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Killexams : Exin Perimeter basics - BingNews Search results Killexams : Exin Perimeter basics - BingNews Killexams : The Basics of Bonding & Grounding

It's no secret that grounding and bonding content continues to resonate with EC&M readers.

From NEC Consultant Mike Holt's accurate 12-part series on the differences between bonding and grounding to Electrical Training Consultant Randy Barnett's webinar and Tech Talk on the subject, our readers can't seem to get enough of this important topic. So, we wanted to compile several of our best articles into this e-book, giving readers an accessible, practical guide to some of the most important lessons related to grounding and bonding.

This e-book is essential reading for anyone looking to gain a basic, yet thorough understanding of this important topic. Some articles take deep dives into NEC requirements, such as the 10 Parts of Art. 250. NEC consultant Russ LeBlanc examines where confusion exists between what the Code literally says and how users may interpret it. Another piece discusses IEEE 837, which covers substation grounding -- one of the more challenging types of grounding installations.

We also included case studies showing why grounding and bonding is so important. Former Power Quality Consultant Bryan Glenn explains the importance of examining the "why" behind NEC requirements -- and what happens when those rules for grounding and bonding are ignored. The final selection in this e-book (also by Glenn) is another case study highlighting a CNC failure from an isolated ground installation.

While grounding and bonding may seem like basic knowledge for any electrical professional, this curated selection of articles demonstrates why it's also one of the most important tasks performed by electrical professionals -- so staying up-to-date on the standards and safety procedures in this arena is mandatory. As "Monsters of the Midway" shows, proper grounding and bonding can mean a matter of life or death -- not only for electrical professionals, but also for anyone encountering the electrical installations they work on.

I know this free e-book provides a valuable reminder of the importance of proper grounding and bonding as well as offers some useful, practical tips you can start applying today.

— Ellie Coggins, Senior Associate Editor

Tue, 20 Sep 2022 09:06:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Unix Basics It Pays To Know

When writing about digital technology, or any topic, is something you do, it takes time to accumulate credibility. Even if you put in the study time up front to know your stuff, building trust takes time.

I’ve been fortunate that, after years expanding my portfolio and the knowledge base under it, people come to me for advice on related subject matter. I’m still not totally comfortable in this position, but I roll with it.

As more professionals put stock in my technical background, I have been exposed to more specialized technical environments and use cases. Friends asking for consumer electronics troubleshooting is worlds apart from professionals looking to overcome a technical hurdle.

This new class of advice I’m prompted to provide has elucidated the challenges that professionals confront. Moreover, when I field the same question multiple times, it hints at a potential gap in computer science training. Naturally, I want to do my part to close it.

To be clear, I’m not putting anyone down. There are plenty of things I don’t know and probably should. I simply want to draw attention to concepts that I’m surprised that competent individuals struggle with. Specifically, what I regard as key Unix principles I’ve found notably missing.

I’m not totally surprised, as a lot of “tech sector” professionals work in levels of abstraction above the OS. But it pays to know these Unix basics considering there is often a Unix/Unix-like OS somewhere in the abstraction hierarchy. If that layer is unsound, the whole edifice risks collapse.

To that end, I want to highlight questions I’ve been asked about Unixy (my substitute for “Unix and Unix-like”) systems, and the fundamentals to grasp to become self-sufficient.

To Run Programs, It’s Best To Stay on the $PATH

While it’s easier than ever for software developers to escape the command line interface, sometimes it’s unavoidable.

If a program comes preinstalled on a Unixy system or can be installed from an official OS repository, it’s usually easy to invoke. But when the CLI program is some executable downloaded from the internet, this can trip people up.

Running it from within its directory is no big deal. Clicking on it in the file browser might even pop open a terminal emulator and run it. But once some (mainly neophyte) developers leave that directory, they’re not sure why the command is inaccessible without giving the absolute or relative path to it.

This has to do with the shell’s PATH environment variable. When you enter a command into a shell like Bash, the shell has to know where it is. In Unix, everything is a file, and every file is somewhere in the file tree (starting at /). But if the system had to search every file, that would take too long.

Instead, your shell only looks in the directories in the PATH variable. If there is no executable file with the name you entered in one of those directories, a Unixy system doesn’t know where that command is.

To see what directories are in your PATH, open a terminal and run echo $PATH. This outputs the value of the PATH variable as it is currently set in the shell.

If you want to add more places for your system to check for executables, just update PATH. Define the PATH variable explicitly in your shell’s configuration file (e.g. for Bash, ~/.bashrc, ~/.bash_profile or something similar). One common practice is to make a directory in the user’s home directory called “bin” and add $HOME/bin to your PATH (HOME being the current user’s home).

Remember, you don’t want to replace your PATH with just the desired directory. That would make it the only place your shell looks. You just want one more place to search. You could copy the output of echo $PATH as is and paste it into your shell config file. The more conventional method is to add this line:


Just as with many common programming languages, this assignment statement works because the right side of the “=” sign is evaluated first and then assigned to the left side. In other words, your current PATH is returned, your new directory is concatenated to the end, and then PATH is set to that.

Set It So Your Shell Won’t Forget It

There’s another property of environment variables I’ve seen developers overlook: how long they persist.

It’s not uncommon for devs to utilize CLI tools that expect certain environment variables. In Unixy systems, you’re free to define any arbitrary environment variable with any arbitrary value. When they need one, I typically see devs run the same environment variable definition every time they launch their terminal.

This is because every time most terminal emulators (and with them, a shell) start for the first time (from not running anywhere on the system), they start a new session. When the last of the shell processes associated with the terminal emulator terminates, so too does the session. Notably, environment variables set via export command only last for the session.

As you probably intuited, we can set our environment variable in our shell config file just as we did with PATH. Just refer to the PATH definition syntax above to see how. Now enjoy all the time you saved.

Always Know Who’s Listening

While I wouldn’t necessarily consider it a core Unix concept, this next trick is so handy that I’m surprised more devs don’t know it.

In the course of managing some Unixy system, eventually you may need to know what network ports are actively listening. Doing so by checking all running services can be cumbersome because, depending on the system’s available tooling, open ports may not appear in the summarized output. It’s easier to skip the service utility and analyze the ports directly.

My preferred approach is to use lsof. This useful command returns all open files. “Wait,” you might say, “I’m looking for ports, not files.” Ah, but remember, in Unix, everything is a file. That includes ports.

Even better, lsof is tailored for this use case (among many others), as its -i flag limits output to files used as part of Internet Protocol communication. By running lsof -i you can see every open port, including listening ones.

You may want to throw in other flags or pipe it through a regular expression filter via grep to narrow down your search, but the above command alone will get you most of the way there.

Just Your Friendly Neighborhood Penguin-Man

What drew me most to the idea for this article was its direct applicability to a whole class of people who need quick, reliable answers. As I invest more into professional dialog with developers, I hope to uncover more areas where I’m able to light the Unix way I’ve grown so fond of.

Suggest a Topic

Is there a Unix tutorial you’d like to see featured?

Please email your ideas to me and I’ll consider them for a future column.

And use the Reader Comments feature below to provide your input!

Tue, 04 Oct 2022 11:59:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : PCB assembly basics


A PCB is a basic component of modern electronic devices and appliances that has revolutionised the electronics manufacturing industry. The first usage of a PCB dates back to 1936 when its inventor, Paul Eisler applied it to his radio system, however, PCBs started gaining their popularity only in the 1950s gradually domineering point-to-point electronic constructions.

PCB vs PCB assembly: essential terminology

The PCB acronym stays for a printed circuit board and is sometimes called a printed wiring card or a printed wiring board. It is also common to see PCBs referred to as PCBAs, albeit this is not accurate.

A PCB is a blank board, which has a printed circuit map on its surface. Yet, there are no electronic elements attached to it and it cannot be used directly in electronic devices. It first has to undergo one of the PCB assembly (PCBA) processes to turn into an assemblage of electronic components to be able to power other electronic goods.

PCB composition

All PCBs consist of several layers of materials depending on the complexity and price of the final product. Still, regardless of these factors, any PCB has its basic substrate layer used for holding layers of copper and soldermask. These two layers can be located either on a single side of the substrate layer or both of its sides.

Traditionally, one of the best materials used as a substrate is fiberglass, which gives PCBs the necessary rigidity, however, some products require flexible PCBs. These are made of high-temperature polymer materials.

The next layer is made of a copper foil attached to the board with heat and an adhesive substance. As a rule, the layers of a PCB are calculated by the layers of copper. One-layered boards are the most basic, but there can be tens of copper layers. Copper is insulated to avoid contact with conductive bits or metals with a layer of soldermask.

A layer of silkscreen allows labelling certain parts of a PCB.

PCB assembly technologies

Turning a blank PCB into a fully-functioning device component requires attaching electronic elements to its surface. This can be done with an older THT or through-hole technology, which inserts electronics into drilled holes in the board or with a more modern surface-mount technology commonly referred to as SMT. The latter one is more popular today due to the possibility of automating the manufacturing processes.

SMT includes mapping the PCB surface with a soldering material. Then, a pick-and-place machine locates all of the pieces in their right places and the boards are moved to a reflow oven for solidifying the soldermask creating adhesion between a PCB and electronic components.


Differentiating a PCB from a PCB assembly is crucial for understanding the PCB assembly basics since these are two separate terms in electronic manufacturing. A PCB is a blank multi-layered board maintaining the connections between electronic components attached to its surface with either SMT or through-hole PCB assembly technology.

To learn more visit:

Wed, 28 Sep 2022 01:00:00 -0500 GISuser en-US text/html
Killexams : Amarone — A Guide to the Basics

Corvina Veronese grapes on a vine in a vineyard in the Valpolicella area north of Verona in Italy

Matthias Riedinger / Getty Images

Amarone has a well-earned reputation for power. After all, it's not uncommon to find bottles that clear 15.5% ABV and approach 16% or more. But the best examples are about much more than sheer strength: They are layered, deeply complex reds that are inextricably tied to the land in which their constituent grapes are grown. Because of the unusual technique employed in their production, these wines have the ability to showcase an entirely different aspect of both the varieties in the blend and the terroir in which their roots are sunk.

What is Amarone Wine?

Amarone is a rich, expressive red wine from the Veneto region of northeastern Italy. Its full name is Amarone della Valpolicella, and it's produced from a blend of grapes including Corvina, Corvinone, Rondinella, and (less commonly these days) Molinara. These are the same grapes that go into Valpolicella, the more traditionally produced red wine (harvest grapes, crush them, macerate the juice and skins, ferment the juice, etc.). However, for Amarone, those grapes are dried following harvest, and it's the raisinated fruit that gets pressed and fermented. This drying of the grapes concentrates the sugars and completely changes the balance of juice and skin. The combination of both means that there is more sugar for the yeast to ferment into alcohol, leading to more powerful wines. There is also more tannin, since the skins play a more significant role. Amarone, in fact, loosely translates to "big bitter."

Where Does Amarone Wine Come From?

Amarone comes from Valpolicella, which is in the Veneto region of northeastern Italy. There are four main types of wine that are produced there: Valpolicella, which is made like most other red wines; Valpolicella Ripasso, for which red wine is then refermented with the dried skins of grapes that were crushed for Amarone, which lends Ripasso greater power and complexity than ordinary Valpolicella yet less assertive power than Amarone itself; Amarone; and Recioto della Valpolicella, a sweet wine from the region. Within the category of Amarone della Valpolicella, there are several distinctions, including Amarone della Valpolicella Classico (sometimes called Amarone Classico della Valpolicella) and Amarone della Valpolicella Superiore.

All Amarone wines are produced using the grape-drying technique, which is called appassimento in Italian. For an excellent expression of Valpolicella that's not Amarone, check out Le Ragose Valpolicella Classico Superiore Ripasso, whose bright red cherry and black raspberry notes are anchored by leather, tobacco, cocoa powder, and dark woodsy spices.

Why Should You Drink Amarone Wine?

Amarone is a thoroughly unique wine not just in Italy, but in the entire world. Of course, there are other wines that are produced using the grape-drying or appassimento method, but Amarone brings together the unique characteristics of its various Valpolicella terroirs and the character of its main constituent grape varieties to result in a wine that is unlike any other. At its best, Amarone is just as nuanced as it is powerful.

Amarone is also a remarkably age-worthy wine. Not all examples are meant to be laid down in a cellar for decades, and shifting consumer preferences mean that there are plenty of bottles that can absolutely be enjoyed in the short term, but Amarone is still a category with a preponderance of producers whose best wines can continue improving for decades. Still, the world of Amarone has changed: A generation ago, many of them were difficult to enjoy in their youth, with overwhelming tannic structures that more or less required several years' of age before they became pleasurable. But that has changed today, and consumers can enjoy many Amarones at various stages throughout their evolution in the bottle, and even in their youth.

For fans of richer foods, Amarone is a fantastic option. With braised meats like oxtails and short ribs, Amarone is a great pairing partner. Smoked meats and barbecue across the range of regional styles often find a phenomenal partner in Amarone: It can frame spice rubs brilliantly, and won't likely be overwhelmed by sweeter or more tangy sauces. It also is a great choice for creamy and hard cheeses, as well as dessert, especially chocolate-based ones and even cheesecake. Amarone also tends to work well with fruit-based desserts, assuming they aren't too sweet.

Because of its higher alcohol content, Amarone is best enjoyed at slightly less than room temperature, but too much of a chill will make the tannins come to the fore in too assertive a manner and seem bitter. To that end, a large glass, like a Cabernet Sauvignon or big-bowled universal glass, is a good choice, the better to facilitate vigorous swirling, which will help soften up those tannins and allow the underlying characteristics to shine through.

What Does Amarone Taste Like?

Amarone is a rich wine with a prominent tannic structure. It often smells as if it will be sweet, with ripe black and red cherries, blackberries, dried figs, raisins, coffee notes, and chocolate, but the first sip tends to prove the opposite: For all of the ripe, generous fruit, Amarone is a dry wine, and the sweet assumptions from the nose often result in a riveting sense of tension when the first sip proves the opposite to be true. Amarone can also be aged for an extended period of time in barrels, and depending on the nature of the wood that they're composed of, and how old they are, sweet spices like vanilla and cinnamon may also be present, as well as chocolate, cocoa powder, and coffee.

There are countless great Amarone wines on the market today. These five producers, listed alphabetically, are a perfect way to start exploring all that Amarone has to offer.


One of the more well-known names in the world of Amarone, Bertani produces Amarone, Valpolicella Ripasso, Recioto della Valpolicella, and more. Their 2011 Amarone della Valpolicella Classico is remarkable: Powerful yet elegant, savory yet still with a maturing core of fruit, and boasting a long, harmonious finish. The palate here runs the gamut from dried figs and brambly berries to leather, olive pit, maduro cigar tobacco, and star anise, all of it haunted in the background by dried flowers.

Dal Forno Romano

Dal Forno is one of the legends of Amarone, an icon, and a producer of wines that have earned their place on top wine lists around the world. In vintages that aren't up to their exacting levels of excellence they just don't make an Amarone, and in the past 20 years they've chosen to skip 2005, 2007, and 2014. Their 2015 Amarone della Valpolicella Monte Lodoletta dramatically proves why this strategy is worth missing the occasional release: It's an unforgettable wine, complex and impossibly long, concentrated and impeccably balanced, and scented with tar, crushed flowers, and blackberry liqueur that pave the way for a palate that drips with blackberry liqueur, black cherries, candied violets, very high-cacao dark chocolate, espresso beans, Chinese five-spice powder, and dried figs. The finish shimmers with black licorice and leather and lingers for a full minute. Now or in two decades (or more, easily), this is a wine of astounding accomplishment.

Famiglia Pasqua

With roots stretching back nearly a century (it was founded in 1925), Pasqua is a thoroughly forward-thinking company, with a focus on not just the liquid inside the bottle but the aesthetics of the packaging itself. Their 2017 Amarone della Valpolicella is a silky, polished expression of Amarone, with kirsch-filled dark-chocolate ganache, cinnamon-dusted espresso, and dried black figs.


Masi produces one of the most familiar Amarone bottlings on the American market, the Costasera, but they also make the brooding-yet-expressive Vaio Armaron Amarone della Valpolicella Classico. It's grown on the Serego Alighieri estate, which was purchased in 1353 by Piero Alighieri, the son of Dante. The 2013 is outstanding, a dark-fruited wine that unfolds in layers of dried black figs, dark chocolate ganache, blackberries, licorice, and cafe mocha, all of it gently spiced with cinnamon and star anise.

Podere Poiana

The 2016 Amarone della Valpolicella is dense, deep, and rich, dramatic with raisins, sweet spices, melted chocolate ganache, rooibos, and Earl Grey tea flavors rolling through the long, dried-flower-flecked finish.

Tue, 04 Oct 2022 09:31:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Basics of Buying a Manufactured Home

Loan Application

If you’re not paying cash for your manufactured home (formerly called mobile homes or trailers) begin with a loan application to know which Hames home you can afford. You’ll be asked about your income, down payment, and other expenses. Apply online at or make an appointment with Curtis or Clint at (319) 377-4863 to apply in person. From there, Hames will help connect you with a lender who fits your needs.

Community Application

Hames communities are desirable places to live because they’re safe. Background checks are completed for all adults applying to live in Grand View Village and Summit View Village. There’s NO application fee.

Select Your Home

It’s time to look at model homes! Hames knowledgeable sales staff will show you available homes that match your needs and budget.

If the perfect Hames home is not available now, a special order from the manufacturer might be the answer.

Underwriter Review and Approval

Once you have chosen a manufactured or mobile home, the banker will finalize the loan. Lenders have different requirements, so additional information may be requested before the final loan approval is granted.

Closing and Community Sign-In

During closing, the final loan and titling documents are signed. The next step is to meet with the manager where your manufactured home is located — either Grand View Village or Summit View Village. The Community Manager will explain neighborhood guidelines and answer your questions.

Final Walk Through/New Homeowner Orientation

Hames sales staff will inspect the home with you and point out important equipment. They will provide maintenance recommendations like how often to change the furnace filter and when to check heat tape. You’ll be shown the location of the data plate in your home, which is an informative summary unique to each manufactured home.

You don’t have to be an expert at purchasing a manufactured home. Hames — The Homes People are the area’s specialists on beautiful manufactured homes in desirable neighborhoods. View the large selection of new and used, singlewide and doublewide manufactured homes at, or in person at 5410 Wabash St. SW, Cedar Rapids, 7 days a week

Mon, 10 Oct 2022 01:17:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Need car insurance? 4 most important auto insurance basics to know

Our goal here at Credible Operations, Inc., NMLS Number 1681276, referred to as "Credible" below, is to give you the tools and confidence you need to Strengthen your finances. Although we do promote products from our partner lenders who compensate us for our services, all opinions are our own.

Car insurance is required in most states. Learn some auto insurance basics, as well as how to lower your premium. (Shutterstock)

Auto insurance protects your vehicle against many risks, such as car accidents, theft, and vandalism. And most U.S. states require car insurance — only New Hampshire and Virginia do not. 

Understanding some auto insurance basics can help ensure you don’t overpay for coverage. Here’s what you need to know about auto insurance, as well as some tips for how to lower your premium.

With Credible, you can compare auto insurance quotes from top carriers.

How does auto insurance work?

Car insurance is a contract between you and an insurance provider that helps pay for damages to your vehicle and other vehicles, any other property damage, and bodily injury that an accident causes. The specific claims process depends on the state you live in and who’s responsible for the accident, but in general, you’ll file a claim after a car accident and wait for your insurer to approve it.

Insurers determine your auto insurance premium by assessing several factors, such as your vehicle, how much coverage you get, and your driving record. Once you’re approved for a policy, you can pay it in full up front or in regular installments — you can typically choose to pay monthly, every six months, or yearly.

What is a deductible?

Your car insurance deductible is what you pay before your insurer pays the rest for a covered claim. For example, say your deductible is $1,000 and you get into an accident that causes $5,000 worth of damage to your vehicle. In that case, your insurance payout would be $4,000.

Typically, the higher your deductible, the lower your car insurance premium, and vice versa. If you choose a higher deductible to save money during the year, just be sure you can afford to pay that amount in the event of an accident. 

Credible makes it easy to compare auto insurance rates from various carriers, all in one place.

What types of auto insurance do you need?

You can choose from several types of auto insurance coverage — each one protects you in different ways. Keep in mind that you must purchase at least the minimum required insurance in your state. Here are the types of car insurance you should consider:

  • Liability — If you’re involved in a car accident and you’re at fault, liability coverage pays for property damage and any bodily injury you cause, up to your policy limits. Liability insurance is required in almost every state, and each state sets its own minimum liability coverage limits.
  • Personal injury protection — Personal injury protection (PIP) covers medical expenses for you or your passengers if you’re involved in an accident, regardless of who's at fault. You may need to purchase this type of insurance if you live in a no-fault state — a state where you have to file a claim with your own insurance carrier, no matter who’s at fault.
  • Medical payments — Similar to PIP, medical payments insurance covers your medical expenses and your passengers’ medical expenses, regardless of who’s at fault. But PIP and medical payments coverage aren’t the same. Medical payments coverage is only offered in at-fault states — these states require the person who’s deemed at fault to pay for covered damages. And unlike PIP, medical payments coverage is always optional. This coverage may be beneficial if you don’t have health insurance.
  • Comprehensive — Comprehensive coverage protects your car against damages not caused by a collision with another vehicle or object. Some examples include damages to your vehicle from a wildfire, windstorm, or vandalism. If you’re financing a vehicle, your lender will likely require you to purchase this type of insurance to protect its interest in your vehicle.
  • Collision — Collision insurance helps you pay to repair or replace your car if it’s involved in an accident with another vehicle or a non-moving object, like a pole. Similar to comprehensive insurance, a lender may require you to purchase collision coverage.
  • Uninsured and underinsured motorist — Uninsured motorist coverage helps pay for damages to your vehicle caused by a motorist who doesn’t have insurance. It may also cover repairs if you’re the victim of a hit-and-run accident. Underinsured motorist coverage helps pay for damages to your car if the driver responsible for them doesn’t have enough coverage. Depending on your state, you may be required to purchase one or both of these coverages.

How much auto insurance should you buy?

The amount of coverage you need depends on the state you live in and your individual situation. You should buy enough liability insurance to protect your assets in the event someone sues you after an accident. 

How much collision coverage you need depends on your car’s value and whether you make payments on your vehicle or own it outright. It’s important to note that you may not need collision insurance if your deductible is greater than the value of your car — if you have an old vehicle, for instance. But if you lease your car or have an auto loan, the lender or leasing company will require you to carry collision and comprehensive coverage.

A good rule of thumb is to buy as much coverage over the minimum as you can comfortably afford. For example, if you own your car outright, collision and comprehensive coverage aren’t required. But adding those coverages can help you protect yourself in case of an accident or an unexpected event, like vandalism.

How to lower your auto insurance premium

If you’re looking to save money on car insurance, consider taking these steps:

  • Comparison shop for the best deal. One of the best ways to lower your car insurance is to shop around. To find the best deal, get quotes from at least three to five insurance providers. You can get auto insurance quotes online or by reaching out to an insurance agent. When getting quotes, make sure to compare policies that offer similar coverages.
  • Bundle with homeowners insurance or another policy. Some insurance carriers will give you a discount for buying multiple policies from them, such as your home insurance and auto insurance. You can also get a discount if you purchase renters insurance and auto insurance from the same insurer.
  • Choose a higher deductible. If you choose a higher deductible, you can lower your insurance rate. But before you do so, review your finances to make sure you can comfortably afford to pay the higher out-of-pocket costs to repair or replace your vehicle if it’s damaged.
  • Ask about additional discounts. Contact your insurance carrier to see if it offers any discounts. Some common car insurance discounts include those for members of the military, low mileage, being a good student, and using autopay.
  • Boost your credit score. When you apply for auto insurance, many insurers will review your credit history to determine how risky you are to insure. If you have good credit, you’ll likely receive a lower rate. You can Strengthen your credit score by adopting good credit-building habits, like paying all your bills on time and paying down any outstanding debt.

Credible lets you easily compare insurance rates from top carriers in minutes.

Wed, 21 Sep 2022 08:44:00 -0500 Jerry Brown en-US text/html
Killexams : Viognier — A Guide to the Basics

Viognier white wine grape

Nalidsa / Shutterstock

By the 1960s, aside from a handful of acres in the Northern Rhône, Viognier was teetering on the edge of vanishing. While it's certainly not nearly as widely planted as the most popular white grapes like Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc, it nonetheless has more than bounced back, finding homes in California, Virginia, Australia, and beyond. In its ancestral French home, Viognier has expanded its acreage in the Rhône Valley and even gained a foothold in points further west throughout Southern France.

What is Viognier Wine?

Viognier is a white wine produced from the grape variety of the same name. In the Northern Rhône, the grape won't typically appear on the label –– instead, the name of one of two appellations will be emblazoned: Condrieu, or Château-Grillet, the latter of which is comprised of a single producer of the same name. Viognier can be blended with the red grape Syrah in Côte-Rôtie. There, it is legally allowed to comprise up to 20% of any blend (though in reality it rarely reaches that high a percentage, because Syrah shows so brilliantly there).

Where Does Viognier Wine Come From?

Viognier has historically been most famously grown and produced in the Northern Rhône, where the appellations of Condrieu and Château-Grillet (which is also the name of the appellation's only producer) are its epicenters. Viognier also does well throughout other parts of Southern France.

Outside of France, Viognier thrives in the United States, most notably in Paso Robles and other parts of California, where a group of passionate producers called the Rhône Rangers (Bonny Doon, Kale, and many others) have helped it to shine. In Virginia, it has become one of the state's vinous calling cards along with Cabernet Franc. Don't discount Napa Valley Viognier, either: Darioush produced a stunning one in 2020, effusive with aromas of white peach and yellow plum that precede a palate that shimmers with flavors of honey-coated almond, mashed guava, fennel bulb, and the suggestion of lychee.

Viognier also thrives in Australia, particularly the Adelaide Hills and Barossa Valley. According to the trade group Australian Wine, it was only first planted in the country in the 1970s, but in that relatively short period of time, it's become a respected part of the Australian wine firmament. You can also find it on the North Fork of Long Island; RGNY produced a terrific 2021 that shows the more crisp side of the variety, with lots of lemon-lime energy to the springtime flowers and nuts.

Why Should You Drink Viognier Wine?

Viognier is a deliciously aromatic grape variety that has the unique ability to smell like it should be sweet while still possessing the ability to be vinified into a delicious dry wine. As a result, it appeals to a wide range of wine drinkers, and often finds its way into the glasses of people who prefer more generous wines as well as those who shy away from overly creamy and thickly-textured whites.

Because Viognier can be produced in styles that range from lively to more creamy, producers can really craft it in a way that best expresses both the land in which it's grown, as well as their particular vision. It also takes well to oak, meaning that more viscous, creamy Viogniers often appeal to fans of rich Chardonnay, yet with a totally different aroma and flavor profile.

As such, Viognier is also very useful at the table: It can stand up to richer sauces without overwhelming lighter fish and poultry. It can be otherworldly with scallops, and it works with aromatically complex ingredients like ginger and lemongrass, as well. It also often has the ability to work with dishes that boast a bit of smokiness or spiciness — not too much, however, as foods that are dominated by smoke or spice heat run the risk of overpowering the most delicate aspects of Viognier. Plus, aside from a handful of important exceptions, top-quality Viognier can be found without requiring a fortune.

What Does Viognier Taste Like?

Viognier tends to show generous stone fruit; apricot, peach, white peach, and nectarine are common descriptors, though orange and citrus oil can also be discerned. There is also often a honeyed character to white wines made from Viognier, and this aspect is magnified in sweeter bottlings; late-harvest Viognier, for example, is often ambrosially rich. As Viognier ages — though its lower acidity means that finding older ones are relatively rare, as acid is one of the aspects of white wine that allows it to age — nutty notes like almonds may emerge. Alongside other grapes like Roussanne and Grenache Blanc, as in the J. Lohr  "Gesture" RVG , it sings on a palate-coating and savory note. Blended into red wines, as with the previously mentioned Côte-Rôtie, Viognier may lend lift to more savory Syrah.

Serving temperature is key when it comes to Viognier. Cooler bottles will be more lively and brightly fruity in character, whereas less-chilled ones will allow the flowers and honey to shine more brightly. Pouring a well-chilled bottle of Viognier into a glass and sipping it every few minutes as the temperature rises will afford you the opportunity to see firsthand how dramatically serving temperature affects this fascinating wine.

There are countless great Viognier wines on the market today. These five producers, listed alphabetically, are a perfect way to start exploring all that Viognier has to offer.

Barboursville Vineyards

From its home base in Virginia, this standout producer crafts a notable Reserve Viognier, which, unlike most with the "reserve" moniker, isn't produced with oak or malolactic fermentation. This means that the natural richness and texture of the fruit can shine with clarity and purity.

E. Guigal

The iconic Rhône producer crafts two of the most respected Viogniers in the region: a Condrieu, and Condrieu "La Doriane." Both are excellent, and the latter is generally more concentrated and age-worthy, though pricier. Still, both offer a classic expression of what makes Condrieu such an important and exciting appellation.

Pine Ridge Vineyards

Pine Ridge produces highly regarded Cabernet Sauvignon, which it's most well-known for, but their Chenin Blanc - Viognier blend is a classic in its own right. It brings together the acidity and verve of the former with the perfume and stone fruit of the latter, and the result is a wine that, vintage after vintage, serves as a delicious aperitif and accompaniment to a wide range of food.

Spicewood Vineyards

From the great producer Ron Yates, this Texas High Plains treat is a full-throttle Viognier with loads of lemon pith, lemon blossom, and spiced stone fruit, all of it carried on a frame of serious power and presence.

Tablas Creek Vineyard

One of the great producers of Rhône varieties in California, Tablas Creek excels with a range of reds and whites. Their estate-grown Viognier is crafted from biodynamically farmed fruit, and the result, year after year, is remarkable.

Tue, 20 Sep 2022 08:56:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Basics Of JavaScript SEO For Ecommerce: What You Need To Know

JavaScript (JS) is extremely popular in the ecommerce world because it helps create a seamless and user-friendly experience for shoppers.

Take, for instance, loading items on category pages, or dynamically updating products on the site using JS.

While this is great news for ecommerce sites, JavaScript poses several challenges for SEO pros.

Google is consistently working on improving its search engine, and a big part of its effort is dedicated to making sure its crawlers can access JavaScript content.

But, ensuring that Google seamlessly crawls JS sites isn’t easy.

In this post, I’ll share everything you need to know about JS SEO for ecommerce and how you can Strengthen your organic performance.

Let’s begin!

How JavaScript Works For Ecommerce Sites

When building an ecommerce site, developers use HTML for content and organization, CSS for design, and JavaScript for interaction with backend servers.

JavaScript plays three prominent roles within ecommerce websites.

1. Adding Interactivity To A Web Page

The objective of adding interactivity is to allow users to see changes based on their actions, like scrolling or filling out forms.

For instance: a product image changes when the shopper hovers the mouse over it. Or hovering the mouse makes the image rotate 360 degrees, allowing the shopper to get a better view of the product.

All of this enhances user experience (UX) and helps buyers decide on their purchases.

JavaScript adds such interactivity to sites, allowing marketers to engage visitors and drive sales.

2. Connecting To Backend Servers

JavaScript allows better backend integration using Asynchronous JavaScript (AJAX) and Extensible Markup Language (XML).

It allows web applications to send and retrieve data from the server asynchronously while upholding UX.

In other words, the process doesn’t interfere with the display or behavior of the page.

Otherwise, if visitors wanted to load another page, they would have to wait for the server to respond with a new page. This is annoying and can cause shoppers to leave the site.

So, JavaScript allows dynamic, backend-supported interactions – like updating an item and seeing it updated in the cart – right away.

Similarly, it powers the ability to drag and drop elements on a web page.

3. Web Tracking And Analytics

JavaScript offers real-time tracking of page views and heatmaps that tell you how far down people are reading your content.

For instance, it can tell you where their mouse is or what they clicked (click tracking).

This is how JS powers tracking user behavior and interaction on webpages.

How Do Search Bots Process JS?

Google processes JS in three stages, namely: crawling, rendering, and indexing.

As you can see in this image, Google’s bots put the pages in the queue for crawling and rendering. During this phase, the bots scan the pages to assess new content.

When a URL is retrieved from the crawl queue by sending an HTTP request, it first accesses your robots.txt file to check if you’ve permitted Google to crawl the page.

If it’s disallowed, the bots will ignore it and not send an HTTP request.

In the second stage, rendering, the HTML, CSS, and JavaScript files are processed and transformed into a format that can be easily indexed by Google.

In the final stage, indexing, the rendered content is added to Google’s index, allowing it to appear in the SERPs.

Common JavaScript SEO Challenges With Ecommerce Sites

JavaScript crawling is a lot more complex than traditional HTML sites.

The process is quicker in the case of the latter.

Check out this quick comparison.

Traditional HTML Site Crawling JavaScript Crawling
1 Bots get the HTML file 1 Bots get the HTML file
2 They extract the links to add them to their crawl queue 2 They find no link in the source code because they are only injected after JS execution
3 They get the CSS files 3 Bots get CSS and JS files
4 They send the downloaded resources to Caffeine, Google’s indexer 4 Bots use the Google Web Rendering Service (WRS) to parse and execute JS
5 Voila! The pages are indexed 5 WRS fetches data from the database and external APIs
6 Content is indexed
7 Bots can finally discover new links and add them to the crawl queue

Thus, with JS-rich ecommerce sites, Google finds it tough to index content or discover links before the page is rendered.

In fact, in a webinar on how to migrate a website to JavaScript, Sofiia Vatulyak, a renowned JS SEO expert, shared,

“Though JavaScript offers several useful features and saves resources for the web server, not all search engines can process it. Google needs time to render and index JS pages. Thus, implementing JS while upholding SEO is challenging.”

Here are the top JS SEO challenges ecommerce marketers should be aware of.

Limited Crawl Budget

Ecommerce websites often have a massive (and growing!) volume of pages that are poorly organized.

These sites have extensive crawl budget requirements, and in the case of JS websites, the crawling process is lengthy.

Also, outdated content, such as orphan and zombie pages, can cause a huge wastage of the crawl budget.

Limited Render Budget

As mentioned earlier, to be able to see the content loaded by JS in the browser, search bots have to render it. But rendering at scale demands time and computational resources.

In other words, like a crawl budget, each website has a render budget. If that budget is spent, the bot will leave, delaying the discovery of content and consuming extra resources.

Google renders JS content in the second round of indexing.

It’s important to show your content within HTML, allowing Google to access it.

Go to the Inspect element on your page and search for some of the content. If you cannot find it there, search engines will have trouble accessing it.

Troubleshooting Issues For JavaScript Websites Is Tough

Most JS websites face crawlability and obtainability issues.

For instance, JS content limits a bot’s ability to navigate pages. This affects its indexability.

Similarly, bots cannot figure out the context of the content on a JS page, thus limiting their ability to rank the page for specific keywords.

Such issues make it tough for ecommerce marketers to determine the rendering status of their web pages.

In such a case, using an advanced crawler or log analyzer can help.

Tools like Semrush Log File Analyzer, Google Search Console Crawl Stats, and JetOctopus, among others, offer a full-suite log management solution, allowing webmasters to better understand how search bots interact with web pages.

JetOctopus, for instance, has JS rendering functionality.

Check out this GIF that shows how the tool views JS pages as a Google bot.

Similarly, Google Search Console Crawl Stats shares a useful overview of your site’s crawl performance.

The crawl stats are sorted into:

  • Kilobytes downloaded per day show the number of kilobytes bots get each time they visit the website.
  • Pages crawled per day shows the number of pages the bots crawl per day (low, average, or high).
  • Time spent downloading a page tells you the amount of time bots take to make an HTTP request for the crawl. Less time taken means faster crawling and indexing.

Client-Side Rendering On Default

Ecommerce sites that are built in JS frameworks like React, Angular, or Vue are, by default, set to client-side rendering (CSR).

With this setting, the bots will not be able to see what’s on the page, thus causing rendering and indexing issues.

Large And Unoptimized JS Files

JS code prevents critical website resources from loading quickly. This negatively affects UX and SEO.

Top Optimization Tactics For JavaScript Ecommerce Sites

1. Check If Your JavaScript Has SEO Issues

Here are three quick tests to run on different page templates of your site, namely the homepage, category or product listing pages, product pages, blog pages, and supplementary pages.

URL Inspection Tool

Access the Inspect URL report in your Google Search Console.

Enter the URL you want to test.

Next, press View Tested Page and move to the screenshot of the page. If you see this section blank (like in this screenshot), Google has issues rendering this page.

Repeat these steps for all of the relevant ecommerce page templates shared earlier.

Run A Google Search

Running a site search will help you determine if the URL is in Google’s index.

First, check the no-index and canonical tags. You want to ensure that your canonicals are self-referencing and there’s no index tag on the page.

Next, go to Google search and enter – inurl:your url

This screenshot shows that Target’s “About Us” page is indexed by Google.

If there’s some issue with your site’s JS, you’ll either not see this result or get a result that’s similar to this, but Google will not have any meta information or anything readable.

Go For Content Search

At times, Google may index pages, but the content is unreadable. This final test will help you assess if Google can read your content.

Gather a bunch of content from your page templates and enter it on Google to see the results.

Let’s take some content from Macy’s.

Macy's content

Screenshot from Macy’s, September 2022

No problems here!

But check out what happens with this content on Kroger. It’s a nightmare!

Though spotting JavaScript SEO problems is more complex than this, these three tests will help you quickly assess if your ecommerce Javascript has SEO issues.

Follow these tests with a detailed JS website audit using an SEO crawler that can help identify if your website failed when executing JS, and if some code isn’t working properly.

For instance, a few SEO crawlers have a list of features that can help you understand this in detail:

  • The “JavaScript performance” report offers a list of all the errors.
  • The “browser performance events” chart shows the time of lifecycle events when loading JS pages. It helps you identify the page elements that are the slowest to load.
  • The  “load time distribution” report shows the pages that are fast or slow. If you click on these data columns, you can further analyze the slow pages in detail.

2. Implement Dynamic Rendering

How your website renders code impacts how Google will index your JS content. Hence, you need to know how JavaScript rendering occurs.

Server-Side Rendering

In this, the rendered page (rendering of pages happens on the server) is sent to the crawler or the browser (client). Crawling and indexing are similar to HTML pages.

But implementing server-side rendering (SSR) is often challenging for developers and can increase server load.

Further, the Time to First Byte (TTFB) is slow because the server renders pages on the go.

One thing developers should remember when implementing SSR is to refrain from using functions operating directly in the DOM.

Client-Side Rendering

Here, the JavaScript is rendered by the client using the DOM. This causes several computing issues when search bots attempt to crawl, render, and index content.

A viable alternative to SSR and CSR is dynamic rendering that switches between client and server-side rendered content for specific user agents.

It allows developers to deliver the site’s content to users who access it using JS code generated in the browser.

However, it presents only a static version to the bots. Google officially supports implementing dynamic rendering.

To deploy dynamic rendering, you can use tools like or Puppeteer.

These can help you serve a static HTML version of your Javascript website to the crawlers without any negative impact on CX.

Dynamic rendering is a great solution for ecommerce websites that usually hold lots of content that change frequently or rely on social media sharing (containing embeddable social media walls or widgets).

3. Route Your URLs Properly

JavaScript frameworks use a router to map clean URLs. Hence, it is critical to update page URLs when updating content.

For instance, JS frameworks like Angular and Vue generate URLs with a hash (#) like

Such URLs are ignored by Google bots during the indexing process. So, it is not advisable to use #.

Instead, use static-looking URLs like

4. Adhere To The Internal Linking Protocol

Internal links help Google efficiently crawl the site and highlight the important pages.

A poor linking structure can be harmful to SEO, especially for JS-heavy sites.

One common issue we’ve encountered is when ecommerce sites use JS for links that Google cannot crawl, such as onclick or button-type links.

Check this out:

<a href=”/important-link”onclick=”changePage(‘important-link’)”>Crawl this</a>

If you want Google bots to discover and follow your links, ensure they are plain HTML.

Google recommends interlinking pages using HTML anchor tags with href attributes and asks webmasters to avoid JS event handlers.

5. Use Pagination

Pagination is critical for JS-rich ecommerce websites with thousands of products that retailers often opt to spread across several pages for better UX.

Allowing users to scroll infinitely may be good for UX, but isn’t necessarily SEO-friendly. This is because bots don’t interact with such pages and cannot trigger events to load more content.

Eventually, Google will reach a limit (stop scrolling) and leave. So, most of your content gets ignored, resulting in a poor ranking.

Make sure you use <a href> links to allow Google to see the second page of pagination.

For instance, use this:

<a href=””>

6. Lazy Load Images

Though Google supports lazy loading, it doesn’t scroll through content when visiting a page.

It resizes the page’s virtual viewport, making it longer during the crawling process. And because the  “scroll” event listener isn’t triggered, this content isn’t rendered.

Thus, if you have images below the fold, like most ecommerce websites, it’s critical to lazy load them, allowing Google to see all your content.

7. Allow Bots To Crawl JS

This may seem obvious, but on several occasions, we’ve seen ecommerce sites accidentally blocking JavaScript (.js) files from being crawled.

This will cause JS SEO issues, as the bots will not be able to render and index that code.

Check your robots.txt file to see if the JS files are open and available for crawling.

8. Audit Your JS Code

Finally, ensure you audit your JavaScript code to optimize it for the search engines.

Use tools like Google Webmaster Tools, Chrome Dev Tools, and Ahrefs and an SEO crawler like JetOctopus to run a successful JS SEO audit.

Google Search Console

This platform can help you optimize your site and monitor your organic performance. Use GSC to monitor Googlebot and WRS activity.

For JS websites, GSC allows you to see problems in rendering. It reports crawl errors and issues notifications for missing JS elements that have been blocked for crawling.

Chrome Dev Tools

These web developer tools are built into Chrome for ease of use.

The platform lets you inspect rendered HTML (or DOM) and the network activity of your web pages.

From its Network tab, you can easily identify the JS and CSS resources loaded before the DOM.


Ahrefs allows you to effectively manage backlink-building, content audits, keyword research, and more. It can render web pages at scale and allows you to check for JavaScript redirects.

You can also enable JS in Site Audit crawls to unlock more insights.

The Ahrefs Toolbar supports JavaScript and shows a comparison of HTML to rendered versions of tags.

JetOctopus SEO Crawler And Log Analyzer

JetOctopus is an SEO crawler and log analyzer that allows you to effortlessly audit common ecommerce SEO issues.

Since it can view and render JS as a Google bot, ecommerce marketers can solve JavaScript SEO issues at scale.

Its JS Performance tab offers comprehensive insights into JavaScript execution – First Paint, First Contentful Paint, and page load.

It also shares the time needed to complete all JavaScript requests with the JS errors that need immediate attention.

GSC integration with JetOctopus can help you see the complete dynamics of your site performance.

Ryte UX Tool

Ryte is another tool that’s capable of crawling and checking your javascript pages. It will render the pages and check for errors, helping you troubleshoot issues and check the usability of your dynamic pages.


seoClarity is an enterprise platform with many features. Like the other tools, it features dynamic rendering, letting you check how the javascript on your website performs.

Summing Up

Ecommerce sites are real-world examples of dynamic content injected using JS.

Hence, ecommerce developers rave about how JS lets them create highly interactive ecommerce pages.

On the other hand, many SEO pros dread JS because they’ve experienced declining organic traffic after their site started relying on client-side rendering.

Though both are right, the fact is that JS-reliant websites too can perform well in the SERP.

Follow the tips shared in this guide to get one step closer to leveraging JavaScript in the most effective way possible while upholding your site’s ranking in the SERP.

More resources:

Featured Image: Visual Generation/Shutterstock

Fri, 16 Sep 2022 01:55:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : 25 of the Best Amazon Basics Products You Can Get for Less During October Prime Day This article contains affiliate links to products selected by our editors. Mental Floss may receive a commission for purchases made through these links.

We’ll let you in on a little secret: Even though you can get tons of incredible deals right now during Amazon’s October Prime Day event (including some great finds under $50), there’s another big way to save during this 48-hour sale, and that’s by checking out Amazon Basics.

The online retailer’s in-house brand is known for its affordable pricing as it is, but during Prime Day, you stand to save even more. You can shop for top-rated cookware and appliances, but that’s just the tip of the proverbial iceberg, because the line also offers weighted blankets, storage solutions, pet supplies, and plenty of other budget-friendly household essentials.

If you’re looking to really stack up the savings this year, these Amazon Basics discounts are worth taking a closer look at. Below are 25 of the best that you still have time to scoop up before this event, which is exclusive to Prime members, and ends tonight at midnight.

Amazon Basics outlet against colorful background.

Save more on electronics and other essentials from this affordable line. / Amazon / Anna Blazhuk, Moment Collection, Getty Images (background)

1. Amazon Basics 3-Pack Travel Plug Adapters for $3 (Save $8)

2. Amazon Basics Nylon USB-A to Lightning Cable Cord for $9 (Save $4)

3. Amazon Basics Non-Stick 3-Piece Cookware Set for $34 (Save $6)

4. Amazon Basics Electronics Repair Screwdriver Set, Set of 32 Pieces for $15 (Save $5)

5. Amazon Basics Silicone, Non-Stick, Food Safe Baking Mats, Pack of 3 for $9 (Save $2)

6. Amazon Basics 14-Piece Kitchen Knife Block Set for $28 (Save $5)

7. Amazon Basics Steel Home Security Safe with Programmable Keypad for $102 (Save $18)

8. Amazon Basics Glass Food Storage Container with BPA-Free Locking Lid, Set of 14 for $24 (Save $7)

9. Amazon Basics Dog Poop Bags with Dispenser and Leash Clip (810 Bags) for $15 (Save $4)

10. Amazon Basics 8-Outlet Power Strip Surge Protector for $13 (Save $5)

11. Amazon Basics Electric Glass and Steel Water Kettle for $24 (Save $4)

12. Amazon Basics 24-Pack AA Rechargeable Batteries for $27 (Save $9)

13. Amazon Basics Collapsible Fabric Storage Cubes Organizer with Handles, Pack of 6 for $18 (Save $4)

14. Amazon Basics All-Season Cotton Weighted Blanket from $31 (Save up to $21)

15. Amazon Basics Vacuum Compression Storage Bags with Hand Pump, 12-Pack for $23 (Save $7)

16. Amazon Basics Single Pole Smart Switch for $14 (Save $4)

17. Amazon Basics Plush Dog Pet Bed Pad from $20 (Save up to $5)

18. Amazon Basics Fast Drying Terry Cotton Washcloths, Pack of 24 for $15 (Save $6)

19. Amazon Basics All-Purpose Wine Glasses, 19-Ounce, Set of 4 for $16 (Save $12)

20. Amazon Basics 6-Piece Nonstick, Carbon Steel Oven Bakeware Set for $26 (Save $17)

21. Amazon Basics 2-Tier Sliding Drawers Basket Storage Organizer for $22 (Save $11)

22. Amazon Basics Pre-Seasoned Cast Iron 5-Piece Kitchen Cookware Set for $67 (Save $29)

23. Amazon Basics 3 Pin, 25-Foot Microphone Cable for $5 (Save $11)

24. Amazon Basics Classic Faux Leather Office Chair for $85 (Save $38)

25. Amazon Basics 4-Piece Packing Travel Organizer Cubes Set for $17 (Save $6)

This story has been updated to reflect current pricing.

Wed, 12 Oct 2022 00:21:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Google Pixel 7 Revealed: Better Than Just The Basics

The Pixel 7's main camera can capture 10-bit HDR videos, alongside timelapse in 4K and astrophotography modes, and up to 8x digital zoom. For still photos, Google is offering tricks like photo unblur, magic eraser, top shot, night sight, Live HDR+, and portrait light to name a few. There is 8GB of LPDDR5 RAM inside, with the option to pick between 128GB and 256GB storage variants. 

This one features a smaller 6.3-inch FHD+ (1080 x 2400 pixels) display offering an impressive 1,400 nits of peak brightness, but the screen refresh rate still remains limited to a 90Hz peak, instead of 120Hz as seen on the Pro model. The Pixel 7's build is IP68 certified for dust and water resistance, with Google using matte polished aluminum on the sides and Gorilla glass Victus on both the front and back. 

Google is promising 24 hours of usage on a full charge with the 4,355 mAh battery fitted inside the Pixel 7. You also get support for 30W wired fast charging, alongside Qi wireless charging and reverse power share conveniences. The phone is dual-SIM-ready, and supports mmWave 5G connectivity, as well. NFC is there to facilitate contactless payments, while an in-display fingerprint sensor covers the authentication protocols. Pixel 7 is up for pre-order today and "on shelves next week," according to Google.

Thu, 06 Oct 2022 03:32:00 -0500 en-US text/html
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