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HP Automation tricks
Killexams : HP Automation tricks - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/HP0-M40 Search results Killexams : HP Automation tricks - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/HP0-M40 https://killexams.com/exam_list/HP Killexams : Adding An Optical Mouse Sensor To An Autonomous Vehicle

[Tim] is getting his drone ready for SparkFun’s 2013 Autonomous Vehicle Competition on June 8th. He has a pretty good start, but was having some problems accurately measuring travel distance. The technique he chose for the task was to glue magnets onto the axles of the vehicle and monitor them with a hall effect sensor. Those sensors are finicky and a few problems during testing prompted him to look at a redundant system. Right now he’s experimenting with adding an optical mouse sensor to the autonomous vehicle.

Recently we saw the same concept used, but it was meant for tracking movement of a full-sized automobile. If it can work in that application it should be perfect here since the vehicle is much closer to the ground and will be used in ideal conditions (flat pavement with clear weather). [Tim] cracked open an old HP mouse he had lying around. Inside he found an Avago ADNS-5020 sensor. After grabbing the datasheet he discovered that it’s simply an I2C device. Above you can see the Arduino Leonardo he used for the first tests.

[Tim] coded functions to monitor the chip, including some interesting ones like measuring how in-focus the surface below the sensor is. This brings up a question, is there limit on how fast the vehicle can travel before the sensor fails to report back accurately?

Sat, 02 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 Mike Szczys en-US text/html https://hackaday.com/2013/04/03/adding-an-optical-mouse-sensor-to-an-autonomous-vehicle/
Killexams : 5 C++ Tricks for C Programmers

Over the past several years, C++ has become a more popular language to use in embedded systems than C. Don’t get me wrong, C will continue to be a dominate language for years to come, but C++ offers developers modern tools to leverage when designing more reusable, scalable, and portable code. Teams aren’t just abandoning C, but instead, when starting new product development are instead adopting C++. The language has been evolving with the times and offers many improvements over C. In this post, let’s examine five simple C++ tricks that C programmers will immediately appreciate.

Trick #1 – Conditional Compilation Using Constexpr

The bane of many embedded code bases written in C is the large numbers of #if / #elif / #else preprocessor directives. The preprocessor directives are often used to conditionally compile code in and out of the image. For example, if we have three different versions of hardware, we’ll often create a macro that is used and then checked based on the build configuration to determine pin assignments and so forth. The problem with conditional compilations using the preprocessor is that the code gets messy and sometimes quite difficult to follow.

Starting in C++ 17, the language introduced the ability for developers to conditionally compile code using constexpr. Developers can leverage this compiler feature to optimize code based on templates and even to remove preprocessor directives that are using #ifdef blocks. For example, if we had a code base that had three different hardware configurations, we might find that our code to initialize GPIO looks something like this:

void Gpio_Init()


#ifdef __HARDWARE_REV1__

            // Initialize pin set #1

#elif __HARDWARE_REV2__

            // Initialize pin set #2

#elif __HARDWARE_REV_3__

            // Initilialize pin set #3



The code above is configurable, but it’s quite nasty to look at. Yes, a modern IDE will shade some of the options, but it’s just not a very elegant solution and leads to some messy code. In C++, we can leverage the constexpr compile time optimization and write code like the following:

constexpr Hardware_t HardwareRev = Hardware::Rev1

void Gpio_Init()


    if constexpr (HardwareRev == Hardware::Rev1)


        // Initialize pin set #1


    else if constexpr (HardwareRev == Hardware::Rev2)


        // Initialize pin set #2


    else if constexpr(HardwareRev == Hardware::Rev3)


        // Initialize pin set #3



When we compile the above code for Rev2, only the code for “Initialize pin set #2” makes it into our executable. If we compile for Rev1, only the code for “Initialize pin set #1” makes it into the executable, and so forth.

Trick #2 – Ranged for Loops

A fundamental flow control mechanism in C and C++ is the for loop. The C for loop has been stuck in the dark ages by not having a simplified range-based option. For example, languages like Python allow a programmer to iterate over a range using syntax like:

for x in range (1, 5)


In C, we need to write (depending on the C standard used of course):

for(int x = 1; x <= 5; x++)


    printf(“%d \r\n”, x);


Starting in C++ 11, an additional version of the for loop was added that makes working with ranged values easier. For example, if one wanted to write the above code examples in C++, we could now write it as:

int MyNums[] = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5};

for(int i : MyNums)


    std::cout << I << std::endl;


At first, to a C developer this may seem awkward; However, given how often we want to work over a range in an enum or object, the syntax is cleaner and easier to read.

Trick #3 – Use Auto

For C developers, auto is a language keyword that was deprecated a long time ago. Developers used to use auto to specify a variable that was limited to the current scope. Auto is a storage class specifier like static, only it specifies that the storage is local and the variable should be automatically destroyed once our of scope, unlike static which allows the variable to persist.

In C++, auto can be a very useful keyword that tells the compiler to automatically assign the datatype for the developer. For example, in Trick #2, we had the following for loop code:

int MyNums[] = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5};

for(int i : MyNums)


    std::cout << I << std::endl;


MyNums is already defined as an int, so I can let the compiler decide on the type that should be used for i as follows:

for(auto i : MyNums)


    std::cout << I << std::endl;


At first, this may appear sloppy. As the developer, shouldn’t I control what my variable types are? The answer is yes, but we should allow the compiler to manage types where it could save us time or where we don’t care to manually specify. Do we care if i for example is uint8_t, uint16_t, uint32_t and so forth? Probably not. We just want something that can iterate over the range of one to five and the compiler is more than capable of deciding. Auto can also help when we change a data type. We can change it in one place without having to worry about changing anything downstream that uses or interacts with it.  

Trick #4 – The Spaceship Operator

It can sometimes be annoying when you need to write a conditional statement that checks whether a value is less than, greater than, or equal to another value. Just recently, C++20 add a three-way comparison operator that can simplify readability and the code. This operator <=>, is often called the “spaceship” operator because it looks like a spaceship.

Using the spaceship operator is simple. For example, if we have two variables and we want a three-way comparison, we might write code like the following:

int Var1 = Value1;

int Var2 = Value2;

auto Result = Var1 <=> Var2;

If Var1 < Var2, then Result will less than 0. If Var1 > Var2, Result will be greater than 0. If Var 1 is equal to Var2, then Result will be 0.

Trick #5 – Getting the Size of a String

Strings in C are nothing more than a char array with ‘\0’ as the last array entry. Many bugs have resulted in applications from how C deals with strings. It’s not uncommon to forget the string terminator in a string, incorrectly size the array, or use string functions that can result in buffer overruns, and so forth.

In C++, strings can be managed much more safely. I’m not going to go into all the cool details in this post, that is up to the reader, but I do want to just point out how simple things can be in C++. For example, if a developer needs to get the length of a string, they can simply use the length() method associated with the string. A simple code example might be where we allow the user to input a string and then verify its length prior to use:

string Input;

getline(cin, Input);

if(Input.length() < 50)


    std::out << “Processing String …” << std::endl;




    std::out << “String to long! Try again” << std::endl;


It’s a simple example, but I highly encourage the reader to investigate the string libraries that are provided in C++. You’ll be surprised how safe, and easy it is to use strings!


C++ is gaining traction in many embedded applications, especially ones that are developed from the ground up and don’t rely on large amounts of legacy code. At first glance, C++ may seem intimidating to C programmers; However, C programmers will find that C++ is a natural extension of C into a more modern programming language. Design patterns and techniques that would be nearly impossible in C are easy in C++. In this post, we’ve explored a few simple C++ tricks that I think will interest C developers. We’ve barely begun to scratch the surface, but if you are a C programmer, I think you’ll find that C++ has a lot to offer to embedded applications.

Jacob Beningo is an embedded software consultant who works with clients in more than a dozen countries to dramatically transform their businesses by improving product quality, cost, and time to market. He has published too many blogs to count embedded software architecture, processes, and development techniques, is a sought-after speaker and technical trainer, and holds three degrees, including a Master of Engineering from the University of Michigan. You can contact Jacob at [email protected] and sign-up for his monthly Embedded Bytes Newsletter.

Mon, 18 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.designnews.com/electronics/5-c-tricks-c-programmers
Killexams : Apple and Google Dominate 'Internet of Things' Influence with Home Automation Efforts

It’s early days for the Internet of  Things, but the largest technology players are moving quickly to stake out the territory. In just the past month, Apple announced a new ‘smart home’ platform, and Google made a similar announcement for Android and purchased Nest for $3.2 billion – moves that pushed both companies quickly to the head of the ‘Top 10 Most Influential Companies’ in a new Influence Study focusing on the Internet of  Things, released today by Appinions.

The study reveals an increase of almost 70% in the volume of influential conversations about IoT between late March and early July. Within this time frame there was activity from Intel (which modified their managerial structures to increase IoT focus), Cisco (who made three strategic investments), Zebra (who purchased Motorola’s enterprise business for nearly $3.5 billion), and many others. As the study documents, these moves got a lot of attention and reaction, with influence scores skyrocketing around each announcement.

On the ‘Top 10 Most Influential Executives in Internet of Things’ list, Philips Lighting CEO Eric Rondolat earned top spot for comments he made regarding Phillips plans to work with Apple’s HomeKit. Brad Smith of Microsoft and Mark Hurd from Oracle and executives from Apple, Blackberry, HP and other round out the list.

Looking at individual products, the Dropcam smart camera and Honeywell’s Lyric intelligent thermostat grabbed the top two spots for garnering the most influential reactions. The Logitech Harmony Remote, Philips Hue Bulb, and Kwikset Kevo E-Lock are among the other top Internet of things products covered.

“Four months ago, Intel and Microsoft were dominating the conversation” said Larry Levy, Founder and CEO of Appinions, “but we've seen a tremendous surge on the consumer side with shipping products and these consumer-facing moves from Apple and Google. And while smaller in scale, we also found that the Industrial Internet is garnering a lot of attention in its own right.”

To create this report, Appinions identified and analyzed over 40,000 opinions relevant to the Internet of Things from a pool of over 100 million documents plus social media posts. The opinions and the reactions generated were then ranked using a proprietary scoring algorithm, which considers the people or entities reacted to these opinions, the credibility of the outlet where the reaction was published, and the overall volume of reactions to each opinion.

The Appinions Internet of Things Influence Study is available as a free download here.

Fri, 22 Jul 2022 05:15:00 -0500 Bruce Rogers en text/html https://www.forbes.com/sites/brucerogers/2014/07/08/apple-and-google-dominate-internet-of-things-influence-with-home-automation-efforts/
Killexams : High-tech gifts in low-tech packages

(CNN) -- This holiday season, it seems highbrow concepts are better off making their commercial debut in low-tech gadgets.

Nabaztag, an electronic device shaped like a rabbit, can read you weather forecasts from the Internet.

Nabaztag, an electronic device shaped like a rabbit, can read you weather forecasts from the Internet.

"With the current economic situation, I think toys and gadgets which are too complicated, either as a concept, or to operate, will not fly," says Lawrence Cheung, principal consultant of the Hong Kong Productivity Council.

Looking forward to the new year, Hong Kong tech industry analyst and blogger Victor Cheung has his eyes set on an "All-in-One computer that features a multi-touch screen, like that of the HP Pavilion IQ series."

According to Cheung, "2009 will see the Tablet PC finally taking off, with more name-brand manufacturers joining the ranks of HP, Fujitsu, Dell, Lenovo, Toshiba and Kohjinsha.

"Expect to see them coming in all sizes and probably with a multi-touch feature by the end of the year. Don't be surprised to see a MacTablet as well."

As for the mobile-phone market, he adds: "iPhone should continue to rule with a new version before Thanksgiving 2009, with missing features such as Bluetooth A2DP and a changeable battery. A higher-res camera with video recording might be thrown in as well. However, what makes or breaks it depends very much on how open Apple will be with other developers' apps."

Here are some exact high-tech products to watch for, either as holiday gifts or a treat for yourself in 2009:

More: nabaztag.com
Price: $200

In the merry Internet of Things, mastering a smart object is literally child's play. Start with your friendly wired rabbit. Nabaztag, a rabbit-shaped ambient electronic device, is WiFi-enabled and recognizes voice commands in five languages. It can read you weather forecasts, RSS feeds, SMS and much more, straight from the Internet, in 36 different tongues.

If you prefer non-verbal communication, it can also flash its lights or wiggle its ears to grab your attention, or just play music from an online podcast or radio. Alternatively, let it sniff an RFID-tagged object and see what it does. All the rabbits are interconnected, and as we know, they multiply fast. Already, Nabaztags have been customized by their owners, dressed by designers and conducted in concert.

TOMY xiao
More: zink.com
Price: 34,800 yen ($365)

Leave it to a toymaker to launch a compact camera that targets the kawaii market in Japan, based on the concept of the retro instant-gratification Polaroid. Takara Tomy's 5-megapixel xiao is the first digital camera to integrate the inkless Zink printer, which produces dry, full-color, smudge-proof, tear-proof and water-resistant prints in less than a minute. "Xiao" can mean either small or laugh in Chinese, but inkless printing is a big deal in both the professional and consumer markets, where eco-friendly printers can now be integrated into almost any gadget. Just don't forget to buy Zink paper, which doesn't come cheap at almost 45 cents a sheet. The Xiao is scheduled to launch in North America by April or May 2009.

Eye-Fi 4GB Anniversary Edition SD Card
More: eye.fi
Price: $130

For those who beg to differ with tangibility, Eye-Fi has recently released the 4GB Anniversary Edition of its much-hyped SD memory card, with double the capacity of previous models. The good news is Eye-Fi cards allow your camera to automatically send pictures directly to the Internet or your computer via Wi-Fi. The bad news is it only works within the United States. It's also only compatible with SDHC-labeled hosts, not standard SD. Still, the little card boasts the laudable concept of turning your digital camera into another smart object that can connect to the World Wide Web -- and by extension, talk to rabbits.

PocketCinema V10
More: aiptek.com
Price: $300

One nifty device that does support SDHC, as well as three other memory card formats, is the ultra-portable PocketCinema V10 projector with stereo speakers. About the size of a cell phone, it can beam photos and videos straight from the card, or whatever else you might want to blow up or share directly from your media player, mobile phone, camcorder or game console -- on an image 15cm to 127cm in diagonal, from 21cm to 180cm away, in 640x480 pixel resolution. Picture small, project big.

Flip MinoHD
More: theflip.com
Price: $230

The Flip has been a hit ever since it hit the market as the one-handed pocket camcorder for dummies, simpletons, or anyone otherwise gadget-challenged. No fancy features, no external memory, no extra cables, no removable parts. And now it shoots in HD. Dress it up, point and shoot, flip the USB, plug and play. Edit up to 60 minutes of video with built-in software for simple cuts or fun mixes. All the high-tech exposure automation, light correction and color balancing are out of sight, out of mind. Buy one for your five-year-old, then get another one for your grandmother to prove that it's the person, not the hardware, who makes the movie magic. Just press the big red button.

Livescribe Pulse Smartpen
More: livescribe.com
Price: $150-200

Speaking of old school, Livescribe teaches the old pen and paper new digital audio tricks. Theoretically, you wouldn't have to use a computer at all. Once in action, the Pulse's microphone records surrounding audio, while its built-in camera captures pen strokes in order to retrace your notes. It's potentially handy for reviewing lectures, meetings or interviews, where a tap of the pen on your handwritten scribbles triggers the automatic playback of the audio recorded at the moment you wrote or drew them.

While that sounds like a cool gimmick, the pen's drawbacks are significant: The Pulse only works with specially designed "dot paper;" it requires additional software (and a computer) to actually convert your notes into digital text; and the pen itself cannot connect to the Internet. It launched in early 2008, but at least it's on the right track to laptopless note-taking.

More: readius.com
Price: N/A

The Readius is another essentially low-tech gadget with a high-tech concept. This time, it's a flexible, rollable electronic-ink display. The Readius is basically a 115g e-book reader that also functions as a 3.5G tri-band phone, MP3 player and image viewer -- in 16 spectacular levels of gray. The selling point is the screen, which rolls out to a 5-inch display that's easy on the eyes and even easier on the battery, allowing up to 30 hours of active, continuous reading. If you're an early adopter, this is definitely one to watch for when it releases commercially in early 2009.

Eco Media Player Revolution
More: ecomediaplayer.com
Price: $200

Not quite the multi-chromatic iPod nano, Baylis' Revolution is a black and bulky heavyweight at 170 grams. However with a similarly-sized screen, its practical functionality far surpasses its prettier, sassier competitor. In addition to standard image, audio and video capacity, it features SD memory card extension, twice the playback time on a fully charged battery, e-book reader, FM radio, hi-fi recording with or without external microphone, and even a built-in flashlight.

But what's so eco about this Revolution? Just attach the hand-crank to the back and wind it up for a minute. You've just generated 45 minutes of audio playback time, if not 3 minutes of emergency talk-time on your mobile phone. Who says wind-up toys aren't the next big thing?

Sakku Buddy
More: sakkuus.com
Price: $289/$393

Of course, much more fashionable than hand-cranking is solar power. If you're going to tote your laptop around in a durable, hefty shoulder bag, you might as well sport a solar-paneled Sakku Buddy made from colorful recycled awnings in Switzerland. While the 19-volt solar panel isn't yet enough to charge an entire laptop computer, a few hours of sunlight can easily recharge a mobile phone, digital camera or media player battery. And as the average lifespan of a solar panel is 20 years, the Sakku will likely outlive any electronic gadgets you may carry inside it.

Wed, 26 Nov 2008 22:00:00 -0600 en text/html https://edition.cnn.com/2008/TECH/11/27/digitalbiz.gadgets/index.html
Killexams : How Accurate Is Microstepping Really?

Stepper motors divide a full rotation into hundreds of discrete steps, which makes them ideal to precisely control movements, be it in cars, robots, 3D printers or CNC machines. Most stepper motors you’ll encounter in DIY projects, 3D printers, and small CNC machines are bi-polar, 2-phase hybrid stepper motors, either with 200 or — in the high-res variant — with 400 steps per revolution. This results in a step angle of 1.8 °, respectively 0.9 °.

Can you increase the resolution of this stepper motor?

In a way, steps are the pixels of motion, and oftentimes, the given, physical resolution isn’t enough. Hard-switching a stepper motor’s coils in full-step mode (wave-drive) causes the motor to jump from one step position to the next, resulting in overshoot, torque ripple, and vibrations. Also, we want to increase the resolution of a stepper motor for more accurate positioning. Modern stepper motor drivers feature microstepping, a driving technique that squeezes arbitrary numbers of microsteps into every single full-step of a stepper motor, which noticeably reduces vibrations and (supposedly) increases the stepper motor’s resolution and accuracy.

On the one hand, microsteps are really steps that a stepper motor can physically execute, even under load. On the other hand, they usually don’t add to the stepper motor’s positioning accuracy. Microstepping is bound to cause confusion. This article is dedicated to clearing that up a bit and — since it’s a very driver dependent matter — I’ll also compare the microstepping capabilities of the commonly used A4988, DRV8825 and TB6560AHQ motor drivers.


Bipolar stepper motor symbol

In a hybrid stepper motor, a microstepping-enabled motor driver will adjust the current in the stator coils to position the permanent magnet rotor in an intermediate position between two subsequent full-steps. A full-step is then divided into a number of microsteps, and each microstep is achieved by the two coil currents.

Many older industrial motor drivers feature only 4 microsteps (quarter-step mode), but today, 16, 32 and even 256 microsteps per full-step are commonly found. If we had a 200 steps per revolution stepper motor before, we now have a 51,200 steps per revolution miracle. In theory.

Symbolic example of quarter-stepping in a bipolar stepper motor. The gradual current and field changes in each microstep cause the rotor to set in intermediate positions. Disturbingly simplified.

In practice, we’re still dealing with open-loop drivers, meaning that the motor driver does not know the exact angular position of the motor shaft, and it won’t correct deviations. Friction, the motor’s own detent torque and most strikingly, the external load that acts upon the rotor will go unnoticed by the driver. Without closing the loop through an encoder and a more sophisticated special driver, the best we can assume is that the motor will be somewhere ± 2 full-steps (yes, that bad) near its target position, which is the maximum deflection before the rotor snaps into the wrong full-step position, resulting in step-loss.

The incremental torque from one micro step to another is — governed by merciless trigonometry — only a fraction of the dynamic torque of the motor. To ensure that the motor shaft actually sets within +/- 1 microstep, we need to also reduce the load accordingly. Exceeding this smaller, incremental torque won’t result in step loss, but it will cause the same absolute positioning error of up to ± 2 full-steps. The table below shows the devastating relationship.

Microsteps per full-step Incremental holding torque per microstep
1 100 %
2 70.71 %
4 38.27 %
8 19.51 %
16 9.80 %
32 4.91 %
64 2.45 %
128 1.23 %
256 0.61 %

Source: Stepper Motor Technical Note: Microstepping Myths and Realities by Micromo

The good news is, that as long as we use a strong enough motor driver, and if we don’t exceed that incremental torque, be it through an external load or the motor’s internal inertia, the only theoretical limit for achieving microstep positioning accuracy are the motor’s internal friction and detent torque. These values depend heavily on the motor type, but are generally rather low (almost negligible) values. For example, the motor used in the following test is specified with a detent torque of 200 g cm. That’s merely 5% of it’s 4000 g cm holding torque. According to the above table, this motor should be capable of accurate positioning with a 16 microsteps per full-step driver.

So, does this theory apply? And do all microstep motor drivers deliver the same performance in terms of microstep positioning accuracy? I recently had the chance to test a few motor drivers for a project, and  I was rather surprised by the results.

Test Setup

For the test setup, I borrowed the red laser pointer from my IR thermometer and attached it to the motor through a 3D printed fixture. A 3D printed mirror mount attaches a first surface mirror to the motor’s shaft and features two levers with a length of 100 mm each for loading the motor with a given mass. For the load test, I attached a mass of 100 g to one lever, which results in a load momentum of 1000 g cm through the lever. That’s a quarter of the holding torque of the motor used for this test: A Wantai 42BYGHW609 with 1.7 A per phase, 4000 g cm holding torque and 200 steps per revolution.

I mounted the motor assembly to a rigid windowsill and positioned it so the laser pointer dot is projected across the room onto a pocket rule attached to the opposite wall, about 6 meters away. The optical lever magnifies the steps for accurate readings. Initially, I planned to just note down the readings manually, but then quickly realized that writing a little Java image processing script to extract the readings from photographs could be done in a fraction of the time. So a DSLR camera was hooked up to my test electronics — an Arduino and a RAMPS 1.4 — to be triggered for acquiring the position readings. I certainly should’ve pointed the laser at the clean, white wall next to the ruler, but a simple threshold on the red-channel did a good job in accurately extracting the bright red laser spot from the ruler. From the memorizing on the ruler and the distance on the wall, I later calculated the angular position of the motor shaft.

All stepper motor drivers were tested in their 16 microstep per full-step mode. Before the measurement, the stepper motor was brought into a full-step detent position, and the mirror was aligned to a beam perpendicular to the wall. Then 16 microsteps were executed in one direction while triggering the camera after every step. After that, 16 microsteps were executed in the reverse direction, bringing the stepper motor back to its original position. Again, the camera was triggered after each step. Measuring the position in both directions should allow me to get an idea of the motor’s cushioned backlash (if present), but resulted in more interesting insights than expected. This test sequence was executed for every driver, both unloaded and loaded with 1000 g cm. The stronger drivers caused a bit of overshoot during the loaded tests, so they were given time to come to rest before a photograph was triggered.

It’s worth mentioning that all following results originate from the very same motor, and the same physical motor step to ensure comparability. Nothing has been averaged or otherwise processed, except from calculating the shaft position angle. However, all tests have been performed multiple times on different hardware (i.e. the same driver IC, but different breakout boards from different sources) to ensure sanity of the results. Even the quirky results (such as the DRV8825) were reproducible on different setups. Please be aware that the following graphs may give the false impression of a time-continous measurement. They actually show a series of discrete measurements at the marks on the x-axis, and the line graph only should make it easier to see the non-linearities at a glance.


Allegro A4988

The Allegro A4988 on a Pololu-like stepper driver breakout board performed the best, both unloaded and under load. Even though it only delivers 1 A per phase, it achieved very linear, equally spaced microsteps in the unloaded test, with small but reproducible deviations from the ideal position within ± 1 microstep. Interestingly, the A4988 shows its largest deviation at the half-step position.

Step 1 to 16 are in positive direction, step 17 to 32 go in negative direction.

Unsurprisingly, the shaft position is deflected noticeably under load: more than a half full-step. There goes the dream of infinite resolution. However, the graph also shows that the full-step positions aren’t immune to this deflection, even though they are supported by the motor’s slight detent torque.

Texas Instruments DRV8825

The Texas Instruments DRV8825 on a Pololu-like stepper driver breakout board performed the worst. I repeated the measurement several times with different breakout boards from different sources, all of them resulted in curves almost identical to this one. However, since the driver is capable of supplying a higher current of 2.2 A to the motor, it shows a significantly smaller deflection under load at the full-step and half-step positions.

Step 1 to 16 are in positive direction, step 17 to 32 go in negative direction.

Both loaded and unloaded, the DRV8825 performs well until it reaches the half-step. Then, it leaps almost to the next full-step position within a single microstep. In the reverse direction, it again performs well until it reaches the half-step – this time in the other half of the full-step – before it breaks down to the original full-step position. The behavior is hard to explain. At least deficiencies in the motor’s current sensing path should affect the positioning more uniformly. I’m sure Hackaday readers can contribute to explaining, confirming, or disproving this behavior of the DRV8825, or maybe point out flaws in the measuring setup that could’ve caused these results.

Toshiba TB6560AHQ

I may admit I did not expect much from the cheap, red ST6560T4 driver board with four Toshiba TB6560AHQ 3A motor driver channels, but it’s a great driver IC and it did perform surprisingly well. The drivers were set to 2.25 A for this test and achieved a good linearity throughout the microstep sequence with a deviation of ± 2 microsteps when unloaded.

Step 1 to 16 are in positive direction, step 17 to 32 go in negative direction.

There were, however, reproducible non-linearities at the upper full-step position which the A4988 did not show, and the TB6560AHQ’s behavior under load differs noticeably from the idle behavior. Also, it’s surprising that the motor is deflected under the load by more than a half full-step, since the higher current should increase the motor torque similarly to the DRV8825.


I hope this write-up and measurement results help you with your design decisions and when working with these very common drivers. I did this tests for a rather narrow application, and they shouldn’t be generalized too much. Although I dare to conclude the following:

Stepper motors in heavier machines, such as CNC routers, that use open-loop microstepping, mostly benefit from the reduced vibrations and the lower torque ripple of microstep mode. They can not rely on microstepping as a means of increased positioning accuracy (at least not without keeping large torque margins), since a load may still deflect the axis’s position by more than a full-step.

However, small and light applications with low load and low friction may indeed resort to microstepping as a cheap trick to squeeze more accuracy out of a standard stepper motor. Even with a cheap, low-current motor driver, looking at the very well performing A4988, accurate angular positioning is possible, as long as the load is kept low, ideally within the incremental torque of a microstep.

As always, I’ll be glad to hear your thoughts, opinions, and experiences on the subject of this post. What’s going on with my DRV8825s? What stepper motor drivers do you rely on most of the time? Let us know in the comments!

Sat, 06 Aug 2022 11:59:00 -0500 Moritz Walter en-US text/html https://hackaday.com/2016/08/29/how-accurate-is-microstepping-really/
Killexams : #TECH: HP unveils new laptops for hybrid work usage No result found, try new keyword!HP Inc. Malaysia has unveiled new HP Spectre and HP ENVY laptops for today's hybrid world. Its managing director, Alex Tan said professionals now need devices that can help them develop relevant and ... Fri, 29 Jul 2022 01:54:42 -0500 en-my text/html https://www.msn.com/en-my/news/techandscience/tech-hp-unveils-new-laptops-for-hybrid-work-usage/ar-AA106lUI Killexams : AIOps for the Modern Enterprise: Real-World Advice & Implementation Tips from the Pros

Channelcast Sponsored

Building AI and automation into the business is one of this year’s top priorities for CTOs and CIOs. Yet amid all the hype, it can be difficult to figure out what to expect from AIOps initiatives and how to measure success once they have been implemented.


Register Now

In this ChannelCast, Rich Lane, Forrester Senior Research Analyst; Steve Breen, head of managed services at ANS; and Mark Banfield, chief revenue officer of LogicMonitor, share tips, tricks and real-life examples of how modern organizations are using AIOps to drive positive business outcomes for themselves and their clients.

Join LogicMonitor, Forrester, ANS and The Channel Company to learn:

• The definition and role of AIOps within modern I&O
• Best practices of AIOps adoption
• How to build a business case for AIOps within your organization
• Key criteria for evaluating an AIOps or observability platform

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Tue, 11 May 2021 13:08:00 -0500 text/html https://www.crn.com/channelcast/aiops-for-the-modern-enterprise-real-world-advice-implementation-tips-from-the-pros
Killexams : HP Compaq dc5800 Small Form Factor PC (KS738PA)
  • Expert Rating

  • Price

    $ 1,099.00 (AUD)

Wired Connections

Wired Terminals / Ports

Serial, VGA, USB 2.0, Parallel Ports, RJ45, PS/2 Keyboard, PS/2 Mouse

Number of PS/2 Keyboard Ports


Number of USB 2.0 Ports


Number of Parallel Ports


Number of PS/2 Mouse Ports



Installed memory (RAM)

1024 MB

Maximum memory (RAM)

8 GB

PC Expansion Bays

Expansion Bays

5.25in External, 3.5in Internal, 3.5in External

Number of 3.5in Internal Expansion Bays


Number of 3.5in External Expansion Bays


Number of 5.25in External Expansion Bays


Hard Drive


Input Devices

Input Devices

Mouse, Keyboard

Keyboard and Mouse Type


Power Options



Intel Core 2 Duo E6750

PC Expansion Slots

Expansion Slots

PCI Express x16, PCI Express x1, PCI

Number of PCI Express x16 Slots


Number of PCI Express x1 Slots


Optical Drives


Sound Card on Motherboard


Network Card on Motherboard


Graphics Controller on Motherboard



PC User Suitability


PC Case Form Factor

Small Form Factor


Operating Systems

Genuine Microsoft Windows Vista Business

Sound Card


*Specifications are subject to change without notice. While every attempt has been made by IDG Communications in the production of these specifications, possible errors or omissions may still occur. IDG Communications neither assumes legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any product specifications supplied.

Thu, 04 Aug 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en-AU text/html https://www.pcworld.idg.com.au/review/hp/compaq_dc5800_small_form_factor_pc_ks738pa/225069/specs/
Killexams : Best Smart Plugs for 2022

Sci-fi dreams of smart homes have become reality: Technology is rewriting the home as we know it. Smart home devices for pretty much everything have cropped up a lot over the past couple of years, making every room a treasure trove of possibilities. Whether it's light bulbs, speakers, a TV or even a fridge, there are a wide range of smart appliances you can take advantage of. Of course, not everything in our homes is "smart" yet, but they can be with the help of smart plugs.

These nifty gadgets connect your regular lamp, fan, coffee maker, kitchen appliance and nearly anything else to your smart home for automation and voice control. There are models for every voice assistant. Some even work with all three: Google Assistant, Amazon Alexa and Apple HomeKit. It's a quick and affordable way to get more out of your smart home platform. 

Read more: Want to buy a smart plug? Read this first

With so many options out there, picking the best smart plug to turn on and off your newly connected devices means you'll need to take a look at all your needs, your home's connectivity setup, whether or not you want to use voice commands or a larger smart home platform to control it all -- with "all" now including any wall outlet you choose.

We've tested dozens of the smart plugs from companies large and small -- these are our picks for the best of the bunch. We'll update this list periodically. Smart home devices, here we come!

Read more: These smart plugs are the secret to a seamless smart home

Chris Monroe/CNET

TP-Link's Kasa line of smart home products includes this space-saving smart plug. This smart device works with Google Assistant and Amazon Alexa via your Wi-Fi network, and the Kasa app (Android and iOS) offers plenty of detailed options for customizing scheduling, away modes and timers. 

What you won't get? This Wi-Fi smart plug doesn't offer energy consumption data, a USB port or HomeKit compatibility. Still, if you're interested in scheduling and using voice control and voice commands, TP-Link's smart plug is a great choice to control a light switch or other connected device.

Read our TP-Link Kasa Smart Wi-Fi Plug Mini review.

Tyler Lizenby/CNET

At just $12 on Amazon, or $20 for a two-pack at Home Depot, the Wyze Plug packs a punch without costing a bunch, turning your regular home appliances into smart devices. We tested it at the CNET Smart Home, and the setup was straightforward. The Wyze Plug works with Google Assistant and Amazon Alexa and comes with a physical on and off switch on the side of the plug. There's no USB port on the side for additional charging. 

Voice commands worked well when we tested them out, and the plug's size and design keep it from interfering with other outlets. There was noticeable lag powering devices on with the Wyze app, but your results may vary depending on your Wi-Fi network's signal strength. 

Molly Price/CNET

The WeMo Wi-Fi Smart Plug is affordable and comes with native Google Assistant, Alexa and yes, HomeKit compatibility. Not all smart plugs do (though the new universal smart home standard Matter, arriving later this year, might help with that).

The WeMo app isn't our favorite app, and you won't get energy monitoring, either. Those shortfalls aside, this smart plug's space-saving design and solid HomeKit compatibility make it easy to recommend to users in Apple's ecosystem.

Read our WeMo Wi-Fi Smart Plug review.

The iDevices Outdoor Switch is a great way to automate outdoor lights, fans, lamps, switches or other patio electronics. This outdoor smart switch works with Google Assistant, Alexa and HomeKit via your Wi-Fi connection and includes energy tracking and remote control.

While you will get two outlets with this outdoor plug, you can't control them individually. If that's a must-have for you, we'd recommend checking out TP-Link Kasa Outdoor Smart Plug, which works with Google and Alexa and has a great companion app.

Read our iDevices Outdoor Switch review.

Other models we tested

There are dozens of smart plugs out there from companies large and small, and while we haven't tested every single one, we've seen quite a few come through the CNET Smart Home. Here's a quick look at other notable options. 

  • Amazon Smart Plug: A flagship for the brand, the Amazon smart plug costs $25 and only works with Amazon Alexa. While setup is easy, it isn't as feature-rich as other models, which may be a deal breaker when you're looking for a smart outlet.
  • Satechi Dual Smart Outlet: This HomeKit friendly smart plug costs $60, and you will get two outlets and energy monitoring capability. There isn't any compatibility with Google Assistant and or Amazon Alexa, which won't be tenable if you're all in on your Alexa app.
  • iHome Outdoor: This $80 outdoor smart plug works with all three voice assistants, but you'll only get one outlet. 
  • ConnectSense Smart Outlet 2: This $60 behemoth does it all -- energy monitoring, individually controlled outlets, a USB port and LED status lighting. However, the price and unattractive, oversized design are enough to keep me from recommending it. Everyone loves a smart outlet, but no one likes an ugly one.
  • Koogeek: This $32 smart plug works well with HomeKit, but blocks adjacent outlets. Alexa or Google Assistant integrations aren't as smooth as we'd like to see in our connected devices. 
  • Puregear Pureswitch: This HomeKit-centered smart plug is another solid choice for Apple smart homes, but it didn't perform as well in our testing as other HomeKit compatible devices.
  • Eufy smart plug mini: This pint-size smart plug is just slightly larger than our SmartThings budget pick above and costs just a few dollars more at $21. You'll get Amazon and Google Assistant smarts, as well. 

Things to remember

Choosing the best smart plug for you begins with voice assistant compatibility. Choose a plug that works with whichever voice assistant you're using, whether it's a smart phone, a tablet or other device. You can usually find this information on the product box, website or in your voice assistant's mobile app. 

Next, consider where your plug will be placed and whether blocking other adjacent outlets is a concern. If so, be sure to pick a plug that isn't too large. Most models described as "mini" will be space-saving. 

Extra features like energy monitoring and USB charging can add even more control and convenience. No matter which smart plug you choose, bringing everyday products online with a plug is one of the simplest ways to automate and smarten your home. 

Check out these smart home must-reads

Wed, 21 Aug 2019 22:39:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.cnet.com/home/smart-home/best-smart-plugs/
Killexams : UPDATE -- Think On, Inc. and Lorica Cybersecurity Partner to Deliver Next-Generation Encrypted Data Analytics Solutions

Think On Inc.

Through a multi-year collaboration with Lorica Cybersecurity, ThinkOn is extending its leadership position in cloud data security and privacy-enhancing computation

TORONTO, July 19, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Think On, Inc. the only 100% Canadian owned cloud service provider allowed to host sensitive information for the Government of Canada, announces a technology partnership with Lorica Cybersecurity to bring next-generation encrypted data analytics solutions to the ThinkOn cloud computing platform. This partnership is intended to deliver cutting-edge solutions aligned with ThinkOn’s commitment to privacy, security, and data sovereignty in the cloud.

With data and digital assets coming under ever-greater threat, enterprises are seeking solutions to further protect sensitive data and eliminate the risk of data exposure in the event of a data breach. Over the coming months, Lorica Cybersecurity’s cloud-native and quantum-resistant solution based on patented high-performance fully homomorphic encryption (HP-FHE™) technology will be made available to ThinkOn partners and end subscribers through the ThinkOn cloud computing platform.

“As a leading provider of cloud services to public and private sector enterprises, ThinkOn is committed to providing proven data security and privacy solutions,” said Craig McLellan, Founder and CEO, ThinkOn. “This partnership represents a unique opportunity for us to provide truly cutting-edge secure data archiving and analytics technology solutions to our partners and customers. We look forward to continued collaboration with the outstanding team at Lorica Cybersecurity.”

“We are absolutely thrilled to be partnering with ThinkOn, a leading Canadian cloud services provider with a global business footprint,” said Glenn Gulak, Co-Founder and CEO, Lorica Cybersecurity. “Our patented and highly-optimized encrypted data analytics solutions will provide unmatched data protection and market-leading performance for enterprises on the ThinkOn cloud.”

About Think On, Inc.
Think On, Inc. is a proudly Canadian-owned and operated cloud service provider (CSP) with a global data centre footprint. ThinkOn is a Canadian VMware Sovereign Cloud partner. ThinkOn helps the Canadian government leverage domestic infrastructure technology to deploy sensitive workloads and run digital solutions in the cloud. Providing comprehensive cloud solutions that meet strict compliance, sovereignty and security requirements. ThinkOn enables the Government to operate with increased agility and address complex security controls that are key to deliver a quality user experience for the public sector and the Canadians they serve. Consider them your dedicated department of data-obsessed experts. They will protect your data like their own, making it more resilient, secure, actionable, and searchable. ThinkOn works with a trusted ecosystem of top technology partners to provide cost-effective Infrastructure-as-a-Service solutions and data management services with predictable pricing and no hidden fees.


About Lorica Cybersecurity Inc.
Lorica Cybersecurity has developed quantum-resistant cloud data security and privacy solutions that eliminate the risk of data exposure leveraging cutting-edge high-performance fully homomorphic encryption (HP-FHE™). Working discreetly with customers in the financial, telecommunications, government and national security sectors, Lorica protects some of the most sensitive data and valuable proprietary information in the world. Headquartered in Toronto, Lorica enables customers to have confidence working with their proprietary data and digital assets in the cloud – both now and well into the future.


For further information: (press only) contact Sarah Finney, Director of Marketing, Think On, Inc. sarah.finney@thinkon.com

Tue, 19 Jul 2022 04:53:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://finance.yahoo.com/news/think-inc-lorica-cybersecurity-partner-164100864.html
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