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CTFL-001 ISTQB Certified Tester Foundation Level (CTFL_001)

ISTQB has recently launched CTFL 2018 V3.1 with minor changes. You can find all the info needed in the obtain area.
The Foundation Level Syllabus forms the basis for the International Software Testing Qualification at the Foundation Level.
The International Software Testing Qualifications Board® (ISTQB®) provides it to the national examination bodies for them to accredit the training providers and to derive examination questions in their local language.

Training providers will produce courseware and determine appropriate teaching methods for accreditation, and the syllabus will help candidates in their preparation for the examination.

The Certified Tester Foundation Level in Software Testing
The Foundation Level qualification is aimed at anyone involved in software testing. This includes people in roles such as testers, test analysts, test engineers, test consultants, test managers, user acceptance testers and software developers.

This Foundation Level qualification is also appropriate for anyone who wants a basic understanding of software testing, such as project managers, quality managers, software development managers, business analysts, IT directors and management consultants. Holders of the Foundation Certificate will be able to go on to a higher level software testing qualification.

Fundamentals of Testing

Learning Objectives for Fundamentals of Testing:
- What is Testing?
- Identify typical objectives of testing
- Differentiate testing from debugging
- Why is Testing Necessary?
- supply examples of why testing is necessary
- Describe the relationship between testing and quality assurance and supply examples of how testing contributes to higher quality
- Distinguish between error, defect, and failure
- Distinguish between the root cause of a defect and its effects
- Seven Testing Principles
- Explain the seven testing principles
- Test Process
- Explain the impact of context on the test process
- Describe the test activities and respective tasks within the test process
- Differentiate the work products that support the test process
- Explain the value of maintaining traceability between the test basis and test work products
- The Psychology of Testing
- Identify the psychological factors that influence the success of testing
- Explain the difference between the mindset required for test activities and the mindset required for development activities

Keywords
coverage, debugging, defect, error, failure, quality, quality assurance, root cause, test analysis, test basis, test case, test completion, test condition, test control, test data, test design, test execution, test implementation, test monitoring, test object, test objective, test oracle, test planning, test procedure, test process, test suite, testing, testware, traceability, validation, verification

Testing Throughout the Software Development Lifecycle

Learning Objectives for Testing Throughout the Software Development Lifecycle
- Software Development Lifecycle Models
- Explain the relationships between software development activities and test activities in the software development lifecycle
- Identify reasons why software development lifecycle models must be adapted to the context of project and product characteristics
- Test Levels
- Compare the different test levels from the perspective of objectives, test basis, test objects, typical defects and failures, and approaches and responsibilities
- Test Types
- Compare functional, non-functional, and white-box testing
- Recognize that functional, non-functional, and white-box tests occur at any test level
- Compare the purposes of confirmation testing and regression testing
- Maintenance Testing
- Summarize triggers for maintenance testing
- Describe the role of impact analysis in maintenance testing

Keywords
acceptance testing, alpha testing, beta testing, change-related testing, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS), component integration testing, component testing, confirmation testing, contractual acceptance testing, functional testing, impact analysis, integration testing, maintenance testing, non-functional testing, operational acceptance testing, regression testing, regulatory acceptance testing, sequential development model, system integration testing, system testing, test basis, test case, test environment, test level, test object, test objective, test type, user acceptance testing, white-box testing

Static Testing

Learning Objectives for Static Testing
- Static Testing Basics
- Recognize types of software work product that can be examined by the different static testing techniques
- Use examples to describe the value of static testing
- Explain the difference between static and dynamic techniques, considering objectives, types of defects to be identified, and the role of these techniques within the software lifecycle
- Review Process
- Summarize the activities of the work product review process
- Recognize the different roles and responsibilities in a formal review
- Explain the differences between different review types: informal review, walkthrough, technical review, and inspection
- Apply a review technique to a work product to find defects
- Explain the factors that contribute to a successful review

Keywords
ad hoc review, checklist-based review, dynamic testing, formal review, informal review, inspection, perspective-based reading, review, role-based review, scenario-based review, static analysis, static testing, technical review, walkthrough

Test Techniques

Learning Objectives for Test Techniques
- Categories of Test Techniques
- Explain the characteristics, commonalities, and differences between black-box test techniques, white-box test techniques, and experience-based test techniques
- Black-box Test Techniques
- Apply equivalence partitioning to derive test cases from given requirements
- Apply boundary value analysis to derive test cases from given requirements
- Apply decision table testing to derive test cases from given requirements
- Apply state transition testing to derive test cases from given requirements
- Explain how to derive test cases from a use case
- White-box Test Techniques
- Explain statement coverage
- Explain decision coverage
- Explain the value of statement and decision coverage
- Experience-based Test Techniques
- Explain error guessing
- Explain exploratory testing
- Explain checklist-based testing

Keywords
black-box test technique, boundary value analysis, checklist-based testing, coverage, decision coverage, decision table testing, error guessing, equivalence partitioning, experience-based test technique, exploratory testing, state transition testing, statement coverage, test technique, use case testing, whitebox test technique

Test Management

Learning Objectives for Test Management
- Test Organization
- Explain the benefits and drawbacks of independent testing
- Identify the tasks of a test manager and tester
- Test Planning and Estimation
- Summarize the purpose and content of a test plan
- Differentiate between various test strategies
- supply examples of potential entry and exit criteria
- Apply knowledge of prioritization, and technical and logical dependencies, to schedule test execution for a given set of test cases
- Identify factors that influence the effort related to testing
- Explain the difference between two estimation techniques: the metrics-based technique and the expert-based technique
- Test Monitoring and Control
- Recall metrics used for testing
- Summarize the purposes, contents, and audiences for test reports
- Configuration Management
- Summarize how configuration management supports testing
- Risks and Testing
- Define risk level by using likelihood and impact
- Distinguish between project and product risks
- Describe, by using examples, how product risk analysis may influence the thoroughness and scope of testing
- ement
- Write a defect report, covering a defect found during testing

Keywords
configuration management, defect management, defect report, entry criteria, exit criteria, product risk, project risk, risk, risk level, risk-based testing, test approach, test control, test estimation, test manager, test monitoring, test plan, test planning, test progress report, test strategy, test summary report, tester

Tool Support for Testing

Learning Objectives for Test Tools
- Test tool considerations
- Classify test tools according to their purpose and the test activities they support
- Identify benefits and risks of test automation
- Remember special considerations for test execution and test management tools
- Effective use of tools
- Identify the main principles for selecting a tool
- Recall the objectives for using pilot projects to introduce tools
- Identify the success factors for evaluation, implementation, deployment, and on-going support of test tools in an organization

Keywords
data-driven testing, keyword-driven testing, test automation, test execution tool, test management tool

ISTQB Certified Tester Foundation Level (CTFL_001)
iSQI Foundation Study Guide
Killexams : iSQI Foundation Study Guide - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/CTFL-001 Search results Killexams : iSQI Foundation Study Guide - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/CTFL-001 https://killexams.com/exam_list/iSQI Killexams : ITIL Certification Guide: Overview and Career Paths

The Information Technology Infrastructure Library, better known as ITIL, is the pre-eminent framework for managing IT service delivery around the world. ITIL defines a service lifecycle model that prescribes specific processes and activities during the design, development, delivery, and support of IT services. For the purposes of this discussion, IT services are any IT activities that deliver business value to a company’s end users, customers and other internal or external stakeholders. Examples of IT services include centralized corporate email and corporate websites based on back-end IT processes, such as server and network administration. The current version of ITIL is known as ITIL V3.

By adopting the ITIL framework, companies ensure that their services are delivered according to a set of consistent, well-defined processes that incorporate best practices and processes, resulting in a predictable level of service for users. The benefits of ITIL include reduced cost of service development and deployment, improved customer satisfaction with service delivery, increased productivity from IT personnel, quality improvements, better management metrics of services and increased flexibility in adapting services to changing business requirements.

ITIL Certification program overview

In July 2013, Axelos took ownership of ITIL. It now maintains the ITIL framework and accredits training and examination institutes. Hundreds of ITIL Accredited Training Organizations (ATOs) are available to deliver training, and ITIL certification exams may be administered at the end of a training course or by an Examination Institute (EI), many of which work directly with the ATOs.

ITIL offers five different certification levels:

  • Foundation
  • Practitioner
  • Intermediate (Service Lifecycle and Service Capability categories)
  • Expert
  • Master

Be aware that ITIL uses a credit system for the Foundation through Expert levels, in which each certification earns a certain number of credits. Ultimately, a total of 22 credits is required to achieve ITIL Expert certification. (The ITIL Master has its own set of requirements, which you’ll read about shortly). The following graphic shows the structure of that certification scheme and its corresponding credits.

What is ITIL?

Before you read on for certification details, it’s important to understand how the ITIL IT service framework is structured and what it has to offer.

ITIL was first developed by the U.K. Government’s Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency (CCTA) in the 1980s as a set of standardized best practices for IT services used in government agencies. From that narrowly focused start, ITIL has been adopted, revised and expanded into a comprehensive framework for managing IT service delivery in companies and organizations of all sizes, across all industries and market sectors.

In fact, IT has become a mission-critical service delivery mechanism for companies that rely on complex computing resources to keep their businesses operating and generating revenue. ITIL allows companies to define and implement a documented, repeatable process that assists them in staying focused on the large and small details involved in rolling out new IT services and managing those services afterward.

The ITIL service lifecycle consists of five practice areas or phases, with supporting principles, policies and processes within each phase:

  • Service Strategy: This phase focuses on defining services as strategic assets, and then maintaining and implementing a coherent, deliberate strategy. Service strategy principles address business processes, corporate governance and compliance, policies, corporate culture and decision-making, and ensure that the business is geared for service improvement.
  • Service Design: This phase includes the assessment of business management processes (service level, availability, capacity, etc.) to design and develop new service offerings or Improve existing offerings.
  • Service Transition: This phase covers the transition from development to production operations, including testing and quality control.
  • Service Operation: This phase defines how to manage services once they’re in production use. It addresses service operation processes, such as event management, access management, incident response, the application lifecycle and helpdesk support.
  • Continuous Service Improvement: This phase defines new requirements for the preceding phases of ITIL based on operational feedback and service levels. It helps to ensure that policies and procedures are followed, that service level agreements are met and that operational lessons learned are incorporated into existing and future service refinements.

Don’t let the scope of ITIL scare you away from the overall value afforded by this comprehensive lifecycle for IT services. The ITIL framework gives companies the structure and discipline required to design, develop, deliver and manage new or improved services in a timely manner and, most importantly, on a budget. Before ITIL, a lack of service management discipline and expertise led many IT projects to suffer budget overruns, veer off course or fail outright due to scope-creep, mismanagement and a lack of repeatable results. ITIL solves these problems quite nicely. In fact, ITIL is widely regarded as the pre-eminent standard for IT service management frameworks.

ITIL Foundation certification

The ITIL Foundation certification covers the basics of ITIL and is where most newbies start the process of learning ITIL and becoming certified. The certification has no prerequisites, and anyone with an interest in the subject matter can sit for this exam. ITIL Foundation certification exam prep can be accomplished via classroom or distance learning options, as well as via self-study. There is no requirement for you to complete a training course before you sit for the Foundations exam. The Foundation exam consists of 40 multiple-choice questions that must be answered in 60 minutes with a grade of 65 percent, or 26 correct answers, required to pass the exam.

Although the certification covers all the five practice areas of the ITIL service lifecycle, including how the different lifecycle stages are linked to one another, an IT pro who completes the ITIL Foundation level will likely need to complete the Practitioner or Intermediate certification before being able to qualify for service management positions.

ITIL Practitioner

The ITIL Practitioner certification is the latest entry to the ITIL certification scheme. This exam was offered for the first time in February 2016. As the name implies, the ITIL Practitioner certification is based on practical knowledge of ITIL processes and how those principles are implemented in the real world. An ITIL Practitioner can explain how to use the ITIL framework to support business objectives and focuses on organizational change management, communications, and measurement and metrics.

The ITIL Practitioner is considered the next step in the ITIL progression after achieving the ITIL Foundation (which is a prerequisite). It emphasizes the ability to adopt, adapt and apply ITIL concepts in an organization. Although the Practitioner certification is not required for upper-level ITIL credentials, achieving Practitioner certification provides three credits toward ITIL Expert certification. You can prepare for the Practitioner exam through self-study, in-person classroom learning or online and distance learning options. The Practitioner exam is 40 multiple-choice questions and requires a minimum score of 70 percent, or 28 correct answers,  to pass.

The ITIL Intermediate certification is module-based, each of which focuses on a different aspect of IT service management. Relevant modules are categorized as either Service Lifecycle or Service Capability.

The Service Lifecycle modules are:

  • Service Strategy (SS)
  • Service Design (SD)
  • Service Transition (ST)
  • Service Operation (SO)
  • Continual Service Improvement (CSI)

The Service Capability modules are:

  • Operational Support and Analysis (OSA)
  • Planning, Protection and Optimization (PPO)
  • Release, Control and Validation (RCV)
  • Service Offerings and Agreements (SOA)

To enable candidates to meet their own career goals, AXELOS lets you achieve qualification in one category or by choosing modules from both categories. AXELOS recommends that you have at least two years of IT service management experience. Note that you must complete your Intermediate exam preparation by completing a training course offered by an accredited training organization (ATO), i.e., you cannot self-study then sit for the Intermediate exam.

ITIL Expert

The ITIL Expert is an advanced certification that encompasses the breadth and depth of ITIL processes and practices across all ITIL disciplines. ITIL Expert certification is a prerequisite for the ITIL Master certification.

To qualify for the ITIL Expert, you must obtain at least 17 credits from the Foundation, Practitioner and Intermediate modules, and pass the Managing Across the Lifecycle (MALC) exam, earning a total of 22 credits.

ITIL Master

The pinnacle ITIL Master certification demonstrates an ability to apply the ITIL framework in real-world situations. The ITIL Master encompasses all ITIL principles and processes covered in the Foundation through Expert certifications. An ITIL Master must demonstrate complete mastery of the ITIL framework by completing the following:

  • Achieve the ITIL Expert certification
  • Demonstrate at least five years of ITIL experience in a management or leadership role
  • Submit a proposal for a service improvement
  • Submit a work package that demonstrates your ability to apply ITIL principles to a real-world business case, including positive impacts to a business service
  • Successfully complete an interview with an ITIL assessment panel

The cost of the ITIL Master runs about $4,000, which you pay after an EI accepts your initial application. Given the expense of this certification and its stringent requirements, only serious candidates should pursue the ITIL Master. That said, earning this certification indicates you’ve reached the highest level of achievement in your field.

IT professionals who possess an ITIL certification have always been valued by large corporations who have adopted the ITIL framework as an internal IT standard. What is beginning to change is ITIL’s increasing proliferation. Many small- and medium-sized businesses also now recognize the value of employees with ITIL certifications under their collective belts.

As IT becomes more important, SMBs are realizing the biggest benefits of maintaining ITIL-trained personnel on staff. Though no company wants to see IT projects fail, larger companies can usually absorb the loss of productivity, time and money that accompanies a failed IT service project. SMBs may not have the financial luxury of allowing an important IT project to fail owing to poor management and lack of processes. Thus, the value of an ITIL certification may be greater for enlightened companies that cannot afford IT project failures.

The good news about ITIL certification is that it is a valuable skill for almost any IT professional, from system administrators to chief information officers (CIOs). Many large companies have dedicated ITIL coaches or mentors who help shepherd projects through the various steps of the ITIL framework. These ITIL gurus have a wide understanding of the IT landscape and can usually spot trouble with a service design document or implementation plan in a matter of minutes.

ITIL certification is also a valuable credential for IT project managers, who are in the IT service trenches every day. Most project managers are already familiar with the development lifecycle process, so the principles of ITIL come naturally to them. IT managers, architects and engineers might not ever become ITIL Masters, but even a basic knowledge of the ITIL framework can assist with understanding and supporting the ITIL process.

AXELOS provides a Career Paths chart that maps IT service management job roles with skill levels. This chart is handy for certification candidates interested in specific jobs who need to understand how they fit into the ITIL service lifecycle.

ITIL training

Each ITIL certification webpage provides links to relevant study guides and syllabi. Those pursuing the ITIL Foundation certification should read the three-part blog series on preparing for and taking the ITIL Foundation exam. Those who are thinking about pursuing the Intermediate certification should use the ITIL Intermediate Training Navigator to match desired job roles and skills with the appropriate modules.

Formal ITIL training is available in self-paced online courses, instructor-led distance learning and instructor-led classroom classes. The variety of ITIL training offered and the collection of certified companies offering ITIL training ensures that anyone who is interested in learning about ITIL or becoming ITIL certified has an option that fits their learning preferences.

Although non-accredited ITIL training is available, we strongly recommend that you only utilize an ITIL ATO when you pursue ITIL training. Find a complete list of such training providers on the Axelos ITIL website.

ITIL 4

Axelos and the ITIL Development Group, made up of more than 2,000 ITIL stakeholders worldwide, began working on an update to ITIL V3 in late 2017. That work continued throughout 2018, and Axelos has announced upcoming changes to the ITIL certifications known as ITIL 4. ITIL 4 will provide sweeping changes to the ITIL certification program to better align with the growing complexity of modern IT. ITIL 4 also changes some of the certification program terms and titles to align with the new ITIL 4 program structure. Here is a look at the new ITIL 4 program overview:

You’ll recognize some familiar terms as well as some new nomenclature incorporated into the ITIL 4 certification scheme. The certification still starts with the ITIL Foundation, and ITIL Master is still the highest level of ITIL certification, but how you get from Foundation to Master now allows two distinct paths, allowing you to choose the certification knowledge areas that best fit your interests and career goals.

The new Foundation exam is scheduled to be released in Q1 of 2019, with additional certification exam updates scheduled to be released in the second half of 2019. You can find more details on how existing ITIL V3 certifications map to the new program structure here: ITIL 4 Program Updates.

Note: We will update this article as the new ITIL 4 exam preparation courses and certification exams are released by Axelos so check back here often to learn more about ITIL 4.

Ed Tittel

Ed is a 30-year-plus veteran of the computing industry, who has worked as a programmer, a technical manager, a classroom instructor, a network consultant and a technical evangelist for companies that include Burroughs, Schlumberger, Novell, IBM/Tivoli and NetQoS. He has written for numerous publications, including Tom’s IT Pro, and is the author of more than 140 computing books on information security, web markup languages and development tools, and Windows operating systems.

Earl Follis

Earl is also a 30-year veteran of the computer industry, who worked in IT training, marketing, technical evangelism and market analysis in the areas of networking and systems technology and management. Ed and Earl met in the late 1980s when Ed hired Earl as a trainer at an Austin-area networking company that’s now part of HP. The two of them have written numerous books together on NetWare, Windows Server and other topics. Earl is also a regular writer for the computer trade press with many e-books, white papers and articles to his credit.

Wed, 12 Oct 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.businessnewsdaily.com/10696-itil-certification-guide.html
Killexams : Optical foundations illuminated by quantum light

Optics, the study of light, is one of the oldest fields in physics and has never ceased to surprise researchers. Although the classical description of light as a wave phenomenon is rarely questioned, the physical origins of some optical effects are. A team of researchers at Tampere University have brought the discussion on one fundamental wave effect, the debate around the anomalous behavior of focused light waves, to the quantum domain.

The researchers have been able to show that quantum waves behave significantly differently from their classical counterparts and can be used to increase the precision of distance measurements. Their findings also add to the discussion on physical of the anomalous focusing behavior. The results are now published in Nature Photonics.

"Interestingly, we started with an idea based on our earlier results and set out to structure for enhanced measurement precision. However, we then realized that the underlying physics of this application also contributes to the long debate about the origins of the Gouy phase anomaly of focused light fields," explains Robert Fickler, group leader of the Experimental Quantum Optics group at Tampere University.

Quantum waves behave differently but point to the same origin

Over the last decades, methods for structuring light fields down on the single photon level have vastly matured and led to a myriad of novel findings. In addition, a better of optics' foundations has been achieved. However, the physical origin of why light behaves in such an unexpected way when going through a focus, the so-called Gouy phase anomaly, is still often debated. This is despite its widespread use and importance in optical systems. The novelty of the current study is now to put the effect into the quantum domain.

"When developing the theory to describe our experimental results, we realized (after a long debate) that the Gouy phase for quantum light is not only different than the standard one, but its origin can be linked to another quantum effect. This is just like what was speculated in an earlier work," adds Doctoral researcher Markus Hiekkamäki, leading author of the study.

In the quantum domain, the anomalous behavior is sped up when compared to classical light. As the Gouy phase behavior can be used to determine the distance a beam of light has propagated, the speed up of the quantum Gouy could allow for an improvement in the precision of measuring distances.

With this new understanding at hand, the researchers are planning to develop novel techniques to enhance their measurement abilities such that it will be possible to measure more complex beams of structured photons. The team expects that this will help them push forward the application of the observed effect, and potentially bring to light more differences between quantum and classical light fields.



More information: Markus Hiekkamäki et al, Observation of the quantum Gouy phase, Nature Photonics (2022). DOI: 10.1038/s41566-022-01077-w

Provided by Tampere University

Citation: Optical foundations illuminated by quantum light (2022, October 7) retrieved 17 October 2022 from https://phys.org/news/2022-10-optical-foundations-illuminated-quantum.html

This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.

Thu, 06 Oct 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://phys.org/news/2022-10-optical-foundations-illuminated-quantum.html
Killexams : Guide Dogs for the Blind and American Foundation for the Blind Release Research Study Findings

Report Reveals Travel Trends and Mixed Results for Rideshare

SAN RAFAEL, Calif., & WASHINGTON, D.C., September 22, 2022--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Guide Dogs for the Blind (GDB) and the American Foundation for the Blind (AFB) have announced the findings of The Role of Guide Dogs in 2022 and Beyond, a joint, two-year research study to examine the long-term outlook for guide dog use in the United States and Canada.

This press release features multimedia. View the full release here: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20220922005306/en/

Ever Arreola and his guide dog, Falante (Photo: Business Wire)

Top findings for the first-of-its-kind study, revealed a greatly expanded use of technology among travelers who are blind or visually impaired, and a shift to using rideshare services from public transit and walking.

The study was conducted in 2020 and 2021 through a survey of more than 500 people who are blind or visually impaired including both guide dog users and nonusers. It included focus groups and interviews with more than 50 individuals, including graduates from various guide dog schools in the U.S. and Canada, people who use a white cane instead of a guide dog, and instructors who work with the blindness community around orientation and mobility (O&M) skills needed to qualify for a guide dog.

An increase in use of smartphones and apps has shed new light on the importance of integration of technology in travel for people who are blind or visually impaired. Approximately three-fourths of guide dog users surveyed reported use of smartphones during travel, with wayfinding apps (Google Maps, Soundscapes) as well as visual interpreting apps (Be My Eyes, AIRA) among the most commonly used.

Participants in the study also reported that they walk and use public transit less often because of the increased availability of door-to-door rideshare services. While the convenience of rideshare has great appeal to travelers who are blind or visually impaired, the study also showed that rideshare access denials and concerns about fraudulent service dogs often played a devastating role in the lives of guide dog users.

These mixed rideshare findings point to a need for greater awareness and advocacy to defend guide dog users’ access to Uber and Lyft, among both the public and rideshare companies. Some participants also expressed interest in receiving training and resources to aid them when they are denied access.

Overall, the guide dog lifestyle received high praise and enthusiasm from respondents. Guide dog users cited both practical advantages of traveling with a guide dog, such as the ability to walk faster, avoid objects, move smoothly through crowds, and maintain a straight line of travel, as well as emotional benefits. Many conveyed that the companionship, confidence, safety, and social bridge to their community were significant, irreplaceable benefits of using a guide dog.

While the guide dog lifestyle is not a fit for all people who are blind or visually impaired, the study uncovered there is a substantial subset of potential guide dog users who have not acquired the prerequisite mastery of O&M skills to qualify for a guide dog. These skills include spatial orientation, the ability to learn and navigate routes, and the fundamentals of white cane use. Multiple study participants emphasized that there is an extreme shortage of O&M services and instructors, particularly in the U.S., with many reporting that there are huge swaths of the country where it seems that O&M services aren’t available at all.

"These robust findings are very heartening about the future of guide dog use in the U.S. and Canada, but they are also instructive in helping us to remove barriers to enjoying the benefits of the guide dog lifestyle, especially in the areas of rideshare access, travel technology, and O&M training," said Theresa Stern, vice president of interdisciplinary client services and engagement for GDB. "We’re grateful to AFB, who designed this research, and look forward to continuing our partnership with them to Improve the lives of people who are blind and visually impaired."

"These research findings point to a number of areas where organizations like AFB and GDB can collaborate with O&M professionals and people who are blind or have low vision to maximize opportunities for independent, safe and efficient travel," said Dr. Arielle Silverman, AFB director of research. "With the general aging of the population and the increasing prevalence of age-related vision loss, studies like this will become imperative to serving the blindness community in the coming decades."

Study findings will be published in peer-reviewed research journals and will be presented at conferences focused on blindness. For a copy of the report, visit guidedogs.com/study.

About Guide Dogs for the Blind

Headquartered in San Rafael, Calif., Guide Dogs for the Blind (GDB) is the largest guide dog school in North America. It is a passionate community that prepares highly qualified guide dogs to empower individuals who are blind or visually impaired to move through the world more safely and confidently. This year marks the organization’s 80th anniversary of helping its clients live the lives they want to live. More than 16,000 guide teams have graduated from GDB since it was founded in 1942. GDB not only improves mobility for its clients, but it also furthers inclusion and advocates for policy reforms that change how the world views blindness. GDB’s services are provided free of charge, and it receives no government funding. The organization was the subject of an award-winning 2018 documentary feature film called Pick of the Litter, which can be found on most popular streaming platforms. The film was developed into a television docu-series by the same name that debuted in 2019 on Disney+. For more information, visit guidedogs.com, or call 800.295.4050.

About the American Foundation for the Blind

The American Foundation for the Blind (AFB) mobilizes leaders, advances understanding, and champions impactful policies and practices using research and data. Publisher of the Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness for over a century and counting, AFB is also proud to steward the accessible Helen Keller Archive, honoring the legacy of our most famous ambassador. AFB’s mission is to expand pathways to leadership, education, inclusive technology, and career opportunities to create a world of no limits for people who are blind, deafblind, or have low vision. To learn more, visit www.afb.org.

View source version on businesswire.com: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20220922005306/en/

Contacts

Barbara Zamost
barbara@zamostpr.com
(415) 389-0210

Thu, 22 Sep 2022 02:02:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://finance.yahoo.com/news/guide-dogs-blind-american-foundation-140000587.html
Killexams : Foundation Year in Science, Engineering and Maths (CertHE)

The Foundation Year in Science, Engineering and Maths is a one-year introductory course, designed to prepare you to progress to undergraduate study in a non-clinical STEM degree subject.

The course comprises five units: Core Chemistry or Core Physics, two maths units, a study skills unit and a group project.

You will choose either a chemistry or a physics pathway depending on the degree subject you aim to study after the course. You will also take core units in maths, building your confidence and ability in using maths to solve problems in science and engineering.

You will need to dedicate at least 25 hours each week to lectures, seminars and independent study.

The course is designed for students returning to education without prior qualifications and includes tailored support to help you to transition to degree-level study. You will be able to meet with a personal tutor and you will have access to peer mentoring and academic skills development. Tutors on the Foundation Year are specialists in their subject area. You will also learn key academic skills, such as essay writing and making the most of the library.

If you complete the course with the required pass rate of 60 per cent overall, you are guaranteed an offer on an undergraduate degree at Bristol. We cannot certain you will be able to progress to your first choice of degree as this may depend on places available and your attainment on relevant assignments during the course but, if your first choice is not available, we will do our best to offer you a satisfactory alternative. Please note, this course is not suitable preparation for a degree in medicine, veterinary science or dentistry.

Applications are made directly to the University. Applications for 2023 entry will open in Spring 2023.

If you have questions about the Foundation Year or the application process, please contact fystem-info@bristol.ac.uk.

Tue, 11 Oct 2022 03:47:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.bristol.ac.uk/study/undergraduate/2023/foundation-science-engineering-mathematics/cert-foundation-science-engineering-maths/
Killexams : Study lays foundation to predict antidepressant response in people with suicide attempts

Mayo Clinic researchers have discovered that people with major depressive disorder and a history of attempted suicide have distinct biomarkers that correlate with their response to antidepressant therapy. The new findings, published in Frontiers in Pharmacology, are key to individualized treatment strategies and early identification of patients who are at the highest risk for suicide.

For the study, the researchers used multi-omics technologies—specifically, and genomics—to analyze samples from 350 patients with . They compared samples of patients with and without a history of attempt(s) and found distinct blood-based multi-omics signatures between the two groups, despite all patients having the same diagnosis of major depressive disorder.

Nearly 700,000 people worldwide die by suicide every year, along with 10-20 times as many non-fatal suicide attempts, according to the World Health Organization. A prior suicide attempt is the highest risk factor for suicide in the general population.

"Evaluating suicidal patients can be challenging because clinical risk assessments are inherently subjective and major depressive disorder has high degrees of variability," says Paul Croarkin, D.O., M.S., a psychiatrist in Mayo Clinic's Department of Psychiatry and Psychology, and senior investigator of the study. "Our study lays a foundation for advancing the prognostic potential of this disease and enhancing patient outcomes that use both biological and digital biomarkers."

The team found that variations in the genes CLOCK and ARNTL differentiate in patients with and without a prior suicide attempt. Both genes are related to the circadian rhythm, which regulates critical functions in the body, including behavior, metabolism, hormone levels and sleep. These specific gene variations are also associated with lower antidepressant response and remission rates.

Metabolomics is the study of metabolites, which are substances created when the body breaks down food, drugs or its own tissue. Genomics is the study of genes, which can influence enzymes that are crucial for metabolizing medicines. While individually they explain aspects of biological processes, analyzing them jointly has potential of revealing interactions that were previously not studied.

Altogether, multi-omics is a combination of two or more "omics" approaches. Additional multi-omics examples include proteomics, the study of proteins; epigenomics, the study of epigenetic changes on DNA; and transcriptomics, the study of RNA molecules.

By simultaneously evaluating the genome and metabolome, the researchers discovered biological signatures that could not be found by the or metabolome alone.

The study is part of ongoing efforts at Mayo Clinic to understand the biology of suicidality to Improve diagnostic approaches, treatments, and outcomes for patients with depression and other mood disorders.



More information: Caroline W. Grant et al, Network science approach elucidates integrative genomic-metabolomic signature of antidepressant response and lifetime history of attempted suicide in adults with major depressive disorder, Frontiers in Pharmacology (2022). DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2022.984383

Citation: Study lays foundation to predict antidepressant response in people with suicide attempts (2022, October 3) retrieved 17 October 2022 from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2022-10-foundation-antidepressant-response-people-suicide.html

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Mon, 03 Oct 2022 05:29:00 -0500 en text/html https://medicalxpress.com/news/2022-10-foundation-antidepressant-response-people-suicide.html
Killexams : Family Heart Foundation Study Shows Some Children With Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia Miss out on Decades of Life-Saving Treatment

Only Children with the Most Severe HoFH are Diagnosed Before Adulthood, Putting those Not Identified Early at Risk for Heart Disease at a Young Age

Findings presented in poster at AAP National Conference

ANAHEIM, Calif., October 11, 2022--(BUSINESS WIRE)--The Family Heart Foundation, a leading research and advocacy organization, shared results from an analysis of patients in its CASCADE FH® Registry showing that children with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) are diagnosed earlier and have much higher untreated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) than adults with HoFH. The data raises the possibility that only children with the most severe cases of HoFH are being diagnosed early. In addition, others who may have somewhat lower LDL-C are not identified early and miss out on decades of life-saving treatment, which could lead to heart disease earlier in life. The findings were presented in a poster titled, "Characterization of Children with Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia from the CASCADE FH Registry," at the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) National Conference & Exhibition on Oct. 7-11 in Anaheim, Calif.

Findings showed that the median age for developing cardiac disease was 8.9 years, and the earliest reported diagnosis of cardiac disease occurred at ages 2 and 3 years in children who underwent curative liver transplants at 4 and 8 years respectively. HoFH, a rare genetic condition characterized by extremely elevated levels of serum LDL-C, affects both children and adults. People with HoFH have a risk of premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) as early as the first decade of life. Many children do not have physical findings suggestive of HoFH and the only way to determine they have HoFH is to do a lipid panel or genetic testing.

"These findings and recent improvement in lipid-lowering therapies make a compelling case for rigorous compliance with AAP’s guidelines on lipid screening for children with a family history of FH or ASCVD at age 2," said Mary P. McGowan, M.D., chief medical officer, Family Heart Foundation, and study co-author. "This should be followed by cascade family screening. Unfortunately, even routine screening between ages 9 and 11, as recommended by the AAP, is not the standard in the United States. There is a clear need to implement universal screening so that all children with HoFH and the less severe heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH) are consistently identified."

The analysis included a total of 67 HoFH patients enrolled at sites participating in the CASCADE FH Registry, a multi-site patient registry created in 2013 by the Family Heart Foundation that tracks the characteristics, treatment patterns and clinical events in HeFH and HoFH patients in the U.S. The current data compares 16 HoFH pediatric patients (<18 years old) to 51 adults. At time of enrollment into the CASCADE FH Registry, nearly 19% and 44% of the children had evidence of aortic valve stenosis and cardiac disease, respectively.

About Familial Hypercholesterolemia

Familial hypercholesterolemia is a common life-threatening genetic condition that causes high cholesterol from birth. As many as 1 in 250 people are estimated to have FH. There are two forms of FH: Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia and Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia. HoFH is the most serious and more rare form of FH. It is estimated that HoFH affects as many as 1 in 300,000 people around the world. A person who has HoFH has inherited two FH genes, one from each parent. If untreated, the LDL-C level is typically between 400-1000 mg/dL, four to 10 times more than the normal level.

About the Family Heart Foundation

The Family Heart Foundation is a nonprofit research and advocacy organization. The Foundation is a pioneer in the application of real-world evidence, patient-driven advocacy, and multi-stakeholder education to help prevent heart attacks and strokes caused by FH and elevated Lipoprotein(a), or Lp(a), two common genetic disorders that have an impact across generations. The Family Heart Foundation conducts innovative research to break down barriers to diagnosis and management of inherited lipid disorders; educates patients, providers, and policy makers; advocates for change; and provides hope and support for families impacted by heart disease and stroke caused by FH, HoFH, and high Lp(a). The organization was founded in 2011 as the FH Foundation. For more information, visit FamilyHeart.org and follow us on Twitter, Facebook, Instagram and LinkedIn.

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Juliet Babros
310-375-7870
juliet@merrymancommunications.com

Tue, 11 Oct 2022 03:01:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://finance.yahoo.com/news/family-heart-foundation-study-shows-150000502.html
Killexams : Kessler Foundation study advances knowledge of role of brain pathology and cognitive fatigue in multiple sclerosis

image: This study was conducted using the latest neuroimaging techniques at the Ortenzio Center, which is dedicated solely to rehabilitation research, view more 

Credit: Kessler Foundation

East Hanover, NJ. September 30, 2022. Using advanced diffusion-weighted imaging, Kessler Foundation researchers investigated the relationship between rate of cognitive fatigue and microstructural changes in the brains of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Their findings help to fill a gap in the current literature by associating microstructural white matter (i.e., tracts that send signals within the brain) and basal ganglia (i.e., structures deep within the brain that have been linked to fatigue in neurological populations, including MS) with changes to the rate in which persons with MS fatigue over time. 

Their findings were reported in Frontiers in Neurology on July 04, 2022, in the open access article entitled “Associations of White Matter and Basal Ganglia Microstructure to Cognitive Fatigue Rate in Multiple Sclerosis,” (doi: 10.3389/fneur.2022.911012). The authors are Cristina Román, PhDGlenn Wylie, DPhilJohn DeLuca, PhD, and Brian Yao, PhD.

The study was conducted at the Rocco Ortenzio Neuroimaging Center at Kessler Foundation, which is dedicated solely to rehabilitation research. Participants were 62 persons with relapsing-remitting MS who completed seven trials of a within-scanner cognitive fatiguing task. Participants rated their level of cognitive fatigue at baseline and after each trial. The slope of the regression line of all eight fatigue ratings was designated as “cognitive fatigue rate.” Participants also completed questionnaires measuring depression, anxiety, and trait fatigue. Brain variables included measures of white matter and basal ganglia microstructural integrity.

“We found that cognitive fatigue rate was related to the integrity of several white matter tracts and the putamen, meaning we saw more compromised microstructural integrity in these areas, specifically those related to basal ganglia connectivity (i.e., “fatigue network”), in people with MS who tended to fatigue faster over time,” said lead author Dr. Román, National MS Society-sponsored research fellow at Kessler Foundation. “The use of cognitive fatigue rate, rather than the often used “trait fatigue,” brings us closer to understanding how brain pathology may be impacting the experience of fatigue in the moment. In addition, these results hold promise for continuing to unpack the complex construct that is cognitive fatigue. Both are crucial for developing effective interventions for managing disabling fatigue in persons with MS and other neurological conditions.”

Funding: Kessler Foundation, National Multiple Sclerosis Society (RG-1701-26930) 

Learn more about ongoing studies at Kessler Foundation at Join Our Research Studies | Kessler Foundation

About Kessler Foundation

Kessler Foundation, a major nonprofit organization in the field of disability, is a global leader in rehabilitation research that improves cognition, mobility, and long-term outcomes, including employment, for people with neurological disabilities caused by diseases and injuries of the brain and spinal cord. Kessler Foundation leads the nation in funding innovative programs that expand opportunities for employment for people with disabilities. Learn more by visiting http://www.KesslerFoundation.org

Stay Connected

Twitter | http://Twitter.com/KesslerFdn 
Facebook | http://Facebook.com/KesslerFoundation 
YouTube | http://Youtube.com/user/KesslerFoundation 
Instagram | http://Instagram.com/kesslerfdn

iTunes & SoundCloud | http://Soundcloud.com/kesslerfoundation

To interview an expert, contact:

Deborah Hauss, DHauss@kesslerfoundation.org

Carolann Murphy,  CMurphy@KesslerFoundation.org


Disclaimer: AAAS and EurekAlert! are not responsible for the accuracy of news releases posted to EurekAlert! by contributing institutions or for the use of any information through the EurekAlert system.

Fri, 30 Sep 2022 09:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.eurekalert.org/news-releases/966628
Killexams : Guide Dogs for the Blind and American Foundation for the Blind Release Research Study Findings

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Report Reveals Travel Trends and Mixed Results for Rideshare

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SAN RAFAEL, Calif., & WASHINGTON, D.C. — Guide Dogs for the Blind (GDB) and the American Foundation for the Blind (AFB) have announced the findings of The Role of Guide Dogs in 2022 and Beyond, a joint, two-year research study to examine the long-term outlook for guide dog use in the United States and Canada.

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Top findings for the first-of-its-kind study, revealed a greatly expanded use of technology among travelers who are blind or visually impaired, and a shift to using rideshare services from public transit and walking.

The study was conducted in 2020 and 2021 through a survey of more than 500 people who are blind or visually impaired including both guide dog users and nonusers. It included focus groups and interviews with more than 50 individuals, including graduates from various guide dog schools in the U.S. and Canada, people who use a white cane instead of a guide dog, and instructors who work with the blindness community around orientation and mobility (O&M) skills needed to qualify for a guide dog.

An increase in use of smartphones and apps has shed new light on the importance of integration of technology in travel for people who are blind or visually impaired. Approximately three-fourths of guide dog users surveyed reported use of smartphones during travel, with wayfinding apps (Google Maps, Soundscapes) as well as visual interpreting apps (Be My Eyes, AIRA) among the most commonly used.

Participants in the study also reported that they walk and use public transit less often because of the increased availability of door-to-door rideshare services. While the convenience of rideshare has great appeal to travelers who are blind or visually impaired, the study also showed that rideshare access denials and concerns about fraudulent service dogs often played a devastating role in the lives of guide dog users.

These mixed rideshare findings point to a need for greater awareness and advocacy to defend guide dog users’ access to Uber and Lyft, among both the public and rideshare companies. Some participants also expressed interest in receiving training and resources to aid them when they are denied access.

Overall, the guide dog lifestyle received high praise and enthusiasm from respondents. Guide dog users cited both practical advantages of traveling with a guide dog, such as the ability to walk faster, avoid objects, move smoothly through crowds, and maintain a straight line of travel, as well as emotional benefits. Many conveyed that the companionship, confidence, safety, and social bridge to their community were significant, irreplaceable benefits of using a guide dog.

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While the guide dog lifestyle is not a fit for all people who are blind or visually impaired, the study uncovered there is a substantial subset of potential guide dog users who have not acquired the prerequisite mastery of O&M skills to qualify for a guide dog. These skills include spatial orientation, the ability to learn and navigate routes, and the fundamentals of white cane use. Multiple study participants emphasized that there is an extreme shortage of O&M services and instructors, particularly in the U.S., with many reporting that there are huge swaths of the country where it seems that O&M services aren’t available at all.

“These robust findings are very heartening about the future of guide dog use in the U.S. and Canada, but they are also instructive in helping us to remove barriers to enjoying the benefits of the guide dog lifestyle, especially in the areas of rideshare access, travel technology, and O&M training,” said Theresa Stern, vice president of interdisciplinary client services and engagement for GDB. “We’re grateful to AFB, who designed this research, and look forward to continuing our partnership with them to Improve the lives of people who are blind and visually impaired.”

“These research findings point to a number of areas where organizations like AFB and GDB can collaborate with O&M professionals and people who are blind or have low vision to maximize opportunities for independent, safe and efficient travel,” said Dr. Arielle Silverman, AFB director of research. “With the general aging of the population and the increasing prevalence of age-related vision loss, studies like this will become imperative to serving the blindness community in the coming decades.”

Study findings will be published in peer-reviewed research journals and will be presented at conferences focused on blindness. For a copy of the report, visit guidedogs.com/study.

About Guide Dogs for the Blind

Headquartered in San Rafael, Calif., Guide Dogs for the Blind (GDB) is the largest guide dog school in North America. It is a passionate community that prepares highly qualified guide dogs to empower individuals who are blind or visually impaired to move through the world more safely and confidently. This year marks the organization’s 80th anniversary of helping its clients live the lives they want to live. More than 16,000 guide teams have graduated from GDB since it was founded in 1942. GDB not only improves mobility for its clients, but it also furthers inclusion and advocates for policy reforms that change how the world views blindness. GDB’s services are provided free of charge, and it receives no government funding. The organization was the subject of an award-winning 2018 documentary feature film called Pick of the Litter, which can be found on most popular streaming platforms. The film was developed into a television docu-series by the same name that debuted in 2019 on Disney+. For more information, visit guidedogs.com, or call 800.295.4050.

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About the American Foundation for the Blind

The American Foundation for the Blind (AFB) mobilizes leaders, advances understanding, and champions impactful policies and practices using research and data. Publisher of the Journal of Visual Impairment & Blindness for over a century and counting, AFB is also proud to steward the accessible Helen Keller Archive, honoring the legacy of our most famous ambassador. AFB’s mission is to expand pathways to leadership, education, inclusive technology, and career opportunities to create a world of no limits for people who are blind, deafblind, or have low vision. To learn more, visit www.afb.org.

View source version on businesswire.com: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20220922005306/en/

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Barbara Zamost
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(415) 389-0210

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Thu, 22 Sep 2022 08:46:00 -0500 en-CA text/html https://financialpost.com/pmn/press-releases-pmn/business-wire-news-releases-pmn/guide-dogs-for-the-blind-and-american-foundation-for-the-blind-release-research-study-findings
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