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Technology leader and co-founder of Opkey — a continuous testing platform redefining test automation for web, mobile and ERP applications.
Many business and technology leaders realize that their digital transformation initiatives can’t be utilized without modernizing their enterprise resource planning (ERP) software. Incorporating new technologies such as artificial intelligence and machine learning is essential to modernizing ERP solutions.
Through a 2019 study of ERP migration and transformation projects, McKinsey revealed that two-thirds of enterprises did not get the ROI they were looking for from their migration project. The common reasons for this dissatisfaction are delays in ERP implementations and misaligned project goals. Intelligent test automation, which powers a continuous testing approach, will help ERP transformation projects run on time and stay within budget.
Continuous testing for ERP applications: Why do you need it?
Next-gen ERPs and digital operations platforms require innovative software to be released rapidly, with minimal business risk. Leading analysts from Gartner, Forrester (paywall) and IDC (registration required) now recognize that software testing in its current form cannot handle the challenges posed by ERP applications. These analysts have concluded that software testing must be aligned with DevOps and AgileOps practices to handle giant ERP transformation projects.
The Agile/DevOps approach is incomplete, inefficient and ineffective without continuous testing. In ERP migration projects where platforms are extended to incorporate new features, functionalities and technologies, continuous testing helps you transparently validate the performance of critical business processes. This significantly reduces the risks associated with a new implementation, along with scheduled software updates. By catching bugs early in the development cycle, continuous testing ensures minimal time and budget overruns while providing advantages in risk reduction.
What are the testing challenges of ERP transformations?
According to a report by Bloor (registration required), more than 80% of migration projects ran over budget in 2007. While I have seen that statistic Boost over the years, I know migration projects regularly face issues of running over budget and over time. A 2019 ERP report from Panorama Consulting Group (registration required) shows that 45% of respondents had an average budget overrun of 30%.
Here are some specific testing challenges.
• Unclear Testing Scope: Determining what to test remains a major challenge for QA teams. The business risk grows every time too little testing is done. If you test too much, it wastes the time and resources of your business users.
• Inadequate Test Coverage: There are many moving parts in any ERP migration project. Functional and nonfunctional attributes get added, updated or removed with these migrations. Testing needs to pass various stages, from a unit test to a volume test, and eventually a mock go-live cutover.
• Change Frequency: In a recent Deloitte CIO survey, almost 45% of respondents reported that managing changes in an ERP project scope is one of the top frustrations in planning their ERP journey (pg. 10).
• Testing Fatigue: ERP projects are long and tedious processes. Using a manual testing methodology for ERP transformations can be inefficient and error-prone. Ask yourself: “Can my business users deliver their full effort to testing?”
Continuous testing for ERP applications: How can I make it work?
To incorporate continuous testing for a digital transformation, leaders must utilize automation. Teams should now focus on next-generation automation platforms that allow them to quickly build test cases, automate them and build the infrastructure to run them in a continuous fashion. Let’s review the four pillars of a continuous testing strategy.
• Know your ideal coverage: Here are some questions to ask yourself: “What’s my current test coverage? Am I testing all of our critical processes? If something goes seriously wrong, is it because I didn’t test enough?”
If the test cases you are automating only cover 30% of your core business processes, the automation might not be good enough. Emphasize knowing your ideal coverage and leverage a process mining technology to validate your ideal coverage. Test mining techniques surface your existing test cases, business processes and configurations from your system process log to determine your existing testing baseline.
• Apply continuous test development: Test assets require considerable reworks to keep pace with the frequent ERP changes typical in an accelerated release cycle. This speed cannot be achieved with continuous testing.
• Monitor changes continually: Ask yourself: “What has changed in the most recent ERP quarterly update? What business processes or test cases are going to be impacted?”
Emphasize the importance of knowing whether you are testing what is needed. Before the updates are pushed to production, use automation tools that deliver better change visibility to users by alerting them of processes that will be impacted.
• Test execution at scale: Prepare a scalable infrastructure to run thousands of tests on-demand with every change. Opt for a platform that can run your tests continuously on-premises, in the cloud and on mobile seamlessly.
What do you need from a test automation tool?
Three key capabilities must exist in a test automation tool to support an ERP transformation’s continuous testing paradigm.
• Autonomous Configuration Of Tests: Many changes happen at the configuration level for any ERP transformation. Leaders should leverage an automation tool that can autonomously create relevant data sets for test execution.
• Continual Impact Analysis: In the ERP world, updates are rolled out frequently. QA teams can find it difficult to decide the minimum number of test cases that need to be executed to ensure business continuity in post-application updates. AI-based impact analysis recommends a minimum number of test cases that need to be executed based on highlighted risks, keeping business application disruptions at bay.
• Autonomous Self-Healing Tests: QA teams often struggle to continuously maintain test scripts with each new release. Through leveraging AI-powered self-healing capabilities, changes can be identified automatically and test scripts can be fixed autonomously.
Continuous Test Automation: A Summary
The key to successful AgileOps is releasing updates as early and as often as possible.
With enterprise application vendors like Oracle, Microsoft and SAP rolling out updates on a weekly, monthly or quarterly basis, enterprises need to embrace those updates as early as possible. However, supporting your software testing initiatives will only be achieved with the right continuous testing strategy.
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Table of Content
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Chapter Three: Production Market Analysis
Chapter Four: Sales Market Analysis
Chapter Five: Consumption Market Analysis
Chapter Six: Production, Sales and Consumption Market Comparison Analysis
Chapter Seven: Major Manufacturers Production and Sales Market Comparison Analysis
Chapter Eight: Competition Analysis by Players
Chapter Nine: Marketing Channel Analysis
Chapter Ten: New Project Investment Feasibility Analysis
Chapter Eleven: Manufacturing Cost Analysis
Chapter Twelve: Industrial Chain, Sourcing Strategy and Downstream Buyers
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Patrick Sturdivant, a software systems engineer who worked at USAA for 34 years and is blind, is generally a fan of artificial intelligence software.
“I love AI when it's used properly and thoughtfully to include everyone,” he said. “AI can be a great equalizer for the disabled, because the computer can do so much that I can't do.”
But he also worries about the dangers of AI inadvertently discriminating against people with disabilities during recruitment and hiring.
“I do get scared that too much AI is used to filter through resumes and a lot of good people are excluded,” said Sturdivant, who is now principal strategy consultant at Deque Systems. “What scares me even more is the use of AI to screen video interviews to see who's going to make the next cut. There is too much potential there for developers to forget to include people of all backgrounds, all abilities, all races, all colors, all genders. And if they don't do it right, and if they don't test it correctly and perfect it, they're going to hurt some people.”
Most large employers, including banks, use AI throughout the hiring process to filter through thousands of applications to get to the smaller number of truly qualified candidates. This is sometimes called “predictive hiring.” Across the industry, 51% of banks said they use AI-powered analytics in decision making of all kinds, according to a survey conducted by Arizent that was published earlier this week.
“More and more organizations are using different algorithms to try and create better matches of prospective employees to jobs in their organization,” said Haig Nalbantian, senior partner at Mercer and co-lead of Mercer's Workforce Sciences Institute. “There's been a big uptick.”
This use of AI potentially could reduce or eliminate nepotism and bias from hiring decisions. But it could also perpetuate existing biases or introduce new forms of unfairness, including in the use of gamification, automated analysis of resumes, automated analysis of video interviews and AI-generated pre-employment tests.
One AI-based technology Nalbantian has been seeing banks and other large companies use more in hiring is gamification software from companies like Pymetrics and Knack. These use games to measure potential employees’ “soft skills” and match them with job openings.
In some cases, the games simulate actual work experience.
“It might involve some problem solving, and the employer through this mechanism will be able to see, how does this individual tackle a problem? What does he or she look at first? Are they attentive to things happening on the screen that may not be central to what they're focused on? In what order do they address particular issues that arise? How do they react to surprises?” Nalbantian said. “They're trying to simulate the work experience to gauge how people actually function when they're forced to make choices in an environment that's gamified.”
The providers of these programs argue that their technology can ensure a company is blind to race and gender.
“In that way, it can offset some of the overt bias that may show up in traditional hiring methods, where I look at a resume and the name, the addresses and the background are all there,” Nalbantian said. Gamification software vendors say they can remove anything that signals the person's race or gender, and therefore remove opportunities for bias.
Nalbantian said there is some truth to this. Another potential advantage of such software is that it may help companies consider candidates that have the right skills but have not held a particular type of job before.
“When labor markets are tight and it's hard to keep good talent, being able to expand the potential labor pool to candidates that have adjacent skill sets and experience can be a very positive thing to have access to more people than you otherwise would,” he said.
But, Nalbantian said, the software’s reliance on computer gaming skills could be problematic.
“You can imagine that less privileged people and candidates who did not grow up playing computer games and did not have computers in their homes will be at a systematic disadvantage,” Nalbantian said. “You end up in effect self-selecting certain types of people with certain backgrounds that may relate to race and gender and that may create disparities.”
Most standard pre-employment tests used to be taken on paper, and all candidates took the same test. When such tests were first put online, everyone still got the same list of questions.
Now artificial intelligence is being used to modify qualification tests on the fly, according to Ken Willner, partner at Paul Hastings. The AI decides what the next question ought to be based on how the candidate did on the previous questions.
“Let's say the test is looking at your geometry skills,” he said. “An artificial-intelligence-aided test might deliver you a first question on geometry, and then based on how you did on that one, deliver you either a harder question or an easier question.”
Because of this, applicants get different questions based on how well they did.
“That's a way perhaps of learning more precisely about someone's geometry skills, but it lends to difficulty in validating a test,” Willner added. “Everyone's not taking exactly the same test or at least answering exactly the same questions. That's something psychologists have been wrestling with somewhat, these tests that modify themselves based on the applicant.”
A bank would want to make sure its vendor can show that it's measuring the same skill or the same ability, he said.
Nalbantian is not bothered by the use of AI to assess proficiency levels, especially where jobs require specific knowledge and skill sets.
“You may have an apprentice level, a professional level and a master level,” he said. If answers to the first few questions identify someone as being at a master level, then it makes sense to ask questions that will gauge where the person is within the spectrum of mastery of the skillset.
To weed through thousands of job applicants, large companies typically use application tracking systems from companies like Lever or SAP SuccessFactors that can analyze large volumes of resumes and separate the job candidates that will get a call back from those who won’t.
Where AI software relies on data on past decisions to screen current applicants, this could lead to perpetuating existing bias in an organization. For instance, if a company has hired people from Ivy League colleges in the past and AI software picks up on that, it could disadvantage people who for socioeconomic reasons were not able to attend an elite college. The employment data of a company that has hired mostly white men in the past will likely lack signals relevant to successful Black and female candidates.
“Hypothetically speaking, you might find a word like ‘African’ that's being either correlated or negatively correlated with selection, and you sure don't want to have a word that is directly related to a protected characteristic as one of the criteria that is being used in making selections,” Willner said. “If there's bias in the criteria that you're using, then there could be bias in the results. But that's something that companies can and should address to the greatest extent possible by looking at what is being correlated and eliminating anything that shows any potential for bias.”
For instance, a company may find the word “baseball” correlates to being good at teamwork, but it may not have enough women in its sample for the word “softball” to come up.
“If baseball is going to indicate someone's on the baseball team and therefore is good at teamwork, well, softball would too,” Willner said. “You want to look for things like that and you want to know what's in there and make sure this is not discriminatory and that it is relevant to the job.
Most large companies, and some small ones, use video interview technology to conduct video interviews with job candidates. One popular provider, HireVue, is used by many banks including Bank of America, Goldman Sachs, JPMorgan, and Morgan Stanley.
In 2019, the Electronic Privacy Information Center filed a complaint with the Federal Trade Commission alleging that HireVue uses facial recognition technology and proprietary algorithms to assess job candidates’ cognitive ability, psychological traits, emotional intelligence and social aptitudes. HireVue collects tens of thousands of data points from each video interview of a job candidate, including a candidate’s intonation, inflection, and emotions to predict each job candidate’s employability, EPIC said.
EPIC also said HireVue does not deliver candidates access to their assessment scores or the training data, factors, logic, or techniques used to generate each algorithmic assessment.
HireVue says it discontinued the facial analysis component of its algorithm in March 2020 after internal research showed that advances in natural language processing had increased the predictive power of language analysis.
“Over time, we realized the minimal value provided by the visual analysis didn’t warrant continuing to incorporate it in the assessments or outweigh the potential concerns,” said Lindsey Zuloaga, chief data scientist at HireVue.
Zuloaga also said that although the company’s technology captures videos for later human review, its artificial intelligence only scores what is said by the candidate using natural language processing and it does not use any visual analysis, such as facial expressions, body language, emotions, or background and surroundings.
“We stopped using video inputs such as facial muscle movements in new models early in 2020, and in 2021 we started to phase out speech inputs,” Zuloaga said. Speech inputs include things like variation in tone or pauses.
HireVue transcribes interviews and analyzes the candidates’ responses to questions for possible matches with job descriptions, she said. The company also provides an AI Explainability Statement to corporate customers and to job candidates.
In recent months, HireVue has been sued for collecting facial recognition data from candidates without notice nor consent, in violation of an Illinois law, the Biographical Information Protection Act.
Some states have laws that regulate the use of video for screening job applicants, Willner noted. “There are legal risks in those states that can be addressed by compliance with the specific statutes,” he said.
Video interviews can be reviewed by humans or by AI to weed out unqualified candidates. Either way is lawful most of the time, according to Willner.
“The rationale behind having AI make the assessment is that it does tend to move the potentially biased human being from the process,” Willner said. “Then you can take steps to eliminate or reduce the bias that may come into the source material for AI.”
Research shows that using structured interviews and objective ways of assessing the answers in those interviews is an effective way of reducing bias in the process and improving the reliability and validity of the results, Willner said.
“But the risks of bias being imported into the process from whatever the AI was built on does call for some steps to try and address and mitigate those risks so you can get the best possible result,” he said.
The bottom line is, companies have to be careful using any of these technologies.
“AI is like anything,” Sturdivant said. “It can be made for good, but if you don't watch what you're doing, you can really mess things up and cause a lot of problems.”
The leading SAP testing automation tool makes organizations more agile, and integration with Jira takes this to the next level.
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AMSTERDAM, July 14, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Qualibrate, the leading cloud-native test solution for SAP automation, helps companies manage end-to-end software delivery, making teams more agile, efficient and integrated.
Recent data found that while 70% of organizations either have a digital transformation strategy in place or have one in development, 45% of executives do not believe their company has the necessary technology to pursue a transformation project successfully.
Delivering digital transformation is essential for businesses' ability to innovate and grow. However, undergoing this transformation is more about ensuring a company has the right mindset and culture.
One of the main forms of digital transformation is proving a single source of truth across different tools - another area where S/4HANA can help - beginning with integrating all users and end devices, including IoT and mobile solutions.
Qualibrate has identified that it is important for enterprises to be more agile, especially with automation for SAP. Now, Qualibrate integrates with software delivery tools, such as Jira, to release SAP faster.
Jira is the most powerful project planning tool for agile software development. Thanks to the integration with Qualibrate, business analysts can become more agile with the ability to link user stories to test cases to make sure that the newly developed features are covered using automation testing tools. This integration solves one of the main questions SAP customers have, "How do I connect my agile delivery and testing processes between Qualibrate and Jira?"
"Qualibrate's integration with various software delivery tools, such as Jira, is an important step forward for the company as a whole and SAP customers, as we now have a link between software delivery and testing," said Alan Jimenez, Managing Director at Qualibrate. "Organizations and customers are moving faster than ever. Giving them the proper tools to run continuous testing, reporting and documentation during the software development lifecycle is vital to their success."
Customers can now leverage the power of both platforms for improved traceability. With real-time sync between tools, you can visualize relationships in both solutions. Users will also be able to relate Jira issues with Qualibrate records, such as flows, scenarios, and defects.
Qualibrate users can maximize their software lifecycle processes by being able to integrate with some of the most popular development and management tools, such as Jira, GitHub, Jenkins, and more.
For more information on Qualibrate, please visit https://www.qualibrate.com/.
Qualibrate is the 3-in-1 cloud-native test solution for enterprise software delivery that transforms the way teams test, document, and train end users. It offers native support for automating tests on SAP applications and 40+ non-SAP technologies such as Salesforce, Microsoft, ServiceNow, Oracle Cloud Apps, Mendix, etc.
Qualibrate's Cloud test automation platform integrates natively with SAP Solution Manager Test Suite to extend the customer's capability to automate SAP and non-SAP applications as part of their end-to-end testing strategy. Qualibrate is the tool of choice for customers such as AirFrance/KLM, Tommy Hilfiger, Calvin Klein, Bell Helicopter, Nouryon and more.
With a certified integration for SAP, your team can leverage Qualibrate to save up to 80% effort on testing and training while documenting business processes 7x faster than before.
This content was issued through the press release distribution service at Newswire.com.
VAT managers need to understand the migration agenda, check that their VAT solution is fit for purpose, and consider using a tax engine to Boost the transition, as Roger Lindelauf of Vertex explains.
With the deadline to migrate to SAP S/4HANA still five years away, many businesses may be in the early stages of their migration process. The new functionality offered by SAP S/4HANA is designed to boost business agility, and it will have an impact on most internal business functions, including indirect tax and finance.
While IT will lead on migration plans, it is critical for the VAT and finance teams to be involved and understand what impact the transition to a new system will have on VAT determination and compliance.
There are three key priorities tax managers must consider to ensure their current and future VAT determination needs are met when the business makes the move to SAP S/4HANA:
1. What’s on the agenda?
It is important that VAT managers liaise with their IT colleagues as soon as possible to understand their organisation’s SAP S/4HANA agenda. Before the transition, they should also do the following:
Assess the level of compliance of their current VAT settings;
Analyse and allocate process steps, from master data to reporting and archiving;
Design their futureproof VAT knowledge and content framework; and
Investigate VAT determination options.
SAP’s VAT function helps businesses address base-level requirements, but as VAT complexity increases, or if companies expand or their sales channels grow, the need for real-time reporting and e-invoicing increases. Custom VAT determination solutions built for SAP ECC6 need to be reviewed because, if they are no longer correct, they can put business operations at risk.
Ultimately VAT and IT teams need to question whether their existing VAT solution will fit in with SAP S/4HANA (both now and in the future, in light of the rapidly increasing complexity and speed of reporting), or if it needs to be rebuilt.
If their solution does need to be rebuilt, coding cannot just be copied and pasted into the new system, so additional time and effort will be needed for the design, test, re-design, and re-test phases.
The SAP team that built the original solution for VAT determination will need to be involved – and if they are not, the rules to be embedded into the system will need to be explained all over again. The process could be outsourced, but who will retain this level of knowledge in the business once the service provider has finished the job?
Extending the power of SAP S/4HANA with the right tax technology can help streamline VAT determination and compliance, helping organisations to adapt to new business and regulatory changes quickly.
For many businesses, specialist tax engines can help address the complexities of VAT determination. A tax engine is a third-party system that integrates with the enterprise resource planning system (ERP) to replace its VAT functionality. This eliminates the need for in-house tax research and constant updates to Boost VAT determination accuracy.
Implementing a tax engine before the migration to SAP S/4HANA begins (by adding it to the current SAP ECC system) will help to de-risk the process, as VAT challenges will no longer need to be part of the transition.
The move to SAP S/4HANA is a massive undertaking for any business, and it is crucial that the VAT team remains part of the conversation. Working together with colleagues in the IT department, the VAT team can build the business case for a more effective way to manage future indirect tax determination needs. This will also remove the burden from IT of the VAT automation complexities that will continue to exist within the new digital platform.
If you’re implementing or migrating to SAP S/4HANA, learn more about how a tax engine can help here.
Contact us for more information.
The ANWR Group, a Mainhausen-based community of financial services and retailers in the footwear, sporting goods, and leather goods industries, has, until 2018, used the ERP system of its bank subsidiary DZB Bank, and as a result, banking sector regulations for financial accounting and controlling also applied to the retail area of the company.
Over time, these regulations became more restrictive, and the flexibility needed for the trading industry was no longer available. “We had already started separating the IT systems a few years earlier in order to better prepare both the bank and the trading companies for the respective requirements,” recalls ANWR Group CIO Sven Kulikowsky. The ERP software was the last shared system.
ANWR adopts a cloud-first strategy for new IT projects, and in 2018, the IT department tackled the migration to SAP S/4HANA together with the business areas of financial accounting and controlling. There was already knowledge of the solutions from the Walldorf-based software company since the previous core system was an on-premises SAP R/3 that was heavily modified. So the new environment really had to be based on a greenfield approach in the public cloud set up by SAP.
“It was extremely important to get the departments on board from the start,” says Kulikowsky. Together they determined what the new solution had to be able to do from the start. In joint workshops, mixed teams from business departments and the IT evaluated the capabilities and degree of maturity of the cloud platform.
In order to organize the change, a steering committee was formed as the highest control body. Underneath, a project board formed as a control team from Kulikowsky and his counterparts in financial accounting and controlling, which coordinated with the project manager of the external partner Camelot ITLab for two hours a week. The team received input from cross-functional working groups made up of staff and external consultants, who discussed problems with specific processes. “We were able to quickly compare different opinions and make decisions,” says Kulikowsky. As a result, departments and IT have always pulled together.
He set a goal of migrating all systems to the new environment by the end of 2021, and the 2021 annual financial statements created with S/4HANA. Plus, the 2022 financial year was to start without the old environment, and to do this, Kulikowsky defined nine waves.
In these phases, the teams worked with agile methods and flexible time schedules. ”With this mix of milestones and sprints, the teams have a clear goal in mind, while at the same time we take into account risks that would have derailed a fixed schedule,” he says. Developments may sometimes take longer, but the main thing is that everything fits in the end.
The starting signal was given in Q1 of 2020 and after four weeks, Covid-19 hit. ”Due to the uncertainty in retail and the many lockdowns and difficulties in the supply chains, we had to stop the project,” says Kulikowsky. Six months later, the project team resumed work on the migration, yet completely remotely, which was a new experience for everyone involved. “But we coped well,” he says. Previously, the team worked in a project area in the office and exchanged ideas closely, but this abruptly changed to remote working. “We used Microsoft Teams as a central tool for knowledge and file exchange, conferences, and appointments,” he says. “All colleagues were easily accessible and could work very flexibly.”
After almost five months, the first pilot was implemented on December 1, 2020, in six small companies that had no interfaces to HR or booking systems, and had small company codes. The employees switched to the new system and got to know it with the first bookings.
The remaining eight waves were spread over 2021. Up to four companies were converted to the new system and on November 22, 2021, everyone had migrated to SAP S/4HANA. After some adjustments to interfaces, the project was declared over on March 30, 2022. “Now it’s about ironing out workarounds, improving processes, and closing gaps,” says Kulikowsky. The goal is to have as much standardization as possible.
In addition to the problems caused by Covid-19, Kulikowsky and his team overcame a number of other challenges. In IT and other departments, the project meant more work in day-to-day business. “If a dealer has a problem, it has to be solved quickly, regardless of whether we’re currently migrating to SAP or not. We had to constantly manage this double burden,” he says.
In addition, it was necessary to convince other department staff. “After 20 years in the old system, some colleagues had difficulties getting used to the new interface and processes in the cloud,” he says. To this end, the project management held weekly meetings with the business units to discuss the processes, questions, and problems.
At the stages when certain companies went live, the responsible accountants were present at each of these meetings. They drew attention to special issues or requirements and helped to develop solutions.
There was also a bug tracking list that was edited twice a week. In it, the team collected questions, fears, worries, and comments, addressed them and suggested solutions.
A major concern of IT for the new landscape was standardizing as much as possible. “The business areas should become less dependent on IT,” says Kulikowsky. There were many special functions in the old system and especially in the retail area. Here, too, he used workshops with specialist departments to find out what requirements SAP standard software was available for.
Almost 90% of the new ERP system now runs on standard software. In some places there were difficulties with the solutions from SAP, according to Kulikowsky.
In the first test runs and demonstrations by SAP and the implementation partner, it looked as if the cloud modules would fit all use cases. In day-to-day business, however, Kulikowsky’s team noticed that the software was causing some problems. “We didn’t check the selection carefully enough so we only noticed during the ongoing project that elementary functions weren’t running smoothly,” he says. Pay slips, for example, could not be integrated seamlessly.
A total of around 35 internal and a dozen external employees participated in the project with about 35 interfaces built between SAP and other systems. ”The connection of the HR management system HCM to S/4 is especially a disaster,” he says. Standard integrations from the old system are no longer available in the new one, so critical information isn’t transferred to the cloud, like bills without an invoice date, for example, or if the SAP system didn’t reflect legal requirements for financial accounting in the processes.
“Some SAP solutions have had problems with their own cloud interfaces,” says Kulikowsky. “In that case, it would have been just as difficult to connect a non-SAP solution.” In contrast, the integration of the sales and service cloud C4C in HANA was easy. This indicates that SAP was no longer investing in HCM, although the product is still being used by many companies. As a result, customer satisfaction suffers.
Performance was also a problem. Outside of the test environments, the performance of some cloud apps often dropped. ”Our workforce is now used to a user experience like at home and therefore has higher demands on the solutions in the office,” he says. If the performance collapses during operation, the corporate IT has little influence and is dependent on SAP.
Nevertheless, Kulikowsky sees the benefits of migration. For example, payment transactions have become leaner. “We have automated the process of memorizing in an account statement so colleagues no longer have to type it in,” he says. “That saves time.” All accountants now use a single system without special solutions, giving IT more time to innovate and implement more easily without the old banking system.
Kulikowsky also wants to Boost data quality. The new processes automatically consolidate the incoming information via interfaces but inaccuracies from the source systems are still transferred to the cloud ERP. However, it’ll still be a while before the full extent of the improvements is visible. ”The new processes may be faster, but the employees need time to familiarize themselves and to leave old paths.”
For Kulikowsky, working closely with the departments was crucial to the success of the ambitious project. “It wasn’t just an IT or departmental project, it was a collaborative effort,” he says. ”Everyone involved knew the requirements and possible obstacles from the start.”
In addition, everyone had a clear idea of the target state and the project priorities. “We had requirements from the business units: paying and submitting bills, and the advance tax return had to function permanently,” Kulikowsky says. The project team was always able to achieve this.
He also insists on trust in his own team. “The time pressure has to be maintained, but if a colleague is unsure whether we can actually go live with something, we take the risk and plan two more weeks,” he says. For the next major project, he wants to communicate more and Boost the exchange of information. For the future, he thinks about a hybrid model: two to three days in the office and the rest in teleworking. “On one hand, we would have the necessary exchange. On the other, our colleagues could work at home in a concentrated and undisturbed manner.”
Shards of electricity burned through Mr P’s flesh. Layers upon layers of subcutaneous fat unraveled, filling the operating room with a pungent, metallic odor, like singed hair at the neighborhood barbecue. Within a few minutes, the pearly white bone of the sternum stuck out before a vein split open, filling the operative field with blood.
Zap! Maroon juice turned into a crackly black mass.
Transplant surgery is all about timing, says Dr Brandon Guenthart, a cardiothoracic surgeon at Stanford University School of Medicine. Anesthesiologists put the patient to sleep after the retrieval team confirms the donor heart looks good. Two surgeons start operating an hour before the donor heart arrives in the hospital. They don’t begin cutting the patient’s heart out until the donor heart has landed safely at the local airport.
And if the plane crashes? “Knock on wood,” says Guenthart. There’s unfortunately no wood in the operating room.
I was at Stanford hospital watching this heart transplant because of my interest in David Bennett, a 57-year-old man who had died back in March. On 7 January 2022, at the University of Maryland Medical Center, Bennett had received a landmark heart transplant from an unusual donor: a genetically modified pig.
In 2021, a record 41,354 human-to-human organ transplants were performed, but over 100,000 Americans are still stuck on the transplant list. Every day, 17 people die waiting because there simply aren’t enough organs to go around.
Xenotransplantation – or transferring cells, tissues and organs between species – promises to solve this shortage and to reshape how we think about human longevity.
Lost in this boundless potential, however, is the significance of the human-animal divide. People walking around with pig organs melded into their bodies – human-animal cyborgs of sorts – can seem dystopian. And with the zoonotic Sars-CoV-2 virus having killed more than 6 million people, violating the interface between humans and animals may just promise more catastrophe.
This tortuous relationship is nothing new, but it’s often sanitized and hidden from sight – think grinning cows on milk cartons and secret bunkers for animal research. Left open is a whole host of questions, starting with the most complex of all: what does it mean to be human?
Humans are animals. But animals are not humans. And yet, our history is rife with a cultural imagination of hybridity. The ancient Egyptian god of the sky, Horus, was depicted with a falcon head and the goddess of war, Sekhmet, that of a lioness. Similarly, the Hindu god Ganesha was beheaded and then resurrected with an elephant head grafted on to his body. In ancient Greece, fantastical creatures roamed the myths, from the bull-headed Minotaur to the snake-haired Medusa.
Within this wealth of options, the International Xenotransplantation Association chose a more obscure mascot: the Lamassu, an Assyrian deity with the body of a bull, the wings of a bird, and the head of a man – a grounding wisdom.
Xenotransplantation, as a research field, started only with cells and tissues. In 17th-century France and England, blood was transfused from animals to humans to cure a whole host of medical conditions. Spiritual meaning was imbued into the act: “Since Christ is the lamb of God,” one recipient wrote in a letter to the Royal Society, “sheep’s blood possess[es] a symbolic relationship with [his] blood”. One patient’s violent fever was purportedly cured, as was another patient’s paralysis, but at least two others died soon after these “xenotransfusions”.
Other early xenotransplants would follow, including ones with the bone, cornea and skin. Perhaps most infamously, the French surgeon Serge Voronoff transplanted slices of chimpanzee and baboon testicles into men, and ape ovaries into women, to rejuvenate his patients’ “zest for life”. Thousands of these operations were performed around the world, but any reported benefit, such as reduced fatigue or increased sex drive, was probably only the placebo effect and quickly faded.
While cell and tissue xenotransplants have been performed for centuries, whole organ transplants were more difficult to figure out. Sewing all the blood vessels together is a tricky business. You have to put two floppy tubes together “mouth-to-mouth”, tying them tight enough that the patient doesn’t bleed out, but delicately enough that the patient doesn’t have major clotting either.
This was a Nobel prize-level problem that the French surgeon Alexis Carrel solved with a small embroidery needle and fine silk suture, and was recognized for in 1912. He’s sometimes known as the father of transplant surgery.
A half-century later in 1964, the University of Mississippi surgeon James Hardy attempted the world’s first cardiac transplant, transferring Bino the chimpanzee’s heart into the chest of the rapidly deteriorating 68-year-old Boyd Rush. Rush survived for only 90 minutes, with the chimp heart offering insufficient support and rejection quickly shutting down his body.
It was Baby Fae who truly set the stakes for xenotransplantation. She was a 12-day-old infant with hypoplastic left heart syndrome, a congenital abnormality where the left side of the heart is a sliver of its full form. The condition was a death sentence.
So, in 1984, surgeons at Loma Linda University, California, transplanted a walnut-sized baboon heart into Baby Fae’s chest. The conditions were almost perfect. The heart was well-sized, Baby Fae’s immune system was immature (and sympathetic), and the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine could suppress attacks on the baboon heart.
After the operation, Baby Fae seemed to be doing well. Resting in her crib with a gauze-covered scar traversing her chest, she was “just gulping down her formula” and wailing with a “lusty cry”, according to the hospital spokeswoman. The hospital also released photos of Baby Fae “talking” with her mother, the phone receiver bigger than her entire torso.
She died 21 days after her operation, her immune system refusing to accept the new infant-baboon hybrid. Outrage from physicians and the public soon followed, with animal-rights activists protesting and bioethicists publishing articles like “Baby Fae: The ‘Anything Goes’ School of Human Experimentation.”
Xenotransplantation died with Baby Fae, if only for a little while.
“During surgery when the drapes are on, it’s not really a person,” Guenthart said. “It’s a task.”
Technically speaking, a heart transplant is pretty easy. It takes only five incisions to cut out the failing heart, and only five connections to put in the new one. Electrocautery in one hand, scissors in the other, you usually first cut out the superior vena cava – the vessel bringing back blood to the heart from the head, neck, arms and chest – because it’s the most accessible structure.
Next is the inferior vena cava, which brings back blood from down south but is a bit hard to reach. So, you cut off a portion of the heart’s right chamber where this vessel drains into.
Then comes the aorta and pulmonary arteries in fairly simple, straightforward incisions. More difficult are the pulmonary veins, because these are four delicate vessels that are almost impossible to reconnect. The way around that is to lift the heart up and cut out a rim of left heart tissue from underneath. “You create a swimming pool, or a little crater,” Guenthart said. He paused. “That’s just me giving a description. They don’t actually call it a swimming pool.”
Regardless of whether you’re transplanting a human heart or pig heart into someone, the steps are essentially the same.
“If you asked 99 doctors out of 100, they wouldn’t be able to tell you if they were looking at a human chest or pig chest,” Guenthart said.
Pigs are filthy animals, as conventional wisdom goes. Judaism and Islam prohibit consumption of pork and other unclean meat. The insult “cops are pigs” bears undeniable teeth. And in the Odyssey, the sorceress Circe transforms Odysseus’s gluttonous men into swine.
Pigs are also highly intelligent animals, capable of showing emotions. Some 11,000 years ago, wild pigs may have domesticated themselves, recognizing a benefit to allyship with humans. They like playing fetch, are whizzes at navigating mazes, and can outsmart dogs and chimpanzees, according to their IQ tests.
Following the Baby Fae experiment, primates fell out of favor for xenotransplantation, and pigs became the new model organism for researchers to develop.
If you ask xenotransplantation experts today, they’ll deliver a laundry list of reasons why pigs are better than baboons: they are more easily genetically manipulated, they can be raised in a sterile environment to reduce infections, and they can be grown to deliver organs of any size needed.
It’s a nice packaged narrative, but Dr Brad Bolman, historian of science at the University of Chicago, argues that sheep, goats or some other animal could have been deemed suitable instead. At the outset, Bolman said, “it wasn’t obvious that pigs were the right replacement for non-human primates”. But when pigs were chosen, the scientific ideals were constructed retroactively to make them seem like the clear choice all along.
Bolman says that pigs were chosen because it was socially and economically convenient. They produce large litters quickly, with piglets reaching adult human size in six months. There’s also an almost unlimited supply of them – 700 million worldwide – and as agricultural animals, they aren’t covered by the Animal Welfare Act.
“We treat pigs in ways that we would never treat people, but we also recognize they’re so similar to us that they’re our models,” said Dr Lisa Moses, a bioethicist and veterinarian at Harvard Medical School. “You can’t make sense of that because it doesn’t make sense. It’s one giant paradox.” Pigs are close enough to deliver their lives for ours but not close enough that their plight gives us pause.
Maybe it should. If you subscribe to Kantian ethics, it’s wrong to use others as a means to an end, so it feels downright exploitative to genetically modify a pig and kill it for its heart. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (Peta) has thus decried pig-to-human transplants as “unethical, dangerous, and a tremendous waste of resources”, asserting that “animals aren’t toolsheds to be raided but complex, intelligent beings”. Kathy Guillermo, a senior vice-president at Peta, went even further to proclaim, “pigs are people”.
These ethical concerns aren’t new. In 1999, the Campaign for Responsible Transplantation protested in New York City’s famous Halloween Parade, with members dressed up as genetically engineered monsters. As millions of Americans watched the parade on TV, these snout-wearing attendants hoisted a 13ft-tall mad scientist puppet, sporting a dollar sign tie and clenching a pig-human hybrid.
But the xenotransplantation experts I spoke to often dismissed these ethical concerns by citing the structural fact of the global pork industry. The thinking goes that, if pigs are going to be eaten anyway, they might as well be used for science, a more valuable and noble pursuit.
“If you think about eating in a slightly more capacious sense,” Bolman said, “eating is really about consumption and rendering animals destroyable.” More than anything else, the edibility of pigs justifies their usage for xenotransplantation and research at large.
“What science does is consume animals, even if they aren’t literally eaten,” said Bolman. “Science remains carnivorous.”
Mr P’s new heart had arrived in the operating room a half-hour ago, and Guenthart was zigging and zagging a fine thread across the arc of two vessels to cinch them together.
Six o’clock, seven o’clock, eight o’clock … Guenthart stitched together one half of the artery before he grabbed another needle to run around counterclockwise. Once the two sutures had circled around and met at noon, he threw a right-handed knot, and then another. Then left-right-left-right-left-right, each opposing throw locking the last one into a square knot, Guenthart’s hands dancing with the fine thread.
During the entire operation, everyone in the operating room was chatting away, but now it was so silent you could hear the faint music that had been playing all along. This was the crucial moment where, with the donor heart actively dying, Guenthart was sewing as fast as he could to restore blood flow to the heart. Every second counted.
“Clamp off,” Guenthart finally announced. With the pressure released off the aorta, blood rushed into the coronary arteries and fed the heart.
Having graduated from medical school a decade ago, Guenhart joked that “xenotransplant is the promise that’s 10 years out – and always will be”. But he also sees Bennett’s 60-day survival as an “amazing milestone” and xenotransplantation as the most promising solution for the organ shortage killing his patients.
After about 30 seconds, Mr P’s new heart started beating on its own, like a zombie rising from the dead. Guenthart hadn’t connected any of the nerves and definitely nothing to his brain. The heart’s internal pacemaker is the circus master of its own show.
Xenotransplantation requires selective humanization of a pig. If you transplant a pig heart into a human, just like that, it will get rejected. Specifically, it’ll turn an ugly black and be flooded with blood clots, according to Dr Richard Pierson, director of the Center for Transplantation Sciences at Massachusetts general hospital. (I spoke with Pierson as he was speeding down to the hospital for a human-to-human lung transplant, ambulance sirens hollering in the background.)
Because our immune police force is so good at its job, the Virginia-based biotech company Revivicor used the gene-editing technology Crispr to create a special line of pigs with 10 modifications. Four genes are “knocked out”, and six genes are added in.
So, what is the recipe for making a pig heart fit for humans?
1. Knock out three sugar genes that are only found in pigs. “Most of us think if you have a pig with those three genes knocked out, that’s probably better than just one. We don’t know that for sure,” Pierson said.
2. Knock out a growth hormone gene to prevent the pig heart from overgrowing its new home. Pierson said, “Is growth at the graft going to be a problem? We don’t know.”
3. Add two complement inhibitor genes that prevent antibodies from destroying the pig heart and two anti-clotting genes that stop the patient’s blood from curdling inside the foreign organ.
4. Add two anti-inflammatory genes to prevent the pig heart from swelling up. One of these genes signals to the immune system that the pig heart is a friend (self), not food (nonself). “That may or may not be necessary,” said Pierson. “It probably is helpful, but we haven’t proven that.”
After all this cutting and pasting, the next challenge is to keep the pig “clean”. The last thing you want is to transplant a pig heart with viruses, bacteria and parasites that cause infections in humans.
Therefore, these pigs are raised in pathogen-free facilities. “There are no windows. They don’t go outside. The air is filtered and sterilized,” said Dr Leo Buhler, editor-in-chief of the journal Xenotransplantation and professor of surgery at the University of Fribourg.
After the genetically engineered embryos are implanted, the surrogate sows have to undergo caesarian sections (a vaginal birth is more likely to cause an infection.) The piglets are then immediately taken to isolation boxes under infrared lights, allowed to suckle their mother only every two hours under scientist supervision.
After 24 hours, the sows are all removed from the facility, and the piglets are artificially fed with a “motherless rearing system” and formula. Any interaction with humans must happen with the highest level of personal protective equipment.
With this “pig-in-a-bubble” approach, you should get a line of pigs that has never had any contact with the outside world and whose exogenous, or external, viruses have all been eliminated. These pig hearts are safe to implant into humans then, right?
Not exactly. Bennett’s heart still tested positive for pig endogenous retroviruses (PERV) – viruses built into the porcine genome that can jump into human cells, at least in a Petri dish. It’s an alarming example of zoonosis that could lead to a pandemic like Covid-19.
Whether or not those viruses can infect humans remains to be seen, but Pierson doesn’t think it will be a major barrier to xenotransplantation. HIV drugs seem to be relatively effective against them, and Boston-based biotech company eGenesis has already made a 60-gene PERV-free pig.
So what does worry Pierson about xenotransplantation?
“The unknown unknown,” he said. You can run a battery of tests in search of viruses, but you might only find what you’re looking for. And with a cocktail of immunosuppressants required to sedate our trigger-happy immune system, any infection that crosses the pig-human barrier could wreak devastating consequences.
“Doesn’t this all feel a bit premature, then?” I ask Pierson.
“Worry is not a reason not to do things. You need to take cautious steps forward. If the problem presents itself, you figure out a way to solve it. You don’t just go home.”
For months, Bennett’s transplant had been shrouded in secrecy, but the details of the operation were finally unveiled in a mid-June report of the New England Journal of Medicine. One of the study’s blockbuster findings was that Bennett was infected with a pig virus. The paper itself is neutral on the cause of death, but the cardiothoracic surgeon and study first-author Dr Bartley Griffith is “slightly betting” that a pig virus killed Bennett.
The pig virus he’s referring to is not a PERV, however; it’s an external virus called porcine cytomegalovirus (pCMV).
pCMV is a member of the herpes family, and its human form is known for causing mononucleosis, the kissing disease. Don’t let that fool you though. “Cytomegalovirus causes inflammation and damage to the organ,” Pierson told me. “A lot of damage.”
pCMV is also one of the viruses that Revivicor had supposedly eliminated from pigs through all their precautions; it has been a well-recognized threat to xenotransplantation for decades.
“When it first showed up, we thought maybe it was just an error or something,” Griffith said, discussing how a routine blood draw on the 20th day after surgery returned a tiny blip.
Possible pCMV infection was so unimaginable to Griffith’s team that they weren’t even looking for this pig virus and discovered the infection only on accident. Griffith told me, “The first thing we did is we went to the company and said, ‘How can we possibly be seeing this?’”
One xenotransplantation expert who wished to remain anonymous for legal reasons thinks that “Revivicor may have gotten a bit slack” about their protocol. He says the evidence is clear that, with early weaning and all other precautions, pigs don’t get pCMV.
Revivicor, of course, tested the donor pig several times with a nasal swab and PCR, getting negative results every single time. “It looks like PCR is not sufficient to exclude silent pCMV that can reactivate in an immunosuppressed environment,” Buhler wrote to me. He suggests that Revivicor made an honest mistake by not using a more specific test. (Revivicor did not respond to repeated queries sent by the Guardian.)
Regardless of why pCMV was missed, the results were gruesome on autopsy. After hitchhiking into Bennett, the virus seems to have exploded some capillaries and killed the heart.
But Griffith is continuing to march along, hoping to do another xenotransplant in the next few months, even if he isn’t entirely sure yet why Bennett died. Whatever it was, he’s confident that it can be overcome. A pCMV infection? Exclude it. Too much immunosuppression? Reduce it. The anti-pig antibodies they gave Bennett? Don’t do that again.
“That’s how you make progress,” Griffith said. “You admit where you made errors, and you try to limit them. But you move on.”
In a world where we are humanizing pigs with Crispr and “piggifying” humans with xenotransplantation, what does it even mean for there to be a human-animal divide?
In some ways, the word “divide” is problematic. After all, there’s no bright red line separating humans from other animals. Pigs and humans share 98% of genes, and that 2% is critically important. But it’s also just 2%.
Moses, the Harvard bioethicist, believes that the notion of a human-animal divide is an artificial construct. “There’s been a concerted effort from the biomedical research community to enhance the perception of that divide, going back as far as Descartes and Francis Bacon,” she said.
Built on a shaky foundation, the separation between animals and humans has been reified over millennia. Look no further than the impossibly low sticker prices of a pack of bacon that hides environmental externalities and inhumane conditions under a crisp cellophane wrap. It’s easier to not think too hard about it.
But we can’t not think hard about xenotransplantation. If its promise is to be realized, we’ll have to, at the very least, create a whole new economy of factory farming, where pigs will be manufactured and slaughtered en masse to deliver us life.
Sure, 1.5 billion pigs are already killed each year. And sure, if the people you loved most had heart failure, lungs slowly drowning in fluid, their dilated heart twisting agonizingly, you’d probably take the pig heart instead of gambling with the transplant list. I would, at least. But that shouldn’t obviate the need to tread carefully here.
Dr Chris Walzer, executive director of the Wildlife Conservation Society, thinks xenotransplantation could benefit from the OneHealth framework – the idea that human, animal and environmental health are all connected.
Take the Nipah virus as an example. Nipah is a zoonotic disease that has caused deadly outbreaks in Malaysia, Singapore, Bangladesh and India. For years, these outbreaks were a mystery to epidemiologists, who couldn’t understand how the transmission chain worked between fruit bats – the natural hosts of the virus – and humans. And ultimately, it took a broadened perspective to solve this puzzle – tracing how date palm trees bloomed in the winter, how fruit bats infused tree sap with saliva and urine, and how humans consumed that infected sap and got Nipah.
It’s too simple to say pigs are people. And it’s too simple to say pigs are an unlimited supply of organs. Seventeen people die every day waiting on the transplant list, but xenotransplantation is about a whole lot more than just saving these lives.
We’re all part of a shared ecology. And there’s a danger to ignoring our interconnectedness.
Earlier that day, Guenthart had told Mr P that he was getting a new heart. Mr P started crying. He’s in his early 20s, and three months ago, his heart started failing without any apparent reason. His doctors still aren’t sure why.
“It was hard for me to not also start crying,” Guenthart said.
A heart transplant is a highly technical operation, but for the patient, it’s a chance at life. When David Bennett had his xenotransplant, he didn’t just get a pig heart; he got two more months of life. He watched the Los Angeles Rams win the Super Bowl. He sang America the Beautiful with his therapist. He spent time with his five grandchildren, every day begging his surgeons to let him go home to his dog Lucky.
Now that the transplant was over, Guenthart was calling Mr P’s mom.
“The surgery went really well. The new heart looks beautiful, and he’s doing amazing. He’s asleep right now, and we’re sending him over to sleep in the ICU.
“Yes, he’s going to be two floors above where he was before.
“Normal visiting hours are from 8am to 7pm, but you can call them at any time and get updates directly from his nurse.
“Of course, you’re so welcome, and I hope to see you tomorrow.”
The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.
Aug 05, 2022 (The Expresswire) -- "Final Report will add the analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on this industry."
Global “TBM Software Market”2022 research report by market size of different segments and countries in recent years and to forecast the values to the coming years. The report is designed to incorporate both qualitative and quantitative aspects of the industry within each of the regions and countries involved in the study. Furthermore, the report also caters the detailed information about the crucial aspects such as driving factors and challenges which will define the future growth of the market. Additionally, the TBM Software market report shall also incorporate available opportunities in micro markets for stakeholders to invest along with the detailed analysis of competitive landscape and key players.
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Market Analysis and Insights: Global TBM Software Market
Technology Business Management (TBM) Software automates tracking the cost of the present information technology infrastructure and also IT growth, and, beyond budgeting, helps communicate the cost and value that presently-existing and projected IT represents to stakeholders.
The global TBM Software market size is projected to reach USD million by 2028, from USD million in 2021, at a CAGR of during 2022-2028.
Fully considering the economic change by this health crisis, On-Premise accounting for of the TBM Software global market in 2021, is projected to value USD million by 2028, growing at a revised CAGR from 2022 to 2028. While SME (Small and Medium Enterprises) segment is altered to CAGR throughout this forecast period.
China TBM Software market size is valued at USD million in 2021, while the North America and Europe TBM Software are USD million and USD million, severally. The proportion of the North America in 2021, while China and Europe are and respectively, and it is predicted that China proportion will reach in 2028, trailing a CAGR of through the analysis period 2022-2028. Japan, South Korea, and Southeast Asia are noteworthy markets in Asia, with CAGR respectively for the next 6-year period. As for the Europe TBM Software landscape, Germany is projected to reach USD million by 2028 trailing a CAGR of over the forecast period 2022-2028.
The major players covered in the TBM Software market report are:● anafee ● Apptio ● USU ● SAP ● ServiceNow ● upland ● CA ● BMC ● Micro Focus ● VMWare
Global TBM Software Market: Drivers and Restrains
The research report has incorporated the analysis of different factors that augment the market’s growth. It constitutes trends, restraints, and drivers that transform the market in either a positive or negative manner. This section also provides the scope of different segments and applications that can potentially influence the market in the future. The detailed information is based on current trends and historic milestones. This section also provides an analysis of the volume of production about the global market and about each type from 2017 to 2028. This section mentions the volume of production by region from 2017 to 2028. Pricing analysis is included in the report according to each type from the year 2017 to 2028, manufacturer from 2017 to 2022, region from 2017 to 2022, and global price from 2017 to 2028.
A thorough evaluation of the restrains included in the report portrays the contrast to drivers and gives room for strategic planning. Factors that overshadow the market growth are pivotal as they can be understood to devise different bends for getting hold of the lucrative opportunities that are present in the ever-growing market. Additionally, insights into market expert’s opinions have been taken to understand the market better.
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Global TBM Software Market: Segment Analysis
The research report includes specific segments by region (country), by manufacturers, by Type and by Application. Each type provides information about the production during the forecast period of 2017 to 2028. By Application segment also provides consumption during the forecast period of 2017 to 2028. Understanding the segments helps in identifying the importance of different factors that aid the market growth.
Segment by Type● On-Premise ● Cloud-Based
Segment by Application● SME (Small and Medium Enterprises) ● Large Enterprise
TBM Software Market Key Points:● Characterize, portray and Forecast TBM Software item market by product type, application, manufactures and geographical regions. ● deliver venture outside climate investigation. ● deliver systems to organization to manage the effect of COVID-19. ● deliver market dynamic examination, including market driving variables, market improvement requirements. ● deliver market passage system examination to new players or players who are prepared to enter the market, including market section definition, client investigation, conveyance model, item informing and situating, and cost procedure investigation. ● Stay aware of worldwide market drifts and deliver examination of the effect of the COVID-19 scourge on significant locales of the world. ● Break down the market chances of partners and furnish market pioneers with subtleties of the cutthroat scene.
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Geographically, this report is segmented into several key regions, with sales, revenue, market share, and TBM Software market growth rate in these regions, from 2015 to 2028, covering● North America (United States, Canada and Mexico) ● Europe (Germany, UK, France, Italy, Russia and Turkey etc.) ● Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India, Australia, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia, and Vietnam) ● South America (Brazil etc.) ● Middle East and Africa (Egypt and GCC Countries)
Some of the key questions answered in this report:● Who are the worldwide key Players of the TBM Software Industry? ● How the opposition goes in what was in store connected with TBM Software? ● Which is the most driving country in the TBM Software industry? ● What are the TBM Software market valuable open doors and dangers looked by the manufactures in the worldwide TBM Software Industry? ● Which application/end-client or item type might look for gradual development possibilities? What is the portion of the overall industry of each kind and application? ● What centered approach and imperatives are holding the TBM Software market? ● What are the various deals, promoting, and dissemination diverts in the worldwide business? ● What are the key market patterns influencing the development of the TBM Software market? ● Financial effect on the TBM Software business and improvement pattern of the TBM Software business?
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Detailed TOC of Global TBM Software Market Research Report 2022
1 TBM Software Market Overview
1.1 Product Overview and Scope
1.2 Segment by Type
1.2.1 Global Market Size Growth Rate Analysis by Type 2022 VS 2028
1.3 TBM Software Segment by Application
1.3.1 Global Consumption Comparison by Application: 2022 VS 2028
1.4 Global Market Growth Prospects
1.4.1 Global Revenue Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
1.4.2 Global Production Capacity Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
1.4.3 Global Production Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
1.5 Global Market Size by Region
1.5.1 Global Market Size Estimates and Forecasts by Region: 2017 VS 2021 VS 2028
1.5.2 North America TBM Software Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
1.5.3 Europe Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
1.5.4 China Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
1.5.5 Japan Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
2 TBM Software Market Competition by Manufacturers
2.1 Global Production Capacity Market Share by Manufacturers (2017-2022)
2.2 Global Revenue Market Share by Manufacturers (2017-2022)
2.3 Market Share by Company Type (Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3)
2.4 Global Average Price by Manufacturers (2017-2022)
2.5 Manufacturers Production Sites, Area Served, Product Types
2.6 Market Competitive Situation and Trends
2.6.1 Market Concentration Rate
2.6.2 Global 5 and 10 Largest TBM Software Players Market Share by Revenue
2.6.3 Mergers and Acquisitions, Expansion
3 TBM Software Production Capacity by Region
3.1 Global Production Capacity of TBM Software Market Share by Region (2017-2022)
3.2 Global Revenue Market Share by Region (2017-2022)
3.3 Global Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
3.4 North America Production
3.4.1 North America Production Growth Rate (2017-2022)
3.4.2 North America Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
3.5 Europe Production
3.5.1 Europe Production Growth Rate (2017-2022)
3.5.2 Europe Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
3.6 China Production
3.6.1 China Production Growth Rate (2017-2022)
3.6.2 China Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
3.7 Japan Production
3.7.1 Japan Production Growth Rate (2017-2022)
3.7.2 Japan Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
4 Global TBM Software Market Consumption by Region
4.1 Global Consumption by Region
4.1.1 Global Consumption by Region
4.1.2 Global Consumption Market Share by Region
4.2 North America
4.2.1 North America Consumption by Country
4.2.2 United States
4.3.1 Europe Consumption by Country
4.4 Asia Pacific
4.4.1 Asia Pacific Consumption by Region
4.4.4 South Korea
4.4.5 China Taiwan
4.4.6 Southeast Asia
4.5 Latin America
4.5.1 Latin America Consumption by Country
5 TBM Software Market Segment by Type
5.1 Global Production Market Share by Type (2017-2022)
5.2 Global Revenue Market Share by Type (2017-2022)
5.3 Global Price by Type (2017-2022)
6 TBM Software Market Segment by Application
6.1 Global Production Market Share by Application (2017-2022)
6.2 Global Revenue Market Share by Application (2017-2022)
6.3 Global Price by Application (2017-2022)
7 TBM Software Market Key Companies Profiled
7.1 Manufacture 1
7.1.1 Manufacture 1 Corporation Information
7.1.2 Manufacture 1 Product Portfolio
7.1.3 Manufacture 1 Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.1.4 Manufacture 1 Main Business and Markets Served
7.1.5 Manufacture 1 recent Developments/Updates
7.2 Manufacture 2
7.2.1 Manufacture 2 Corporation Information
7.2.2 Manufacture 2 Product Portfolio
7.2.3 Manufacture 2 Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.2.4 Manufacture 2 Main Business and Markets Served
7.2.5 Manufacture 2 recent Developments/Updates
7.3 Manufacture 3
7.3.1 Manufacture 3 Corporation Information
7.3.2 Manufacture 3 Product Portfolio
7.3.3 Manufacture 3 Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.3.4 Manufacture 3 Main Business and Markets Served
7.3.5 Manufacture 3 recent Developments/Updates
8 TBM Software Manufacturing Cost Analysis
8.1 Key Raw Materials Analysis
8.1.1 Key Raw Materials
8.1.2 Key Suppliers of Raw Materials
8.2 Proportion of Manufacturing Cost Structure
8.3 Manufacturing Process Analysis of TBM Software
8.4 TBM Software Industrial Chain Analysis
9 Marketing Channel, Distributors and Customers
9.1 Marketing Channel
9.2 TBM Software Distributors List
9.3 TBM Software Customers
10 Market Dynamics
10.1 TBM Software Industry Trends
10.2 TBM Software Market Drivers
10.3 TBM Software Market Challenges
10.4 TBM Software Market Restraints
11 Production and Supply Forecast
11.1 Global Forecasted Production of TBM Software by Region (2023-2028)
11.2 North America TBM Software Production, Revenue Forecast (2023-2028)
11.3 Europe TBM Software Production, Revenue Forecast (2023-2028)
11.4 China TBM Software Production, Revenue Forecast (2023-2028)
11.5 Japan TBM Software Production, Revenue Forecast (2023-2028)
12 Consumption and Demand Forecast
12.1 Global Forecasted Demand Analysis of TBM Software
12.2 North America Forecasted Consumption of TBM Software by Country
12.3 Europe Market Forecasted Consumption of TBM Software by Country
12.4 Asia Pacific Market Forecasted Consumption of TBM Software by Region
12.5 Latin America Forecasted Consumption of TBM Software by Country
13 Forecast by Type and by Application (2023-2028)
13.1 Global Production, Revenue and Price Forecast by Type (2023-2028)
13.1.1 Global Forecasted Production of TBM Software by Type (2023-2028)
13.1.2 Global Forecasted Revenue of TBM Software by Type (2023-2028)
13.1.3 Global Forecasted Price of TBM Software by Type (2023-2028)
13.2 Global Forecasted Consumption of TBM Software by Application (2023-2028)
13.2.1 Global Forecasted Production of TBM Software by Application (2023-2028)
13.2.2 Global Forecasted Revenue of TBM Software by Application (2023-2028)
13.2.3 Global Forecasted Price of TBM Software by Application (2023-2028)
14 Research Finding and Conclusion
15 Methodology and Data Source
15.1 Methodology/Research Approach
15.1.1 Research Programs/Design
15.1.2 Market Size Estimation
15.1.3 Market Breakdown and Data Triangulation
15.2 Data Source
15.2.1 Secondary Sources
15.2.2 Primary Sources
15.3 Author List
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