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Exam Code: CWNA-107 Practice test 2022 by Killexams.com team
CWNA-107 Certified Wireless Network Administrator (CWNA)

Exam Number: CWNA-107
Availability: Pearson Vue Testing Center
Duration: 90 minutes
Questions: 60 multiple choice / multiple answer
Language: English

The CWNA certification is a foundational level wireless LAN certification for the CWNP Program. To earn a CWNA certification, you must take the CWNA test at a Pearson Vue Testing Center and pass with a 70% or higher. Instructors must pass with a 80% or higher. However you choose to prepare for the CWNA exam, you should start with the test objectives, which cover the full list of skills tested on the exam. The CWNA certification is valid for three (3) years. To recertify, pass one of the professional level certifications exams (CWSP,CWDP, CWAP) BEFORE your CWNA expires. By doing so, the CWNA will be renewed for another three (3) years. Or retake the current version of the CWNA exam.

While the Certified Wireless Specialist (CWS) and Certified Wireless Technician (CWT) certifications are not a required prerequisite to the CWNA certification, it is highly recommended. It will provide a solid learning foundation before continuing to pursue the CWNA.

When you pass the CWNA exam, you earn credit towards the CWSP, CWDP, CWAP, and CWNE certifications and you earn the CWNA certification.
This test measures the candidates ability to understand the fundamentals of RF behavior and to describe the features and functions of WLAN components as they apply to WLAN administration. Also tested are the skills needed to install, configure, and troubleshoot WLAN hardware peripherals and protocols in small business and enterprise deployments.
The skills and knowledge measured by this examination are derived from a Job Task Analysis (JTA) involving wireless networking experts (CWNEs) and professionals. The results of this JTA were used in weighing the subject areas and ensuring that the weighting is representative of the relative importance of the content.

Knowledge Domain Percentage
Radio Frequency (RF) Technologies 15%
WLAN Regulations and Standards 10%
WLAN Protocols and Devices 20%
WLAN Network Architecture 20%
WLAN Network Security 10%
RF Validation 10%
WLAN Troubleshooting 15%


Radio Frequency (RF) Technologies – 15%
- Define and explain the basic characteristics of RF and RF behavior
- Wavelength, frequency, amplitude, phase, sine waves
- RF propagation and coverage
- Reflection, refraction, diffraction and scattering
- Multipath and RF interference
- Gain and loss
- Amplification
- Attenuation
- Absorption
- Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR)
- Return Loss
- Free Space Path Loss (FSPL)
- Delay Spread
- Modulation (ASK and PSK)
- Apply the basic concepts of RF mathematics and measurement
- Watt and milliwatt
- Decibel (dB)
- dBm, dBd and dBi
- Noise floor
- SNR and SINR
- RSSI
- Signal metric conversions
- System Operating Margin (SOM), fade margin and link budget calculations
- Intentional Radiator compared with Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power (EIRP)
- Identify RF signal characteristics as they relate to antennas
- RF and physical line of sight and Fresnel zone clearance
- Beamwidths
- Azimuth and Elevation charts
- Passive gain vs. active gain
- Isotropic radiator
- Polarization
- Antenna diversity types
- Radio chains
- Spatial multiplexing (SM)
- Transmit Beam Forming (TxBF)
- Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC)
- MIMO and MU-MIMO
Explain and apply the functionality of RF antennas and antenna systems and the mounting options and antenna accessories available
- Omni-directional antennas
- Semi-directional antennas
- Highly directional antennas
- Sectorized antennas and antenna arrays
- practicing antenna charts for different antenna types
- Pole/mast mount
- Ceiling mount
- Wall mount
- Indoor vs. outdoor mounting
- RF cables, connectors and splitters
- Amplifiers and attenuators
- Lightning arrestors and grounding rods/wires
- Towers, safety equipment and related concerns

WLAN Regulations and Standards – 10%
- Explain the roles of WLAN and networking industry organizations
- IEEE
- Wi-Fi Alliance
- IETF
- Regulatory domains and agencies
- Explain the IEEE standard creation process including working groups, naming conventions, drafts and ratification
Explain and apply the various Physical Layer (PHY) solutions of the IEEE 802.11-2016 standard as amended including supported channel widths, spatial streams, data rates and supported modulation types
- DSSS – 802.11
- HR-DSSS – 802.11b
- OFDM – 802.11a
- ERP – 802.11g
- HT – 802.11n
- DMG – 802.11ad
- VHT – 802.11ac
- TVHT – 802.11af
- S1G – 802.11ah
- Identify and apply 802.11 WLAN functional concepts
- Modulation and coding
- Co-location interference
- Channel centers and widths (all PHYs)
- Primary channels
- Adjacent overlapping and non-overlapping channels
- Throughput vs. data rate
- Bandwidth
- Communication resilience
- Describe the OSI model layers affected by the 802.11-2016 standard and amendments
- Define the frequency bands used by the 802.11 PHYs
- Identify and comply with regulatory domain requirements and explain how to determine constraints within a regulatory domain
- Available channels
- Output power constraints
- Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS)
- Transmit Power Control (TPC)
- Explain basic use case scenarios for 802.11 wireless networks
- Wireless LAN (WLAN) – BSS and ESS
- Wireless PAN (WPAN)
- Wireless bridging
- Wireless Ad-Hoc (IBSS)
- Wireless Mesh (MBSS)
WLAN Protocols and Devices – 20%
- Describe the components that make up an 802.11 wireless service set
- Stations (STAs)
- Basic Service Set (BSS)
- Basic Service Area (BSA)
- SSID
- BSSID
- Extended Service Set (ESS)
- Ad Hoc mode and IBSS
- Infrastructure mode
- Distribution System (DS)
- Distribution System Media (DSM)
- Roaming (Layer 1 and Layer 2)
Identify and explain the basic frame types defined in the 802.11-2016 standard
- General frame format
- MAC addressing
- Beacon frame
- Association frames
- Authentication frames
- Data frames
- Acknowledgement (ACK) frames
- Block ACK frames
Explain the process used to locate and connect to a WLAN
- Scanning (active and passive)
- Authentication
- Association
- Open System Authentication and Shared Key authentication
- 802.1X/EAP and Pre-Shared Key authentication
- BSS selection
Define terminology related to the 802.11 MAC and PHY
- MSDU, MPDU, PSDU and PPDU
- A-MSDU and A-MPDU
- Guard Interval
- Interframe spaces
- Fragmentation
- PHY preamble
Explain 802.11 channel access methods
- DCF
- EDCA
- RTS/CTS
- CTS-to-Self
- NAV
- Physical carrier sense and virtual carrier sense
- Channel width operations
- HT Operation Modes
- VHT Operating Mode field
- HT and VHT protection mechanisms
- Power save modes
Describe features of, select and install WLAN infrastructure devices
- Autonomous Access Points (APs)
- Controller-based APs
- Cloud-based APs
- Distributed APs
- Management systems
- Mesh APs and routers
- WLAN controllers
- Remote office controllers and/or APs
- PoE injectors and PoE-enabled Ethernet switches
- WLAN bridges
- Home WLAN routers
Identify the features, purpose, and use of the following WLAN client devices and adapters
- USB adapters
- PCI, Mini-PCI, Mini-PCIe and Half Mini-PCIe cards
- Laptops, tablets and mobile phones
- 802.11 VoIP handsets
- Specialty devices (handheld scanners, push-to-talk, IoT)
- Configure Windows, Linux, Chrome OS, and macOS clients

WLAN Network Architecture – 20%
Identify technology roles for which WLAN solutions are appropriate and describe the typical use of WLAN solutions in those roles
- Corporate data access and end-user mobility
- Enterprise network extension
- WLAN bridging
- Last-mile data delivery – Wireless ISP
- Small Office/Home Office (SOHO) use
- Mobile offices
- Educational/classroom use
- Industrial
- Healthcare
- Hotspots
- Hospitality
- Conference/convention/arena/stadium and large high density deployments
- Transportation networks (trains, planes, automobiles)
- Law enforcement networks
Describe and implement Power over Ethernet (PoE)
- IEEE 802.3-2012, Clause 33, including 802.3af-2003 and 802.3at-2009
- Power Source Equipment
- Powered Device
- Midspan and endpoint PSEs
- Power levels
- Power budgets and powered port density
Define and describe controller-based, distributed, cloud-based, and controller-less WLAN architectures
- Core, Distribution and Access layer forwarding
- Centralized data forwarding
- Distributed data forwarding
- Control, Management and Data planes
- Scalability and availability solutions
- Intra- and Inter-controller STA roaming handoffs (OKC and FT)
- Advantages and limitations of each technology
- Tunneling, QoS and VLANs
Define and describe a multiple channel architecture (MCA) network model and contrast it with a single channel architecture (SCA) model
- BSSID and ESS configuration
- Channel selection
- AP placement
- Co-channel and adjacent channel interference
- Cell sizing (output power, antenna selection)
Match WLAN deployment requirements commonly specified to technology solutions
- Data
- Voice
- Video
- Real-Time Location Services (RTLS)
- Mobile devices (tablets and smartphones)
- High density
- AirTime Fairness
- Band steering
- HotSpot 2.0/Passpoint certification
- Radio Resource Management (RRM) and Adaptive Radio Management (ARM)
- BYOD
- Guest access
- Mobile device management (MDM)
- Network Access Control (NAC)
Determine and document required network services supporting the WLAN
- DHCP
- DNS
- NTP
- VLANs
- RADIUS
- Access Control Lists
- Wired network capacity requirements
- Cable lengths
- Cable types

WLAN Network Security – 10%
Identify weak security options that should not be used in enterprise WLANs
- WEP
- Shared Key authentication
- SSID hiding
- MAC filtering
- Improper use of WPA (TKIP/RC4)
- Open System authentication alone, with the exception of intentional public networks
- Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS)
Identify and configure effective security mechanisms for enterprise WLANs
- WPA2 (CCMP/AES)
- WPA2-Personal
- WPA2-Enterprise
- 802.1X/EAP framework
- RADIUS servers
- EAP methods
- Effective pre-shared key (PSK) and passphrase usage
- Per-User PSK (PPSK)
Describe and select common security enhancements and tools used in WLANs
- Captive portals
- BYOD and guest networks
- Protected management frames
- Fast Secure Roaming methods
- Wireless Intrusion Prevention System (WIPS)
- Protocol and spectrum analyzers
Explain and use secure management protocols
- HTTPS
- SNMPv3
- SSH2
- VPN

RF Validation – 10%
Explain the importance of and the process of a post-implementation validation survey
-- Verify design requirements
- Coverage
- Capacity
- Throughput
- Roaming
- Delay
- Jitter
- Connectivity
- Aesthetics
- Document actual WLAN implementation results
Locate and identify sources of RF interference
- WLAN devices
- Co-Channel Interference (CCI)
- Adjacent Channel Interference (ACI)
- Non-Wi-Fi devices
- Airtime utilization
- Frequencies used
- Interference solutions
- Spectrum analysis
Perform application testing to validate WLAN performance
- Network and service availability
- VoIP testing
- Real-time application testing
- Throughput testing
- Load testing
Understand and use the basic features of validation tools
- Throughput testers (iPerf, TamoSoft Throughput Tester, etc.)
- Wireless design software (Ekahau Site Survey, iBwave Wi-Fi, AirMagnet Survey Pro, TamoSoft Survey, Aruba RFPLan)
- Protocol analyzers
- Spectrum analyzers

WLAN Troubleshooting – 15%
Define and apply industry and vendor recommended troubleshooting processes to resolve common 802.11 wireless networking problems
- Identify the problem
- Discover the scale of the problem
- Define possible causes
- Narrow to the most likely cause
- Create a plan of action or escalate the problem
- Perform corrective actions
- Verify the solution
- Document the results
Describe and apply common troubleshooting tools used in WLANs
- Protocol analyzer
- Spectrum analyzer
- Centralized management consoles
- WLAN monitoring solutions
Identify and explain how to solve the following WLAN implementation challenges using features available in enterprise class WLAN equipment and troubleshooting tools
- System throughput
- CCI and ACI
- RF noise and noise floor
- RF interference
- Hidden nodes
- Insufficient PoE power
- Lack of coverage
Troubleshoot common connectivity problems in WLANs (both WLAN connectivity and network connectivity for wireless clients)
- No signal or weak signal
- Security configuration mismatch
- Improper AP configuration
- Improper client configuration
- Faulty drivers/firmware
- Hardware failure
- DHCP issues
- Captive portal issues

Certified Wireless Network Administrator (CWNA)
CWNP Administrator questions
Killexams : CWNP Administrator questions - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/CWNA-107 Search results Killexams : CWNP Administrator questions - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/CWNA-107 https://killexams.com/exam_list/CWNP Killexams : NCUA is closer to unlimited third-party test authority

The U.S. House of Representatives added hundreds of unrelated amendments to the National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) in late July, including Section 5403 that would grant NCUA oversight and examination authority over any and all businesses that contract with or provide products/services to federally insured credit unions.

This significant agency authority expansion would increase the size of NCUA as an agency because they lack the expertise to examine every type of vendor that does business with a credit union, thus demanding more test fees and share insurance fund dollars through the overhead transfer to hire the staff and provide the training for this dramatic increase in agency authority.

Likewise, we are concerned about the possibility that such unlimited authority to examine any credit union vendor could result in overreach far beyond the national core processors that have direct access to member data and extend those examinations to local vendors that provide services and products to a credit union on a day-to-day basis. We see considerable reputation risk to credit unions if the NCUA is authorized to show up and ask for financial statements from local companies simply because they do business with a credit union.

Lastly, we submit that NCUA can already obtain access to exams of the national core processing firms – which are the types of vendors with direct access to member data most often cited by NCUA in requesting this expanded agency authority in the name of cyber security – from other federal financial regulatory agencies that already conduct such exams.

As a member of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC), NCUA can request test reports from other FFIEC agencies that already conduct exams of the larger core processors of which most serve banks and credit unions. It is duplicative and naïve to believe a separate NCUA examination is going to provide more data security than the exams already taking place with FDIC, the OCC and the Federal Reserve.

We feel that Section 5403 should be removed from the NDAA, as this unnecessary, costly and unrelated expansion of a federal agency authority should not be extended solely based upon an add-on amendment to a national defense bill.

In addition, last week three members of the Senate introduced S. 4698, the “Improving Cybersecurity of Credit Unions Act” at the request of the NCUA which would supply the NCUA additional authority to examine credit unions’ third-party vendors.

When practicing S. 4698, the Senate bill says “Until 2001, the NCUA maintained third-party examination authority over credit union organizations.” This statement is only partially true. It implies that NCUA had unlimited third-party examination authority prior to 2001, which is not accurate – NCUA only had limited third-party examination authority to look at critical IT vendors to ensure compliance with Y2K requirements, and once the Y2K crisis was averted, that limited third-party examination authority went away.

NACUSO, NAFCU and CUNA are leading the effort in the Senate to stop the unlimited vendor authority, or at least to restrict the vendor authority language to those third-party organizations that are directly involved in processing member data and therefore actually pose a potential cybersecurity risk. We further feel that NCUA should first look at third-party examinations conducted by the OCC, FDIC or Federal Reserve, pursuant to their membership in the FFIEC, prior to conducting an test on a third-party vendor.

Some of our members have expressed concern that with the number of credit unions down below 5000, the NCUA is pursuing this additional examination authority to increase their regulatory and supervisory authority over businesses other than credit unions in order to keep building an agency that once regulated and examined 15,000 credit unions with a smaller staff than NCUA has today.  They point to the fact that as the number of banks has declined, so has the number of FDIC and OCC staff, while NCUA actually has more staff and a larger industry funded budget now than they did in 2000 when there were over 10,000 federally insured credit unions.

We encourage you to oppose Senate Bill 4698, for being overly broad, covering third-party vendors that are not engaged in handling credit union member data, and because NCUA has not been transparent on the costs and how they would use this new authority. Implementing such new authority for the NCUA would require significant expenditures by the agency, a direct cost to credit unions across the country who fund the NCUA’s ever growing budget. We believe the NCUA should focus on regulating credit unions and working with the FFIEC to gain information on vendors already vetted by federal regulators.

If you have concerns about the significant grant of additional NCUA examination authority, it is important to contact your Senators this month to let them know of your concerns. Either the NDAA amendment or S. 4698 will likely pass if there is no opposition from the industry and the only things Senators are hearing are from NCUA lobbyists.

Tue, 09 Aug 2022 19:00:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.cuinsight.com/ncua-is-closer-to-unlimited-third-party-exam-authority/
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