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Exam Code: C2010-940 Practice test 2022 by Killexams.com team
IBM Tivoli Level 1 Support Tools and Processes
IBM Processes tricks
Killexams : IBM Processes tricks - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/C2010-940 Search results Killexams : IBM Processes tricks - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/C2010-940 https://killexams.com/exam_list/IBM Killexams : Microsoft Edge Content Process has stopped working in Windows

Many programs in Windows use helper processes to make sure they can get the job done earlier. Microsoft Edge Legacy uses one such process called Edge Content Process. Such system processes are loaded as soon as you start Windows, and this makes Edge load faster.

Microsoft Edge Content Process has stopped working

In total, there are three processes related to Microsoft Edge –

  1. MicrosoftEdge.exe,
  2. MicrosoftEdgeCP.exe,
  3. MicrosoftEdgeSH.exe.

The one ending with CP.exe is the Edge content process. The state — Microsoft Edge Content Process has stopped working has been reported to have been seen in the Reliability Monitor many a time, and it keeps appearing.

We have three suggestions to offer:

  1. Reset or Repair Microsoft Edge
  2. Re-register Edge using PowerShell
  3. Check your Security Software

Remember to close Edge before performing these tasks.

1] Reset & Repair Microsoft Edge

Reset Repair Microsoft Edge

  • Open Start > Settings > Apps > Apps & features
  • Scroll down to Microsoft Edge and Select it
  • Click Advanced options
  • Click Repair or Reset

When you reset, you will lose some data like browsing history, but saves history, favorites, tabs, etc.

2] Re-register Edge using PowerShell

Re-registering an app does a lot of things which repair and reset doesn’t. Here we will use Get command and execute on PowerShell.

While registering works, we will suggest uninstalling Edge completely.

Navigate to-


Look for a folder with a name similar to Microsoft.MicrosoftEdge_8wekyb3d8bbwe

Enter the folder, and delete everything inside the folder.

To reinstall or register it again, open PowerShell using Win + X, and execute the mentioned command.

Get-AppXPackage -AllUsers -Name Microsoft.MicrosoftEdge | Foreach {Add-AppxPackage -DisableDevelopmentMode -Register “$($_.InstallLocation)\AppXManifest.xml” -Verbose}

Having done that, you should not see Content Process getting stopped anymore.

3] Check your Security Software

One of the forums pointed to  IBM Trusteer Rapport. This security software helps financial institutions detect and prevent malware infections and phishing attacks by protecting their retail and business customers. It is possible that software similar to it might be terminating the Edge content process.

To disable Rapport’s Early Browser Protection:

  • Open Rapport’s Console by choosing – Start Menu > Programs > Trusteer Endpoint Protection > Trusteer Endpoint Protection Console
  • Advance to the next page by clicking on the green arrow at the bottom-right.
  • Under ‘Security Policy’ at the top left corner, click on ‘Edit Policy.’
  • Enter the letters as they are shown in the image and click OK.
  • Locate ‘Early Browser Protection’ and select ‘Never’ in the drop-down menu.
  • Click ‘Save’ and reboot your computer.

Check if the issue is resolved. If you have any other software, check if there is a setting similar to Early Browser Protection. If yes disable it for Edge.

These tips should resolve your problem.

Read: Application exe has stopped working.

Microsoft Edge Content Process has stopped
Sat, 02 Jul 2022 22:52:00 -0500 en-us text/html https://www.thewindowsclub.com/microsoft-edge-content-process-has-stopped-working-in-windows-10
Killexams : IBM Patents Technology That Can Add Night Vision To Your Glasses

Upon entering a dark room, human eyes obviously take time to adjust in order to see clearly. That's because there are two types of photoreceptors in our eyes —the rods and the cones. Rods are responsible for letting humans see in the dark; however, it takes around 30 minutes for our rods to fully adjust to the darkness.

Night vision is a very complicated biological process, but it seems that we may be able to tweak and enhance it, and we can do so without using genetic manipulation or any other equally invasive and transformative method. In fact, all we may need is glasses.

This works because, in areas that are red-lit, our rod cells send higher contrast images to the brain, making it easier to make out objects. That is why, in areas that need to be dark (like a photography lab), red lights are generally used—it keeps things dark, yet humans are still able to easily see.

Image credit: IBM

Recently, IBM patented a technology that banks on this phenomenon and incorporated it into the Google Glass.

A red-color projector is included for each eyeglass lens. When the Google Glass user enters a low-light environment, the projectors automatically project red light into each eye. This tricks the rods into sending higher contrast images to the brain, giving the glasses a night-vision-goggles kind of a feel.

To better understand how this works, you can get more information on night vision and the chemicals behind it here.

Wed, 15 Jun 2016 01:44:00 -0500 text/html https://futurism.com/ibm-patents-technology-that-can-add-night-vision-to-your-glasses
Killexams : Model F Keyboard Restoration Goes The Extra Mile

The IBM Model F keyboard should need no introduction. Famed for its buckling spring key mechanisms, the Model F is lusted over for its satisfying typing experience and Armageddon-proof build quality. First introduced in 1981, many of these keyboards will now naturally require basic maintenance. However, [Epictronics] recently went a step further and restored a Model F to like-new condition.

Missing keycaps were the least of his worries, as both new and old replacements are relatively easy to come by. [Epictronics] was more concerned about the forty-year-old foam sandwiched tight inside the keyboard, most likely having long since degraded. Apart from being plain gross, the decaying foam has the potential to foul the buckling spring switches. After taking apart the body and removing the ‘disgusting’ foam pad, a replacement was forged from neoprene and a handy-dandy hole punch.

Disassembly of the keyboard case required the gentle touch of a mallet, and reassembly needed similarly inappropriate tools. As demonstrated in this vintage clip from IBM, keyboard assembly was (and still is) performed automatically by robots, driven by an IBM Series/1 minicomputer. These robots were equally impressive for their precision and strength. Without access to IBM’s aptly named ‘closing tool’ and various other robotic helpers, [Epictronics] had to settle for pool noodles and a comically large clamp during reassembly, mixed with sheer determination.

Other neat tricks in the video include applying heat to reform the coiled keyboard cable, and using car polish to clean the case plastics. The latter has the potential to make things worse, so a delicate hand is needed to maintain the textured plastic.

We recently covered another Model F restoration, and it’s exciting to see so many dedicated hackers keeping these keyboards clickety-clacking well into the 21st century.

Tue, 26 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 Chris Wilkinson en-US text/html https://hackaday.com/2021/10/08/model-f-keyboard-restoration-goes-the-extra-mile/
Killexams : Improving digital customer experience during the cost-of-living crisis

With prices in the UK currently rocketing at their fastest rate for more than 40 years, the cost-of-living crisis will also have an impact on ecommerce. During this uncertain period, companies should focus on their brand, the technology they have integrated into their online journeys and getting the customer experience right.

Andy Mulcahy, strategy and insight director at IMRG, the trade body considered the voice of online retail in the UK, is in no doubt about the state of the market. “Lots of retailers provide us with their sales figures so we can benchmark performance, and right now, it’s in sharp decline,” he says. “It’s been extremely turbulent recently, but the difference in impact between the pandemic and the cost-of-living crisis is stark.”

The coronavirus crisis was, he says, “the most disruptive thing anyone has ever seen.” But from an online retail perspective, it was a huge accelerator. Lockdowns forced many businesses to enter the world of ecommerce for the first time. Those brave enough to embrace it reaped bountiful rewards. Now, however, with all the low-hanging fruit gobbled and consumers’ purse strings pulled tautly, it’s a different story.

“Today, the growth is low,” says Mulcahy. “It’s negative, year-on-year, and the market is shrinking.” Other metrics analysed by IMRG provoke alarm. “People are spending longer making purchasing decisions online, and looking at Q1 2022 – which is February, March and April, so includes the early fallout from the Ukraine invasion – compared to Q1 last year, the checkout completion has dropped by 22%,” he adds.

Paul Hornby, digital customer experience director at the Very Group, remains bullish about his employer and the industry’s longer-term prospects. “Yes, retail has clearly been impacted,” he says. “But we are confident about the outlook for online retail in the UK.”

Supporting customers in straitened times

As a digital retailer with over 2,000 brands that boasts almost five million active customers and a financial services provider offering its unique version of buy now, pay later (BNPL), the Very Group is well positioned to thrive in the ecommerce space. “As a multi-category retailer, our model is naturally resilient,” says Hornby. “Online is the place to be, and our flexible payment options are really popular with our customers.”

Very Pay, which most customers use, according to Hornby, allows buyers to pay for goods in three interest-free instalments over three months. There is also a BNPL option, enabling consumers to spread the cost over a year. In the current climate, the Very Group is adding value by providing visitors to the company website tips and tricks to better cope with the cost-of-living crisis.

“We’re helping customers by introducing content about money management,” Hornby says. “We aim to be customer champions and natural problem solvers, and so we will always think about different ways throughout the journey that we can help our customers.”

Matthew Parker, country manager of the UK and Ireland at Vonage, a company that builds omnichannel conversations and transforms customer experiences, stresses the urgency for ecommerce organisations to invest in technology solutions; and even more so in these straitened times, to stand out in an increasingly packed market. 

“I’m seeing post-pandemic cost-saving initiatives, but in some areas, companies are doubling down,” he says. “For example, there has been an increase in technology around artificial intelligence and other tools that can bring a level of smart automation to the buyer experience, without losing the human involvement.”

Doubling down on smart automation

Hornby reveals that the Very Group was an early adopter of conversational AI. The organisation initially invested in a chatbot in 2016 to ease the workload on employees answering simple queries. “We very quickly partnered with IBM Watson to utilise its AI to help us understand customer sentiment, but also to generate the right answers,” he says.

The chatbot facility proved invaluable for the Very Group’s customers and its contact centre staff last Christmas as it was used almost 140,000 times, reducing telephone calls by 17% compared to the previous peak. Hornby states the maturity of smart automation makes it a compelling business case for those looking to boost digital customer experience.

The market’s only going to become more competitive, so speed to market is critical. That speed comes partly from the process and partly from technology. But, most critically, everything you do must truly serve your customers’ needs

“If a customer comes to the website or our smartphone app and asks a question that is more complex than the chatbot can handle, it will elegantly hand that over to one of our customer care colleagues so there is the appropriate level of human intervention,” he says. “We will definitely continue to invest in this technology.”

Mulcahy argues that ecommerce businesses don’t have to spend big on improving digital customer experience; sometimes, a little goes a long way. “If you took two websites and they both have exactly the same products at the same prices, one can generate more sales just by optimising certain bits,” he says. “You might offer free delivery, for instance, or it’s easier to navigate. There are many things you could do, and now with traffic expensive to pay for and conversion rates down, this stuff is essential to get right.”

Hornby agrees: “Having friction throughout the user journey is a surefire way to send the customer into the arms of a competitor, so we have to obsess about the problems on our site and solve them.”

Top tips to Strengthen digital customer experience

Parker from Vonage believes the way to Strengthen digital customer experience is by ultimately being a trusted retailer. “Trust boils down to four things: integrity, intent, capabilities and track record,” he says. “Brands that best demonstrate those four things, focus on customer needs, and don’t bombard people, will do the best.”

And for ecommerce players unsure about their future, or where to invest, Mulcahy offers soothing words. “Don’t panic. It is a very different time, but it’s rough for most businesses. Those who focus on building their brand and make the online journey simple will do well.”

Hornby stresses the importance of keeping the customer at the heart of any digital design. Forget futuristic and hyped concepts, such as shopping in the metaverse or non-fungible tokens; what consumers want today, especially during this cost-of-living crisis, is a retailer they can rely upon that serves them well.

“You have to embed the customer in all of your thinking, which is easy to say but difficult to do,” he says. “The market’s only going to become more competitive, so speed to market is critical. That speed comes partly from the process and partly from technology. But, most critically, everything you do must truly serve your customers’ needs.”

Retailers have had to face years of disruptive events. But, armed with the technology and the online know-how, they can now ensure they get the digital customer experience right for all their audiences.

Mon, 01 Aug 2022 22:25:00 -0500 en-GB text/html https://www.raconteur.net/customer-experience/improving-digital-customer-experience-during-the-cost-of-living-crisis/
Killexams : What is Cyber Security and Why is it Important?

A student exploring what cyber security is, holding a tablet and standing in front of large machines at his internship.

In recent years, headlines about cyber security have become increasingly common. Thieves steal customer social security numbers from corporations’ computer systems. Unscrupulous hackers grab passwords and personal information from social media sites or pluck company secrets from the cloud. For companies of all sizes, keeping information safe is a growing concern.

What Is Cyber Security?

Cyber security consists of all the technologies and practices that keep computer systems and electronic data safe. And, in a world where more and more of our business and social lives are online, it’s an enormous and growing field with many types of job roles.

According to the Cyber Security & Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA), "Cyber security is the art of protecting networks, devices and data from unauthorized access or criminal use and the practice of ensuring confidentiality, integrity and availability of information."

What Is Information Security?

Information security is the processes and tools designed and used to protect sensitive business information from modification, disruption, destruction and inspection, according to CISCO.

Information security and cyber security are often confused. According to CISCO, information security is a crucial part of cyber security but is used exclusively to ensure data security.

Everything is connected by computers and the internet now, including communication, entertainment, transportation, shopping, medicine and more. A copious amount of personal information is stored among these various services and apps, which is why information security is critical.

Why Is Cyber Security Increasingly Important?

Getting hacked isn’t just a direct threat to the confidential data companies need. It can also ruin their relationships with customers and even place them in significant legal jeopardy. With new technology, from self-driving cars to internet-enabled home security systems, the dangers of cybercrime become even more serious.

So, it’s no wonder that international research and advisory firm Gartner Inc. predicts worldwide security spending will hit $170 billion in 2022, an 8% increase in just a year.

Jonathan Kamyck with text Jonathan Kamyck“We’re seeing a tremendous demand for cyber security practitioners,” said Jonathan Kamyck, associate dean of cyber security at Southern New Hampshire University (SNHU). “Most businesses, whether they’re large or small, will have an online presence, for example. Some of the things you would do in the old days with a phone call or face-to-face now happen through email or teleconference, and that introduces lots of complicated questions with regard to information.”

These days, the need to protect confidential information is a pressing concern at the highest levels of government and industry. State secrets can be stolen from the other side of the world. Companies whose whole business models depend on control of customer data can find their databases compromised. In just one high-profile 2017 case, personal information for 147.9 million people – about half the United States – was compromised in a breach of credit reporting company Equifax.

What Are Cyber Attacks?

Infographic with the text Common Cyber Attack Threats: Malware, Phising, Ransomware, VirusesA cyber attack is an unwelcomed attempt to steal, expose, alter, disable or destroy information through unauthorized access to computer systems, according to the International Business Machines (IBM).

There are many reasons behind a cyber attack, such as cyber warfare, cyber terrorism and even hacktivists, but these actions fall into three main categories: criminal, political and personal.

Attackers motivated by crime typically seek financial gain through money theft, data theft or business disruption. Similarly, personal attackers include disgruntled current or former employees who will take money or data in an attempt to attack a company's systems.  Socio-political motivated attackers desire attention for their cause, resulting in their attacks being known to the public, and this is a form of hacktivism. Other forms of cyber attacks include espionage, or spying to gain an unfair advantage over the competition, and intellectual challenging.

According to CISA, as of 2021, there is a ransomware attack every 11 seconds – a dramatic rise from every 39 seconds in 2019 (CISA PDF Source). In addition, small businesses are the target of nearly 43% of all cyber attacks, which is up 400%.

The Small Business Association (SBA) reports that small businesses make attractive targets and are typically attacked due to their lack of security infrastructure. The SBA also reports that a majority of small business owners felt their business was vulnerable to an attack. This is because many of these businesses:

  • Can't afford professional IT solutions
  • Have limited time to devote to cyber security
  • Don't know where to begin

What Are Types of Cyber Attacks and Threats?

Here are some of the most common threats among cyber attacks:

  • Malware: Malware, also known as malicious software, is intrusive software developed by cyber criminals to steal data or to damage and destroy computers and computer systems, according to CISCO. Malware has the capability of exfiltrating massive amounts of data. Examples of common malware are viruses, worms, trojan viruses, spyware, adware and ransomware.
  • Phishing: Phishing attacks are the practice of sending fraudulent communications while appearing to be a reputable source, according to CISCO. This is typically performed via email or on the phone. The goal is to steal sensitive information such as financial or login information – or to install malware onto a target's device.
  • Ransomware: Ransomware is a form of malware designed to encrypt files on a target device, rendering those files and the systems they rely on unusable, according to the CISA. Once the system has been encrypted, actors demand ransom in exchange for decryption.
  • Viruses: A virus is a harmful program intended to spread from computer to computer, as well as other connected devices, according to the SBA. The object of a virus is to supply the attacker access to the infected systems. Many viruses pretend to be legitimate applications but then cause damage to the systems, steal data, interrupt services or get additional malware, according to Proofpoint.

Who Is Behind Cyber Attacks?

Attacks against enterprises can come from a variety of sources such as criminal organizations, state actors and private persons, according to IBM. An easy way to classify these attacks is by outsider versus insider threats.

Outsider or external threats include organized criminals, professional hackers and amateur hackers (like hacktivists).

Insider threats are typically those who have authorized access to a company's assets and abuse them deliberately or accidentally. These threats include employees who are careless of security procedures, disgruntled current or former employees and business partners or clients with system access.

Developing Cyber Awareness

Infographic with the text Good Security Measures: Downloading the latest patches and software updates, Ensuring data is secure, Make sure employees use strong passwordsCyber security awareness month takes place every October and encourages individuals and organizations to own their role in protecting their cyberspace, according to Forbes, although anyone can practice being mindful of cyber security at any time. Awareness of the dangers of browsing the web, checking emails and interacting online in general are all part of developing cyber security awareness.

Cyber security awareness can mean different things to different people depending on their technical knowledge. Ensuring appropriate training is available to individuals is a great way to motivate lasting behavioral changes.

While cyber security awareness is the first step, employees and individuals must embrace and proactively use effective practices both professionally and personally for it to truly be effective, according to Forbes.

Getting started with cyber security awareness is easy, and many resources are readily available on the CISA government website based on your needs. Whether you need formal training or a monthly email with cyber security tips and tricks, any awareness and training can impact behavior and create a positive change in how you view cyber security.

What Are the Types of Cyber Security?

Here are the most common types of cyber security available:

  • Application Security: Application security describes security used by applications to prevent data or code within the app from being stolen or hijacked. These security systems are implemented during application development but are designed to protect the application after deployment, according to VMWare.
  • Cloud Security: Cloud security involves the technology and procedures that secure cloud computing environments against internal and external threats. These security systems are designed to prevent unauthorized access and keep data and applications in the cloud secure from cyber security threats, according to McAfee.
  • Infrastructure Security: Critical infrastructure security describes the physical and cyber systems that are so vital to society that their incapacity would have a debilitating impact on our physical, economic or public health and safety, according to CISA.
  • Internet of Things (IoT) Security: IoT is the concept of connecting any device to the Internet and other connected devices. The IoT is a network of connected things and people, all of which share data about the way they are used and their environments, according to IBM. These devices include appliances, sensors, televisions, routers, printers and countless other home network devices. Securing these devices is important, and according to a study by Bloomberg, security is one of the biggest barriers to widespread IoT adaption.
  • Network Security: Network security is the protection of network infrastructure from unauthorized access, abuse or theft. These security systems involve creating a secure infrastructure for devices, applications and users to work together, according to CISCO.

Do You Need a Degree To Be a Cyber Security Professional?

A cyber security degree provides an opportunity for students to develop skills and a mindset that empowers them to begin a career in securing systems, protecting information assets and managing organizational risks.

Alex Pettito with the text Alex PettitoAlex Petitto ’21 earned his bachelor’s in cyber security. Petitto always wanted to work within the IT sector, and he chose cyber security because it’s an exponentially growing field. He transferred credits from a community college through a U.S. Air Force program and finished his bachelor's in under two years. "It was much quicker than I thought it would be,” he said.

It didn't take long for Petitto to begin exploring his career options. "Even before finishing (my) degree, I … received multiple invites to interview for entry-level positions within the industry and received three job offers," said Petitto. He decided to remain within the Air Force and transfer to a cyber security unit as opposed to joining the private sector.

Petitto said his cyber security degree opened doors for him in the field – “a monumental goal for me," he said. "This degree was a critical first step for breaking into the industry."

Your cyber security degree program can also connect you with experiential learning opportunities to further your growth as a cyber security professional. For example, the annual National Cyber League (NCL) has a competition wherein students from across the U.S. practice real-world cyber security tasks and skills. SNHU recently placed 9th out of over 500 colleges participating in the NCL competition.

Career Opportunity and Salary Potential in Cyber Security

As companies large and small scramble to respond to the growing threats, jobs in the cyber security field are growing fast. The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) predicts that employment for information security analysts will grow by 33% through 2030. That’s more than twice as fast as the average computer-related occupation and four times as fast as American jobs in general.

To help fill the need for more professionals in the cyber security world, CyberSeek, a project funded by the federal government and supported by industry partners, provides detailed information on the demand for these workers by state. The tool shows that, across the country, there were 180,000 job openings for information security analysts between May 2021 and April 2022, with only 141,000 professionals holding jobs in the role, reflecting an unfilled demand of 39,000 workers.

“There’s a huge shortfall right now in entry-level and midlevel cyber security roles,” Kamyck said. “You’re looking at demand across all business sectors, with companies of all sizes.

CyberSeek lists the following entry-mid-and advanced-level roles available in the field. Average salaries are based on job openings posted between May 2021 and April 2022.

Entry-level Cyber Security Roles

  • Cyber Crime Analyst: Cyber crime analysts make an average salary of $100,000, and common skills necessary for the role include computer forensics, information security and malware engineering.
  • Cyber Security Specialist: Cyber security specialists make an average salary of $104,482, and important skills for the role include information security, network security and information assurance.
  • Incident and Intrusion Analyst: Incident analysts make an average salary of $88,226, and common skills needed include project management, network security and intrusion detection.
  • IT Auditor: Information technology auditors make an average salary of $110,000, and common skills for the role include internal auditing and audit planning, accounting and risk assessment.

Mid-level Cyber Security Roles

  • Cyber Security Analyst: Cybersecurity analysts make an average of $107,500, and the top skills required include information security and systems, network security and threat analysis.
  • Cyber Security Consultant: Consultants in cyber security make an average salary of $92,504 and need skills in information security and surveillance, asset protection and security operations.
  • Penetration and Vulnerability Tester: Penetration testers make an average salary of $101,091 and need skills in penetration testing, Java, vulnerability assessment and software development.

Advanced-level Cyber Security Roles

  • Cyber Security Architect: Cyber security architects make an average salary of $159,752, and top skills for the role include software development, network and information security and authentication.
  • Cyber Security Engineer: Cyber security engineers make an average of $117,510 a year and need cryptography, authentication and network security skills.
  • Cyber Security Manager:  Managers in this field earn an average salary of $130,000, and top skills include project management, network security and risk management.

What Does a Cyber Security Professional Do?

Infographic with the text Types of Cyber Security: Application security, cloud security, infastructure security, internet of things (IOT) security, network securityKamyck said cyber security professionals could play a wide range of roles in a modern company. For example, some small businesses may hire a single person to handle all kinds of work protecting data. Others contract with consultants who can offer a variety of targeted services. Meanwhile, larger firms may have whole departments dedicated to protecting information and chasing down threats.

While companies define roles related to information security in a variety of ways, Kamyck said there are some specific tasks that these employees are commonly called on to do. In many cases, they must analyze threats and gather information from a company’s servers, cloud services and employee computers and mobile devices.

“An analyst’s job is to find meaning in all of that data, see what’s concerning,” he said. “Is there a breach? Is someone violating a policy?”

In many cases, Kamyck said, security specialists work with other information technology professionals to ensure a company’s systems are secure. That involves not just technical know-how but also people-oriented skills.

But breaches don’t just take the form of someone hacking into a server. They can also involve customer lists sent through unencrypted email, a password written on a sticky note in a cubicle or a company laptop stolen from an employee’s car.

Depending on their specific role, cyber security professionals must also think strategically. In many industries, companies rely on employees having quick access to highly sensitive data, such as medical records or bank account information.

“The goal is to balance the needs of the company or the organization you’re working for with the need to protect the confidentiality of customer data and trade secrets,” Kamyck said.

Kamyck said people who do well in these jobs tend to be curious, competitive and willing to keep learning to stay up to date with rapidly changing technology. The work draws on multidisciplinary knowledge, and people who continue with the work find there are a variety of directions they can take in their careers.

For example, Kamyck said, if you're interested in the business side, you might become a manager or run audits that let companies know where they need to Strengthen to meet compliance. If you love the adversarial part of the job, you might become a penetration tester, essentially an “ethical hacker” who tests for system vulnerabilities by trying to get through them.

How To Get Into Cyber Security

If you’re wondering how to get into cyber security, it’s clear there are many positions out there. The question is how to make sure you’re a good fit for them. According to BLS, most information security analyst jobs require at least a bachelor’s degree in computer science, information assurance, programming or another related field.

In some cases, the work calls for a Master of Business Administration (MBA) in Information Systems. That degree typically takes an additional two years of study and involves both technical and business management courses.

Cyber security job requirements also sometimes include related work experience. Rather than jumping right into the security side of information technology, you can start as a network or computer systems administrator. Depending on the specific cyber security position, employers may have other job requirements. For instance, keeping databases secure might be an ideal job for someone who’s spent time as a database administrator and is also well-versed in security issues.

Aside from work experience and college degrees, some employers also prefer job candidates who have received certifications demonstrating their understanding of best practices in the field. For example, the Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) credential validates a professional’s general knowledge and abilities in information security. There are also more specific certificates, which can highlight specialized knowledge of computer architecture, engineering or management.

Whatever path new employees in cyber security want to follow, Kamyck said, those who are willing to make an effort to learn the field will find abundant opportunities.

“There’s needs in government. There’s needs in finance. There’s needs in education,” Kamyck said. “There’s a tremendous unfilled need.”

Discover more about SNHU's online cyber security degree: Find out what courses you'll take, skills you'll learn and how to request information about the program.

Nicholas Patterson is a writer at Southern New Hampshire University. Connect with him on LinkedIn.

Wed, 20 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.snhu.edu/about-us/newsroom/stem/what-is-cyber-security
Killexams : Visa to Boost Cross-border Payments

Emma Okonji
Visa has announced the commercial launch of the Visa B2B Connect network.
It is expected to supply financial institutions the ability to quickly and securely process high-value corporate cross-border payments globally.

Visa B2B Connect launch would cover 30 global trade corridors, with an aim to expand to as many as 90 markets by end of 2019.

Announcing the initiative, Global Head of Visa Business Solutions, Kevin Phalen, said: “Launching Visa B2B Connect marks an important industry milestone which will accelerate the evolution of how commercial payments move around the world.

“By creating a solution that facilitates direct, bank to bank transactions, we are eliminating friction associated with key industry pain points. With Visa B2B Connect, we are making payments quicker and simpler, while enhancing transparency and consistency of data.”

Visa B2B Connect removes friction and time spent on cross-border corporate transactions by facilitating transactions from the bank of origin directly to the beneficiary bank.

The network’s unique digital identity feature tokenises an organisation’s sensitive business information, such as banking details and account numbers, giving them a unique identifier that can be used to facilitate transactions on the network.

Visa B2B Connect’s digital identity feature will transform the way information is exchanged in business-to-business cross-border transactions.

Executive Vice President Cornèr Bank, Alessandro Seralvo, said: “We are excited to be a pilot partner for Visa B2B Connect. This modern way of carrying out cross-border B2B payments creates a substantial added value for our corporate clients.

“Velocity, security and control of transactions as well as a lower counterparty risks are essential for a successful business with international partners.”

Partners, including Bottomline, FIS and IBM are integral parts of the future scale of Visa B2B Connect. Bottomline and FIS are bringing Visa B2B Connect platform access to its participating bank clients. Along with Visa’s core assets, Visa B2B Connect utilizes open source Hyperledger Fabric framework from the Linux Foundation, in partnership with IBM. This helps provide an improved process to facilitate financial transactions on a scalable, permissioned network.

President and CEO, Bottomline, Rob Eberle, said: “Bottomline is delighted to be working with Visa to accelerate the adoption of innovative ways for businesses to make faster cross-border payments.”
General Manager, IBM Blockchain, Marie Wieck, said:

“Working together on Visa B2B Connect, we are combining the strengths of the world’s leader in electronic payments with IBM’s recognised expertise in helping scale distributed ledger technology. This is a unique example of how blockchain-based architecture can help transform B2B value chains by facilitating secure, trusted transactions globally.”

Sun, 24 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2019/06/24/visa-to-boost-cross-border-payments-2/
Killexams : The “Test of Time” research that advanced our interpretation of Adversarial ML

The 39th International Conference on Machine Learning is currently being held at the Baltimore Convention Centre in Maryland, USA and their ‘Test of Time’ award was awarded to a research work published in 2012 titled, ‘Poisoning attacks against Support Vector Machines’. 

This research work was undertaken to demonstrate that not only can an intelligent adversary predict a change in the decision-making function of a Support Vector Machine (SVM) due to malicious input but can also use this prediction to construct malicious data. 

Conducted by Battista Biggio, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Cagliari along with Blaine Nelson and Pavel Laskov from the Wilhelm Schickard Institute of Computer Science, University of Tubingen—this is one of the earliest research works ever conducted on the poisoning attacks against SVMs.

(Image source: Twitter)

ICML’s ‘Test of Time’ is awarded to research works presented ten years from the current year in recognition of the impact that the works have caused since their publication to the current research and practice in the field of machine learning.

The research 

The research work successfully demonstrates how an intelligent adversary can, to some extent, predict the change of a Support Vector Machine’s (SVM) ‘decision function’ due to malicious input and use this ability to then construct malicious data.

SVMs are supervised machine learning algorithms that can be used for the classification and regression analysis of data groups and can even detect outliers. They are capable of both linear classification and non-linear classification. For non-linear classification, SVMs use a kernel trick.

In the course of the study, the research team made certain assumptions about the attacker’s familiarity with the learning algorithm and their access to underlying data distribution and the training data that the learner may be using. However, this may not be the case in real-world situations where the attacker is more likely to use a surrogate training set drawn from the same distribution. 

Based on these assumptions, the researchers were able to demonstrate a technique that any attacker can deploy to create a data point that can dramatically lower classification accuracy in SVMs. 

To simulate an attack on the SVM, the researchers used a technique called ‘gradient ascent strategy’, where the gradient is computed based on the properties of the optimal solution of the SVM training problem. 

Since it is possible for an attacker to manipulate the optimal SVM solution by interjecting specially crafted attack points, the research demonstrates that it is possible to find such attack points while retaining an optimal solution of the SVM training problem. In addition, it illustrates that the gradient ascent procedure significantly increases the classifier’s test error.

Significance of the research 

When this research was published in 2012, contemporary research works related to poisoning attacks were largely focused on detecting simple anomalies. 

This work, however, proposed a breakthrough that optimised the impact of data-driven attacks against kernel-based learning algorithms and emphasised the need to consider resistance against adversarial training data as an important factor in the design of learning algorithms.

The research presented in the paper inspired several subsequent works in the space of adversarial machine learning such as adversarial examples for deep neural networks, various attacks on machine learning models and machine learning security. 

It is noteworthy that the research in this domain has evolved since then—from focusing on the security of non-deep learning algorithms to understanding the security properties of deep learning algorithms in the context of computer vision and cybersecurity tasks. 

Contemporary R&D progress shows that researchers have come up with ‘reactive’ and ‘proactive’ measures to secure ML algorithms. While reactive measures are taken to counter past attacks, proactive measures are preventive in nature. 

Timely detection of novel attacks, frequent classifier retraining and verifying the consistency of classifier decisions against training data are considered reactive measures.

Security-by-design defences against ‘white-box attacks’, where the attacker has perfect knowledge of the attacked system and security-by-obscurity against ‘black-box attacks’, where the attacker has no information about the structure or parameter of the system are considered proactive measures.

The importance of employing such measures in present-day research highlights the significance of this paper as the pivotal step in the direction to secure ML algorithms.

By the same token, industry leaders too became increasingly aware of the different kinds of adversarial attacks like poisoning, model stealing and model inversion and recognised that these attacks can inflict significant damage to businesses by breaching data privacy and compromising intellectual property. 

Consequently, institutional vigilance about adversarial machine learning is prioritised. Tech giants like Microsoft, Google and IBM have explicitly committed to securing their traditional software systems against such attacks. 

Many organisations are however already ahead of the curve in systematically securing their ML assets. Organisations like ‘ISO’ are coming up with rubrics to assess the security of ML systems across industries. 

Governments are also signalling industries to build secure ML systems. For instance, the European Union released a checklist to assess the trustworthiness of ML systems.

Amid these concerns, machine learning techniques help detect underlying patterns in large datasets, adapt to new behaviours and aid in decision-making processes, and have thus gained significant momentum in the mainstream discourse. 

ML techniques are routinely used to solve big data challenges such as various security-related issues like detecting spam, frauds, worms or other malicious intrusions. 

Identifying poisoning as an attack on ML algorithms and the disastrous implications it may have for many businesses and industries like the medical sector, aviation sector, road safety or cyber security concretised the contribution of this paper as one of the first research works that paved the way for adversarial machine learning research. 

The authors challenged themselves with the task of finding if such attacks were possible against complex classifiers. Their objective was to identify an optimal attack point that maximised the classification error.  

In their work, the research team not only paved the way for adversarial machine learning research, a technique that tricks ML models by providing deceptive data, but also laid the foundation for any research that may help defend against growing threat in AI and ML. 

Fri, 22 Jul 2022 00:27:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://analyticsindiamag.com/the-test-of-time-research-that-advanced-our-interpretation-on-adversarial-ml/
Killexams : What’s After FinFETs?

Chipmakers are readying their next-generation technologies based on 10nm and/or 7nm finFETs, but it’s still not clear how long the finFET will last, how long the 10nm and 7nm nodes for high-end devices will be extended, and what comes next.

The industry faces a multitude of uncertainties and challenges at 5nm, 3nm and beyond. Even today, traditional chip scaling continues to slow as process complexities and costs escalate at each node. As a result, fewer customers can afford to design chips around advanced nodes.

In theory, finFETs are expected to scale to 5nm as defined by Intel. (A fully-scaled 5nm process is roughly equivalent to 3nm from the foundries). Regardless of the confusing node names, the finFET likely will run out of steam when the fin width reaches 5nm. So at 5nm or beyond, chipmakers will need a new solution. Otherwise, traditional chip scaling will slow down or stop completely.

For some time, chipmakers have been exploring various transistor options for 5nm and beyond. So far, only Samsung has provided details. In May the company rolled out its technology roadmap, which includes a nanosheet FET for 4nm by 2020.

Other chipmakers also are leaning toward similar structures in the same timeframe, even though they have not publicly announced their intentions. Nanosheet FETs and another variant, nanowire FETs, fall into the gate-all-around category. Other variants include hexagonal FETs, nano-ring FETs and nanoslab FETs.

Fig. 1: Types of horizontal gate-all-around architectures. Source: Qualcomm, Synopsys, Applied Materials

For now, gate-all-around technology appears to be the most practical technology after finFETs. It’s an evolutionary step from finFETs and shares many of the same process steps and tools. A lateral gate-all-around technology is basically a finFET on its side with a gate wrapped around it. Tiny wires or sheets serve as the channels.

There are other transistor options, as well. Some chipmakers are even looking at ways to scale using advanced packaging. Vendors are weighing the options and looking at the technical and economic merits of each. “The finFET can scale one or two generations,” said Mark Bohr, a senior fellow and director of process architecture and integration at Intel. “But the question might be, ‘Is one of the alternates a better option, whether it’s gate-all-around, III-V materials or tunnel FETs?’ If we had to, we could scale finFETs. But the question is, ‘Is there a better option?’”

By III-V, Bohr is referring to a finFET with III-V materials in the channels, which can boost the mobility in devices. A tunnel FET (TFET) is a steep sub-threshold slope device that operates at low voltages.

While gate-all-around technology is gaining steam, it isn’t the consensus pick—yet. “I won’t necessarily say that, but it’s certainly getting a lot of attention,” Bohr said in an interview. “It’s too early to predict which ones will be successful. But there are enough good ideas to ensure there will be a couple more generations.”

Analysts, however, believe that 10nm/7nm finFETs will last for the foreseeable future. “(FinFETs provide a) combination of higher performance, lower power consumption and lower cost,” said Handel Jones, chief executive of International Business Strategies (IBS).

If next-generation transistors go into production at 5nm or beyond, the technology will be expensive and limited to specific apps. “Gate-all-around is likely to be adopted, but the major benefits will be high performance,” Jones said. At 5nm, it will cost $476 million to design a mainstream chip, compared to $349.2 million for 7nm and $62.9 million for 28nm, according to IBS.

Fig. 2: IC design costs. Source: IBS

To help customers get ahead of the curve, Semiconductor Engineering has taken a look at what’s ahead and highlighted the difficult process steps.

Different options
There are at least three main paths forward—brute-force scaling, staying at mature nodes, and advanced packaging.

Those with deep pockets likely will continue down the traditional scaling path at 10nm/7nm and beyond. Gate-all-around is the leading contender beyond finFETs, at least for now. Longer term, there are other options, such as III-V finFETs, complementary FETs (CFETs), TFETs and vertical nanowires. Vertical nanowires involve stacking wires vertically.

A CFET is a more complex gate-all-around technology, where you are stacking nFET and pFET wires on top of each other. The current gate-all-around devices stack one type of wire, whether its nFET or pFET, on each other.

CFETs, TFETs and vertical nanowires are more revolutionary technologies and not expected in the short term. They will require new breakthroughs.

Fig. 3: Next-gen transistor architectures. Source: Imec/ISS.

So how will the high end play out? “7nm will be a long-lived node,” said Gary Patton, chief technology officer at GlobalFoundries. “FinFETs will have a lot of legs. There is still a lot of room to extend finFETs.”

After finFETs, there are several options in R&D. For example, GlobalFoundries is exploring nanosheets, nanowires and vertical nanowires.

The decision and timing to go with one technology over another depends on technical and economic factors. “You are trying to develop a process that is manufacturable and delivers a value proposition,” Patton said. “This stuff is not as straightforward as it used to be. There is a lot more vetting required.”

In fact, a given technology might be in R&D for a decade. Then, based on a set of criteria, the best technologies appear in the market. Many others fall by the wayside when that happens.

To be sure, though, not all companies will require finFETs and nanowires. Most will stay with 22nm planar processes and above. Many can’t afford finFETs, and it’s not required for analog, RF and other devices.

“10nm, 7nm and 5nm sound attractive,” said Walter Ng, vice president of business management at UMC. “But how many can really afford it and justify the design and manufacturing expense? The demand pushing the bleeding-edge is really for a select few.”

But even those at 22nm and above face some challenges. “Everybody else needs to look at how they can continue to compete,” Ng said. “They are trying to find a way to differentiate and squeeze out costs.”

That’s why many are drawn towards advanced packaging. All chips require an IC package. For example, customers can use traditional packages, such as flip-chip BGA. Advanced packaging extends that idea, integrating multiple die in the same package to create a high-performance system. 2.5D/3D and fan-outs are examples of this approach.

So what’s the ultimate winner in the market? “There’s not one answer,” said David Fried, chief technology officer at Coventor. “People are really looking for the application to drive the physical solution.”

Fried pointed out that there is no one-size-fits-all solution. For example, finFETs or follow-on transistors make sense for high-end microprocessors. “But for IoT devices, that may be an incorrect direction,” he said. “There is no one application that is driving the entire market. People have to stop searching for one answer that fits everything. A lot of different things can win all at the same time, but it’s going to be for different applications.”

Meanwhile, looking into his crystal ball, Fried said: “My suspicion is that 7nm looks pretty evolutionary. It will be finFET. If we see a change beyond finFET, it could be at 5nm. But remember, a lateral gate-all-around nanowire device is like a finFET with two extra etches. Going from a finFET to a lateral gate-all-around nanowire device is pretty evolutionary. I hope we start seeing that at 5nm. Beyond that, we don’t have much visibility.”

Transistor trends and processes
Today, meanwhile, the finFET is the leading-edge transistor. In finFETs, the control of the current is accomplished by implementing a gate on each of the three sides of a fin.

A key spec is the gate-pitch. The gate-pitch for Intel’s 10nm finFET technology is 54nm, compared to 70nm for 14nm. (Intel’s 10nm is the equivalent to 7nm from the foundries.)

The big decision comes when the gate-pitch approaches 40nm. Based on simulations from Imec, the finFET begins to teeter at a 42nm gate-pitch. “The nanowire will scale below that and still have good electrostatic control,” said An Steegen, executive vice president of semiconductor technology and systems at Imec. The nanowire FET, according to Imec, has demonstrated good electrostatic control at a 36nm gate pitch. Imec has also devised a nanowire down to 9nm in diameter.

Fig. 4: Imec’s tiny nanowire. Source: Imec

In general, gate-all-around provides a performance boost over finFETs, but there are several challenges, namely drive current and parasitic capacitance. Compounding the issues is a relativity new layer called the middle-of-line (MOL). The MOL connects the separate transistor and interconnect pieces using a series of contact structures. In the MOL, parasitic capacitance is problematic. It creates external resistance in various parts of the device. This includes the contact to the junction, where the low-resistance Schottky barrier and the silicide resides.

One version, a lateral nanowire FET, is where you take a finFET and chop it into pieces. Each piece becomes a tiny horizontal nanowire, which serves as the channel between a source and drain.

Nanosheet or nanoslab FETs are the other common variants. Both technologies resemble a lateral nanowire FET, but the wires are much wider and thicker.

Each version has some tradesoffs. “(The nanosheet FET) is not quite as revolutionary as they might want it to sound,” Intel’s Bohr said. “It’s just finFETs laid on their sides. Not sure if the value is quite as strong as nanowires.”

In nanowire FETs, the gate surrounds the entire wire, enabling more control of the gate. “It’s this improved gate control that enables you to continue to scale the gate length,” said Mike Chudzik, senior director of the Transistor and Interconnect Group at Applied Materials.

As stated above, a finFET is cut into pieces. As a result, the amount of surface area on the device decreases. “You are losing that real estate of silicon,” Chudzik said. “I’m sure you are gaining in off-current, but you are losing in overall drive current.”

That’s why a nanosheet FET makes sense. “That’s where you start to elongate these wires,” he explained. “You are gaining in volume for your drive current. In addition, you can also play tricks with the shapes of these wires or sheets to help reduce the capacitance.”

Another version, the nano-ring FET, has a similar benefit. “The whole idea of the nano-ring is to actually squeeze the sheets together a little bit,” he said. “What that does is effectively reduce the capacitance.”

The first gate-all-around devices will likely have three wires. Over time, though, chipmakers will need to stack more wires on top of each other to provide more performance. “We certainly don’t want to introduce new device architectures that last only a node. (So the idea) is to consider stacking more nanoslabs on top of each other,” he said. “But you can’t just keep infinitely stacking channels, because you get a lot of the same parasitic, capacitance and resistance problems as you do with taller finFETs.”

In a sign of things to come, GlobalFoundries, IBM and Samsung recently presented a paper on a nanosheet FET for 5nm and 3nm. The technology is said to show better performance with a smaller footprint than finFETs.

Fig. 5: Cross-section simulation of (a) finFET, (b) nanowire, and (c) nanosheet. Source: IBM.

Using extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography for some layers, the nanosheet FET from the three companies has three sheets or wires. It has a gate length of 12nm and a 44nm/48nm contacted poly pitch with 5nm silicon channels. The nFET has a sub-threshold slope of 75mV/decade, while the pFET is 85mV/decade, according to the paper.

In the lab, researchers stacked nanosheets with three layers of 5nm sheet thickness and a 10nm space between them. They demonstrated inverter and SRAM layouts using single stack nanosheet structures with sheet widths from 15nm to 45nm. “It has superior electrostatics and dynamic performance compared to extremely scaled finFETs with multiple threshold and isolation solutions inherited from finFET technologies. All these advantages make stacked nanosheet devices an attractive solution as a replacement of finFETs, scalable to the 5nm device node and beyond, and with less complexity in the patterning strategy,” according to the paper.

Fig. 6: Stacked nanosheet process sequence and TEM. Source: IBM, Samsung, GlobalFoundries.

Generally, the process steps are similar between gate-all-around and finFETs, with some exceptions. Making a gate-all-around is challenging, however. Patterning, defect control and variability are just some of the issues.

The first step in gate-all-around differs from a finFET. In gate-all-around, the goal is to make a super-lattice structure on a substrate using an epitaxial reactor. The super-lattice consists of alternating layers of silicon-germanium (SiGe) and silicon. Ideally, a stack would consist of three layers of SiGe and three layers of silicon.

Then, like a finFET flow, the next step involves the formation of the shallow trench isolation structure. “It’s critical that the super-lattice has ultra-abrupt junctions between silicon germanium and silicon,” Applied’s Chudzik said.

Here comes the next critical step. In gate-all-around, the gate not only wraps around the channel, but it will wrap around some of the contact area. This adds capacitance to the mix. “So you need to form what’s called an inner spacer, where you actually separate the high-k from the source-drain region. That can be done with an ALD-type film,” Chudzik said.

Then, using a replacement process, the SiGe layers are removed in the super-lattice structure. This, in turn, leaves the silicon layers with a space between them. Each silicon layer forms the basis of a nanowire.

Finally, high-k/metal-gate materials are deposited, thereby forming a gate. In effect, the gate surrounds each of the nanowires.

Mask/litho challenges
Along the way, there are also a series of lithography steps. At 16nm/14nm and 10nm/7nm, chipmakers are using today’s 193nm immersion lithography tools and multiple patterning.

At 7nm and/or 5nm, the industry hopes to insert EUV. In EUV, a power source converts plasma into light at 13.5nm wavelengths, enabling finer features on a chip.

Chipmakers hope to insert EUV for the most difficult parts, namely metal1 and vias. They will continue to use traditional lithography for many other steps.

EUV can reduce the cost per layer by 9% for the metal lines and 28% for vias, compared to triple patterning, according to ASML. “(EUV) eliminates steps in the fab,” said Michael Lercel, director of product marketing at ASML. “If you look at the cost of doing multiple immersion lithography steps, coupled with the other process steps, such as cleaning and metrology, we believe that EUV is less costly per layer versus triple patterning immersion and certainly quadruple patterning and beyond.”

EUV isn’t ready for production, however. ASML is readying its latest EUV scanner—the NXE:3400B. Initially, the tool will ship with a 140-watt source, enabling a throughput of 100 wafers per hour (wph).

To put EUV in production, chipmakers want 250 watts, enabling 125 wph. Recently, though, ASML has developed a 250-watt source, which will be shipped early next year.

EUV resists, meanwhile, are another stumbling block. To reach the desired throughput for EUV, the industry wants EUV resists at a dose of 20mJ/cm². “Good imaging seems to be more towards the 30mJ/cm² to 40mJ/cm² range today,” said Richard Wise, technical managing director at Lam Research. “So the dose is not necessarily where we would like it to be.”

With a 30mJ/cm² dose, for example, an EUV scanner with a 250-watt source produces 90 wph, which is below the desired 125 wph target, according to analysts.

But developing resists at the desired dose is challenging. “There are a lot of fundamental physical challenges to lower that dose because of the stochastic effects in EUV,” Wise said.

This involves a phenomenon called photon shot noise. A photon is a fundamental particle of light. Variations in the number of photons can impact EUV resists during the patterning process. It can cause unwanted line-edge roughness (LER), which is defined as a deviation of a feature edge from an ideal shape.

While the industry is wrestling with the resists, photomask makers are developing EUV masks. Today’s optical mask consists of an opaque layer of chrome on a glass substrate. In contrast, an EUV mask is a reflective technology, which consists of alternating layers of silicon and molybdenum on a substrate.

“We need EUV in order to avoid triple patterning,” said Aki Fujimura, chief executive of D2S. “This means that EUV masks will have a lot more main features than ArF masks, and that each of these features will be small. Since EUV more accurately reflects mask aberrations on the wafer, EUV masks need to print more of the smaller things and each more accurately.”

To make EUV masks, photomask manufacturers will require some new tools. For example, they want faster e-beam mask writers. As mask features become more complex, today’s single-beam e-beam tools take a longer time to pattern or write a mask. Today’s e-beams are based on variable shape beam (VSB) technology.

The solution is multi-beam mask writers. Today, IMS is shipping a multi-beam mask writer for both optical and EUV masks, while NuFlare is also developing multi-beam tools.

Multi-beam will help with mask yields, turnaround times and cost. “Most masks in the world will still be perfectly fine with VSB writers,” Fujimura said. “But the critical few will need multi-beam writing to keep the write times reasonable.

“In the most likely scenario that EUV is ready for 5nm, the demand for multi-beam writing will be high for some mask layers. For example, if a mask layer contains a large number of non-orthogonal, non-45-degree features, multi-beam will be required for sure. 193i is blind to small perturbations on the mask, so ‘Manhattanization’ of those patterns work fine with relatively large stepping sizes,” he said. “However, EUV can see much better, and that will hugely increase the shot count, making VSB writing unlikely. But these are very specialized masks for specialized chips. For the majority of mask layers, even though the number of main features on the mask will explode by factors, the number of shots needed to shoot the decorations and SRAFs will decrease substantially. An advanced VSB writer with sufficient precision may be fine for a majority of EUV masks.”

Inspection/metrology challenges
Inspection and metrology are also critical at 5nm and beyond. “The trend toward vertical architectures introduces the challenge of buried defects for inspection and complex profiles for metrology,” said Neeraj Khanna, senior director of customer engagement at KLA-Tencor. “EUV will experience high-volume adoption at these nodes, driving new random and systematic defect mechanisms. Stochastic issues will drive a need for higher sampling.”

What does this all mean? “We expect these new architectures to drive new sets of requirements for metrology and inspection,” Khanna said. “The industry has to continue to innovate and extend core technologies.”

Related Stories
Uncertainty Grows For 5nm, 3nm
What Transistors Will Look Like At 5nm
Shrink Or Package?
Making 2.5D, Fan-Outs Cheaper
What’s Next In Scaling, Stacking

Sat, 23 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://semiengineering.com/whats-after-finfets/
Killexams : Girls in Tech Celebrates 15 Years of Success in Narrowing the Gender Gap Girls in Tech Celebrates 15 Years of Success in Narrowing the Gender Gap

PR Newswire

NASHVILLE, Tenn., Aug. 3, 2022

  • 100,000+ members in 40+ countries mark great strides since 2007, and the immense challenges that lay ahead in the fight to end the gender gap
  • Girls in Tech to mark the milestone at its annual conference on September 7th with keynote speeches from senior executives at Accenture, Edward Jones, Gap, IBM, McKesson, Okta, TIAA, Trend Micro, and Verizon

NASHVILLE, Tenn., Aug. 3, 2022 /PRNewswire/ -- Girls in Tech, a global nonprofit working to erase the gender gap in tech, is celebrating its 15th anniversary at its annual conference on September 7th in Nashville – a forum for executives from across the globe to gather and discuss industry trends, tricks of the trade, setbacks, triumphs, and life experiences uniquely tailored to women in technology.

(PRNewsfoto/Girls in Tech)

Girls in Tech, a global nonprofit working to erase the gender gap in tech, celebrates its 15th anniversary

Founded in 2007 by CEO Adriana Gascoigne, Girls in Tech has grown into a global leader in the gender equality movement with 100,000+ women and allies in 56 cities, 42 countries and 6 continents. Among the organization's biggest achievements:

  • 15,000+ entrepreneurs funded, mentored and supported through the Startup Challenge, the organization's signature entrepreneurship pitch competition;
  • 100,000+ participants in the Girls in Tech Hackathon series, solving local and global problems;
  • 35,000+ participants in coding, design and startup bootcamps;
  • the recently launched "Next Generation of Public Sector and Service Leaders," a program to provide education and raise awareness of career opportunities in federal, state, and local governments.

The pandemic has disproportionately impacted women in the workplace, and many of the hard-fought gains in gender equality from the last 15 years are under threat. According to last year's Girls in Tech study "The Tech Workplace for Women in the Pandemic," 79% of women who have children in the household report feeling burned out, and more than one in four women report being sexually harassed in the workplace. The situation is even worse around the globe, with the World Economic Forum's Global Gender Gap Report finding that the pandemic has set women back so significantly that the gender gap isn't likely to be closed for more than 135 years.

The Girls in Tech community starts a new chapter this September 7th at its annual conference, featuring a dynamic selection of speakers with inspiring stories and practical insights to share. Keynote speakers include:

  • Jill Anderson, Principal, Technology Software Infrastructure at Edward Jones
  • Alvina Antar, Chief Information Officer at Okta
  • Debika Bhattacharya, Senior Vice President, 5G & Enterprise Solutions at Verizon
  • Latrise Brissett, Managing Director, Global IT, Business Operations at Accenture
  • Ruth Davis, Director of Call for Code, Worldwide Ecosystems at IBM
  • Wendy Harrington, Chief Data & Artificial Intelligence Officer at TIAA
  • Maria Lensing, Senior Vice President & Chief Technology Officer of Infrastructure Engineering & Operations at McKesson
  • Louise McEvoy, Vice President, US Channel Sales at Trend Micro
  • Heather Mickman, Chief Information Officer at Gap Inc.

"It's amazing to look back on the progress we've made in 15 years and the 100,000+ women and allies who are united for change, but the fight to end the gender gap in tech and beyond isn't going to get any easier," said Adriana Gascoigne, Founder and CEO, Girls in Tech. "This year's Girls in Tech Conference is going to feature some of the boldest and most successful women in technology delivering their unique visions for the road ahead."

The Girls in Tech Conference is sponsored by AWS, Banyan Labs, CDW, Comcast, Gap Inc, Guideware, Infoblox, Marsh, McKesson, McKinsey & Company, Nike, Okta, Pega, Trend Micro, Unstoppable Domains, and Verizon.

A full agenda for the Girls in Tech Conference can be found here.

About Girls in Tech

Girls in Tech is a global non-profit that works to erase the gender gap in tech. Today, every industry is a tech industry, with a need for people of all skills and backgrounds. We offer education and experiences to help people discover their unique superpower and hone it. We aim to see every person accepted, confident, and valued in tech—just as they are.

For more information, visit www.GirlsInTech.org or follow on Instagram, LinkedIn and Twitter.

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Wed, 03 Aug 2022 06:36:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.morningstar.com/news/pr-newswire/20220803sf34409/girls-in-tech-celebrates-15-years-of-success-in-narrowing-the-gender-gap
Killexams : Cybersecurity Market – 2022 by Manufacturers, Regions, Size, Share, Forecast to 2028

New Jersey, United States – Cybersecurity Market 2022 – 2028, Size, Share, and Trends Analysis Research Report Segmented with Type, Component, Application, Growth Rate, Region, and Forecast | key companies profiled -IBM (US), Cisco (US), Check Point (Israel), and others.

The development of the Cybersecurity Market can be ascribed to the developing complexity of digital assaults. The recurrence and power of digital tricks and violations have expanded over the course of the past 10 years, bringing about gigantic misfortunes for organizations. As cybercrimes have expanded essentially, organizations overall have directed their spending security advances to reinforce their in-house security foundations. Designated assaults have seen an ascent lately, invading targets’ organization framework and all the while keeping up with secrecy. Aggressors that have a particular objective as a top priority generally assault endpoints, organizations, on-premises gadgets, cloud-based applications, information, and different other IT frameworks. The essential thought process behind designated assaults is to interfere with designated organizations or associations’ organizations and take basic data. Because of these designated assaults, business-basic tasks in associations are adversely affected by business disturbances, protected innovation misfortune, monetary misfortune, and loss of basic and touchy client data. The effect of designated digital assaults influences designated associations as well as homegrown and worldwide clients.

According to our latest report, the Cybersecurity market, which was valued at US$ million in 2022, is expected to grow at a CAGR of approximate percent over the forecast period.

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Cybersecurity Market necessities develop at a higher rate than spending plans intended to address them. The majority of the little firms come up short on a financial plan and IT security mastery to take on improved network protection answers to defend their organizations and IT foundations from different digital assaults. The restricted capital subsidizing can be a significant controlling component for a few little and medium-sized organizations embracing the online protection model. Emerging companies in emerging nations across MEA, Latin America, and APAC frequently face a test to secure money and suitable subsidizing to embrace network protection answers for their business. The capital financing in these organizations is significantly procured for defending business-basic activities, now and again leaving less or no subsidizing for improving high-level network protection arrangements. Besides, network safety financial plans in the arising new companies are lacking to execute Next-Generation Firewalls (NGFWs) and Advanced Threat Protection (ATP) arrangements.

The distributed computing model is generally embraced because of its strong and adaptable framework. Numerous associations are moving their inclination toward cloud answers for improving on the capacity of information, and furthermore, as it gives far off server access on the web, empowering admittance to limitless registering power. The execution of a cloud-based model empowers associations to deal with every one of the applications as it gives a particular testing examination that runs behind the scenes. The execution of cloud can permit associations to join valuable Cybersecurity Market advancements, for example, programming characterized edges, to make vigorous and exceptionally secure stages. States in numerous nations issue extraordinary rules and guidelines for cloud stage security, which drives the Cybersecurity Market development across the globe. SMEs are continually looking to modernize their applications and foundations by moving to cloud-based stages, like Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) and Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS).

Division Segment

Based on components, the cybersecurity market is segmented into hardware, software, and services. Cybersecurity technology is offered by various vendors as an integrated platform or a tool that integrates with enterprises’ existing infrastructure. Vendors also offer cybersecurity hardware associated with services that help organizations in implementing the required solution in their current infrastructure. In recent years, several developments have been witnessed in cybersecurity software and related hardware development kits.

Cybersecurity services are classified into professional and managed services. Professional services are further segmented into consulting, risk, and threat assessment; design and implementation; training and education; and support and maintenance. The demand for services is directly related to the adoption level of cybersecurity solutions. The adoption of cybersecurity solutions is increasing for securing business-sensitive applications.

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Regional Analysis

North America, being a technologically advanced region, tops the world in terms of the presence of security vendors and cyber incidents. As the world is moving toward interconnections and digitalization, protecting enterprise-critical infrastructures and sensitive data have become one of the major challenges. North America is an early adopter of cybersecurity solutions and services across the globe. In North America, the US is expected to hold a larger market share in terms of revenue. The increasing instances of cyber-attacks are identified as the most crucial economic and national security challenges by governments in the region.

Businesses in this region top the world in terms of the adoption of advanced technologies and infrastructures, such as cloud computing, big data analytics, and IoT. Attacks are increasing dramatically and becoming more sophisticated in nature and targeting business applications in various industry verticals. Sophisticated cyber attacks include DDoS, ransomware, bot attacks, malware, zero-day attacks, and spear phishing attacks.
The infrastructure protection segment accounted for the largest revenue share in 2022, of the overall revenue. The high market share is attributed to the rising number of data center constructions and the adoption of connected and IoT devices. Further, different programs introduced by governments across some regions, such as the Critical Infrastructure Protection Program in the U.S. and the European Programme for Critical Infrastructure Protection (EPCIP), are expected to contribute to market growth. For instance, the National Critical Infrastructure Prioritization Program (NIPP), created by the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA), helps in identifying the list of assets and systems vulnerable to cyber-attacks across various industries, including energy, manufacturing, transportation, oil & gas, chemicals, and others, which is damaged or destroyed would lead to national catastrophic effects.

Competitors List

Major vendors in the global cybersecurity market include IBM (US), Cisco (US), Check Point (Israel), FireEye (US), Trend Micro (Japan), NortonLifeLock (US), Rapid7 (US), Micro Focus (UK), Microsoft (US), Amazon Web Services (US), Oracle (US), Fortinet (US), Palo Alto Networks (US), Accenture (Ireland), McAfee (US), RSA Security (US), Forcepoint (US), Sophos PLC (UK), Imperva (US), Proofpoint (US), Juniper Network (US), Splunk (US), SonicWall (US), CyberArk (US), F-secure (Finland), Qualys (US), F5 (US), AlgoSec (US), SentinelOne (US), DataVisor (US), RevBits (US), Wi-Jungle (India), BluVector (US), Aristi Labs (India) and Securden (US).

The following are some of the reasons why you should Buy a Cybersecurity market report:

  • The Report looks at how the Cybersecurity industry is likely to develop in the future.
  • Using Porter’s five forces analysis, it investigates several perspectives on the Cybersecurity market.
  • This Cybersecurity market study examines the product type that is expected to dominate the market, as well as the regions that are expected to grow the most rapidly throughout the projected period.
  • It identifies recent advancements, Cybersecurity market shares, and important market participants’ tactics.
  • It examines the competitive landscape, including significant firms’ Cybersecurity market share and accepted growth strategies over the last five years.
  • The research includes complete company profiles for the leading Cybersecurity market players, including product offers, important financial information, current developments, SWOT analysis, and strategies.

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