: Strange New Worlds, South Park, RuPaul’s Drag Race and more, but just keep in mind that this particular plan doesn’t include access to your local CBS station.

Buy Paramount+ Student - $3.75/month

Discovery+

Discovery+ knocks 40 percent off monthly plans for students, so you can get access for only $3 per month. You’ll pay for the Ad-Lite plan, so there will still be commercials to sit through, but you can get that discounted rate for as long as you are an enrolled student.

Buy Discovery+ Student - $3/month

Tidal

Tidal provides student discounts on both of its streaming services: Premium and Hi-Fi. Premium drops to $5 per month, down from $10, while Hi-Fi costs $10 per month, down from $20. Tidal is still often overshadowed by Spotify and Apple Music, but these discounts are a good way to deliver it a try without spending too much money.

Buy Tidal Student starting at $5 a month

Hulu

College students can sign up for Hulu’s ad-supported plan for only $2 per month. That’s $4 less than the normal price and a great deal considering all of the content that Hulu has to offer (think: The Handmaid’s Tale, Grey’s Anatomy, Rick & Morty and more). Yes, you have to deal with commercials, but it’s a small price to pay to binge-watch shows like Brooklyn Nine Nine, which can provide a much-needed laugh when you’re drowning in coursework.

Buy Hulu (ad-supported) - $2 a month

YouTube

If you’re already spending a lot of time watching YouTube, you may have a better experience with YouTube Premium. The Student plan cuts nearly 50 percent off the price so you’ll pay $7 per month for ad-free video viewing, background play, video downloads and access to YouTube Premium Music. The latter is YouTube’s attempt at a Spotify/Apple Music competitor, but it has a long way to go before it can really hold a candle to those services. However, if you listen to most of your music via YouTube already, Premium could be your one-stop-shop for music and video streaming.

Buy YouTube Premium Student - $7 a month

Headspace

Being a student is stressful even in the best of times, but now it’s even more difficult to concentrate and find peace. Headspace is just one of many meditation and mindfulness apps available that can help with that, but it stands apart with an excellent student discount: $10 for the entire year, or $60 less than a normal annual membership. In addition to a large library of meditation lessons and routines to follow, Headspace recently added SleepCasts, a collection of soothing voices reading bedtime stories to help you fall asleep, as well as “mindful” workout routines.

Buy Headspace Student plan - $10 a year

Tools

Adobe Creative Cloud

Adobe Creative Cloud

You’re probably using Adobe products if you’re studying anything related to digital art or design. Adobe Creative Cloud is the industry standard in this space but the entire suite of programs is quite expensive at $53 per month. Thankfully, Adobe has education pricing for students that drops the entire creative suite to $20 per month for the first year. That includes the big programs like Photoshop CC and Illustrator CC along with Lightroom CC, Premiere Pro CC, Adobe XD and more.

After your first year, the monthly cost increases to $30 per month. While not ideal, it’s still more affordable for students than it is for industry professionals. If you’re not tied to Adobe programs, you might also consider Affinity Photo, Designer and Publisher apps from Serif ($50 each for the Mac or Windows versions), which compete with Photoshop, Illustrator and InDesign, respectively.

Buy Adobe CC - $20 a month

Ableton Live

Regardless of whether you’re studying music production, students can get 40 percent off Ableton Live Standard or Suite for as long as they are enrolled full-time. That brings Live 11 Standard down to $269 and Suite down to $449 — great discounts on some of the best music software available right now.

Buy Ableton Live starting at $269

Microsoft 365

Many students have to use Microsoft 365 tools on the regular. If your college or university doesn’t provide you with an account, you can still get Microsoft 365 for free by taking advantage of the company’s student and educator discount. This gives you access to Word, Excel, PowerPoint, OneNote and even Microsoft Teams free of charge, which is a solid deal considering an annual subscription costs $100.

Get Microsoft 365

Ulysses

Spending all day and night writing papers is even more frustrating when you don’t have all your writing organized in one place. Ulysses is a popular writing app for mac/iOS that can be used for note taking as well as thesis writing, with features like auto-save and auto-backup, word-count writing goals, markup, plain text support and DropBox integration. Normally, Ulysses costs $40 per year but students can get it for only $12 every six months, or $24 per year. There isn’t a direct alternative for Windows users, but you do have options including Scrivener (a one-time student price of $41.65), IA Writer (a $20 one-time price) and FocusWriter (free and open-source).

Buy Ulysses - $24 a year

Evernote

Evernote can be an indispensable tool if you like to keep all of your thoughts in one place — everything from class notes to web clippings to to-do lists. Students can get half off one year of Evernote Premium, which brings the price down to $4 per month or $48 for the year. Premium is the way to go if you’re investing in Evernote because it syncs your notes across unlimited devices, gives you offline access, lets you annotate PDFs and search saved documents.

Buy Evernote Premium (1 year) - $4 a month

Notion Personal Pro plan

Notion provides students and educators its Personal Pro plan for free just by signing up with a valid .edu email address. While the free version of the service has a ton of features, the Pro plan adds unlimited pages and blocks, file uploads and version history. That means you won’t be restricted if you want to collect your entire academic life in Notion, along with your personal to-do lists, agendas, notes and more.

Get Notion Personal Pro plan

Github Student Developer Pack

Aspiring developers can sign up for Github’s Student Developer Pack, which includes discounts and resources that developers can use to learn, create projects and more. Github partnered with a bunch of companies including Educative, Canva, Namecheap, Bootstrap Studio and others to offer students access to many of the services they’ll need as the expand their skills.

Get Github Student Developer Pack

Squarespace Student plan

Whether you’re itching to get a jump-start on your portfolio or just want an online space to show off your work, Squarespace is a good option as it gives students a 50 percent discount on any of its annual plans. The most affordable option will cost $72 for the year, which is half the normal yearly price of $144. Squarespace is one of many website builders out there, but it’s particularly popular with creative professionals. Its customizable templates make it easy to build a website and make it look exactly how you want it. Plus, you can upgrade down the line to add things like website analytics, custom JavaScript and CSS and e-commerce.

Buy Squarespace starting at $72 a year

News

The Atlantic

You shouldn’t rely on Twitter to be your sole source of news. With foreign wars, new viruses, Supreme Court decisions and upcoming elections making headlines daily, it’s important to get your news from reliable sources. Yes, it’s daunting to get into the news on a regular basis, but it’s crucial to know what’s going on in the country and the world as a whole. Here are some reputable news organizations that offer student discounts on their monthly or annual subscription plans.

The Atlantic: Starts at $35 per year for digital-only access.

The New York Times: $6 every four weeks for a base subscription.

The Washington Post: $1 every four weeks for digital-only access.

The Wall Street Journal: Starting at $4 per month for the Student Digital Pack.

Mon, 06 Jul 2020 02:22:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://finance.yahoo.com/news/best-student-discounts-140038070.html
Killexams : UK to send more weapons to Ukraine; more than 9.5 million Ukrainians have fled

Russia deliberately weaponized food in Ukraine, State Department says

Russian President Vladimir Putin gives a speech in front of the monument "Fatherland, Valor, Honor" near the headquarters of the Foreign Intelligence Service of the Russian Federation (SVR), in Moscow, Russia June 30, 2022.

Aleksey Nikolskyi | Kremlin| Sputnik | via Reuters

The State Department slammed Russian attacks on Ukrainian agricultural facilities and a months-long blockade on foodstuff exports.

For months, Russian warships have blocked Ukrainian ports on the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea.

"To date, Russia has weaponized food during this conflict. They have destroyed agricultural facilities they prevented millions of tons of Ukrainian grain from getting to those who need it," State Department spokesman Ned Price said during a daily press briefing.

"It is a reflection of Russia's disregard for lives and livelihoods not only in the region but well beyond that," he added.

Price's comments come on the heels of an announcement that the United Nations, Turkey, Russia and Ukraine will soon sign an agreement that will usher in a sea corridor for Ukrainian grain exports.

"We should never have been in this position in the first place. This was a deliberate decision on the part of the Russian Federation to weaponize food," Price said.

— Amanda Macias

Ukraine's first lady meets with HP representatives and accepts computers for students

Ukrainian First Lady Olena Zelenska arrives to deliver an address to members of the United States Congress at the US Capitol in Washington, DC, on July 20, 2022.

Michael Reynolds | AFP | Getty Images

Ukraine's first lady Olena Zelenska met with representatives from HP and the Global Business Coalition for Education this week to accept a donation of computers for children, students and healthcare providers in Ukraine.

"We are very grateful for HP's and the Global Business Coalition for Education's support," Zelenska wrote in a statement about the $30 million HP initiative. "Their efforts and contribution will help students in Ukraine and beyond continue learning and prepare for the future, like any other youth in the world," she added.

Enrique Lores, CEO of HP, said that the Palo Alto-based company would continue to mobilize tech resources for Ukraine.

"Through our partnership with the Global Business Coalition for Education, we will put personal computers in the hands of students and families who have been displaced from their homes and classrooms," Lores wrote in a statement.

 — Amanda Macias

Celebrity chef and humanitarian Jose Andres says Russians bombed warehouse storing food and supplies

Spanish celebrity chef and restaurateur Jose Andres shared a video via Twitter of what he says was a Russian attack on humanitarian warehouses storing food and supplies for Ukrainians in need.

"This are warehouses for feeding children, elderly, women! Are humanitarian warehouses! I know because I've been there. Our teams know them," wrote Andres, referencing warehouses used by the World Central Kitchen, his humanitarian organization dedicated to feeding vulnerable communities.

The two-star Michelin chef brought the World Central Kitchen to Ukraine in order to address the mounting food crisis triggered by Russia's war.

— Amanda Macias

Belgium ratifies Sweden and Finland NATO bids

Belgium announced that it has finalized Sweden and Finland's NATO bids.

"It is official! Belgium has completed the ratification procedure for the accession of Finland and Sweden to NATO," wrote Hadja Lahbib, Belgium's minister of Foreign Affairs, in a tweet.

"Our country respects its international commitments to ensure our #security, defend our #freedom and #democracy," she added.

All 30 NATO members must approve a country's bid for it to be accepted into the alliance.

Both Finland and Sweden already meet many of the requirements to be NATO members. Some of the requirements include having a functioning democratic political system, a willingness to provide economic transparency and the ability to make military contributions to alliance missions.

In May, both nations began the formal process of applying to the military alliance.

— Amanda Macias

More than 9.5 million people have fled across Ukraine's borders, UN says

A Ukrainian boy walks past temporary beds at a refugee center in Warsaw on April 19.

Sopa Images | Lightrocket | Getty Images

More than 9.5 million people have fled across Ukraine's borders since Russia invaded its neighbor in late February, the UN Refugee Agency estimates.

Of those, 5.9 million people have been recorded as refugees from Ukraine and have settled somewhere in Europe. Another 3.7 million refugees from Ukraine have registered for temporary protection or similar national protection schemes in Europe, according to data collected by the UN Refugee Agency.

"The escalation of the international armed conflict in Ukraine has caused civilian casualties and destruction of civilian infrastructure, forcing people to flee their homes seeking safety, protection and assistance," the agency wrote.

"Millions of refugees from Ukraine have crossed borders into neighboring countries and many more have been forced to move inside the country," the agency added.

— Amanda Macias

UK to send more artillery, guns, drones and anti-tank weapons to Ukraine

The British government will supply scores of artillery, guns, drones and anti-tank weapons to Ukraine in the coming weeks, the UK Defence Secretary Ben Wallace said in an update to Parliament.

"The scale and range of equipment we are providing demonstrates the strength of our resolve. Together with our international partners, we will ensure Ukraine has the tools to defend their country from Putin's illegal invasion," Wallace said.

The additional weapons come as British troops provide military training to Ukrainian forces on U.K. territory.

— Amanda Macias

Volunteer cooks on the front lines near Kherson

Valodya, a 49-year-old man, volunteers as a cook for Ukrainian soldiers in Kherson. Many Ukrainian citizens, who volunteered on the front lines of the war, temporarily put their professions aside to support their country in various positions as official members of the army. 

Valodya, a 49-year-old man, volunteers as a cook for Ukrainian soldiers in Kherson, Kherson Oblast, Ukraine on July 15, 2022. 

Metin Aktas | Anadolu Agency | Getty Images

KHERSON, UKRAINE - JULY 15: Valodya, a 49-year-old man, volunteers as a cook for Ukrainian soldiers in Kherson, Kherson Oblast, Ukraine on July 15, 2022. Many Ukrainian citizens, who volunteered on the frontlines of the war, temporarily put their profession aside to support their country in various positions as official members of the army. (Photo by Metin Aktas/Anadolu Agency via Getty Images)

Metin Aktas | Anadolu Agency | Getty Images

Valodya, a 49-year-old man, volunteers as a cook for Ukrainian soldiers in Kherson, Kherson Oblast, Ukraine on July 15, 2022. Many Ukrainian citizens, who volunteered on the frontlines of the war, temporarily put their profession aside to support their country in various positions as official members of the army. (Photo by Metin Aktas/Anadolu Agency via Getty Images)

Metin Aktas | Anadolu Agency | Getty Images

— Metin Aktas | Anadolu Agency | Getty Images

Death toll rises to 26 in Vinnytsia following Russian cruise missile attack

Ukrainian servicemen lay flowers and toys at a place where 4-years-old girl Liza was killed by a Russian cruise missile strike. Vinnytsia, Ukraine July 15, 2022.

Maxym Marusenko | Nurphoto | Getty Images

The head of the regional military administration in Vinnytsia said that one more person has died following the cruise missile attack in the central Ukrainian city.

"20-year-old Olga Lysenko died in the hospital with 98% of her body burns," according to an update provided by Serhiy Borzov.

He added that the death toll from the July 14 attack is now 26 people.

Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy has previously described the cruise missile attack on the community facilities and medical center as an "act of Russian terror."

— Amanda Macias

'Not a single square meter of land left untouched by the Russian artillery' in Luhansk, says Ukrainian official

An aerial view of damaged sites from eastern Ukraine city of Severodonetsk located in which Russian forces now in control, in Luhansk Oblast, Ukraine on July 09, 2022.

Stringer | Anadolu Agency | Getty Images

The head of the regional military in Luhansk said that there is "probably not a single square meter of land left untouched by the Russian artillery" in the eastern Ukrainian region.

"The Russian army uses its usual tactics of massive artillery shelling and air strikes, uses of all available types of weapons to advance," according to an update from Serhiy Haidai.

"Over the past 24 hours the Russian army tried to arrange several assault attempts from different directions of the occupied territories," he added.

Earlier this week, National Security Council spokesman John Kirby told reporters at the White House that the U.S. has intelligence that indicates Russian forces will soon try to annex part of Ukraine, namely Luhansk.

— Amanda Macias

Russian army shells Bakhmut Market in the Donetsk region

Emergency crews respond at Bakhmut Market, in the Donetsk Oblast, after it was shelled by the Russian army.

A man inspect the damage at the entrance of the Bakhmut Market it was shelled by the Russian army, in the city of Bakhmut, Donetsk Oblast of Ukraine on July 21, 2022.

Diego Herrera Carcedo | Anadolu Agency | Getty Images

Ukrainian firefighters work at the Bakhmut market after it was shelled by the Russian army, in the city of Bakhmut, Donetsk Oblast of Ukraine on July 21, 2022.

Diego Herrera Carcedo | Anadolu Agency | Getty Images

Ukrainian firefighters inspect a crater at Bakhmut Market after it was shelled by the Russian army, in the city of Bakhmut, Donetsk Oblast of Ukraine on July 21, 2022.

Diego Herrera Carcedo | Anadolu Agency | Getty Images

Locals clean the entrance to their shop at the Bakhmut market after it was shelled by the Russian army, in the city of Bakhmut, Donetsk Oblast of Ukraine on July 21, 2022.

Diego Herrera Carcedo | Anadolu Agency | Getty Images

— Diego Herrera Carcedo | Anadolu Agency | Getty Images

Russians cause panic after moving 'weapons, explosives' into Europe's largest nuclear power plant

A Russian serviceman patrols the territory of the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Station in Energodar on May 1, 2022. The Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Station, seized by Russian forces in March, is in southeastern Ukraine and is the largest nuclear power plant in Europe and among the 10 largest in the world. This picture was taken during a media trip organised by the Russian army.

Andrey Borodulin | Afp | Getty Images

Russian forces have moved military equipment, explosives and weapons to the engine room of power unit No.1 at the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant creating the risk of a nuclear disaster on par with the Chernobyl disaster, according to Ukraine's nuclear power plant operator Energoatom.

Energoatom said in a Telegram post on Thursday that the Russian military had "brought at least 14 pieces of heavy military equipment with ammunition, weapons and explosives to the engine room of power unit No. 1 at the Zaporizhia NPP."

"The entire arsenal of heavy equipment with all ammunition is currently located very close to the equipment that ensures the operation of the turbo generator. In particular, in the immediate vicinity of the main oil tank, which contains flammable oil that cools the steam turbine. There is also explosive hydrogen, which is used to cool the generator," the post said.

Russian military vehicles drive through the gates of the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Station in Energodar on May 1, 2022. This picture was taken during a media trip organised by the Russian army.

Andrey Borodulin | Afp | Getty Images

Energoatom said the military equipment had prevented the access of specialized fire engines and other vehicles to the control room of power unit No. 1 and that there was the potential for a catastrophic accident.

"Therefore, the risk of fire increases many times, and its extinguishing becomes extremely problematic. If a fire occurs, for example, due to the accidental detonation of ammunition, then its scale can be equal to the one that occurred during the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant," the post said.

Energoatom added that Russian forces "continue to violate all norms and requirements regarding fire, nuclear and radiation safety at nuclear power plants, keeping heavy military equipment, ammunition, weapons and explosives in the engine room of the power unit of the largest nuclear power plant in Europe."

Russian forces seized the nuclear power plant — which is also among the largest in the world — that's located in southeastern Ukraine, back in March.

It said there was an urgent need to liberate the Zaporizhzhia NPP as soon as possible and appealed to the international community for help "because only Ukraine will be able to guarantee the smooth and safe operation" of the nuclear power plant.

Energoatom published an announcement yesterday, Wednesday, saying that the Russian military had demanded that the engine rooms at the 1st, 2nd and 3rd power units at the plant were opened in order to place their entire military arsenal there."

Holly Ellyatt

Ukraine could 'disappear from the world map,' top Russian official says

Ukraine could disappear from the map "as a result of unfolding events," the Deputy Chairman of Russia's Security Council Dmitry Medvedev wrote on his Telegram channel on Thursday.

"After the 2014 coup, Ukraine lost its state independence and fell under direct control of the collective West as well as began to believe that NATO would guarantee its security," he noted as he blamed the West for the fallout from the Ukrainian war, such as energy shortages and high food prices.

"As a result of all the current events Ukraine may lose what's left of its state sovereignty and disappear from the world map," Medvedev added.

Russian President Vladimir Putin (R) and Russian Prime Minister Dmitriy Medvedev are seen at a meeting with the government, following Putin's address to the Federal Assembly, in Moscow, Russia on January 15, 2020.

Anadolu Agency

The comments from Medvedev, a close ally and colleague of President Putin, are the latest in a series of bellicose, aggressive posts from the former Russian president and prime minister.

Medvedev also asserted that "Ukrainian criminals will definitely be prosecuted for atrocities committed against the people of Ukraine and Russia."

Russian officials insist that Russia is not responsible for numerous war crimes in Ukraine which are being investigated as the conflict continues. Russia has also said it does not target civilians despite multiple instances of civilian infrastructure, like schools, shops and hospitals, being hit by missile strikes.

— Holly Ellyatt

Reports that Putin is ill are 'nothing but fakes,' Kremlin says

Russian President Vladimir Putin touches his tie during the Powerful Ideas For New Times Forum on July 20, 2022 in Moscow, Russia. Putin takes part in the economic forum, hosted by the Agency for Strategic Initiatives (ASI).

Getty Images

The Kremlin has insisted that Russian President Vladimir Putin is in good health, rebuffing rumors that he is unwell.

Kremlin spokesperson Dmitry Peskov told reporters Thursday that reports Putin is ill are "nothing but fakes," Reuters reported.

The comments come after CIA Director William Burns told the Aspen Security Forum on Wednesday that there was no evidence that Putin was unwell, despite months of rumors speculating that the Russian leader might have been receiving cancer treatment.

"There are lots of rumors about President Putin's health and as far as we can tell, he's entirely too healthy," he said, although he added that was "not a formal intelligence judgment."

— Holly Ellyatt

Russian forces 'closing in' on Ukraine's second-largest power plant

Russian and separatist forces continue to attempt small scale assaults along the Donbas front line with the invading forces likely closing in on Ukraine's second biggest power plant at Vuhlehirska, 50 kilometers (31 miles) north-east of the city of Donetsk, according to the latest intelligence update by the U.K.'s Ministry of Defence.

"Russia is prioritising the capture of critical national infrastructure, such as power plants," it said on Twitter Thursday.

"However, it is probably also attempting to break through at Vuhlehirska, as part of its efforts to regain momentum on the southern pincer of its advance towards the key cities of Kramatorsk and Sloviansk," the ministry said.

— Holly Ellyatt

Kharkiv city comes under Russian shelling, with dead and injured reported

Russian forces are shelling Kharkiv, Ukraine's second-largest city, with residents being asked not to go outside.

Oleh Syniehubov, the head of the Kharkiv Regional Military Administration, said in a Telegram post Thursday that "Russians are shelling Kharkiv. Attention residents: stay in shelters, do not go outside without an urgent need, do not ignore air raid alerts."

He said 19 people had been injured in the shelling, including a child, and that four were in a serious condition. Two civilians had died in the shelling, Syniehubov said.

Kharkiv Mayor Ihor Terekhov also urged people to stay in safe places, Ukraine's state news agency reported, adding that Terekhov said that one of the city's most densely populated districts is under fire.

Policemen inspect the debris of a bus stand following a shelling attack that killed three while two more were people in the Saltivka neighborhood in Kharkiv City on July 20th, 2022.

Anadolu Agency | Anadolu Agency | Getty Images

Four civilians were killed during shelling of the city on Wednesday and 11 injured. An attack on a bus stop in the city killed three people, including a 13 year old boy.

Holly Ellyatt

CIA director says Putin is wrong on Western resolve in Ukraine

CIA Director William Burns in Washington, DC on October 27, 2021. Vladimir Putin's view that Western resolve in Ukraine will gradually weaken is wrong, said CIA Director William Burns at the Aspen Security Forum on Wednesday.

Drew Angerer | Getty Images News | Getty Images

CIA Director William Burns said Russian President Vladimir Putin's view that Western resolve in Ukraine will gradually weaken is wrong.

"Putin's view of Americans is we always suffer from attention deficit disorder and, you know, we'll get distracted by something else," Burns said at the Aspen Security Forum. "I think my own strong view is that Putin was wrong in his assumptions about breaking the alliance and breaking Ukrainian will before the war began. And I think he is just as wrong now."

He emphasized that America's attention will not be diverted elsewhere despite Russia's "grinding war of attrition."

Burns said U.S. intelligence estimates Russia has suffered "something in the vicinity of 15,000 killed and maybe three times that wounded." While the Ukrainians have likely seen slightly less in terms of losses, he said they were still "significant."

Natalie Tham

Ukraine calls for more air defense systems as forces desperately hold the line

Ukrainian soldiers ride a tank on a road in the Donetsk region on July 20, 2022, near the front line between Russian and Ukrainian forces.

Anatolii Stepanov | AFP | Getty Images

Kyiv has called for more air defense systems as its forces fight on in eastern and southern Ukraine.

Fighting is concentrated around the cities of Kramatorsk, Sloviansk and Bakhmut, and Ukrainian forces are desperate to hold the line to prevent Russian advances in Donetsk.

The latest update Thursday morning from the general staff of the Ukrainian armed forces said those cities and the settlements around them continued to be attacked by Russian artillery. Separately, Kharkiv to the north and Mykolaiv to the south are also coming under attack, with powerful explosions rocking the port city of Mykolaiv during the night.

"In [the] Donetsk region, the invaders are seeking to advance to the Debaltseve-Sloviansk highway, while Ukraine's forces are holding them back," the armed forces said in its update.

In the meantime, Ukraine has repeated its call for more air defense systems to it fend off Russian aircraft and missile attacks. First Lady Olena Zelenska, who has been in Washington this week, repeated those calls to America Wednesday when she addressed the U.S. Congress. As she spoke, a presentation showed graphic images of Ukrainian children killed by Russian missile strikes and shelling.

"I'm asking for air defense systems in order for rockets not to kill," Zelenska said before a backdrop of graphic and disturbing images from devastated Ukrainian streets.

President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelenskyy watched in Kyiv the live broadcast of the speech by First Lady Olena Zelenska in the US Congress, which took place as part of her visit to the United States of America, July 20, 2002.

Source: The Office of the President of Ukraine

Back home, Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy reiterated those calls for more air defense systems.

"I'm sure you've seen how effective the weapons provided by the partners are, especially modern MLRS. The name HIMARS has become almost native to our people - just like Javelin or NLAW, like "Stugna" or "Neptune" earlier," he noted in his nightly address.

"It is obvious that the next equally important name will appear from modern air defense systems, which we are requesting from partners. The representatives of our state did not stop working for a single day to obtain an effective air defense system."

While Ukrainian forces had experienced some success in destroying Russian missiles
"a completely different speed and scale of protection is required," Zelenskyy said.

-- Holly Ellyatt

No evidence Putin is in ill health or unstable, CIA chief says

Russian President Vladimir Putin attends a Night Hockey League ice hockey match on October 7, 2015 in Sochi, Russia. Putin spent his 63rd birthday playing hockey with NHL stars.

Sasha Mordovets | Getty Images

There has been speculation for months that Russian President Vladimir Putin could be suffering from poor physical or mental health, including unsubstantiated rumors that he may have undergone cancer treatment.

The claims have been denied by the Kremlin, and CIA Director William Burns also appeared to pour cold water on those rumors on Wednesday, telling the Aspen Security Forum that the CIA is aware of no evidence that Putin is debilitated mentally or physically.

"There are lots of rumors about President Putin's health and as far as we can tell, he's entirely too healthy," he said, although he added that was "not a formal intelligence judgment."

Followers of Russian geopolitics keep a close eye on Putin's public appearances for signs of ill health and for insight into his rationale for invading neighboring Ukraine.

In truth, however, Putin has given clues about his intentions when it comes to Ukraine for years, frequently deploring the collapse of the Soviet union, extolling the unity of Russians and Ukrainians and dismissing the notion of Ukraine as an independent territory.

Holly Ellyatt

Zelenskyy watched wife's speech to U.S. Congress from Kyiv

President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelenskyy watched in Kyiv the live broadcast of the speech by First Lady Olena Zelenska in the US Congress, which took place as part of her visit to the United States of America, July 20, 2002.

Source: The Office of the President of Ukraine

Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy watched from Kyiv as his wife delivered remarks to the U.S. Congress.

Olena Zelenska, the first wife of a foreign leader to speak in the U.S. Capitol, urged lawmakers to provide more U.S.-made arms to Ukraine.

Zelenska began her 15-minute address with a photo presentation of Ukrainian children killed by Russian missile strikes and shelling across the country.

"I'm asking for air defense systems in order for rockets not to kill," Zelenska said before a backdrop of graphic and disturbing images from devastated Ukrainian streets.

"The First Lady noted the contribution of every American family, Congress, and President Joseph Biden to Ukraine's ability to resist the enemy and protect the lives of millions of Ukrainian citizens," according to a statement from Zelenskyy's office.

— Amanda Macias

Donbas region is 'not lost yet' to the Russians as Ukraine puts up stiff resistance, Pentagon says

U.S. Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin (L) and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Mark Milley (R) participate in a news briefing at the Pentagon May 23, 2022 in Arlington, Virginia.

Alex Wong | Getty Images

The Pentagon said Wednesday that Ukraine has not yet lost the Donbas to Russia after weeks of intense fighting.

"It's very intense," U.S. Army Gen. Mark Milley, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, told reporters at the Pentagon. "A lot of violence, tens of thousands of artillery rounds every 24-hour period and lots of casualties on both sides, lots of destruction of villages," he added.

Milley said that Russia has only advanced about 10 miles in the past three months.

"It's not lost yet. Ukrainians are making the Russians pay for every inch of territory that they gain," he added.

— Amanda Macias

Ukraine graft concerns resurface as Russia war goes on

A screen shot showing the President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelensky during his televised address where he said that if the Russian threat to shipping in the Black Sea can be removed, this will alleviate the severity of the global food crisis.

Igor Golovniov | Lightrocket | Getty Images

Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy's dismissal of senior officials is casting an inconvenient light on an issue that the Biden administration has largely ignored since the outbreak of war with Russia: Ukraine's history of rampant corruption and shaky governance.

As it presses ahead with providing tens of billions of dollars in military, economic and direct financial support aid to Ukraine and encourages its allies to do the same, the Biden administration is now once again grappling with longstanding worries about Ukraine's suitability as a recipient of massive infusions of American aid.

Those issues, which date back decades and were not an insignificant part of former President Donald Trump's first impeachment, had been largely pushed to the back burner in the immediate run-up to Russia's invasion and during the first months of the conflict as the U.S. and its partners rallied to Ukraine's defense.

But Zelenskyy's weekend firings of his top prosecutor, intelligence chief and other senior officials have resurfaced those concerns and may have inadvertently given fresh attention to allegations of high-level corruption in Kyiv made by one outspoken U.S. lawmaker.

It's a delicate issue for the Biden administration. With billions in aid flowing to Ukraine, the White House continues to make the case for supporting Zelenskyy's government to an American public increasingly focused on domestic issues like high gas prices and inflation. High-profile supporters of Ukraine in both parties also want to avoid a backlash that could make it more difficult to pass future aid packages.

— Associated Press

Russia's objectives in Ukraine could go beyond the Donbas, Russia's foreign minister warns

Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov attends a news conference as he meets with Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu in Ankara, Turkey June 8, 2022. 

Umit Bektas | Reuters

If Ukraine receives long-range weapons from Western countries, Moscow could expand the geography and scope of its "special military operation," Russia's Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said Wednesday.

Speaking to Margarita Simonyan, the editor-in-chief of Russia's English-language news service RT, Lavrov said that Moscow's aims in Ukraine were still the same as President Vladimir Putin had announced at the start of Russia's invasion — or "special military operation" as it calls the invasion — but he suggested it could expand.

"The President said very clearly, as you quoted him - denazification, demilitarization in the sense that there are no threats to our security, military threats from the territory of Ukraine, this task remains," the minister said, state news agency RIA Novosti reported.

President Putin initially claimed — falsely — that Moscow's mission in Ukraine was to "denazify" the government in Kyiv, a claim widely rebuffed by the international community, but then Russia changed tack, saying its main objective was to "liberate" the Donbas, where two pro-Russian, self-proclaimed "republics" — known as the Donetsk and Luhansk People's Republics (DPR and LPR) — are located.

Lavrov said that if the West kept pumping Ukraine with arms, like the U.S.-made High Mobility Artillery Rocket Systems (HIMARS), then "that means the geographical tasks will extend still further from the current line," in Donbas, referencing Russian-occupied Kherson in the south, and Zaporizhzhia, both of which lie beyond the Donbas territory in eastern Ukraine.

"Now the geography is different. This is far from being only the DPR and LPR, it is also the Kherson region, the Zaporizhzhia region and a number of other territories, and this process continues, and continues consistently and persistently," Lavrov said.

"We cannot allow the part of Ukraine that Zelenskyy will control or whoever replaces him to have weapons that will pose a direct threat to our territory and the territory of those republics that have declared their independence, those who want their future decide for yourself," he concluded.

Holly Ellyatt

Read CNBC's previous live coverage here:

War in Ukraine could now expand beyond Donbas, Russia warns; EU says it’s being blackmailed by Moscow over gas

Thu, 21 Jul 2022 19:49:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.cnbc.com/2022/07/21/russia-ukraine-live-updates.html
Killexams : Acer Chromebook vs. HP Chromebook

Which Acer or HP Chromebook is better? 

Having been on the market for more than a decade now, Chromebooks present consumers with an inexpensive, streamlined alternative to Apple and Windows laptops. They work beautifully with Google apps and services. While Chromebooks were initially intended only for casual use, there’s a growing number of options that come with more speed and power. Chromebooks are produced by several brands, with HP and Acer being two of the most popular. 

HP Chromebooks

HP is a pioneer in the laptop industry and one of the most trusted brands in electronics. HP’s hardware is consistently reliable, and both its plastic and aluminum laptop models are sturdy and well-made. Regarding standard laptops, HP is comparable to Dell in terms of design, quality, and popularity, though HP Chromebooks typically outperform Dell Chromebooks. 

HP released its first Chromebook, the Pavilion Chromebook, in February 2013. Early on, HP prioritized larger, more powerful Chromebooks, though they have since released models across the size, price, and performance spectra. HP’s Chromebooks tend to be cheaper than their laptops running Windows OS. As is typical with Chromebooks, most HP options will be in the $200-450 price range, though larger models with more advanced processors can sell for more than $600.

HP Chromebook pros

HP 14-inch Chromebook HD

One of HP’s biggest strengths is the wide variety of Chromebooks they sell. They have a reputation for more deluxe and expensive computers, but their more basic options are some of the best starter Chromebooks on the market. A particularly good option is their HP 14-inch Chromebook HD with an Intel Celeron N3350. With 32GB of SSD, it has great performance for its price point, and customers have loved the quick startup and ease of use. It is both lightweight and easily portable at 14 inches, and the impressive 10-hour battery life makes it great for anyone hoping to take their Chromebook on the go. The slightly faster HP 14-inch Chromebook HD with an Intel Celeron 4000 processor is another great option with the same display size.

HP also excels at producing amazing 2-in-1 laptops, which can be used as both standard laptops and touch screen tablets. These Chromebooks are typically foldable, meaning that the touch screen display can be rotated behind the keyboard using a folding hinge. This gives a 2-in-1 laptop a thin, tablet-like frame that allows consumers to utilize the touch screen without the keyboard getting in the way. These laptops are perfect for students, commuters, and creatives who value both content creation and visual design.

Chromebook X360

HP’s Chromebook X360 is easily one of the finest 2-in-1 Chromebooks on the market, with its 12-hour battery life and Intel Pentium Silver N5000 Processor ensuring extended, reliable use. The design’s chassis and general hardware are also incredible for the price, showing that HP’s reputation for well-built devices still means something. 

HP Chromebook cons

HP Chromebook 14c 2-in-1

HP Chromebooks can sometimes be on the higher end of the price spectrum, and this is especially true of models with nicer processors. While most HP Chromebooks are similarly priced to comparable models from other brands, HP’s occasionally superficial hardware features can lead to higher costs. The HP Chromebook 14c 2-in-1, for example, offers an i3 processor at a greater cost than many Acer models. 

As is the case with all Chromebooks, HP Chromebooks are not designed for high-level professional use, and performance won’t hold up to pricier HPs that run on Windows OS.

Acer Chromebooks

Historically, Acer is known for giving consumers affordable computer options, but they also sell more deluxe models. Acer excels in academic and casual business use, and their laptop designs set them apart from HP and Dell. 

Acer has been involved in Chromebooks since the beginning, selling the earliest models along with Samsung back in 2011. They have been steadily growing their Chromebook selection, and their most accurate Chromebooks are 2020’s Spin 713 series. As is the case with HP, Acer’s Chromebooks are in the $200-650 price range, though most are less than $500.

Acer Chromebook pros

Acer Chromebook 14

Despite sometimes being thought of as an affordable alternative to more popular brands, Acer has come out with several sturdy, excellent Chromebooks. The Acer Chromebook 14 is a great, midpriced option that shows off Acer’s commitment to high-quality Chromebooks. The aluminum material is both durable and lightweight, and the 14-inch display with 1920 x 1080 resolution is a step above most similarly priced Chromebooks. The SSD storage adds a nice boost to the performance.

Acer Chromebook R 11 Convertible Laptop

For those seeking portability, Acer has some very impressive smaller models. The Acer Chromebook R 11 Convertible Laptop has everything you need in a smaller Chromebook, and its 11.6-inch touch screen display is attractive and practical. In addition, the R 11 is a 2-in-1 model, solidifying its position as one of the absolute best Chromebooks for customers who will be commuting frequently.

Acer Chromebook Spin 713: Intel Core i3

Acer also stands out for selling Chromebooks with more powerful processors at affordable prices. While most basic Intel Pentium or Celeron processors are suitable for the kind of casual use that Chromebooks are designed for, having an i3 processor or higher can do wonders for a laptop’s overall performance. Many Acer models prioritize performance over features, and the Acer Chromebook Spin 713: Intel Core i3 is one of the best Acer Chromebooks available. Fast and portable, this Spin 713’s processing power gives it an edge over most other Chromebooks in the same price bracket, and it strikes a great balance between performance and affordability.

Acer Chromebook cons

Acer Chromebooks are less likely to have as many features and hardware flourishes as HP models. While there are plenty of sturdy Acer Chromebooks, some Acer models are relatively flimsy, and Acer’s cheapest Chromebooks are typically inferior to HP’s cheapest models. HP models often have more thought put into the keyboard spacing and bezel design. In addition, Acer doesn’t have as much to offer in terms of 2-in-1 options.

Should you get an HP or Acer Chromebook?

Specifications are the most important considerations when purchasing any computer, but there are clear advantages and disadvantages to both brands. If you desire simplicity and speed and you’ll be using your Chromebook most at home or in an office, then Acer will likely be the brand for you. For those who want top-shelf hardware and 2-in-1 options for a creative or academic environment, HP will have the most options.

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Sat, 16 Jul 2022 15:56:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.wric.com/reviews/acer-chromebook-vs-hp-chromebook/ Killexams : Section 4: Ship's and Scientific Equipment Description

A-FRAME - The A-frame is stern mounted and is hydraulically powered from the ship's central hydraulic system. When against its stops, it is designed to withstand a static Safe Working Load (SWL) of 16,400 lbs. The maximum SWL when being moved by the rams is 9,000 lbs. The entire unit is bolted to the deck and may be removed for special applications. It is controlled at the fantail with a hand-operated spool valve located on the starboard side of the A-frame. This controller gives precise speed control and should never be moved abruptly. Please see Appendix "E" A-frame Clearance Diagram for side profile and details of the A-frame reach, clearance and swing.

ACOUSTIC DOPPLER CURRENT PROFILER - The ship has a permanently installed RD Instruments RD-VM series acoustic doppler current profiler. It is mounted to the bottom of the hull just forward of amidships and to starboard of the centerline. The system utilizes the doppler effect to measure currents in the water column. Current profiles can be produced in up to 128 depth cells, each cell being variable from 1 to 32 meters, to a maximum depth of 700 meters. When the bottom is within range an earth-referenced vessel velocity can be obtained which allows for measurement of currents in absolute terms. Data are processed on an IBM compatible PC with two 5 1/4 inch floppy disk drives: one 1.2 mbyte and one 360 kbyte. Current profiles are displayed in real time on a color monitor and a printer is available for hard copies. Users generally provide their own floppy disks for data logging. The system takes inputs from the ship's gyro compass and a Trimble 10X GPS/LORAN-C navigation receiver. Technical assistance may be obtained by contacting the Shipboard Computer Group.

AIR CONDITIONING & HEATING - The ship is equipped with environmental control systems for both the heating and cooling of interior spaces. In labs and common spaces the chief engineer generally controls the heating and air conditioning. Some spaces are equipped with high-capacity air units which are controlled locally. Berthing cabins are equipped with central air and individual ac units and heating units. Individual units are locally controlled by occupants to attain desired results.

ANEMOMETER - There are two indicating systems for wind speed and direction. The system for ship's navigation is an Electric Speed Indicator Co., model F420C. Readouts are located in the pilot house, After Control Room, main and upper labs. Sensors are located on the flying bridge. A dedicated digital scientific system has been installed to supply data to the SAIL Data Acquisition System. Readouts are located in the main and upper labs. The sensor is located midships on the flying bridge.

ANTENNAS - Provisions have been made to accommodate a wide variety of temporary scientific antennas and sensors topside. A large network of scientific wire ways are also provided to make cable runs easy. To minimize radio interference problems check before mounting antennas or running cables.

BOW THRUSTER - The ship is equipped with a Lipps 250HP/184KW 4 blade tunnel thruster. Because of the excellent maneuverability provided by the ship's main propulsion and rudders, the bow thruster is infrequently used.

BULKHEADS - Interior bulkheads in berthing cabins, labs and common spaces are mostly paneled; some are painted steel. All bulkheads are permanent and cannot be removed or rearranged to configure spaces differently. Most lab bulkheads are equipped with unistrut channels on two-foot centers; these facilitate the securing of pieces of equipment. Individuals wishing to post information should do so on the bulletin boards provided in the mess deck and main lab. If something must be posted on a bulkhead, affix it in a manner that does not mar the surface and is easily removed.

BULWARKS - Gunwales (top of bulwarks) are all equipped with 1-inch holes located on 1-foot centers designed for securing cleats, padeyes, etc. Most of the bulwarks are provided with padeyes for attaching instruments, cleats, blocks or for securing equipment. Welding equipment to decks or bulwarks or lashing equipment to pipes, vents, or power cables is not permitted. On the main deck two openings are provided in the starboard bulwark for over-the-side deployments. At the hydro station is a 10' opening used routinely for casts and tows. A bolt-in 48" section of bulwark is located just aft of the propeller, starboard of the A-frame. Be sure to reattach the safety chains across the openings after each use. Lifesaving work vests are required at all times for anyone working on deck while these openings are in use.

CAPSTAN - A movable, electric capstan is normally carried on the fantail on the ship's centerline just aft of the break of the house. Fairleads are available so it can be used in conjunction with blocks rigged to the A-frame. The capstan is driven by a two-speed, reversible motor. It is rated at 5,000 pounds line pull and can haul in at 40 ft/min. A smaller hydraulic capstan can be placed on board when necessary. Users who require this piece of equipment should make their needs known prior to their cruise as the smaller capstan is not normally carried.

CHEMICALS - Many chemicals and solutions routinely used in the labs are legally defined as hazardous materials. Users who bring chemicals aboard are asked to notify the captain and resident technician concerning these materials; they will oversee and, if necessary, assist with the safe stowage of hazardous items. Anyone who brings chemicals on board should bring Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for the particular chemicals. In addition to other information, MSDS provide safety precautions and first-aid procedures for the specified substance and are required by federal law. The captain does maintain a large file of MSDS's; however, he may not have one for the particular substance you are bringing. Various pieces of equipment are provided on board to facilitate the safe use and stowage of chemicals including fume hoods and an explosion-proof reefer. Caution is urged when disposing of used chemicals. A significant portion of the piping throughout the ship is pvc, some drains lead to a holding tank while some lead directly over the side; check with the chief engineer before pouring strong solutions down sink drains. Impact-resistant plastic storage bottles are highly recommended when possible to prevent breakage and potentially dangerous spills.

COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT - See Section V

COMPRESSED AIR - Low pressure compressed air is available at all weather deck power stations, and in the main lab. (See Appendix "D" Deck Power Stations) All air stations are color-coded yellow for identification. The system's operating pressure is 100 psi. Total capacity is 26 cfm with priority going to main engine controls and air starting systems. This air is not clean or dried and is not suitable for diving usage.

COMPUTER - There is no general purpose computer on board. Portable PC/AT computers are available from Shipboard Computer Group, if requested. The SAIL Data Acquisition System and Doppler Acoustic Current Profiling System have dedicated PC/AT computers.

CRANES - The ship carries one permanently installed crane. Smaller "portable" cranes can be placed on board when necessary. If your operations will require these smaller cranes ensure your needs are known by Marine Facilities well in advance of your cruise. The stern A-frame can be removed to accommodate special-purpose cranes such as ROV towing cranes. Nautilus Model 3300-065 Crane This permanently installed, telescoping-boom crane is on the starboard side of the main deck. It has a maximum reach of 70' in port and 50' at sea. Its weight-handling capacity varies from 4,000 lbs SWL at a 3' radius to 1,500 lbs SWL at 50'. (See Appendix "C" Crane Swing Diagram) Husky Mariner Model M60 Crane This portable, articulated crane can be installed anywhere on the main or 01 decks where it can be connected to the central hydraulic system. (See Appendix "D" Deck Power Stations) Weight handling capacity varies from 2,000 lbs at 6' radius to 1000 lbs at 19'. Daybrook Model PL-6J Crane A number of portable articulated Daybrook Cranes are available and can be installed anywhere on the working decks. They are self-contained units and easy to use, but are aging and are soon to be phased out. Their weight-handling capacity varies from 2,000 lbs SWL at 3' to 1,000 lbs SWL at 14'.

DARK ROOM - See LOWER LAB.

DECK LOADS - The deck load limit is 500 pounds per square foot with a maximum overall scientific equipment payload of about 68 long tons. Included in this figure of 68 LTon are the A-frame and all the winches and cranes presently loaded. Any scientific loads which will approach either of these limits should be discussed with the marine superintendent. Plans can then be made to off load unnecessary winches and other gear.

DISTILLED WATER - Small quantities of distilled water (containing 1-10 ppm chlorides by in-house measure) are available directly from the ship's evaporator for scientific use. It is advisable, though, to provide your own lab water if you require guaranteed purity.

DOPPLER SPEED LOG - See Section V

DRAINS - Drains from the main lab sinks are directed either overboard or into the sewage holding tank. (See CHEMICALS) All other drains go to the holding tank. Deck drains go overboard. Drains from the galley can go either overboard or into the holding tank. If you need absolutely clean water around the ship, arrangements should be made with the chief engineer to secure overboard discharges.

DRY LAB - Main and upper labs are dry for electronic and computer work.

ECHO-SOUNDING SYSTEM - The scientific echo-sounder on New Horizon is based on a Knudsen Engineering, Ltd. model 320B/R sonar transceiver, featuring chirp technology, dual mode operation (10-14 kHz 'HF' and 2-7 kHz 'LF'), and digital signal processing. It has a 166 MHz Pentium computer running Windows 98 as "host", providing the user interface and primary display, while an optional hardcopy may be printed on the system's EPC Labs model 9802 Thermal Graphic Recorder. The system uses one of two hull-mounted EDO model 323B transducers for HF operation and a sixteen element array of Massa model TR-75J transducers for LF operation. In addition to hardcopy, data may be logged in any of three ways: as a user-defined ASCII string, as a grayscale in a proprietary binary format, or in SEG-Y format. The ASCII string may also be provided on a com port.

ELECTRICAL POWER - 440 volt, 3 phase AC power is provided to the main switchboard by two 200kw generator sets powered by GM 8V-71T 1800 rpm engines. During normal operations only one generator is on line, but both can be paralleled for unusual loads of short duration, for a total theoretical power output of 400kW. 110 volt, single phase service (from standard household type outlets) is available in three forms: Standard power for lighting and general purpose loads, including motors: These outlets are labeled regular power or may have an L-XXX designation such as L-101. Clean Power for scientific and other electronic equipment: Free from spikes, transients and surges, this service is provided via special isolation transformers. Please do not connect any "dirty" equipment, such as motors, which feed back through the system to other equipment. Clean Power is available from distribution panels CP-101, CP-102, and CP-104 and their designated outlets located in the main, ocean, and upper labs. Regulated Power for scientific and other electronic equipment: This "super clean" power is provided by a 16kw motor-generator set via distribution panels CP-103A and CP-103B, which are located in the main and upper labs. Outlets are painted blue and labeled "Regulated Power." This system can also be cross-connected with regular power when not in use, so it is advisable to check with the chief engineer before connecting sensitive equipment. Both the clean power and the regulated power systems are designed to provide protection against variations in voltage but cannot provide protection against variations in frequency. Though the ship's generators are equipped with electronic governors and other controls which maintain frequency over a wide load range, it is impossible to completely eliminate the small frequency variations caused by sudden load changes which are inherent in ship operation. Both 440-volt 3 phase and 110-volt standard single-phase services are available from various outlets on deck. (See Deck Power Stations in Appendix D) These are marine outlets and require special connections. These can be supplied by the chief engineer and must returned after use. There is also a 208 volt, 3-phase, 30-amp distribution panel located in the main lab. It has 20-amp circuits feeding outlets located in the upper, ocean, and wet labs and also on the port-side 01 deck at the van storage area. If you have additional electrical power requirements please make advance arrange-ments.

EXPLOSION-PROOF REFRIGERATOR - See SCIENTIFIC sample REFRIGERATORS

FLOODLIGHTS - Night lighting is provided to illuminate all working deck areas. Switches are next to the double doors in the ocean lab for fantail lights, and in the aft control room for the hydro station and 01 deck. Ask bridge before turning on any lights. This is to alert them that work is being conducted so a safety watch can be posted. Also, a sudden concentration of lights can impair night vision. Please remember to turn off the lights when finished and notify the bridge so they know you are safely inside.

FRESH WATER - The ship carries 8,736 gallons of fresh water and can produce up to 960 gal/day. This is a two-part system, the potable water and the wash-water systems. Potable water is supplied through filters to the galley, ice machine, and drinking fountains. The wash-water goes to all sinks, showers and deck connections and is not recommended for drinking. Conserve water at all times. It will be announced if the need to restrict water occurs. (see DISTILLED WATER)

FUME HOODS - There are two fume hoods, one in the main lab and one in the ocean lab. These are conventional laboratory hoods for use with hazardous chemicals. The ocean lab's hood is equipped with a sink. Both hoods draw in air from the lab and exhaust it via outlets on the port side of the 01 deck forward of the stack. If the exhaust from your chemicals or operations is particularly hazardous, it may become necessary to secure the area around the exhaust outlets on the 01 deck.

GASES - There is no built-in supply of laboratory gases. Bring your own cylinders, regulators, and hoses for gases. Stands are available to store a number of cylinders safely on deck. It is against the law to store any flammable, combustible or hazardous gases in labs. Secure all cylinders before sailing.

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM - All the ship's topside weight-handling equipment is hydraulically powered; this includes all winches, the crane, the A-frame and J-frame and the anchor windlass. All of these pieces of equipment are on the same hydraulic loop. Caution must be exercised in that, if too many pieces of equipment are operated simultaneously, system pressure will be reduced, thus affecting the speed and capability of the gear. Primary power for the system is provided by a 60-hp pump; this pump is more than adequate for the great majority of operations the ship under-takes. A 100-hp pump is available, however, it is generally reserved for special applications and operations of short duration. In most cases a crew member or resident rechnician will operate any hydraulically driven equipment as the need arises. If, on occasion, another scientific member requires use of the system, it is requested that the following procedures be observed: notify the bridge when the system will be used and what piece of equipment is to be operated. Energize the system only when you are ready to begin operating the equipment. when you're finished operating the equipment, secure the pump and notify the bridge. it is important to avoid running the hydraulic pump when equipment is not actually being operated in order to minimize wear on the system. when using hydraulic controllers it is important to make all changes smoothly and gradually to avoid shock-loading the system.

HYDRO-BOOM - An inverted J-frame style hydro-boom is available for over-the-side operations. It is located amidships outboard of the hydro-station. It was originally designed for piston cores but has been updated for other applications with a SWL of 10,000 lbs. Vertical height to the padeyes is 17'6", outboard reach 7'6", inboard reach, 5'0. Power is provided by the central hydraulic system, and controlled by the winch driver. It is routinely rigged with one 18", counter-balanced towing sheave designed for use with .25" mechanical, .225" electro-mechanical, and .322" electromechanical wires; and a second standard 18" .322" CTD block. Other blocks are available. (see Appendix "F" J-frame Clearance Diagram)

HYDRO-BUCKET - A swinging hydro-bucket is located on the starboard side below the hydro-boom for working equipment on the Hydro or CTD wires. Use caution when using this over-the-side platform. Securely lock it in position before use and make sure all personnel have work vests. When in the bucket stand out of the line of sight of the winch driver and assist view with hand signals when instruments are near the surface. Keep in mind that winches will not stop instantaneously.

ICE - There is up to 670 lbs of crushed ice per day available from the ice machine located in the mess deck. This ice is available for scientific purposes. If large quantities are needed check with the cooks for storage arrangements. This ice is used for human consumption, so please do not introduce any foreign object. Use the scoops provided; not drinking cups or hands.

INSTRUMENT WELL - Access to the instrument well is on the 01 level starboard of the center-line and just forward of the hydro winch. It has a 41-inch internal diameter and extends vertically down through the bottom of the hull. The distance from the 01 deck to the skin of the ship is 23 feet, 5 inches. The well is available for most any purpose a user might dream up. Many users deploy transducers and hydrophones from this well. There are padeyes near the top of the well for suspending gear and an access for passing wires directly to the main lab.

J-FRAME - see HYDRO-BOOM

LABORATORIES - See Section III.

LAUNDRY FACILITIES - See Section III.

MAIN ENGINES - New Horizon is powered by two 850-hp Caterpillar Marine Diesel Engines model D-398. These engines are considered clean and quiet-running. A small amount of soot can be expected on the fantail when first getting underway after a prolonged idle time. Make sure you cover up any sensitive gear before getting underway. It is standard practice to save fuel by shutting engines down when not needed for two or more hours. Notify bridge 30 minutes in advance to allow them to prepare a cold engine for use.

MAST - The main mast is located on the 02 deck, aft of the bridge. It contains all of the antennas for satellite, GPS, Loran-C, and radio direction-finding navigation. In addition it has a limited amount of space available for other antennas or sensors. The tops of the after control room and pilot house are also available for mounting antennas. Check with the captain as indicated in ANTENNAS above.

NAVIGATION SYSTEMS - See Section V

POWER STATIONS - At various exterior locations on the main and 01 decks there are power stations. Every station has most of the following items available: 110 vac, 1 phase, 50 amps (Not clean power.) 440 vac, 3 phase, 50 amps (Not clean power.) Salt Water, 3/4" male hose connector, color-coded green. Fresh Water, 3/4" male hose connector, color-coded blue. Low-pressure compressed air, most equipped with 3/8" quick-disconnect fittings, color-coded yellow. "B" System hydraulic lines, supply is 1 1/2", return is 2" and drain 1 1/2". Constant pressure on this system requires an open-center control. The electrical power stations are equipped with waterproof covers; ensure that they are in place when the outlets are not in use. Some outlets require special connectors or plugs. A ship's engineer or shop electrician will wire all connectors and make hook-ups to ship's power. Any special connectors or plugs provided by the ship must be returned at the end of your cruise. Hook-ups to the hydraulic loop will be made by a ship's engineer or a shop mechanic. Precautions must be taken to preclude the introduction of contaminants into the system and to ensure that user-supplied hydraulic gear is compatible. Never use power stations as tie-down points for other gear.

PROPULSION - The ship is propelled by twin Heimdal controllable-pitch propellors. Thrust is infinitely variable from zero to top speed both ahead and astern. The variable-pitch propellors coupled with two large rudders provide the ship with a high degree of maneuverability. During normal underway operations the propellors are clutched in and turning continuously at at least 200 rpm, even though the ship may be stopped on station with no pitch on the propellor blades. All embarked personnel are urged to locate the red zones on the main deck gunwales aft labeled "DANGER PROPELLORS." At all times avoid deploying lines and equipment over the side in the vicinity of these red zones. In order to avoid fouling equipment with the propellors, always notify the mate on watch before putting anything over the side.

RADARS - See Section V.

RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS - See Section VIII.

RADIO/TV - New Horizon is equipped with a ship-wide distribution system for the reception of SW/AM/FM & TV signals. Outlets are provided in staterooms; although improvements are being made, not all are operational. Public TV's are available for viewing in the mess deck and library. To connect to the system you need 300 ohm wire for AM/SW and 75 ohm coax for FM and TV.

SAIL DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM - The SAIL (Serial ASCII Instrumentation Loop) is a datalogging system used to record ship's navigational parameters and meteorological variables. The system is PC-based and data are collected at a user-specified rate and can be written to 5-1/4 inch floppy disks. The system is in the upper lab. The standard configuration is to log: date, time, doppler speed log, gyro compass, Trimble 10X gps/loran receiver message, wind speed and wind direction. Special arrangements can be made with the Shipboard Computer Group so the system can also log data from a pyrgeometer (Infrared Radiometer) and from a Black and White pyranometer (Short wave radiation). Other type of data can be easily interfaced, and several different types of SAIL modules are installed in the system for use by the current scientific party. Contact the Shipboard Computer Group (619) 534-6054 for more information.

SALT WATER SYSTEMS - The vessel is equipped with two sources of seawater. Regular seawater from the ship's supply is available at numerous outlets, color-coded green, on the main and 01 decks. (See Appendix "D") The switch to the saltwater pump is located inside the door to the engine room just off the fantail. Please secure it when not in use. Uncontaminated saltwater, about 10 gpm, is available to sinks in the main, ocean, wet and lower labs. The intake sea-chest is made of stainless steel and is located in the bow 9 feet below the water line. The main sea valve is bronze with primarily pvc piping. The pump is non-metallic and is located in the bow-thruster room. It can be started and stopped by a switch in the ocean lab. Check with the chief engineer when requiring this system. Please shut it off when not in use.

SAMPLE STORAGE FACILITIES - For cold storage of scientific samples the following refrigerators or freezers are standard equipment.

SCIENTIFIC WALK-IN FREEZER - See Section III.

SCIENTIFIC sample REFRIGERATOR - The main lab is equipped with a 24 cu ft Kelvinator explosion-proof refrigerator for the storage of small quantities of flammable chemicals, marine specimens or samples. A variety of other small portable refrigerators are available, contact the Resident Technician Group for information.

SMALL CHEST FREEZERS - The main lab is also permanently equipped with an 18 cu ft chest freezer located next to the explosion-proof refrigerator. Other small chest freezers can be provided by the Resident Technician Group upon request.

SCIENTIFIC WIRE WAYS - These special wire ways are used to facilitate passage of scientific cables between labs and working decks. The ship is equipped with a wide network of these wireways. (See Appendix "G") This system is set up to prevent the stringing of cables through watertight doors, which is unsafe and not permitted. Please remove all installed wires when you leave.

SEARCH LIGHTS - Two high-power search lights are located on top of the bridge to facilitate night-time instrument recoveries. It is recommended, however, that all recoveries be planned for daylight hours.

STERN RAMP - Located under the A-frame is a 12' wide X 7' long X 3' deep sloped stern ramp. It extends from the main deck to the water's edge. It is useful for launching and recovering instruments as well as large trawl nets. A solid deck insert, flush with the main deck, is normally carried over the stern ramp. It is bolted in place and cannot be removed at sea. If your operations require use of the stern ramp, the solid deck insert must be removed by crane before the ship leaves the dock.

TIE-DOWN ARRANGEMENTS - A number of features are built into the ship to facilitate the securing of equipment. The main and 01 decks are equipped with a grid of 1", no.8 nc threaded sockets on two-foot centers. A few subareas are on one-foot centers. A collection of hardware is carried for use with these sockets including bolts, centering pins, eyebolts, padeyes, fairleads and cleats. The bulwarks and bulkheads surrounding the fantail are equipped with permanently attached cleats and padeyes. The caprail on the bulwarks has 1" holes drilled on one-foot centers over its entirety. Cleats, padeyes, shackles, etc. can be attached to the caprail. The main and ocean labs are equipped with 1/2-inch deck sockets on two foot centers. The upper lab has 3/8-inch sockets also on two foot centers. As with the exterior decks, a variety of hardware is available for use in conjunction with the sockets. The bulkheads and over-heads of all labs are outfitted with Unistrut rails on two-foot centers. Adjustable padeyes and bolts are provided for use with the Unistrut rails. All these tie-down and fastening systems are quite versatile and most all scientific gear can be secured using one or a combination of these systems. In general, welding equipment to the decks and bulkheads is not permitted. Permission to do so must be obtained from the Marine Superintendent.

TOOLS AND SUPPLIES - The ship carries tools, supplies and expendable items for normal operations and anticipated consumption. The crew manages tools and supplies used in the maintenance and operation of the ship. The Resident Technicians manage tools and supplies commonly utilized by the scientific party. While the ship can provide shackles, wire, line, paper and other items in time of need, it should not be viewed as a floating hardware store. Ship users are requested to prepare well and supply their own hardware and special tools in sufficient quantity for their cruise.

WATERTIGHT DOORS (WTD's) - A number of hinged watertight doors are installed on the main deck. Two sliding, hydraulically operated WTD's are installed on the A-deck. These doors prevent the ingress of water and/or the spread of flooding and fire. The hinged doors are very heavy and awkward and care must be exercised when passing through any hatch equipped with one of them. Always ensure that the door is securely closed and dogged behind you or that it is securely hooked open with the latch. An unsecured WTD in a seaway is extremely dangerous.

WELDING - New Horizon carries equipment for both gas and arc welding. Due to the special hazards associated with welding, any welding at sea must be approved by the captain and will be performed by a ship's engineer. When in port in San Diego, welding will normally be performed by a MarFac welder.

WINCHES - The ship is normally outfitted with three winches; Hydro, CTD and Coring/Trawl winch. Any of these may be removed to increase carrying capacity for scientific gear. This is costly and time-consuming; if this is necessary for your cruise, ensure that MarFac is informed well in advance of your cruise. All winches are powered hydraulically and are on the same hydraulic loop as other deck and weight-lifting gear. For most operations the loop is powered by a 60-hp pump. All winches are controlled from the aft control room by a member of the deck department. A remote winch controller can be deployed to the main lab for ROV operations. Digital readouts for line out, tension and wire speed are located in aft control and the main and upper labs. Analog readouts for tension are installed in aft control and the main lab. Below is a listing of each winch's standard operating configuration and capabilities.

  • HYDRO WINCH - The hydro winch is a Markey model DUSH-4, which is normally equipped with approximately 8,000 meters of 1/4 inch 3X19 hydrographic wire. A spare drum of 0.225-inch electromechanical wire is available; however, it is not carried on board. The desired wire/drum must be in place on the winch when the ship leaves port. The winch has a high and a low gear and is normally operated in low gear; this yields maximum wire speeds of about 60 meters/min when operating on the 60-hp pump. The safe working load of the hydro wire is 3,000 pounds. 
  • CTD WINCH - The CTD winch is a Markey model DUSH-6, which is equipped with approximately 9,500 meters of 0.322-inch, three-conductor electromechanical wire. The winch has a high and a low gear and is normally operated in high gear; this yields maximum wire speeds of about 60 meters/min when operating on the 60-hp pump. With the 100-hp pump on line, wire speeds in excess of 100 meters/min are theoretically possible. Maximum wire/winch speeds will be governed by the sink rate of the instrument attached to the end of the wire. Experience has shown that for the average CTD rosette, maximum speed on paying out is about 55 meters/min. If it is necessary to haul in at speeds higher than 55 meters/min, it is strongly recommended that users provide a swivel termination with slip rings between the wire and the instrument to avoid excessive wear and damage to the CTD wire. Here again, experience has shown that hauling in at high speeds without a swivel damages the wire by causing it to unlay and/or develop kinks. The safe working load of the CTD wire is 7,700 pounds. 
  • CORING/TRAWL WINCH - The trawl winch is a Western Gear model DSWH 150E, which is normally equipped with approximately 9,500 meters of 9/16-inch 3X19 trawl wire. A spare drum of 0.680-inch, single-conductor electromechanical wire is available; however, it is not carried on board. The desired wire/drum must be in place on the winch when the ship leaves port. On the 60-hp pump, the winch is capable of wire speeds of 100 meters/min; however, most users prefer to operate in the range of 50 to 60 meters/min or less. Here again, maximum wire speeds will be governed by the sink rate of the scientific package. The safe working load of the 1/2-inch trawl wire is 19,000 pounds; however, the maximum dynamic line-pull capability of the winch is only 8,000 pounds.

WORK OR EMERGENCY BOATS - New Horizon is equipped with or has available an assortment of workboats and outboard motors, some of which are detailed below. Contact the Res Tech Group for availability.

  • 17' BOSTON WHALER This large workboat, equipped with a 50-hp Johnson outboard, is set up primarily as a launch for transferring personnel or supplies to shore or another vessel.
  • 14' ZODIAC Two inflatables are available and can be equipped with a 25- or 9.9-hp Johnson outboard. One Zodiac is routinely carried aboard.
  • 13' BOSTON WHALER This workboat is powered by a 25-hp Johnson outboard and is carried when required and/or when deck space allows.

All boats operated from New Horizon are provided with VHF radios in order to stay in contact with the ship. All personnel embarked in small boats must wear personal flotation devices at all times.

Wed, 16 Mar 2022 09:48:00 -0500 en text/html https://scripps.ucsd.edu/ships/new-horizon/handbook/section-4-scientific-equipment
Killexams : DELTA STATE AND SDG EIGHT

 Ugwumadu Nnanta writes that Delta is creating decent work and economic growth

Oghenekaro Igoh is an exemplar of entrepreneurship and job creation. A beneficiary of the Delta State enterprise development training programme, she shared her story in 2020.

“I had thought I would go into the traditional roadside tailoring, but after the training at Songhai Delta, my mind opened to other possibilities beyond conventional fashion designing. I began to think of starting a fashion institute. After establishing with starter pack, I got a shop at City Complex and started school. The shop became too small in less than one year, and I saw the reason to expand. Therefore, I rented this three-bedroom for N350, 000 annually.

I do lots of adverts online. I currently have two billboards: each of them costs N80, 000 monthly. My students come from within and outside Delta State, and I realise my funding through training fees. I have 30 students while six people have graduated. I run morning and afternoon sessions. I make clothes quite all right, but my niche is training for both males and females interested in fashion.”.

Nigeria is a paradox in several areas, including the critical role of youths. A accurate survey shows that youths lead in entrepreneurship in the country and have the drive and energy to reduce the growing unemployment challenge. Delta State is one of a few states that understand the critical role of government as an enabler in unleashing youth’s potential in entrepreneurship.

Rukevwe German holds an HND in Electrical Electronics Engineering, and like any young man, his dream was to work in an oil servicing company. He carried his certificate from one oil company to the other, submitting his CV and attending endless interviews that yielded no results. Five years after graduation, fortune came his way when he enrolled in the state government’s job creation programme. The Job Creation Office established him with an HP laptop, a printer, a generator, a workstation and N50,000 cash as rent subsidy for his shop. Barely two years after establishment, Rukevwe has made astonishing progress and diversified into other businesses to have multiple income streams.

As the CEO of Big GG Communication in Warri, he is an Electrical Engineer, Information and Communication Technologist, laptop/mobile phone technician, accessories merchant, instructor, trainer and a point of sales (POS) agent to Zenith Bank. ” I am because of the training I received from job creation STEP. Next month I am getting married. I now have a rented apartment; I no longer live with my parents. I have trained three persons; one was for free. I am a graphic designer; I repair laptops and mobile phones, have two POS centres, sell accessories and am an instructor at Complete Computer Technology. The patronage is good. My vision is to own a computer training institute.”

The Delta State scheme directly addresses the UN Sustainable Development Goals Number 8, which seeks to create “decent work and economic growth”.

Rukevwe further testifies. “The job creation programme is one of the best things that happened to me. The programme is very credible. I saw it online. I applied and got it without knowing anyone. I pray it continues and those other governors after Senator Okowa will continue with the vision. I see it as a generational vision,” he stated.

Nigerian Bureau of Statistics data shows that MSMEs (Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises) account for 49.8 per cent of Nigerian GDP. The small businesses keep the economy buzzing despite the challenges of oil and gas and our inability to manage the fundamental economic rates of interest, exchange, and inflation. “Entrepreneurs are the bedrock of the Nigerian economy”, Entrepreneurship in Nigeria Report 2021 states.

What do these MSMEs do? The research shows that Nigeria’s small businesses play mainly in retail, fashion, and FMCG. They are in agriculture, fishing and forestry, hospitality, and hotel businesses.

A significant concern of planners everywhere is the Malthusian population bulge and its consequences for economies and nations. Technology and changes in production practices averted the Malthusian nightmare. Entrepreneurship holds promise for countries such as Nigeria, with an overwhelmingly huge youth population and the backdrop of poor economies.

Delta State found a way of keeping youth engaged and active in positive endeavours. Prof Eric Eboh is the Chief Job Creation Officer running programmes in the local governments that bring hope, skills and smiles to young Deltans. The focused human capital development programme Delta State embarked upon in the Ifeanyi Okowa years enabled it to advance technical and vocational education in line with a policy emphasis on skills acquisition. A strategic thrust involved increasing access.

Delta State rehabilitated six technical colleges and is building 10 new ones. The Delta State Government upgraded three institutions to universities in tertiary education in 2021. They are the University of Delta (former College of Education), Agbor, the Delta State University of Science and University (former Delta State Polytechnic), Ozoro, and Dennis Osadebey University (former campus of Delta State University), Anwai, Asaba.

Okowa’s Delta State certainly understands Nigeria’s nexus of entrepreneurship, youth, and capacity development. He who is faithful in small things would undoubtedly deliver on bigger things.

Nnanta writes from Asaba

Wed, 03 Aug 2022 11:59:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2022/07/15/delta-state-and-sdg-eight/
Killexams : Meeting SDG 8 of decent work and economic growth in Delta

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Fri, 15 Jul 2022 18:38:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.vanguardngr.com/2022/07/meeting-sdg-8-of-decent-work-and-economic-growth-in-delta/
Killexams : History Of White LEDs

Compared to incandescent lightbulbs, LEDs produce a lot more lumens per watt of input power — they’re more efficient at producing light.  Of course, that means that incandescent light bulbs are more efficient at producing heat, and as the days get shorter, and the nights get colder, somewhere, someone who took the leap to LED lighting has a furnace that’s working overtime. And that someone might also wonder how we got here: a world lit by esoteric inorganic semiconductors illuminating phosphors.

The fact that diodes emit light under certain conditions has been known for over 100 years; the first light-emitting diode was discovered at Marconi Labs in 1907 in a cat’s whisker detector, the first kind of diode. This discovery was simply a scientific curiosity until another discovery at Texas Instruments revealed infrared light emissions from a tunnel diode constructed from a gallium arsenide substrate. This infrared LED was then patented by TI, and a project began to manufacture these infrared light emitting diodes.

But infrared light is invisible to the human eye, and not useful for any sort of indication or lighting. The first visible-spectrum LED was built at General Electric in 1962, with the first commercially available (red) LEDs produced by the Monsanto Company in 1968. HP began production of LEDs that year, using the same gallium arsenide phosphate used by Monsanto. These HP LEDs found their way into very tiny seven-segment LED displays used in HP calculators of the 1970s.

From the infrared LEDs of the early 1960s to the red LEDs of the late 1960s, the 1970s saw orange-red, orange, yellow, and finally green LEDs. There’s a trend to these developments, and it has to do with electron gaps. For a diode to generate light, you must first put energy into an electron. This energy makes the electron jump from its natural state in a valence band to a conduction band. This energy isn’t enough to keep the electron in the conduction band, so it will eventually fall back into the hole it left in the valence band. In doing so, it releases energy back again in the form of a photon.

The more energy it took to move the electron into a conduction band, the more energy that is released as a photon, in the form of higher frequency light. The reason that infrared LEDs came before red LEDs, and green LEDs came after that is that it’s simply harder to climb these bandgaps and find an LED substrate that will emit higher frequencies of light.

Infrared, red, and even green LEDs were “easy”, but blue LEDs require a much larger bandgap, and therefore required more exotic materials. The puzzle behind making a high-brightness blue LED was first cracked in 1994 at the Nichia Corporation using indium gallium nitride. At the same time, Isamu Akasaki and Hiroshi Amano at Nagoya University developed a gallium nitride substrate for LEDs, for which they won the 2014 Nobel Prize in Physics. With red, green, and blue LEDs, the only thing stopping anyone from building a white LED was putting all these colors in the same package.

Red, Green, but mostly Blue LEDs

An RGB LED. By mixing the red, green, and blue colors, this LED can emit white light

The first white LEDs weren’t explicitly white LEDs. Instead, red, green, and blue LEDs were packed into a single LED enclosure. However, if you mix red, green, and blue light, you will get white light, it’s really just a matter of getting the correct proportions of different colored photons.

This remains the standard for RGB LEDs, and some have even experimented with improving the range of color these LEDs can produce. The human eye is extremely sensitive to green frequencies of light, and by adding a fourth LED to a package — it’s best called ’emerald’, or a slightly bluer shade of green than what we’re used to in green LEDs — you can make an LED with a wider color range, or if you prefer, a whiter white.

This was the first method of developing a white LED, and while the LED light bulbs you pick up at the hardware store don’t have individual red, green, and blue LEDs inside, it is still a fantastically popular way of creating more colors with LEDs. Those neopixels, WS2812s, or APA101s, all have red, green, and blue LEDs tucked inside one enclosure. Some of the more advanced individually addressable RGB LEDs even add a fourth LED, for white. But how are those individual white LEDs made?

Full conversion white LED

The first white LEDs, made without three individual LEDs, were made with the magic of phosphors. Phosphors are a well-understood science, most commonly found in lighting applications in fluorescent bulbs. Fluorescent bulbs don’t produce white light on their own, they produce ultraviolet light by exciting mercury vapor. However, by coating the inside of a fluorescent bulb with a powder, this ultraviolet light can be converted into red, green, and blue light. The result is a fluorescent bulb that lights your garage or workshop.

This can be done with LEDs as well. With an ultraviolet or violet LED packaged inside a phosphor-coated enclosure, you can make a white LED. This is known as a full-conversion white LED.

Image by [deglr6328], via Wikipedia
Full conversion LEDs are inefficient, though, so by the mid-90s the race was on to create a partial conversion LED. This type of LED would illuminate a phosphor with blue light, and the phosphor would convert a portion of that blue light into something broadly yellowish that contains a mixture of red and green wavelengths. Adding more red phosphors to the mix creates “warm white” LEDs.

In 1996, the Nichia Company announced the production of white LEDs, and the rest is history. For the past twenty years, the power, efficiency, and brightness of these LEDs has increased. Now, or in the very near future, the default for home lighting won’t be incandescent bulbs, but powerful LEDs consuming a mere fraction of the energy an old Edison bulb would, shifting more of the task of keeping your house warm onto the heater.

Mon, 01 Aug 2022 12:00:00 -0500 Brian Benchoff en-US text/html https://hackaday.com/2018/10/29/history-of-white-leds/
Killexams : What to expect on BLUETTI Prime Day 2022

If you still wonder “When is Amazon Prime Day going to happen in 2022?” Now you can mark the calendar for July 12 and July 13 and look forward to steep price cuts from national brands and small businesses across every category.

BLUETTI also confirms its annual shopping event – BLUETTI Prime Day date on July 12-13. To help you narrow things down, they’ve collected the best deals on our official website: www.bluettipower.com, from solar power stations, solar panels to various accessories worth your money. 

Do I have to be an Amazon Prime Member to take advantage of BLUETTI Prime Day deals?

The short answer: nope. But if you’d like to grab the Prime Day sales only on Amazon, you’ll need to be an Amazon Prime Member.

The Best Prime Day Deals From BLUETTI

AC200P – The Most Popular 2kWh Solar Generator Now At The Lowest Price Ever – $1,499 ($1,599)

Packed with a 2000W AC pure sine wave inverter, an enormous 2000Wh capacity, and utilizing the most durable, safest LiFePO4 battery chemistry, the BLUETTI AC200P is undoubtedly the most cost-effective solar generator with its price dropping to a record low – $1499. 

It can power all your needs from a household fridge to an 8,000 BTU portable air conditioner without breaking a sweat. Recharging by solar at a blistering speed up to 700W. You can juice up AC200P from zero to full in less than 4 hours with free, clean solar power alone!   

AC200MAX – All-round Upgraded Power Beast – $1,799 ($1,899) Best Price In 180 days

With two expansion battery ports, the AC200MAX welcomes up to two BLUETTI B230 (2048Wh each) or B300 (3072Wh each) battery modules, allowing you to build on your system up to 8,192Wh!

The AC200MAX allows up to 900W solar input and 400W via the AC wall charger, giving you a stunning 1300W total charging input to recharge it in less than 2 hours. 

Plus, the AC200MAX comes with a built-in 30A (RV Plug) – NEMA TT-30 rated outlet and a 12V 30A super powerful DC outlet, specifically designed for RV, Van, and boat enthusiasts who’re looking to plug their rig directly into AC200MAX. 

BLUETTI AC300 & B300 – Power Anything Imaginable – $3,399 ($3,698) Best Price In 180 days

Unlike any BLUETTI solar generator products, the AC300 has no built-in battery, bringing it unprecedented mobility and uniqueness. Every AC300 can accept up to 4 B300 (3,072Wh each) battery modules, adding up to a groundbreaking 12,288Wh capacity – Covering your whole family’s basic needs for DAYS during emergencies or power outages!

Time to plug into full-time solar life! BLUETTI AC300 is now capable of receiving 2,400W of unrivaled solar charging input. The advanced MPPT controller lets you juice up a B300 (3,072Wh) battery module as soon as 1.5hrs only with sunshine!

Waiting for recharging is never a pleasure. With a wall outlet and solar panels plugged in, the AC300 can support up to 5400W horrendous total input rate. Plug the system in before you pack up for the camping, and your power will be ready when you are. 

Not content with 3,000W and 12.3kWh? Here comes the Fusion Box Pro. Use it to connect two units of AC300 in series with 8×B300s (four for each AC300), boosting up to 240V, 6,000W, and a total of 24,576Wh–Good luck running out of power. 

Soon after the BLUETTI Prime Day, BLUETTI Grand Summer Sale will continue to go through July 31. While the giant sale of the AC300+B300 combo is only available on July 12-13 with only 100 sets, then the price will go up to $3499. Wait no further to place the order before it’s too late. 

Other units highly recommended on BLUETTI Prime Day 2022

About BLUETTI

With over 10 years of industry experience, BLUETTI has tried to stay true to a sustainable future through green energy storage solutions for both indoor and outdoor use while delivering an exceptional eco-friendly experience for everyone and the world. BLUETTI is making its presence in 70+ countries and is trusted by millions of customers across the globe. For more information, please visit BLUETTI online at www.bluettipower.com

EDITOR NOTE: This is a promoted post and should not be considered an editorial endorsement

Note: Select outbound links may include affiliate tracking codes and AndroidGuys may receive compensation for purchases. Read our policy. As an Amazon Associate we earn from qualifying purchases.
Mon, 11 Jul 2022 03:13:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.androidguys.com/promoted-news/what-to-expect-on-bluetti-prime-day-2022/
Killexams : Houseboat of the future is a $5.5 million floating mansion

MIAMI — Why let the rising sea sink your Miami lifestyle when you can go with the flow aboard the Arkup houseboat?

Arkup features the ingenious engineering feature of four hydraulic pilings that stabilize the vessel on the sea bottom or allow it to lift like a house on stilts above floodwaters, king tides and hurricane-whipped storm surges.

South Florida sea levels are projected to rise 6 to 12 inches by 2030, 14 inches to nearly three feet by 2060, and 31 inches to nearly seven feet by 2100, according to the Southeast Florida Climate Change Regional Compact Sea Level Rise Work Group. Miami Beach and the Keys may be inundated first, but the entire region is recognized as one of the most vulnerable on the planet.

In this brave new waterworld, Arkup wants to keep you high and dry on your floating home.

Noah, who constructed his ark to withstand 40 days and 40 nights of apocalyptic rain and Biblical flooding, would approve. He probably could not afford the modern version, which has a sticker price of $5.5 million, but he would like the comfort, spacious bathrooms and retractable swimming platform.

Arkup, solar-powered and equipped with a rainwater-collecting-and-purifying system, is a self-sustaining home, a green adaptation for our blue future.

"It’s more like a house than a boat, but you never lose the unmistakable feeling that you’re on the water," said Nicolas Derouin, managing director of Arkup.

Arkup was designed and built in Miami by Derouin and Arnaud Luguet, two French engineers who live here and have a passion for the oceans and environmental preservation.

They have witnessed the impact of climate change and sea level rise in their adopted hometown and around the world. On Monday, Indonesia announced it will move its capital out of Jakarta, a swampy, flood-prone and drowning metropolis of 30 million people.

"It is happening before our eyes," Derouin said. "Coastal areas are the most desirable but also the most at risk. Miami is implementing resiliency measures. We hope Arkup can be a small part of the solution."

Derouin and Luguet were inspired by the Dutch floating communities of IJburg and Schoonschip.

"In the Netherlands, one third of the country is below sea level," Derouin said. "They want to develop housing alternatives. Instead of fighting the water, live on it."

Lake Union in Seattle has 500 permanently docked houseboats. Paris has restaurants, a hotel and is building a 2024 Olympic venue on the River Seine. Dubai has floating vacation homes. In San Francisco, where Sausalito has a houseboat community, the Danish firm BIG has proposed building an archipelago of floating villages connected by ferries on the bay. The Lincoln Harbor Yacht Club in Weehawken, N.J., which was devastated by Superstorm Sandy, may reinvent its marina as a houseboat haven.

"We decided to design a boat that looks and feels like Miami, is compatible with a subtropical climate and gives the owner the freedom and flexibility to move," Derouin said.

Their ultimate goal is to create an affordable model, develop floating neighborhoods and partner with island hotels to build eco-bungalows on surrounding waters.

"We want to design small apartments on the water for students, townhouses for families," Derouin said. "We want to create housing solutions for a broader audience. That’s the vision behind Arkup."

Derouin and Luguet collaborated with Dutch firm Waterstudio and pioneering aqua-tect Koen Olthuis, who has designed a floating mosque, floating prison, floating spa and floating resort and helped conceptualize a proposed development of 29 private islands with lavish sustainable homes — a villa flotilla — on Maule Lake in North Miami Beach.

"He is an advocate of urban planning on the water," Derouin said.

Fom the outside, Arkup looks like a glass box. On board, it doesn’t look or feel like a boat. No rocking, for one thing. It has two air-conditioned levels, with 9-foot ceilings on the first floor and 8-foot ceilings on the second. There are three bedrooms upstairs with three full and roomy bathrooms — no cramped and tilting heads on this boat — and two balconies.

Downstairs, there’s an inviting living room, kitchen, dining area, two bathrooms and a small room with a Murphy bed that could be an office or guest quarters. Interior design is by Brazilian company Artefacto. A sliding outdoor deck adds 500 square feet of floor space when fully extended.

At the stern, the swim platform can be lowered into the water to create a mini pool. There’s a boat lift for your kayak or amphibious vehicle.

The bow deck has an outdoor kitchen and console controls for navigation and operating the 136-hp rotating electric thrusters, which emit no noise and require no diesel fuel, and the anchoring system, which allows adjustments of each piling to level the boat.

Arkup has a maximum speed of 7 knots and a range of 20 nautical miles that can be increased with additional battery banks or a backup generator.

"We can’t match the navigational capacity and speed of a yacht," Derouin said. "You couldn’t cruise around the world, but you could use Arkup in the Bahamas or British Virgin Islands, for example.

"Our vessel is 75 feet long and 32 feet wide and we have the same livable space as a yacht that is 110 feet long. Arkup is for people who prioritize space and comfort over speed and range."

Arkup’s steel hull and superstructure is built to withstand Category 4 hurricane winds (up to 156 mph). The 40-foot long pilings, or spuds, enable the boat to anchor in up to 25 feet of water and elevate above the waves. The draft is five feet. It’s got a 4,000-gallon freshwater tank and an equal-sized tank for waste water. The 2,400-square-foot roof is covered with 36-kilowatt capacity solar panels that recharge the battery.

"A motor yacht is the opposite of sustainable," Derouin said, pointing to a gigantic yacht parked behind Arkup and to passing motorboats that pause while curious passengers take a look at Arkup. "Large engines. Massive fuel consumption. Pollution. On Arkup you can live completely off the grid with no bills for energy or water. It is zero emission, carbon neutral. In this house, you don’t need to rebuild your seawalls or move your air conditioner to higher ground. Compared to the costs of a waterfront home, Arkup is competitive."

Plus it’s got panoramic views of the downtown skyline and dolphins swimming by the side deck.

So far, the partners have one buyer and a waiting list of potential buyers who want to take the boat for a test drive.

"We’ve had an amazing response," Derouin said. "Our clientele includes owners of private Caribbean islands who think Arkup is better than building a beach house. Or people who live full or part time in Miami and want a toy for the weekends, to take friends out on the bay. We have people who live elsewhere and Arkup would be their second or vacation home. And people who see it as their primary home, docked at a marina. It’s a luxury product for a niche market but our dream is to develop affordable versions with the same principles."

Miamians who don’t want to flee could take to the sea. As oceans swell and coastlines shrink, trade house for houseboat.

"We need more entrepreneurs and scientists developing innovative ideas because climate change is not slowing down," Derouin said. "Here’s one new way to live in harmony with the water."

Fri, 29 Jul 2022 23:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.postbulletin.com/business/houseboat-of-the-future-is-a-5-5-million-floating-mansion
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