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Exam Code: CWNA-107 Practice test 2022 by Killexams.com team
CWNA-107 Certified Wireless Network Administrator (CWNA)

Exam Number: CWNA-107
Availability: Pearson Vue Testing Center
Duration: 90 minutes
Questions: 60 multiple choice / multiple answer
Language: English

The CWNA certification is a foundational level wireless LAN certification for the CWNP Program. To earn a CWNA certification, you must take the CWNA test at a Pearson Vue Testing Center and pass with a 70% or higher. Instructors must pass with a 80% or higher. However you choose to prepare for the CWNA exam, you should start with the test objectives, which cover the full list of skills tested on the exam. The CWNA certification is valid for three (3) years. To recertify, pass one of the professional level certifications exams (CWSP,CWDP, CWAP) BEFORE your CWNA expires. By doing so, the CWNA will be renewed for another three (3) years. Or retake the current version of the CWNA exam.

While the Certified Wireless Specialist (CWS) and Certified Wireless Technician (CWT) certifications are not a required prerequisite to the CWNA certification, it is highly recommended. It will provide a solid learning foundation before continuing to pursue the CWNA.

When you pass the CWNA exam, you earn credit towards the CWSP, CWDP, CWAP, and CWNE certifications and you earn the CWNA certification.
This test measures the candidates ability to understand the fundamentals of RF behavior and to describe the features and functions of WLAN components as they apply to WLAN administration. Also tested are the skills needed to install, configure, and troubleshoot WLAN hardware peripherals and protocols in small business and enterprise deployments.
The skills and knowledge measured by this examination are derived from a Job Task Analysis (JTA) involving wireless networking experts (CWNEs) and professionals. The results of this JTA were used in weighing the subject areas and ensuring that the weighting is representative of the relative importance of the content.

Knowledge Domain Percentage
Radio Frequency (RF) Technologies 15%
WLAN Regulations and Standards 10%
WLAN Protocols and Devices 20%
WLAN Network Architecture 20%
WLAN Network Security 10%
RF Validation 10%
WLAN Troubleshooting 15%


Radio Frequency (RF) Technologies – 15%
- Define and explain the basic characteristics of RF and RF behavior
- Wavelength, frequency, amplitude, phase, sine waves
- RF propagation and coverage
- Reflection, refraction, diffraction and scattering
- Multipath and RF interference
- Gain and loss
- Amplification
- Attenuation
- Absorption
- Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR)
- Return Loss
- Free Space Path Loss (FSPL)
- Delay Spread
- Modulation (ASK and PSK)
- Apply the basic concepts of RF mathematics and measurement
- Watt and milliwatt
- Decibel (dB)
- dBm, dBd and dBi
- Noise floor
- SNR and SINR
- RSSI
- Signal metric conversions
- System Operating Margin (SOM), fade margin and link budget calculations
- Intentional Radiator compared with Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power (EIRP)
- Identify RF signal characteristics as they relate to antennas
- RF and physical line of sight and Fresnel zone clearance
- Beamwidths
- Azimuth and Elevation charts
- Passive gain vs. active gain
- Isotropic radiator
- Polarization
- Antenna diversity types
- Radio chains
- Spatial multiplexing (SM)
- Transmit Beam Forming (TxBF)
- Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC)
- MIMO and MU-MIMO
Explain and apply the functionality of RF antennas and antenna systems and the mounting options and antenna accessories available
- Omni-directional antennas
- Semi-directional antennas
- Highly directional antennas
- Sectorized antennas and antenna arrays
- memorizing antenna charts for different antenna types
- Pole/mast mount
- Ceiling mount
- Wall mount
- Indoor vs. outdoor mounting
- RF cables, connectors and splitters
- Amplifiers and attenuators
- Lightning arrestors and grounding rods/wires
- Towers, safety equipment and related concerns

WLAN Regulations and Standards – 10%
- Explain the roles of WLAN and networking industry organizations
- IEEE
- Wi-Fi Alliance
- IETF
- Regulatory domains and agencies
- Explain the IEEE standard creation process including working groups, naming conventions, drafts and ratification
Explain and apply the various Physical Layer (PHY) solutions of the IEEE 802.11-2016 standard as amended including supported channel widths, spatial streams, data rates and supported modulation types
- DSSS – 802.11
- HR-DSSS – 802.11b
- OFDM – 802.11a
- ERP – 802.11g
- HT – 802.11n
- DMG – 802.11ad
- VHT – 802.11ac
- TVHT – 802.11af
- S1G – 802.11ah
- Identify and apply 802.11 WLAN functional concepts
- Modulation and coding
- Co-location interference
- Channel centers and widths (all PHYs)
- Primary channels
- Adjacent overlapping and non-overlapping channels
- Throughput vs. data rate
- Bandwidth
- Communication resilience
- Describe the OSI model layers affected by the 802.11-2016 standard and amendments
- Define the frequency bands used by the 802.11 PHYs
- Identify and comply with regulatory domain requirements and explain how to determine constraints within a regulatory domain
- Available channels
- Output power constraints
- Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS)
- Transmit Power Control (TPC)
- Explain basic use case scenarios for 802.11 wireless networks
- Wireless LAN (WLAN) – BSS and ESS
- Wireless PAN (WPAN)
- Wireless bridging
- Wireless Ad-Hoc (IBSS)
- Wireless Mesh (MBSS)
WLAN Protocols and Devices – 20%
- Describe the components that make up an 802.11 wireless service set
- Stations (STAs)
- Basic Service Set (BSS)
- Basic Service Area (BSA)
- SSID
- BSSID
- Extended Service Set (ESS)
- Ad Hoc mode and IBSS
- Infrastructure mode
- Distribution System (DS)
- Distribution System Media (DSM)
- Roaming (Layer 1 and Layer 2)
Identify and explain the basic frame types defined in the 802.11-2016 standard
- General frame format
- MAC addressing
- Beacon frame
- Association frames
- Authentication frames
- Data frames
- Acknowledgement (ACK) frames
- Block ACK frames
Explain the process used to locate and connect to a WLAN
- Scanning (active and passive)
- Authentication
- Association
- Open System Authentication and Shared Key authentication
- 802.1X/EAP and Pre-Shared Key authentication
- BSS selection
Define terminology related to the 802.11 MAC and PHY
- MSDU, MPDU, PSDU and PPDU
- A-MSDU and A-MPDU
- Guard Interval
- Interframe spaces
- Fragmentation
- PHY preamble
Explain 802.11 channel access methods
- DCF
- EDCA
- RTS/CTS
- CTS-to-Self
- NAV
- Physical carrier sense and virtual carrier sense
- Channel width operations
- HT Operation Modes
- VHT Operating Mode field
- HT and VHT protection mechanisms
- Power save modes
Describe features of, select and install WLAN infrastructure devices
- Autonomous Access Points (APs)
- Controller-based APs
- Cloud-based APs
- Distributed APs
- Management systems
- Mesh APs and routers
- WLAN controllers
- Remote office controllers and/or APs
- PoE injectors and PoE-enabled Ethernet switches
- WLAN bridges
- Home WLAN routers
Identify the features, purpose, and use of the following WLAN client devices and adapters
- USB adapters
- PCI, Mini-PCI, Mini-PCIe and Half Mini-PCIe cards
- Laptops, tablets and mobile phones
- 802.11 VoIP handsets
- Specialty devices (handheld scanners, push-to-talk, IoT)
- Configure Windows, Linux, Chrome OS, and macOS clients

WLAN Network Architecture – 20%
Identify technology roles for which WLAN solutions are appropriate and describe the typical use of WLAN solutions in those roles
- Corporate data access and end-user mobility
- Enterprise network extension
- WLAN bridging
- Last-mile data delivery – Wireless ISP
- Small Office/Home Office (SOHO) use
- Mobile offices
- Educational/classroom use
- Industrial
- Healthcare
- Hotspots
- Hospitality
- Conference/convention/arena/stadium and large high density deployments
- Transportation networks (trains, planes, automobiles)
- Law enforcement networks
Describe and implement Power over Ethernet (PoE)
- IEEE 802.3-2012, Clause 33, including 802.3af-2003 and 802.3at-2009
- Power Source Equipment
- Powered Device
- Midspan and endpoint PSEs
- Power levels
- Power budgets and powered port density
Define and describe controller-based, distributed, cloud-based, and controller-less WLAN architectures
- Core, Distribution and Access layer forwarding
- Centralized data forwarding
- Distributed data forwarding
- Control, Management and Data planes
- Scalability and availability solutions
- Intra- and Inter-controller STA roaming handoffs (OKC and FT)
- Advantages and limitations of each technology
- Tunneling, QoS and VLANs
Define and describe a multiple channel architecture (MCA) network model and contrast it with a single channel architecture (SCA) model
- BSSID and ESS configuration
- Channel selection
- AP placement
- Co-channel and adjacent channel interference
- Cell sizing (output power, antenna selection)
Match WLAN deployment requirements commonly specified to technology solutions
- Data
- Voice
- Video
- Real-Time Location Services (RTLS)
- Mobile devices (tablets and smartphones)
- High density
- AirTime Fairness
- Band steering
- HotSpot 2.0/Passpoint certification
- Radio Resource Management (RRM) and Adaptive Radio Management (ARM)
- BYOD
- Guest access
- Mobile device management (MDM)
- Network Access Control (NAC)
Determine and document required network services supporting the WLAN
- DHCP
- DNS
- NTP
- VLANs
- RADIUS
- Access Control Lists
- Wired network capacity requirements
- Cable lengths
- Cable types

WLAN Network Security – 10%
Identify weak security options that should not be used in enterprise WLANs
- WEP
- Shared Key authentication
- SSID hiding
- MAC filtering
- Improper use of WPA (TKIP/RC4)
- Open System authentication alone, with the exception of intentional public networks
- Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS)
Identify and configure effective security mechanisms for enterprise WLANs
- WPA2 (CCMP/AES)
- WPA2-Personal
- WPA2-Enterprise
- 802.1X/EAP framework
- RADIUS servers
- EAP methods
- Effective pre-shared key (PSK) and passphrase usage
- Per-User PSK (PPSK)
Describe and select common security enhancements and tools used in WLANs
- Captive portals
- BYOD and guest networks
- Protected management frames
- Fast Secure Roaming methods
- Wireless Intrusion Prevention System (WIPS)
- Protocol and spectrum analyzers
Explain and use secure management protocols
- HTTPS
- SNMPv3
- SSH2
- VPN

RF Validation – 10%
Explain the importance of and the process of a post-implementation validation survey
-- Verify design requirements
- Coverage
- Capacity
- Throughput
- Roaming
- Delay
- Jitter
- Connectivity
- Aesthetics
- Document actual WLAN implementation results
Locate and identify sources of RF interference
- WLAN devices
- Co-Channel Interference (CCI)
- Adjacent Channel Interference (ACI)
- Non-Wi-Fi devices
- Airtime utilization
- Frequencies used
- Interference solutions
- Spectrum analysis
Perform application testing to validate WLAN performance
- Network and service availability
- VoIP testing
- Real-time application testing
- Throughput testing
- Load testing
Understand and use the basic features of validation tools
- Throughput testers (iPerf, TamoSoft Throughput Tester, etc.)
- Wireless design software (Ekahau Site Survey, iBwave Wi-Fi, AirMagnet Survey Pro, TamoSoft Survey, Aruba RFPLan)
- Protocol analyzers
- Spectrum analyzers

WLAN Troubleshooting – 15%
Define and apply industry and vendor recommended troubleshooting processes to resolve common 802.11 wireless networking problems
- Identify the problem
- Discover the scale of the problem
- Define possible causes
- Narrow to the most likely cause
- Create a plan of action or escalate the problem
- Perform corrective actions
- Verify the solution
- Document the results
Describe and apply common troubleshooting tools used in WLANs
- Protocol analyzer
- Spectrum analyzer
- Centralized management consoles
- WLAN monitoring solutions
Identify and explain how to solve the following WLAN implementation challenges using features available in enterprise class WLAN equipment and troubleshooting tools
- System throughput
- CCI and ACI
- RF noise and noise floor
- RF interference
- Hidden nodes
- Insufficient PoE power
- Lack of coverage
Troubleshoot common connectivity problems in WLANs (both WLAN connectivity and network connectivity for wireless clients)
- No signal or weak signal
- Security configuration mismatch
- Improper AP configuration
- Improper client configuration
- Faulty drivers/firmware
- Hardware failure
- DHCP issues
- Captive portal issues

Certified Wireless Network Administrator (CWNA)
CWNP Administrator exam
Killexams : CWNP Administrator test - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/CWNA-107 Search results Killexams : CWNP Administrator test - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/CWNA-107 https://killexams.com/exam_list/CWNP Killexams : Best System Administrator Certifications for 2019

When it comes to managing computer systems, whether in an office environment, on a campus or in an enterprise data center, there’s a long list of tools and technologies SysAdmins need to master. There are numerous certifications can help validate knowledge and skills in those areas.

In addition to server and client configuration and maintenance, many system administrators must understand access controls, network services and resource requirements for applications. They often find themselves working with directory and name services as well as network addressing, database services, web and desktop applications, email, and more.

Making sense of all these different system administrator roles and accompanying certifications is no easy task. After examining various credentials, we came up with a list of our five favorite system administrator certifications for 2019.

The following chart shows the results of an informal job search we conducted that gives you an idea of the relative frequency with which our top five certifications appear in actual job postings. While all the certifications are popular, the CompTIA Server+ stands out as the clear favorite.

Job Board Search Results (in alphabetical order, by certification)*

Certification SimplyHired Indeed LinkedIn Jobs Linkup Total
MCSE: Cloud Platform and Infrastructure (Microsoft) 112 247 253 151 773
Oracle Linux System Administrator (Oracle) 311 377 124 304 1,116
RHCE (Red Hat) 507 625 864 286 2,282
Server+ (CompTIA) 98 111 165 25 399
VCP6.5-DCV (VMware)* 219 275 169 192 855

*When searching for VCP – Data Center credentials, we found most job descriptions didn’t indicate a specific version.

Although employers tend to pay SysAdmins less than some of their IT peers, such as network engineers and data architects, a career in system administration is still worth pursuing. SimplyHired reports $77,296 as the national average salary for SysAdmins, in a range from $49,746 to $120,102. Indeed.com pegs averages at $75,967 for plain-vanilla, and $88,032 for senior systems administrators.

MCSE: Microsoft Certified Solutions Expert

The Microsoft Certified Solutions Expert (MCSE) certification has long ruled the hearts and minds of those who work on Microsoft-based systems, servers and clouds. MCSE certifications focus on the latest technologies for business applications, cloud infrastructures, data management and analytics, mobility, and productivity.

But when it comes to system administration certifications in general, the brightest lights are those that address Windows Server at the enterprise and server administrator levels. While these credentials don’t all specifically use “system administrator” in their descriptions, they all fall well inside the roles and responsibilities of system administration jobs. They’re also in high demand in job postings and classified job advertisements.

The MCSE: Cloud Platform and Infrastructure targets IT professionals seeking to promote careers such as information security analysts or computer support specialists. Those obtaining the certification will find that the MCSE: Cloud Platform and Infrastructure credential is designed to validate the skills necessary to effectively run a data center, including networking, storage, systems management, virtualization and identity management.

Note: The Microsoft Certified Solutions Associate (MCSA) is Microsoft’s prevailing mid-range IT certification. It covers most administrative job roles, including system administration at both the desktop and server levels, as well as more specialized job roles that include SQL Server and Office 365. MCSA: Cloud Platform is a gateway certification that feeds into these MCSE certifications.

System administration candidates might also want to take a close look at the MCSE: Productivity credential, which garners nearly as many hits on job boards as the MCSE: Cloud Platform and Infrastructure cert. The MCSE: Productivity focuses on Microsoft Exchange, SharePoint or Skype For Business. Because communications systems and services of all kinds are so important to business, these are good areas for aspiring and practicing system administrators to specialize in.

The Microsoft Certification Program underwent extensive changes in September 2016. Once you earn one of the latest MCSE credentials, you do not have to recertify within three years as used to be the case. However, by passing an elective test each calendar year, you add an entry to your transcript that indicates your commitment to staying current on technologies and expanding your skillset.

MCSE: Cloud Platform and Infrastructure Facts and Figures

Certification Name Microsoft Certified Solutions Expert (MCSE): Cloud Platform and Infrastructure
Prerequisites & Required Courses Any one of the following MCSAs is required:

MCSA: Windows Server 2016

MCSA: Cloud Platform

MCSA: Linux on Azure

MCSA: Windows Server 2012

Number of Exams One additional elective test is required to earn this MCSE. Valid electives include:

70-532 Developing Microsoft Azure Solutions

70-533 Implementing Microsoft Azure Infrastructure Solutions (exam retires December 31, 2018)

70-473 Designing and Implementing Cloud Data Platform Solutions

70-475 Designing and Implementing Big Data Analytics Solutions

70-744 Securing Windows Server 2016

70-745 Implementing a Software-Defined Datacenter

70-413 Designing and Implementing a Server Infrastructure

70-414 Implementing an Advanced Server Infrastructure

70-537 Configuring and Operating a Hybrid Cloud with Microsoft Azure Stack (coming soon)

Candidates are encouraged to check the certification web page for the most current list of qualifying exams.

Cost per Exam $165 per test in the USA
URL https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/learning/mcse-cloud-platform-infrastructure.aspx
Self-Study Materials Visit the certification web page and Microsoft Learning for practice tests, free online training, Microsoft Official Curriculum in-classroom and on-demand course offerings, books, online resources and more.  Candidates will find links to training resources including practice exams, books, video, and formal training on the test web page.

Oracle Linux System Administrator

Although known for its database products and solutions, Oracle also has its own distribution of Linux, geared for the enterprise and designed to support cloud environments. In fact, Oracle Linux is optimized for various Oracle products and platforms, such as Oracle Exadata Database Machine, Oracle Exalytics In-Memory Machine, Oracle Exalogic Elastic Cloud and Oracle Database Appliance.

To support Oracle Linux, the company offers the Oracle Linux System Administrator certification at Associate and Professional levels. A single Oracle Linux Certified Implementation Specialist credential is also offered. We focus on the Oracle Certified Professional (OCP) version in this section.

The OCP Oracle Linux System Administrator certification, currently at version 6 (although version 7 should be coming soon), covers a lot of details. Candidates must be well-versed on the Btrfs file system, control groups, Linux containers, advanced storage administration techniques, Oracle cluster management and package management. The certification also tests for knowledge of dump analysis, dynamic tracing, network and security configuration and more.

The OCP Oracle Linux System Administrator certification requires that candidates first obtain the Oracle Certified Associate (OCA) Oracle Linux 5 and 6 System Administrator certification and pass one exam.

SysAdmins who support Oracle Solaris might be interested in the Oracle Solaris System Administrator certification, which Oracle offers at the Associate and Professional levels. Oracle also offers several server-related certifications for SPARC and Fujitsu servers.

Oracle Linux System Administrator Facts and Figures

RHCE: Red Hat Certified Engineer

In the realm of Linux system administrator certifications, Red Hat certs really stand out. Red Hat’s more senior-level certifications are especially popular among IT professionals as well as the employers who hire them. Those holding the Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) credential qualify for job roles such as senior Linux administrator, senior UNIX administrator, senior systems engineer, infrastructure systems engineer, IT analyst and the like.

The RHCE is regarded as a high-level credential that’s not easy to obtain. Candidates must first obtain the Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA) credential and then pass a three and a half hour, hands-on, performance-based test that’s intense and demanding. Those who earn the RHCE can go on to earn the Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA) in Infrastructure credential.

The current RHCE test is based on Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 7. RHCE certification is valid for three years from the date the certification was achieved. To maintain the certification, a credential holder must pass any RHCA test or pass the RHCE certification test again before the end of the three-year period.

Note: In October 2018, IBM announced that it was acquiring Red Hat for the princely sum of $34 billion. It’s too early to tell what impact this may have on Red Hat certification offerings, if any.

RHCE Facts and Figures

Certification Name Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE)
Prerequisites & Required Courses Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA) certification (does not have be on the same Red Hat Enterprise Linux version). RHCSA requires one exam: EX200 — Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA).

Note: Courses recommended but not required

Number of Exams One exams:

EX300 – Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) exam, 3.5 hours

Cost per Exam $400 (RHCE test fee only)
URL https://www.redhat.com/en/services/certification/rhce
Self-Study Materials Red Hat Training offers multiple training options, including classroom, virtual, online, video and private onsite. The Red Hat Learning Subscription offers online and video courses, including cloud-based labs, in Basic and Standard subscriptions. Prices vary by geography. Candidates in the U.S. can expect to pay $5,500 (or 19 training units) for the Basic tier and $7,000 (or 24 training units) for the Standard tier.

CompTIA Server+

CompTIA offers a long list of entry-level certifications, such as the A+ for hardware technicians, Network+ for network admins and Security+ for security specialists, all of which are highly regarded in the computing industry. The CompTIA Server+ certification is no exception. Companies such as Intel, HP, Dell, Lenovo, Xerox and Microsoft, as well as the U.S. Department of Defense, recommend or require that their server technicians earn CompTIA Server+.

The Server+ certification test focuses on foundational server-related courses that are vendor-neutral in nature, including server hardware, operating systems, storage systems, networking, the IT environment (documentation, diagrams and best practices), security and disaster recovery, virtualization and troubleshooting.

The Server+ credential, along with sufficient experience, is a great asset for individuals seeking a position as a server or network administrator, systems engineer or website administrator. You can also consider it as a stepping stone to a more focused certification, such as the Microsoft Certified Solutions Associate (MCSA) or the Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA).

Server+ certification requires one exam, SK0-004. CompTIA recommends that candidates have at least 18 months of experience and A+ certification before sitting for the exam.

CompTIA Server+ Facts and Figures

Certification Name CompTIA Server+
Prerequisites & Required Courses Required: None

Recommended: CompTIA A+ certification plus 18 to 24 months of IT experience

Number of Exams One exam: SK0-004 (90 minutes, 100 multiple-choice questions, 750 on a scale of 100-900 required to pass)
Cost per Exam $319. Purchase vouchers through CompTIA Marketplace. test administered by Pearson VUE.
URL https://certification.comptia.org/certifications/server
Self-study Materials Links to practice questions, test objectives, eBooks, and other training resources are available on the certification web page. test study bundles including eBooks and CertMaster practice are available from the CompTIA Marketplace.

VCP6-DCV: VMware Certified Professional 6 – Data Center Virtualization

The VMware family of certifications are must-have credentials for IT professionals interested in the field of virtualization. Offering a comprehensive certification program that encompasses all skills levels, VMware credentials are recognized globally as best in class.

The latest incarnation of the VMware vSphere product is Version 6.5. VMware currently offers two credentials which target vSphere V6.5 users: the VMware Certified Professional 6.5 – Data Center Virtualization and the VMware Certified Advanced Professional 6.5 – Data Center Virtualization (Design and Deploy). It’s anticipated that the VMware Certified Design Expert (VCDX-DCV) will be available soon.

Although Version 6.5 is the existing version of the vSphere product, interested candidates can still certify on vSphere V. 6. The VMware Certified Professional 6 – Data Center Virtualization (VCP6-DCV) is one of VMware’s most popular credentials with more than 100,000 certified credential holders. The VCP6-DCV prepares credential holders for more advanced certifications, including the VMware Certified Advanced Professional (VCAP6-DCV) and the pinnacle cert, VMware Certified Design Expert (VCDX-DCV). For this article, we chose to concentrate on the requirements for the VCP6.5 – DCV since it’s based on the existing version of vSphere.

Training is required for non-credential holders seeking to obtain the VCP6-DCV. VMware offers a variety of training options to meet the training prerequisite: self-paced (on demand), live online and live classroom, some of which include virtual labs. Those possessing a valid VCP5-DCV or VCP6-DCV credential need only pass a delta exam to obtain the credential.

VCP6.5-DCV Facts and Figures

Certification Name VMware Certified Professional 6.5 – Data Center Virtualization (VCP6.5-DCV)
Prerequisites & Required Courses Path 1 (non-VCP credential holders):  Gain vSphere 6.5 experience, attend a required training course, pass either the vSphere 6 or 6.5 Foundations exam, and pass the current VCP6.5–DCV exam

Path 2 (active VCP5-DCV or VCP6-DCV credential holders): Gain vSphere 6.5 experience, pass the VCP6.5–DCV or VCP6.5–DCV Delta exam. Training is recommended but not required.

Path 3 (expired VCP-DCV): Gain vSphere 6.5 experience, attend a required training course, pass either the vSphere 6 or 6.5 Foundations exam, and pass the current VCP6.5–DCV exam

Path 4 (active VCP 6, 6.5 or 7 in a different track): Gain vSphere 6.5 experience and pass the VCP6.5–DCV exam. Training is recommended but not required.

See the VCP6.5-DCV web page for list of current approved training courses.

Number of Exams One or two exams depending on certification path.

Foundation exams:

vSphere 6 Foundations Exam, 2V0-620, 115 minutes, 65 questions

vSphere 6.5 Foundations Exam, 2V0-602, 105 minutes, 70 questions

VMware Certified Professional 6.5 – Data Center Virtualization exams:

VMware Certified Professional 6.5 – Data Center Virtualization, 2V0-622, 105 minutes, 70 questions

VMware Certified Professional 6.5 – Data Center Virtualization Delta, 2V0-622D, 106 minutes, 70 questions

Cost per Exam vSphere Foundations test (V6 or V6.5), $125

VMware Certified Professional 6.5 – Data Center Virtualization exam, $250

VMware Certified Professional 6.5 – Data Center Virtualization Delta exam, $250

URL VCP6.5-DCV:   https://www.vmware.com/education-services/certification/vcp6-5-dcv.html
Self-Study Materials A link to an test guide, training and a practice test (if available) appear on each test page (see the How to Prepare tab). VMware Learning Zone offers test prep subscriptions. Numerous VCP6-DCV study materials are available through Amazon.com. MeasureUp offers a VCP6-DCV practice tests and a practice labs.

Beyond the Top 5: More SysAdmin Certifications

Beyond the five system administrator certifications featured in this article, there are many other certification programs that can help to further the careers and professional development of IT professionals who work in system administration.

It makes sense to investigate the plethora of vendor-specific programs available for those who work with systems from companies such as Brocade, Dell EMC, HPE, IBM, NetApp, Symantec and so forth. Many of them play into key system specialty areas, such as storage, security or virtualization, while others offer a broad range of platforms for these and other technology areas. Here are some examples:

  • IBM Certified System Administrator (and Advanced Administrator), for WebSphere Application Server Network Deployment, AIX, DB2, Connections, Sametime, Lotus Notes, Informix, IBM i and more
  • NetApp Certified Data Administrator (NCDA), geared toward professionals who manage NetApp data storage controllers running the ONTAP operating system
  • ServiceNow Certified System Administrator, aimed at professionals who are adept at configuring, implementing and managing ServiceNow systems

Likewise, vendor-neutral certification programs also offer a variety of interesting and potentially valuable credentials. For example, the LPI LPIC certifications, which had been in our top five list for several years, are well known and widely recognized in IT shops and operations that depend on Linux servers to handle their workloads. It’s best to think of our top five certifications as a good place to start, while also realizing that there are many other options to consider as well.

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Killexams : Best Linux Certifications

More than 20 years after Linus Torvalds developed Linux, the operating system remains a force in the computing industry. While Linux is not widely used on desktops (making up just over 2.4% of the overall desktop operating system market share in January 2019, according to NetMarketShare), it is extraordinarily strong on the web server side, where it enjoys a market share of almost 54%.

IT professionals invest considerable time learning about server computing for everything from installation, configuration, maintenance and virtualization to application support and security. This also means that many IT professionals are working with and around Linux operating systems daily, often alongside Windows and various UNIX OS brands as well.

The best of the Linux certifications vie for considerable mindshare among IT professionals and present an interesting mix of distribution- or brand-agnostic credentials alongside some pretty formidable vendor-specific credentials. There are multiple well-elaborated certification ladders available to those interested in learning, using, and mastering the Linux operating system environment and all the many bells and whistles it supports.

The results of a job search we conducted on several popular job posting sites show which Linux certifications employers are looking for when hiring new employees. While results vary from day to day (and job board to job board), this table reflects those Linux-related certifications that employers were seeking in the U.S.

Job Board Survey Results (in alphabetical order, by certification)

Certification

SimplyHired

Indeed

LinkedIn Jobs

Linkup

Total

GCUX (SANS GIAC) 30 30 55 12 127
Linux+ (CompTIA) 1,045 1,339 779 547 3,710
LPIC (LPI) 38 41 247 44 370
Oracle Linux OCA 27 31 33 12 103
Oracle Linux OCP 61 69 69 25 224
RHCA (Red Hat) 89 102 190 38 419
RHCE (Red Hat) 467 553 754 267 2,041
RHCSA (Red Hat) 417 504 667 241 1,829

We found that for nearly every certification category listed above, the number of national jobs postings mentioning that certification has increased, in some cases substantially, since we surveyed the same job sites a year ago. Linux system administrators and engineers can expect average earnings in the low $70s and upward, depending on the job role. PayScale lists $70,194 as the average salary for Linux system administrators ($52,000/low and $101,000/high). Glassdoor reports earnings for Linux system administrators averaging $68,884, Linux system engineers at $99,348 and senior Linux system engineers at $122,071.

GCUX: GIAC Certified Unix Security Administrator

The Global Information Assurance Certification (GIAC) program is part of SANS, a highly regarded source of instruction and research in the information security field. SANS also provides breaking news, operates a security alert service and serves on all kinds of government, research and academic information security task forces, working groups and industry organizations.

The SANS GIAC program encompasses 37 information security certifications across several categories, such as cyber defense, penetration testing, incident response and forensics, management, audit, legal, developer and industrial control systems. The GIAC Certified UNIX Security Administrator (GCUX) falls under its Cyber Defense category, and aims at professionals who install, configure, monitor, secure and audit both Unix and Linux systems.

GIAC certifications must be renewed every four years by earning 36 continuing professional experience (CPE) credits. Also, credential holders must pay a certification maintenance fee of $429 every four years.

GCUX Facts & Figures

Certification Name

GIAC Certified Unix Security Administrator (GCUX)

Prerequisites & Required Courses

None; SEC506: Securing Linux/Unix training recommended (classroom, on demand, self-study or private; $6,610)

Number of Exams

One test (75 questions, two hours, minimum passing score 68%)

Cost per Exam

$1,899 without training (called a GIAC certification attempt; includes two free practice exams) $769 as part of a training course $769 retake fee $429 certification renewal

Exams administered by Pearson VUE.

URL

https://www.giac.org/certification/certified-unix-security-administrator-gcux

Self-Study Materials

Practice tests available on the GIAC test preparation page (two tests included in test fee; additional practice questions are $159 each). No GCUX-specific study guides found; GIAC recommends searching for self-study materials based on the GCUX objectives’ knowledge areas and getting practical experience.

Linux+ (CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI)

CompTIA exercises extraordinary certification clout at the entry level in many IT niches. This nonprofit has shown itself as willing to team up with more focused IT organizations, associations and consortia to combine their own market reach and visibility with niche smarts and subject matter expertise on loan from various partners.

One great example is the organization’s partnership with the Linux Professional Institute (LPI), which resulted in the CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI credential. This unique certification replaced the original CompTIA Linux+ certification in 2010 and uses the same two exams required for LPIC-1 certification.

As a result of this partnership, IT professionals who are serious about Linux can earn both the Linux+ credential and the LPIC-1 at the same time. Candidates must first earn the Linux+ credential and then submit a request to CompTIA asking that their results be sent to LPI to obtain the LPIC-1 certification. CompTIA test records are confidential, so candidates must request that their records be forwarded to LPI when taking the CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI exams.

Earning the CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI requires candidates to pass two exams. The first covers system architecture, installation and package management, GNU and Unix commands, devices, file systems and standard file system hierarchies. The second test digs into command shells, scripting and data management, user interfaces and desktops, administrative tasks and activities, basic system services, networking fundamentals and security topics. The CompTIA Linux+ Beta test (XK1-004) closed as of October 22, 2018, though candidates who took the test prior to the end date can still access those scores and apply a passing grade to their Linux+ certification. The replacement Linux+ 104 test based on this beta test will become publicly available in April of 2019.

Note that the Linux+ credential is valid for life.

CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI Facts & Figures

Certification Name

CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI

Prerequisites & Required Courses

None required

Recommended: CompTIA A+, CompTIA Network+ and 12 months of Linux administration experience

Number of Exams

Two exams: LX0-103 and LX0-104 (60 multiple-choice questions each, 90 minutes, 500 required out of 200 to 800 scale to pass). Note that the LX0-104 Beta test is no longer offered as of October 22, 2018; the replacement 104 test becomes publicly available in April of 2019.

Cost per Exam

$200 per exam; prices vary by geography

URL

https://certification.comptia.org/certifications/linux

Self-Study Materials

CompTIA maintains a list of training materials and additional study options, including links to study guides, test crams, practice tests, online and classroom training, CertMaster, and more. Additional third-party reference and review materials can be found on Amazon.

LPI (Linux Professional Institute) Certifications

The Linux Professional Institute (LPI) started up in October of 1999, almost one decade after Linus Torvalds began his pioneering efforts on the Linux kernel. Since then, LPI has become one of the leading certification providers on Linux courses and technologies. Given the organization’s distribution-agnostic approach to Linux, it offers excellent coverage of a platform that’s available in many forms and flavors in today’s marketplace.

The LPI Certification (LPIC) program is available in three distinct levels:

  • LPIC-1Linux Administrator: A  junior-level Linux certification with no prerequisites. Candidates must pass two exams that cover basic Linux skills, including installing and configuring Linux on a workstation, working at the command line, performing basic maintenance tasks, and making LAN or internet connections. While you can obtain the LPIC-1 credential directly from LPI, candidates should consider obtaining the CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI credential first, which qualifies you for both the Linux+ and LPIC-1 credentials.
  • LPIC-2Linux Engineer: An advanced-level Linux certification that requires an active LPIC-1 certification. Candidates must pass two exams that cover significant Linux skills and topics. The first test covers the kernel, system startup, file system and devices, advanced storage administration, network configuration, system maintenance and capacity planning. The second test covers web services, file sharing, network client management, email services, system security and troubleshooting, and domain name servers.
  • LPIC-3Linux Enterprise Professional Certification: A senior-level Linux certification that requires an active LPIC-2 and passing any single test in the 300 series. Valid test IDs currently include 300: Mixed Environment303: Security, and 304: Virtualization and High Availability. The Mixed Environment test covers Samba (domain integration, user and group management, name services, share configuration and so forth), plus OpenLDAP, and working with Linux and Windows clients. The Security test covers network, operations and application security, as well as cryptography and access controls. High availability cluster storage and management, along with virtualization, are covered in the Virtualization and High Availability exam.

In addition to the LPIC-1, 2 and 3 credentials, LPI also offers an entry-level credential, the Linux Essentials Professional Development Certificate (PDC). Linux Essentials focuses on foundational skills, such as creating and running simple scripts, restoring compressed backups and archives, working with the command line, Linux operating system basics, FOSS, and users/groups and file permissions for public and private directories. Linux Essentials is a great way to get started while gaining the skills and knowledge needed for the more challenging LPIC credentials.

LPI’s existing certification is the LPIC-OT DevOps Tools Engineer, which recognizes the effective use of tools for collaboration during system and software development. There are no prerequisites, and the single test lasts for 90 minutes and has 60 questions.

LPIC credentials are worthwhile for IT pros whose chosen Linux distributions do not warrant their own certification programs, and for those seeking broad, vendor- and distribution-neutral coverage of Linux topics, tools and technologies. They are popular among IT pros and in demand among IT employers.

LPIC-1, LPIC-2 and LPIC-3 Facts & Figures

Certification Name

LPIC-1: Linux Administrator

LPIC-2: Linux Engineer

LPIC-3: Linux Enterprise Professional

Prerequisites & Required Courses

LPIC-1: None, Linux Essentials recommended

LPIC-2: Active LPIC-1 certification

LPIC-3: Active LPIC-2 certification plus completion of one of the 300 series specialty exams

Training is recommended but not required

Number of Exams

LPIC-1: Exam 101-500 and Exam 102-500

LPIC-2: Exam 201-450 and Exam 202-450

LPIC-3: One of the 300 series exams: Mixed Environment (Exam 300-100)

Security (Exam 303-200)

Virtualization and High Availability (Exam 304-200)

Cost per Exam

$200 per exam. Exams administered by Pearson VUE. Linux ID required to register.

URL

http://www.lpi.org/our-certifications/summary-of-certifications

Self-Study Materials

Study guides, courseware knowledge packs, eLearning courses, test crams, practice tests, online and classroom training, Linux Academy subscriptions and more are available at LPI test Preparation, LPI Marketplace and Amazon.

Oracle Linux OCA & OCP

When Oracle bought Sun Microsystems in 2010, it acquired a rich and deep UNIX tradition. Oracle started phasing out Solaris almost immediately after finalizing the Sun acquisition.

Today, Oracle offers associate- and professional-level certifications based on Linux rather than harking back to any kind of UNIX roots. These certifications retain enough of their Sun roots, however, so that courses are not mandatory prerequisites to taking the exams for the two Oracle Linux certifications currently available.

As with other vendor-specific Linux certifications, Oracle’s are most appealing to those who work with or around that distribution, or who wish to work for employers who use those distributions.

OCA and OCP Facts & Figures

Certification Name

Oracle Certified Associate (OCA), Oracle Linux 5 and 6 System Administrator

Oracle Certified Professional (OCP), Oracle Linux 6 System Administrator

Prerequisites & Required Courses

OCA: No prerequisites. Recommended training: Oracle Linux S­­ystem Administration OCP: OCA Linux 5 and 6 System Administrator or Linux Administrator Certified Associate (now retired). Recommended training: Oracle Linux System Administration

Number of Exams

OCA: One exam, 1Z0-100 Oracle Linux 5 and 6 System Administration (150 minutes, 80 questions, 61% to pass) OCP: One exam, 1Z0-105 Oracle Linux 6 Advanced System Administrator (150 minutes, 97 questions, 61% to pass)

Cost per Exam

OCA: $245

OCP: $245

URL

https://education.oracle.com/oracle-linux/oracle-linux-administration/product_295?certPage=true

Self-Study Materials

Oracle offers online and in-class training for its credentials, with hit-or-miss coverage for them on the aftermarket. Start with Amazon searches — check test IDs 1Z0-100 and 1Z0-105 to get a sense for what’s available.

Note: Though there is now an OCA and OCP test available for Oracle Linux 7 System Administrator, Oracle has yet to announce this new certification or release the details of new Linux 7-based certification tests for OCA and OCP candidates.

Oracle Linux 6 Certified Implementation Specialist Certification

The Oracle Linux 6 Certified Implementation Specialist Certification is a certification available for those who sell, design, configure and implement Oracle Linux 6 solutions. Though any candidate can complete this certification, it is most typically achieved by Oracle partner implementation personnel with strong foundational experience in Linux and previous field experience implementing Linux 6.

Red Hat RHCSA, RHCE & RHCA

If there’s one major star in the vendor-specific Linux certification firmament, it’s got to be Red Hat. The company has major market presence and serious duration as a commercial provider of Linux platforms and technologies.

Red Hat offers a typical administrator, engineer, architect certification ladder. Unlike many other such programs, however, it offers highly regarded and valued credentials at each rung, along with demanding and hands-on oriented exams and an excellent training curriculum to match. All exams for the following Red Hat certifications are performance based and last two hours or longer.

The giveaway for Red Hat certifications is that all come with acronyms that start with RH, as follows:

  • Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA): This foundation certification vets essential skills in handling files, working at the command line and using system documentation, along with managing systems (boot up, identifying processes, start/stop virtual machines, controlling services), configuring storage partitions and logical volumes, and more.
  • Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE): This cornerstone certification is designed to test and validate the skills and knowledge necessary to work as a senior-level Linux system administrator. courses covered include advanced IP routing and services, managing runtime kernel behavior, working with iSCSI, automating maintenance tasks with shell scripts and working with networking services for Web, FTP, NFS, SMB, SMTP, SSH and more. An RHSCA is a prerequisite for the RHCE.
  • Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA): Red Hat’s pinnacle certification offers two paths to certification, depending on which prerequisite advanced Red Hat certification credentials you have already completed: Red Hat Certified Enterprise Microservices Developers (RHCEMDs) and Red Hat Certified JBoss Developers (RHCJDs) can earn an RHCA in Enterprise Applications, and Red Hat Certified Engineers (RHCEs) can earn an RHCA in Infrastructure. In general, the five additional exams that must be passed to achieve the RCHA in either Infrastructure or in Enterprise Applications are specific to each area of specialization, though a few of the tests can be used to satisfy the five test requirement in both RHCA tracks. A number of previously available certification exams have been discontinued for new RHCA candidates and renewals, though those exams can still be applied to the RHCA certification if you’ve already passed them. Find out more about discontinued exams that can be counted towards the RHCA credential on the RHCA page under the Candidate Guidance tab.

Because Red Hat Linux is widely used in the business world, the RHCA certification is an excellent choice for those interested in a more platform-focused path into the Linux world. Of course, for those who already work with or around Red Hat, it is a natural certification choice as well.

RHCSA, RHCE and RHCA Facts & Figures

Certification Name:

Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA)

Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE)

Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA)

Prerequisites & Required Courses

RHCSA: No prerequisites Recommended training:

Windows system administrators: Red Hat System Administration I (RH124) (5 days, $3,400) and II (RH134) (4 days, $3,400)Linux/Unix Administrators, RHCSA Rapid Track Course (RH199) (4 days, $3,700)

RHCE: RHCSA credential Recommended training:

Same as for RHCSA, plus

Red Hat System Administration III (RH254) ($3,400)

RHCA:

RHCE-certified (Infrastructure track) – Candidates currently holding an RHCE certification must pass five additional exams from the Infrastructure track below.

RHCJD/RHCEMD-certified (Enterprise Applications track) – Candidates currently holding an RHCJD or an RHCEMD certification must pass five additional exams from the Enterprise Applications track below.

Number of Exams

RHCSA: One exam, EX200 Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA) test (2.5 hours) RHCE: One exam, EX300 Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) test (3.5 hours) RHCA: Five exams total depending on whether you have already completed an RHCE certification (for the RHCA Infrastructure track), or an RHCEMD/RHCJD (for the RHCA Enterprise Applications track): An RHCE must pass five exams from the following list to achieve the RHCA in Infrastructure:

EX125 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Ceph Storage Administration exam

EX210 – Red Hat Certified System Administrator in Red Hat OpenStack exam

EX220 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Hybrid Cloud Management exam

EX236 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Gluster Storage Administration exam

EX248 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Enterprise Application Server Administration exam

EX270 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Container Management (Retired)

EX276 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Containerized Application Development (Retired)

EX280 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in OpenShift Administration exam

EX310 – Red Hat Certified Engineer in Red Hat OpenStack

EX318 – Red Hat Certified Virtualization Administrator exam

EX333 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Security: Network Services test (Retired)

EX342 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Linux Diagnostics and Troubleshooting

EX401 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Deployment and Systems Management test (Retired)

EX403 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Deployment and Systems Management exam

EX405 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Configuration Management

EX407 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Ansible Automation exam

EX413 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Server Security and Hardening exam

EX415 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Security: Linux exam

EX423 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Directory Services and Authentication test (Retired)

EX429 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in SELinux Policy Administration test (Retired)

EX436 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in High Availability Clustering exam

EX440 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Messaging Administration exam

EX442 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Linux Performance Tuning exam

RHCSA: One exam, EX200 Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA) test (2.5 hours) RHCE: One exam, EX300 Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) test (3.5 hours) RHCA: Five exams total depending on whether you have already completed an RHCE certification (for the RHCA Infrastructure track), or an RHCEMD/RHCJD (for the RHCA Enterprise Applications track): An RHCE must pass five exams from the following list to achieve the RHCA in Infrastructure:

EX125 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Ceph Storage Administration exam

EX210 – Red Hat Certified System Administrator in Red Hat OpenStack exam

EX220 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Hybrid Cloud Management exam

EX236 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Gluster Storage Administration exam

EX248 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Enterprise Application Server Administration exam

EX270 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Container Management (Retired)

EX276 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Containerized Application Development (Retired)

EX280 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in OpenShift Administration exam

EX310 – Red Hat Certified Engineer in Red Hat OpenStack

EX318 – Red Hat Certified Virtualization Administrator exam

EX333 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Security: Network Services test (Retired)

EX342 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Linux Diagnostics and Troubleshooting

EX401 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Deployment and Systems Management test (Retired)

EX403 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Deployment and Systems Management exam

EX405 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Configuration Management

EX407 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Ansible Automation exam

EX413 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Server Security and Hardening exam

EX415 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Security: Linux exam

EX423 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Directory Services and Authentication test (Retired)

EX429 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in SELinux Policy Administration test (Retired)

EX436 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in High Availability Clustering exam

EX440 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Messaging Administration exam

EX442 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Linux Performance Tuning exam

EX450 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Data Virtualization exam

RHCEMDs and RHCJD must pass five exams from the following list to achieve the RHCA certification in Enterprise Applications:

EX288 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in OpenShift Application Development exam

EX248 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Enterprise Application Server Administration exam

EX276 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Containerized Application Development test (Retired)

EX280 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in OpenShift Administration exam

EX405 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Configuration Management

EX407 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Ansible Automation exam

EX421 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Camel Development exam

EX427 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Business Process Design exam

EX440 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Messaging Administration exam

EX450 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Data Virtualization exam

EX453 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Fast-Cache Application Development exam

EX465 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Business Rules exam

Cost per Exam

$400 each ($2,000 total RHCA test costs)

URL

www.redhat.com/training/certifications/#certifications

Self-Study Materials

Red Hat skills assessments and other materials can be located on the training page. Red Hat Training includes multiple training options (online, classroom, self-paced, virtual, video and more). Red Hat Learning Subscription includes all online courses in one package; prices vary by geography, candidates can expect to pay $5,500 for a Basic Subscription and $7,000 for a Standard Subscription. Study guides are on Amazon.

Beyond the Top 5: More Linux certifications

Outside the top five Linux credentials and programs covered in this article, other Linux certifications may be worthy of your time and attention.

The Linux Foundation, a membership-based organization, promotes the development of the Linux kernel through collaboration, conferences and education. The organization’s small but respected certification program includes the Linux Foundation Certified System Administrator (LFCS) and the Linux Foundation Certified Engineer (LFCE).

IBM continues to offer a handful of Linux-related certifications. One certification of interest is the Certified Database Administrator, which continues to be in demand for those running DB2 on Linux, Unix and Windows systems.

Many industry experts, including Steven J. Vaughn-Nichols, a long-time user and expert on Linux and Unix operating systems, say that certifications can be an important ingredient in a job candidate’s qualifications. But interviewers should also pay close attention to how many Linux systems candidates have set up, managed or used to get a sense of the scale and scope of their experience.

In other words, when you see a web hosting service advertising for Linux jobs, they’re not looking for people who’ve installed and used Linux at home or in a small business setting; they’re looking for professionals who’ve set up and managed Linux in a highly distributed and virtualized data center environment, with lots of complex networking and services coming into the mix.

Tue, 11 Oct 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.businessnewsdaily.com/10750-best-linux-certifications.html
Killexams : How to prepare for your medical examination

The best preparation for your medical examination is to ensure all your vaccinations and medical treatments are up to date (Photo: Pexels)

ALL immigrant visa applicants, regardless of age, require a medical examination by an approved panel physician prior to the issuance of a visa.

In Jamaica there is only one facility accredited by the US Embassy to perform this test — Andrews Memorial Hospital. Medical examination results from other physicians will not be accepted. It is your responsibility to schedule a medical test once you have been scheduled for your visa appointment. We strongly urge you to call the hospital to make your medical appointment immediately after you register your appointment for your visa interview online, to allow the results of the test to be transmitted to the embassy in time for your interview. If you are unable to complete your test prior to your visa interview, please come to your interview but understand we cannot issue your visa without the results of the panel physician exam.

Q: Can I go to my interview if my medical is not complete?

Yes. If your medical is incomplete or you have been unable to schedule an appointment, you can still attend your interview appointment and complete the rest of your medical requirements after the scheduled interview. Upon completion of your visa interview, please be sure to schedule your appointment with Andrews Memorial Hospital and complete all required exams as soon as possible.

Q: What can I do to prepare for my medical?

The best preparation for your medical examination is to ensure all your vaccinations and medical treatments are up to date. If there are vaccines you are missing, please try to obtain them prior to your panel physician exam, if possible. If you are still awaiting the opportunity to schedule a visa appointment, you should take advantage of that time to update your vaccinations to prevent potential delays in the visa issuance process. Although we cannot accept medical examination results from other physicians, you can receive vaccines or treatments for illnesses from other institutions anywhere on the island and send the results to Andrews Memorial Hospital for their review.

Q: What are the latest CDC requirements for immigrant visa (IV) applicants entering the United States?

Effective October 1, 2021, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) requires all age-appropriate applicants for US immigrant visas worldwide to be vaccinated against COVID-19 prior to the panel physician examination, which is a prerequisite for immigrant visa consideration. Applicants will need to complete the full series of the COVID-19 vaccine regardless of whether they have had COVID-19. However, applicants do not need to wait the two weeks for full vaccine efficacy prior to their medical exams. If applicants have completed the full series of COVID-19 vaccine shots, they can proceed with their medical exam. Applicants will have to provide documentation of their vaccination to the panel physician.

We strongly recommend all immigrant visa applicants obtain the full COVID-19 vaccine series as soon as possible to avoid any possible delay in the processing of their visa applications. The US Embassy's panel physician provider, Andrew's Memorial Hospital, can provide more information. The Ministry of Health offers information on vaccination sites at the following online address: https://vaccination.moh.gov.jm/.

Q: What if I fail my medical?

If a panel physician identifies a substance abuse issue, you may be found temporarily ineligible for visa consideration. At the time of your refusal, you will receive a letter that will instruct you to contact the panel physician directly to initiate your medical reporting and will provide the date after which you can resume your visa application process.

Vaccines required for a complete medical:

• COVID-19

• Hepatitis A

• Hepatitis B

• Influenza

• Influenza type b (Hib)

• Measles

• Meningococcal

• Mumps

• Pneumococcal

• Pertussis

• Polio

• Rotavirus

• Rubella

• Tetanus and diphtheria toxoids

• Varicella

To assist the panel physician, and to avoid delays in the processing of an immigrant visa, all immigrant visa applicants should have their vaccination records available for the panel physician's review at the time of the medical examination.

The latest information on our operating status can be found on our website at www.jm.usembassy.gov or by visiting www.travel.state.gov. Keep on top of embassy news on our Facebook page, www.facebook.com/USEmbassyJamaica/ and by following @USEmbassyJA on Twitter. We also answer general consular questions on our Facebook and Twitter pages.

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Tue, 20 Sep 2022 17:56:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.jamaicaobserver.com/news/how-to-prepare-for-your-medical-examination/
Killexams : Celona and CWNP Team to Release First Private Cellular Wireless Certification for Enterprise Network Professionals

Celona

Celona’s Certified 5G LAN Specialist (C5S) course is designed to deliver comprehensive knowledge of the functions and capabilities for private LTE/5G wireless technology

CUPERTINO, Calif., Sept. 19, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Celona, the industry’s innovator of 5G LAN solutions, announced that is has partnered with Certified Wireless Network Professionals (CWNP) to sponsor the first private cellular wireless certification course developed by subject matter experts to teach and validate 5G LAN basics to enterprise network professionals.

Celona’s certified 5G LAN specialist (C5S) course, hosted by CWNP, provides learners with a vendor-neutral introduction to emerging private LTE/5G solutions and technologies. The C5S certification from Celona is valid for three years.

Ideal for wireless network engineers, architects, decision makers and technology advisors from both the IT and telecom industries, the free, six-hour online course and test ensures attendees have a solid understanding of the fundamental concepts for private spectrum options, LTE/5G cellular wireless technology benefits, and new generation of application / use case drivers requiring deterministic connectivity on enterprise wireless.

To date, professionals in more than 150 countries have achieved CWNP certifications, enabling them to make wireless LANs more cost-effective, reliable, and secure.

“Because CWNP is widely recognized as the industry standard for Wi-Fi certification, network professionals have always looked to us to provide domain expertise and world-class education on the latest technologies and deployment practices,” said Tom Carpenter, CTO of CWNP.

“While we are committed to remaining vendor independent, we believe our partnership with Celona, a technology pioneer in the private cellular wireless space, will help address exciting new developments in 5G LANs that are poised to change how network professionals think about, design and deploy enterprise wireless networks going forward.”

Celona’s 5G LAN Specialist (C5S) certification educates attendees about a wide range of private cellular operations and technologies such as:

  • Distinguishing factors between 5G LANs and Wi-Fi LANs

  • Technical considerations for deploying 5G LANs

  • Business needs that 5G LANs satisfy, distinct from Wi-Fi

  • 5G radio access network features and capabilities

  • The terminology and concepts used in 5G LANs

  • Private cellular spectrum framework (e.g. CBRS in the United States)

  • Shared spectrum and regulatory requirements in various countries

  • End user device selection given business and technical use cases

  • The use and administration of physical and embedded SIMs (eSIM)

  • Private LTE/5G integration within existing enterprise L2/L3 infrastructures

  • The differences between indoor and outdoor deployments

Celona’s certified 5GLAN specialist course is available today and has been made available to CWNP community members at no cost. Enterprise network professionals can register for a free community membership at CWNP.com and start their certification track.

ABOUT CELONA
Celona, the enterprise 5G company, is focused on enabling organizations of all sizes to implement the latest generation of digital automation initiatives on enterprise wireless. Taking advantage of dynamic spectrum sharing options such as CBRS in the United States, Celona’s 5G LAN solution is designed to accelerate the adoption of private cellular wireless by enterprise organizations and their technology partners. For more information, please visit celona.io and follow Celona on Twitter @celonaio.

ABOUT CWNP
CWNP is the industry standard for vendor-neutral enterprise wireless certification and training. CWNP’s entry-level to expert certifications prepare IT professionals to specify, design and manage enterprise wireless networks. CWNP has certification holders in more than 150 countries and authorized training partners around the globe. For more information, please visit cwnp.com and follow CWNP on Twitter @CWNP.

MEDIA CONTACT
David Callisch
Celona, Inc.
callisch@celona.io
+1 (408)504-5487

Sat, 24 Sep 2022 12:30:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://finance.yahoo.com/news/celona-cwnp-team-release-first-110000994.html
Killexams : Best CFA test Prep Courses

A newer option for CFA test prep, Salt Solutions launched its Beta platform for CFA Level I test prep in late 2020. The company is now officially out of Beta, and the full CFA learning experience is available for Levels I and II (Level III will be available in 2022).

Salt Solutions knows it’s tough to stay focused on a large volume of material with limited study time, so it breaks it into small chunks to complete in 10 to 30 minutes. Salt Solutions also improves the study process by showing you which steps are most important. While the platform offers flexibility, the scheduler also sets weekly goals to keep you on track. 

The platform has a user-friendly interface with a light or dark mode, making it easier on your eyes after long hours of studying. The platform currently includes assignment questions, downloadable videos, and a scheduler with weekly goals to stay on track.

Although Salt Solutions doesn’t have a proven track record yet, the user-friendly and thoughtfully designed software looks promising, particularly for those tired of staring at textbooks. Passing all three CFA exams isn’t easy, and Salt Solutions may be a good option for those struggling to buckle down and focus.

Mon, 10 Aug 2020 16:51:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.investopedia.com/best-cfa-exam-prep-courses-4797121
Killexams : More Than 200 Students Take Spring Makeup Exams

Last week, more than 200 Harvard undergraduates took final exams within the first month of the semester.

The Faculty of Arts and Science Registrar administered a total of 208 makeup final exams in the Student Organization Center at Hilles. Students who were unable to take their spring 2022 finals last semester were required to make them up last week — roughly four months after classes concluded.

Some students who took makeup exams expressed mixed feelings about the policy, citing difficulty preparing for the belated test.

“It’s a blessing and a curse. I got more time to study, but at the same time, over the summer, I forgot a lot of material,” John P. Ho ’25 said. “I think it could be more convenient to have the final take place in May. Having alternate dates for you to take the final within the same week that you missed it.”

Scott W. Arbery ’24 said he utilized class resources, including office hours, to prepare for his Ec10b: “Introduction to Macroeconomics” makeup exam.

Julian Giordano ’25 said he received minimal support and communication from course staff for his makeup final.

“The exam, as it turns out, was a different format from the test that I was expecting to take in May, which was not communicated to us,” said Giordano, a Crimson multimedia editor.

For certain classes, the final test could make or break a student’s grade.

“Knowing that it was out of my hands, if I did poorly, it was more of a reflection on the fact that it was such a long time in between when I was studying for the class and when I took the exam,” Giselle Chiprez ’25 said. “It definitely felt like I was on my own.”

For some students, making up last semester’s work meant sacrificing this semester’s.

“I had to, obviously, miss classes that day,” Adam S. Mohamed ’25 said. “I guess I would have liked to have more time to study, but since that didn’t happen, retrospectively, I would have preferred to do [the exam] last semester.”

FAS spokesperson Rachael Dane declined to comment on student criticisms, pointing to the policy guidelines.

“Regarding makeups, there is quite a lot of communications with both faculty and students,” Dane wrote. “During makeups last week, if a student missed an test due to positive COVID diagnosis, the Registrar invited them to reach out to exams to see if they could accommodate them on a day this week.”

“The Registrar is holding a special makeup test day this Wed. for those students who are out of isolation and feel well enough to take it,” she added.

—Staff writer Edona Cosovic can be reached at edona.cosovic@thecrimson.com.

Mon, 19 Sep 2022 15:24:00 -0500 text/html https://www.thecrimson.com/article/2022/9/20/students-take-makeup-exams/
Killexams : Best No-Exam Life Insurance Of October 2022

We scored companies based on these measurements:

Price (50% of score): We averaged the no-exam life insurance rates for males and females in excellent health at ages 30, 40 and 50 for $500,000 and $1 million and a term length of 20 years.

Maximum face amount for lowest eligible age (10% of score): Companies with higher no-exam life insurance coverage amounts for the lowest age earned more points. Note that maximum no-exam coverage can sometimes become lower if you apply at a higher age.

Age eligible for best length/amount (10% of score): Companies offering no-exam life insurance to folks over age 50 earned extra points.

Accelerated death benefit available (10% of score): This important feature lets you access part of your own death benefit in the event you develop a terminal illness

Option to convert to a permanent life insurance policy (10% of score): This is a good option to have in place if you decide you want a longer policy, especially if your health has declined and you don’t want to shop for new life insurance.

Guaranteed renewals (5% of score): This option lets you extend the coverage after your initial level term period has expired, such as at the end of 10, 20 or 30 years.

Renewal rates can be significantly higher, but renewing can provide extended coverage to someone who may no longer qualify for a new life insurance policy because of health.

Median time from application to approval (5% of score): We gave more points to companies with lower no-exam life insurance approval times.

The timeline for approval could be within seconds or a month, depending on the company and possibly even your health.

Sources: Bestow, Ethos, Fabric, Haven Life, Jenny Life, Ladder, Policygenius and Forbes Advisor research.

Compare Policies With Leading Life Insurance Companies

Sat, 15 Oct 2022 22:37:00 -0500 Ashlee Tilford en-US text/html https://www.forbes.com/advisor/life-insurance/best-no-exam-life-insurance/
Killexams : Without consent part 2: What local lawmakers are doing about pelvic exams without consent

KANSAS CITY, Mo.  — Doctors-in-training performing intimate exams on anesthetized or unconscious patients without their knowledge and without their consent — it's a little known practice in medicine the KSHB 41 I-Team discovered is legal in a majority of states, including Missouri and Kansas.

Learning how to do a pelvic and prostate test is part of medical students' education and ongoing training. These exams are also an extremely important part of a person's basic care.

However, ethical lines blur when a person's body is viewed as a teaching tool.

You probably won't go in for knee surgery and end up getting a pelvic test while you're under.

But abdominal surgery? Gynecological surgery? It could happen.

The problem is, there's no way to know exactly how often it happens. The I-Team found out it's a common practice and you might not ever know it happened.

In part one of this story, the I-Team explains more about this complicated issue and how failing to get consent can negatively impact patient trust.

For part two, KSHB talked to local lawmakers who want to fix this issue and ensure patients’ rights are always protected.

Kansas and Missouri don't have anything set-in-stone in the laws about this.

"I was shocked. I had no idea that this was a common practice," Missouri Sen. Lauren Arthur said.

Arthur is one of the local lawmakers who want to find a legislative cure.

"I had a visceral reaction to it," Arthur said, which is what made her want to jump into action.

Arthur introduced a bill last year that would require healthcare providers, including students, to get explicit consent from patients before doing pelvic, prostate or rectal exams on them while they are unconscious.

Arthur’s bill had a couple exceptions, like when an test is necessary for treatment or diagnosis or if a court orders one to collect evidence.

"These are important procedures," Arthur said. "I don't want to create any stigma around them, but under all circumstances, they should only be performed if a patient has given explicit, informed consent.

Arthur's bill died in committee.

In 2020, Missouri state representative Shamed Dogan filed a similar bill. It didn’t pass, but made it to a hearing, with more than a dozen people testifying in support, saying a woman’s body, or anyone’s body, shouldn’t be used as a mere teaching tool.

Ashley Weitz was one of those who submitted written testimony in support of the bill.

"I was shocked to learn this wasn't an anomaly, and my experience was a product of a way of educating that is not only antiquated, not only is it harmful, but it's unnecessary," Weitz said.

It’s personal to her.

"I woke up in the middle of the test screaming," Weitz said.

A doctor performed a pelvic test she didn’t consent to while she was heavily sedated in a Utah emergency room 15-years-ago.

As a sexual assault survivor, the experience traumatized her so much that she’s gone without necessary healthcare.

But she found her voice to help pass bills in Utah and in other states that would ban what happened to her.

"I just wanted to be asked," Weitz said.

MOCSA, the Metropolitan Organization to Counter Sexual Assault, also advocated for the Missouri bill.

The organization work with survivors of sexual abuse and trauma, like Weitz, who they say could face irreparable harm.

"Having something done to their body, or worrying that something may have been done to their body can be tremendously impactful and can cause anxiety and stress, re-traumatization and flashbacks," said Victoria Pickering, MOCSA's director of advocacy.

Kansas representative Rui Xu is also trying to stop this practice. He says patients likely understand medical students could be involved in their care, especially at teaching hospitals. But this, he says, is different.

"A pelvic test is an extra level of invasion, in my opinion, so that should require an extra level of consent that did not seem like has been happening and certainly not written into statute," Xu said.

Xu filed a bill in 2020 – his first act as a freshman lawmaker. It died too.

He thinks he knows why.

"The medical society tends to have a little more lobbying force in Kansas," Xu said. " In the super minority, we don't get much opportunity to get hearings on our bills in the first place, let alone something with opposition."

Xu and Arthur plan to re-file their bills in January.

"I think with the right forces, with you guys shining a light on this, potentially maybe we can change more hearts and eventually get this passed," Xu said.

The Kansas Medical Association declined to tell the KSHB 41 I-Team why it opposed Xu’s bill, but did provide us with a statement.

“Should Representative Xu introduce a similar bill next legislative session, we will read the language of the bill before taking a position on it, if any," it said in a statement.

A tip to take away: Pay attention to hospital consent forms. They may not mention anything about med students and doctors-in-training practicing pelvic exams.

You have the right as a patient to ask your doctor who will be in the room for your surgery or procedure. You also have the right to tell them you do not want any doctors-in-training to do pelvic exams on your body as practice.

In some hospitals, med students don't play a direct role in patient care.

However, these pelvic exams are not done for patient care; they're often done solely so that the medical student or the doctor-in-training can learn.

We reached out to national medical associations, who say doctors need to get prior, informed consent before performing an test the patient wouldn't be expecting.

The lawmakers we talked to believe it should be a law, even if hospitals have policies in place.

Copyright 2022 Scripps Media, Inc. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed.

Tue, 04 Oct 2022 07:36:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.kshb.com/news/local-news/investigations/without-consent-part-2-what-local-lawmakers-are-doing-about-pelvic-exams-without-consent
Killexams : Princeton should adopt oral exams

As September concludes and October commences, the ebb and flow of Princeton’s academic calendar pulls students along to their next destination: midterms week. Princeton students are already busy preparing for written, in-class midterm exams, which dominate the University’s examination structure. 

Yet, it doesn’t have to be this way. By “it,” I mean that the current structure of midterm and final assignments — the old combination of papers and multiple choice or short answer tests — isn’t the only, or even the superior, method of evaluating student learning. And it’s for this reason that I propose something new: an oral examination system in which students verbally respond to questions from course instructors.

To be clear, I’m not calling for the elimination of papers or written tests. They remain valuable pedagogical tools. But it is problematic that we rely on this combination alone when other effective assessments exist, as well. Princeton should offer oral exams, an evaluation system with a particularly strong track record

Oral exams, long-used and common in countries like Germany, are beneficial for students — not just because they mirror the type of tasks required in academic settings, but also because they apply to a multitude of career fields and have functional implications beyond graduation. You might not draft a 20-page research paper or take a three-hour test in your life again, but regardless of your profession, you’ll definitely interview for jobs, hold presentations, host meetings, or simply talk to people — aspects the oral test imitates and addresses.

Thus, the oral exam, by virtue of its configuration, allows students to hone their communication skills in a manner that papers or written tests cannot, while still testing what they would cover in terms of content. Speaking in an oral test is quite similar, after all, to preparing an essay or short answer — except now, you need to say it aloud. The ability to speak lucidly and persuasively while engaging with diverse sources is just as important as the ability to write in such fashion, and oral exams enable sufficient practice of the former.

Another major benefit of oral exams is that they make it harder to cheat: You walk into the room, and you either comprehend the material or you don’t. This feature also makes it difficult for students to slack off on readings — anything listed on the syllabus could be fair game on an oral exam, letting students demonstrate how they’d relate their broad conceptual knowledge to distinct posed scenarios. As a result, implementing oral exams may serve as a motivator for students to study carefully and avoid embarrassing themselves, while reducing instances of academic dishonesty.

A third advantage of the oral test is its versatility: It can be applied to a range of disciplines without much trouble. Initially, the oral test seems most favorable for the humanities or social sciences — areas like politics, history, or foreign languages. But oral exams can be easily applied to STEM fields with slight modifications, e.g., providing for a chalkboard or necessary software, so that, besides merely answering questions, students can draw or show their processes when solving problems, as when proving a math theorem.

Oral exams even have some precedent at Princeton. As is the case with most American universities, they are administered at the graduate level for everything from computer science to philosophy, and even exist in some form on the undergraduate level with senior thesis defenses in departments like SPIA and History. So if anyone wanted confirmation of oral exams’ feasibility, the University has already provided it by putting them into effect.

Granted, oral exams aren’t perfect. They’re often criticized as subjective; different students are asked different questions. That’s a valid concern — would graders fairly administer the exam? The good news, however, is that the issue of subjectivity can be mitigated through a committee system, with panels composed of two or three course instructors, both professors and preceptors. This design minimizes the risk that a student’s grade depends on a single grader’s opinion, and it ensures a more representative faculty sample. 

Another objection to oral exams is that they potentially disadvantage students who are nervous when speaking. I recognize that fear personally — I’m hesitant, on occasion, to contribute to class discussions, because I imagine I have nothing valuable to say. But oral exams would not be a wholly new burden, on this count. Most Princeton courses already have significant “participation” components that encourage students’ engagement. 

Though imperfect, oral exams have merits that papers and written tests don’t, from promoting greater academic integrity to fostering greater scholarly conversation. We shouldn’t be locked into believing that papers and written tests are the only — indeed, preferred — way to conduct midterms and finals. Rather, we should expand our view of academic assessment. Implementing oral exams as an option opens up another avenue for Princeton students to demonstrate their critical analysis and communication skills, without sacrificing rigor.

It’s time, then, for Princeton to deliver undergraduate oral exams the chance they deserve.

Henry Hsiao is a first-year contributing columnist from Princeton, N.J. He can be reached at henry.hsiao@princeton.edu.

Sun, 02 Oct 2022 13:56:00 -0500 text/html https://www.dailyprincetonian.com/article/2022/10/princeton-university-oral-exams-midterms-benefits
Killexams : Shabbat Shuvah: The Loving Exam

The days of reckoning are here, and it is time for the loving exam. Most exams are associated with tension and trepidation. Irrespective of how well we know the material, proctors do their best to make it stressful. Fear of failure, fear of getting caught cheating, and fear of falling short of the mark fill the air. But this test is different. It is a loving exam.

Rosh Hashanah is a day of judgment. The day when every living thing passes before G-d like a flock of sheep. He determines who shall live and who shall die, who in peace, and who in war, who in prosperity and who in poverty. Our destiny is decided on this day and who doesn’t tremble before the grandeur and majesty of this magnificent day?

The trial is held on Rosh Hashanah and the verdict is read on Yom Kippur. During the days in between, we make our case before G-d. Like any defendant on trial, we demonstrate contrition and plead for grace.

To accomplish this, we must first be familiar with the scales that G-d is weighing. What exactly are the good deeds that weigh in our favor and which inappropriate deeds is G-d considering? Precisely what is hanging in the balance?

The only way to repent for the things we did wrong is to know them first and for this we must make an honest accounting. We take inventory of our spiritual state and self-examine. It must be brutally honest, but it must not be honestly brutal. It ought to be a loving exam.

But how can this test be loving if our destiny hangs in the balance as we tremble before G-d? The answer is that though the test will tell us precisely what we did right and wrong, it won’t thunder down on us in recrimination and humiliation. It will take a kind, soft, loving tone. A loving exam.

The Loving Exam
This test should be more like a father talking to his son about something he needs to Boost than a stern proctor administering a test. The father is no less rigorous and honest, but he in loving. My child, try to think before you speak. Or my child, try to listen to people rather than interrupt them.

The father doesn’t tell the child that he is an awful person. The father tells the child that he is a good boy and that he has every faith in his ability to improve. The father shines a loving light on the areas that require improvement. He is demanding, not demeaning. He is honest, not brutal.

The son should walk away feeling that he can and will do better. It is not a pleasant experience for the son. No test ever is, no matter how lovingly it is applied. But it is a constructive experience.

When we self-examine and take an honest look at our shortcomings, we feel the same tensions and vulnerabilities that a child feels when his father points them out. And we need to acknowledge that these feelings are real. The baby in me, still vulnerable and insecure, recoils as tension washes over him. It falls to the adult me to acknowledge the fears and tensions of little me. To say, I know what you are feeling, and this experience can be bitter, but I am your big brother and I love you. I wouldn’t hurt you and I need you to trust me. Bear with me because from bitter we will soon transition to better.

Bitter Better, Sad Bad
This is a critical point. Self-examination is intended to be bitter because facing our faults and shortcomings is a bitter experience. But it is not meant to make us feel sad. If I grow sad over my sins, I will lose courage, fall into despair, and lose confidence in myself. This will become a self-fulfilling prophecy as I will certainly repeat the crime. If bitter leads to better, sad leads to bad.

The bitter experience of facing our failures is cathartic. It forces us to confront it and change it. Big me tells little me that these deeds require improvement, but they don’t define us. We are much better than them and we can turn the page. Once we acknowledge them, we can no longer ignore them. Thus, bitter leads to better.

But if big me thunders down on little me and engages in self berating and self-recrimination, how could you have done this and what does this say about you, little me will self-destruct. Sad will lead to bad.

We must, therefore, ensure that our test is a loving exam. Little me must hear from big me that we are good people who slipped up and are very capable of improving.

The Follow Up
The best way to concretize this message is to follow up our inventory of faults with an inventory of strengths. Just as we must know our shortcomings so must we know our strengths.

After offering up a litany of the things you need to improve, make a list of the many things you do well. You will be surprised at how many there are. You will feel good about yourself again, but you won’t forget your task. On the contrary, if you feel good about yourself, you will feel empowered and motivated to be even better.

You will embark on the improvement project with gusto and confidence because, after all, you are one of the good guys.

My Son
I learned this lesson from one of my sons. We were walking to Shull one Shabbat morning, and I told him about some of the behaviors that he needed to improve. When I finished, I told him that it is not pleasant to hear about our faults. No matter how lovingly they are presented, it is a bitter experience. But since bitter leads to better, he should know that I love him. Moreover, notwithstanding the faults I had highlighted, there are many delightful things about him that I admire.

Displaying a wisdom far beyond his years, he made a proposal. Tatty, he said, if there are many good things about me, why don’t you list them for me on our walk home from Shull? I agreed and a huge smile appeared on his face. “This will be the best walk home from Shull ever,” said he.

Sure enough on the walk home from Shull, I enumerated and elaborated on his many strengths. I told him at length about why I admire each one and broke them down for him in detail. As we walked into the house, he said, “Wow, there were so many more good things than bad things.”

I don’t think I will forget this experience anytime soon. The bounce in his step, the sparkle in his eye, and the buoyancy in his demeanor all told me that he felt good about himself. He had not forgotten the things he needed to work on. He remembered precisely how many there were and kept count when balancing them against the good things. But the knowledge that he is really a good kid, empowered him to do the heavy lifting.

Are we adults any different? We each have a child in us, and that child begs for a loving exam.

Rabbi Lazer Gurkow, a renowned lecturer, serves as Rabbi to Congregation Beth Tefilah in London Ontario. He is a member of the curriculum development team at Rohr Jewish Learning Institute and is the author of two books and nearly a thousand online essays. You can find his work at www.innerstream.org

Sat, 24 Sep 2022 18:44:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://blogs.timesofisrael.com/shabbat-shuvah-the-loving-exam/
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