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Last week, after IBM’s report of positive quarterly earnings, CEO Arvind Krishna and CNBC’s Jim Cramer shared their frustration that IBM’s stock “got clobbered.” IBM’s stock price immediately fell by10%, while the S&P500 remained steady (Figure 1)

While a five-day stock price fluctuation is by itself meaningless, questions remain about the IBM’s longer-term picture. “These are great numbers,” declared Krishna.

“You gave solid revenue growth and solid earnings,” Cramer sympathized. “You far exceeded expectations. Maybe someone is changing the goal posts here?”

The Goal Posts To Become A Digital Winner

It is also possible that Krishna and Cramer missed where today’s goal posts are located. Strong quarterly numbers do not a digital winner make. They may induce the stock market to regard a firm as a valuable cash cow, like other remnants of the industrial era. But to become a digital winner, a firm must take the kind of steps that Satya Nadella took at Microsoft to become a digital winner: kill its dogs, commit to a mission of customer primacy, identify real growth opportunities, transform its culture, make empathy central, and unleash its agilists. (Figure 2)

Since becoming CEO, Nadella has been brilliantly successful at Microsoft, growing market capitalization by more than a trillion dollars.

Krishna’s Two Years As CEO

Krishna has been IBM CEO since April 2020. He began his career at IBM in 1990, and had been managing IBM’s cloud and research divisions since 2015. He was a principal architect of the Red Hat acquisition.

They are remarkable parallels between the careers of Krishna and Nadella.

· Both are Indian-American engineers, who were born in India.

· Both worked at the firm for several decades before they became CEOs.

· Prior to becoming CEOs, both were in charge of cloud computing.

Both inherited companies in trouble. Microsoft was stagnating after CEO Steve Ballmer, while IBM was also in rapid decline, after CEO Ginny Rometty: the once famous “Big Blue” had become known as a “Big Bruise.”

Although it is still early days in Krishna’s CEO tenure, IBM is under-performing the S&P500 since he took over (Figure 3).

More worrying is the fact that Krishna has not yet completed the steps that Nadella took in his first 27 months. (Figure 1).

1. Jettison Losing Baggage

Nadella wrote off the Nokia phone and declared that IBM would no longer sell its flagship Windows as a business. This freed up energy and resources to focus on creating winning businesses.

By contrast, Krishna has yet to jettison, IBM’s most distracting baggage:

· Commitment to maximizing shareholder value (MSV): For the two prior decades, IBM was the public champion of MSV, first under CEO Palmisano 2001-2011, and again under Rometty 2012-2020—a key reason behind IBM’s calamitous decline (Figure 2) Krishna has yet to explicitly renounce IBM’s MSV heritage.

· Top-down bureaucracy: The necessary accompaniment of MSV is top-down bureaucracy, which flourished under CEOs Palmisano and Rometty. Here too, bureaucratic processes must be explicitly eradicated, otherwise they become permanent weeds.

· The ‘Watson problem’: IBM’s famous computer, Watson, may have won ‘Jeopardy!’ but it continues to have problems in the business marketplace. In January 2022, IBM reported that it had sold Watson Health assets to an investment firm for around $1 billion, after acquisitions that had cost some $4 billion. Efforts to monetize Watson continue.

· Infrastructure Services: By spinning off its Cloud computing business as a publicly listed company (Kyndryl), IBM created nominal separation, but Kyndryl immediately lost 57% of its share value.

· Quantum Computing: IBM pours resources into research on quantum computing and touts its potential to revolutionize computing. However unsolved technical problems of “decoherence” and “entanglement” mean that any meaningful benefits are still some years away.

· Self-importance: Perhaps the heaviest baggage that IBM has yet to jettison is the over-confidence reflected in sales slogans like “no one ever got fired for hiring IBM”. The subtext is that firms “can leave IT to IBM” and that the safe choice for any CIO is to stick with IBM. It’s a status quo mindset—the opposite of the clients that IBM needs to attract.

2. Commit To A Clear Customer-Obsessed Mission

At the outset of his tenure as CEO of Microsoft, Nadella spent the first nine months getting consensus on a simple customer-driven mission statement.

Krishna did write at the end of the letter to staff on day one as CEO, and he added at the end:“Third, we all must be obsessed with continually delighting our clients. At every interaction, we must strive to offer them the best experience and value. The only way to lead in today’s ever-changing marketplace is to constantly innovate according to what our clients want and need.” This would have been more persuasive if it had come at the beginning of the letter, and if there had been stronger follow-up.

What is IBM’s mission? No clear answer appears from IBM’s own website. The best one gets from About IBM is the fuzzy do-gooder declaration: “IBMers believe in progress — that the application of intelligence, reason and science can Improve business, society and the human condition.” Customer primacy is not explicit, thereby running the risk that IBM’s 280,000 employees will assume that the noxious MSV goal is still in play.

3. Focus On Major Growth Opportunities

At Microsoft, Nadella dismissed competing with Apple on phones or with Google on Search. He defined the two main areas of opportunity—mobility and the cloud.

Krishna has identified the Hybrid Cloud and AI as IBM’s main opportunities. Thus, Krishna wrote in his newsletter to staff on day one as CEO: “Hybrid cloud and AI are two dominant forces driving change for our clients and must have the maniacal focus of the entire company.”

However, both fields are now very crowded. IBM is now a tiny player in Cloud in comparison to Amazon, Microsoft, and Google. In conversations, Krishna portrays IBM as forging working partnerships with the big Cloud players, and “integrating their offerings in IBM’s hybrid Cloud.” One risk here is whether the big Cloud players will facilitate this. The other risk is that IBM will attract only lower-performing firms that use IBM as a crutch so that they can cling to familiar legacy programs.

4. Address Culture And The Importance Of Empathy Upfront

At Microsoft, Nadella addressed culture upfront, rejecting Microsoft’s notoriously confrontational culture, and set about instilling a collaborative customer-driven culture throughout the firm.

Although Krishna talks openly to the press, he has not, to my knowledge, frontally addressed the “top-down” “we know best” culture that prevailed in IBM under his predecessor CEOs. He has, to his credit, pledged “neutrality” with respect to the innovative, customer-centric Red Hat, rather than applying the “Blue washing” that the old IBM systematically applied to its acquisitions to bring them into line with IBM’s top-down culture, and is said to have honored its pledge—so far. But there is little indication that IBM is ready to adopt Red Hat’s innovative culture for itself. It is hard to see these two opposed cultures remain “neutral” forever. Given the size differential between IBM and Red Hat, the likely winner is easy to predict, unless Krishna makes a more determined effort to transform IBM’s culture.

5. Empower The Hidden Agilists

As in any large tech firm, when Nadella and Krishna took over their respective firms, there were large hidden armies of agilists waiting in the shadows but hamstrung by top-down bureaucracies. At Microsoft, Nadella’s commitment to “agile, agile, agile” combined with a growth mindset, enabled a fast start.. At IBM, if Krishna has any passion for Agile, it has not yet shared it widely.

Bottom Line

Although IBM has made progress under Krishna, it is not yet on a path to become a clear digital winner.

And read also:

Is Your Firm A Cash-Cow Or A Growth-Stock?

Why Companies Must Learn To Discuss The Undiscussable

Sun, 24 Jul 2022 23:19:00 -0500 Steve Denning en text/html https://www.forbes.com/sites/stevedenning/2022/07/25/how-ibm-could-become-a-digital-winner/
Killexams : IBM’s VolCat process uses ‘molecular sorting’ to turn mixed-waste recyclate into virgin-grade PET

More than 272 million metric tons of plastic are produced each year around the globe, most of which ends up in landfills and waterways. One-quarter of that is made up of PET, a plastic commonly used in food and beverage packaging such as water bottles (bearing the #1 recycling label) and polyester clothing.

To combat this problem, IBM researchers recently created a technology called VolCat, a catalytic chemical process that can turn PET into a renewable resource. The cost-effective and sustainable innovation “digests” PET using a precise combination of chemicals, heat and pressure.          

Bob Allen, a chemistry and materials researcher for IBM who specializes in polymer materials with expertise in catalysts, told PlasticsToday that the new process that he helped to develop is akin to the depolymerization process that some companies are currently offering. “Depolymerization has been around for a long time. Among the questions that have to be answered: Is it economical and how robust is the process?” said Allen.

“What makes our process a little different is that we perform catalytic recycling, which is extremely selective in seeking out and finding polyester material in the witches’ brew of waste material. The polyester content is then repolymerized into new PET. Because there are two molecules of ethylene glycol attached to it, it can make new PET very easily.”

Allen noted that preliminary testing shows that value can be created by making new batches of PET from “very challenging mixed waste” materials. IBM’s process reportedly creates new PET that is indistinguishable from virgin PET. “Once the process is finished, because our catalyst is a volatile compound and the catalyst goes away from the reaction mixture, we recover and recycle all the catalyst,” he said. “There’s no waste involved in the VolCat catalytic process.”

The most innovative aspect of the VolCat process is that it eliminates the need for manual sorting because “the molecule does the sorting,” Allen explained.

Allen said that the VolCat process can reduce the amount of plastic being sent to landfills because it addresses the concerns of processors regarding contamination. “PET waste from a recycling plant might contain 90% PET, but regardless of how high quality the recycling stream is, they can’t take colored PET bottles. There’s not a lot that can be done with colored PET,” explained Allen. “Using the VolCat molecular sorting process, selective digestion just chews up the polyester component and makes new PET with the same properties as virgin PET. Foreign matter from municipal curbside collection that contains dirt, labels and adhesives—just chuck it all in and let VolCat run amok on the polyester to isolate the pure monomer from that mess and make new PET. This unbelievable catalyst is completely recoverable and completely ignores all this other material.”

Currently, VolCat is still in IBM’s laboratory and has not yet been commercialized. However, said Allen, “pilot discussions” are underway with several companies.

“Innovation is really required to move the industry from where we are today to something that takes advantage of this waste as a natural resource,” Allen concluded. “We feel strongly that material and process innovation is key to helping the world with the waste plastic issue. We want to move the VolCat process out of the lab and into the world as quickly as we can.”

Wed, 27 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.plasticstoday.com/recycling/ibms-volcat-process-uses-molecular-sorting-turn-mixed-waste-recyclate-virgin-grade-pet
Killexams : IBM, MIT AI tool generates questions to help clinicians using EHRs

IBM and Massachusetts Institute of Technology data scientists teamed up to create an artificial intelligence tool that generates questions to help healthcare professionals use EHRs more effectively and efficiently, according to their paper published June 6.

Working with 10 medical experts and using more than 100 patient discharge summaries, researchers at IBM and MIT compiled more than 2,000 questions and 1,000 triggers of questions that physicians may ask when looking at a patient's EHR. They categorized each question or trigger written by the medical experts into groups such as symptom/sign, demographics and test results, making it easier for physicians to navigate through the questions. 

The team then trained a data model to do this organically. For instance, if an EHR notes that a patient had a mass in their neck, one question generated may be about its size or color, in the category of symptoms. 

They found that their model produced a high-quality question 62.5 percent of the time in response to a prompt, but only if given more context. Without the context, the question generation quality declined. 

"Our results demonstrate that existing machine learning systems, including large-scale neural networks, struggle with the tasks we propose. We encourage the community to Improve on our baseline models," the researchers wrote. They also opened their machine learning tool to the public for continued work.

Wed, 20 Jul 2022 09:48:00 -0500 en-gb text/html https://www.beckershospitalreview.com/ehrs/ibm-mit-ai-tool-generates-questions-to-help-clinicians-using-ehrs.html
Killexams : High cost of 5G devices affecting launch in Nigeria —IBM

As Nigeria prepares for its 5G rollout in August, Temitayo Jaiyeola speaks to Vice President, Global Telecommunications Industry, IBM, Craig Wilson, on the possibilities, challenges, and affordability of this new technology, and how Nigerians will benefit from it

A lot has been said about the potential of 5G. With your experience in the industry, how will 5G transform Nigeria’s digital economy?

The immediate opportunity for 5G in Nigeria’s digital economy is to use Fixed Wireless Access to bridge the gap in enhanced broadband connectivity for homes and enterprises, both large and small. Key sectors in the region that could benefit include manufacturing, agriculture, financial services and oil and gas industries. An important benefit of 5G is that it enables open ecosystems to thrive. Open, cloud-native architectures and operating models will allow Nigeria to develop a vibrant local ecosystem that can help drive innovation and economic development. 5G growth in the region is expected to develop rapidly in the second half of the decade and continue into the 2030s. The economic impact of mid-band 5G will be around 0.4 per cent of GDP in 2030 in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Since 4G rolled out, penetration has peaked at around 40 percent in the nation. Will the uptake of 5G perform better than this? How can operators roll out this network in an effective way?

GSMA Intelligence believes 4G will remain dominant, with 5G connections making up only 3% of total mobile connections in Africa by 2025.

The roll-out of 5G will be carried out in phases, beginning in urban areas with a need for high-quality broadband, and Nigeria expects to have 5G coverage of major cities by 2025, according to Nigeria Minister of Communications and Digital Economy Isa Pantami. The International Telecommunication Union said regional governments must streamline regulatory conditions to facilitate 5G deployment, providing regulatory flexibility for innovative 5G propositions and addressing the consumer barriers to adoption – both of which will contribute to effective rollout.

Nigeria has a big Internet access gap, is 5G primed to bridge this gap? For 5g to have an impact on the  continent, how much investment is from a continental perspective?

A sweeping majority of Nigerians – 88 per cent – lack access to smartphones with 4G-like speeds for Internet connection and the capacity to use the Internet on a daily basis, according to the Alliance for Affordable Internet. Based on the access and backhaul infrastructure available in the country, a model for the deployment of 5G services in urban, suburban and rural environments must be developed. Today, 4G network services are only available in urban areas, so a continued investment toward rural areas is essential. A phased 5G network rollout, starting from operational fibre optic and microwave node locations, is recommended for an impactful transition. Today, Ethiopia, Botswana, Egypt, Gabon, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mauritius, Nigeria, Senegal, Seychelles, South Africa, Uganda, and Zimbabwe are all testing or deploying 5G. Nigeria issued spectrum licenses in March, and is hoping to possess the widest 5G network in the continent this year. The Nigerian Communications Commission has indicated that it is targeting August 2022 for commercial deployment.

How will 5G accelerate the fourth industrial revolution on the continent and in Nigeria?

The most impactful benefit of 5G is by creating an underlying platform that enables existing technologies to be deployed in new and better ways, for example IoT. While the claims that 5G will usher in the fourth industrial revolution are bold, they are indeed possible. Opportunities in agriculture and healthcare are key verticals where 5G will enable significant transformation in both operating cost models and in the ability to introduce exciting new innovations that were not previously possible.

With 5G, seamless online actions are set to create more data traffic from the continent. What are some of the security challenges this might pose?

The move to 5G networks and distributed architectures introduces a few cybersecurity challenges to be addressed, including: Expanded threat surface across a hybrid cloud network, with a vast number of distributed end points that need to be secured; complexity and scale heightening the need for AI and automation to be infused across the security landscape; a shortage of cybersecurity skills and personnel. The best way to safeguard against these inherent challenges is for 5G Operators to “design in” security across every part of their organisation, with modern DevSecOps methods and CI/CD processes.

 Faster Internet will create a better backbone for Over The Top services such as WhatsApp calls, chats, and more, threatening traditional revenue streams of telcos. What can telcos do to create new revenue streams?

Telcos must use the move to 5G and cloud native technologies to regain control of their business and their architectures. A study last year by the IBM Institute of Business Value found that a majority of high performing telecom operators expect to continue to outperform the industry by adopting secure, open hybrid cloud architectures and ecosystems to capture “platform control points” consistent with digital businesses.

There have been questions raised on the affordability of 5G. Is this a legitimate concern?

The cost of a 5G device currently runs around  $350 USD, making them unafforadble for many. However, some device manufacturers have commited to bringing costs down to around $150 USD. Still, many industry analysts believe that 5G devices need to be at about $50 USD to support mass adoption across Africa. The high cost of 5G phones is a major impediment, and it impacts the launch the fifth generation network on a commercial scale when there are not enough mobile devices capable of receiving it. We can see the effects on 5G rollout when we compare Africa to other continents. Globally, the rollout of 5G has been in process since 2019. Yet deployment across Africa has been much slower, with only 6 African countries having launched the network.

 COVID has made digital the new normal on the continent, how prepared is Africa, and Nigeria? And what are the key lessons if the continent is to leverage this new normal?

While Africa has been hit hard by the COVID pandemic, workers and enterprises have responded to the challenges with great resilience and adaptability. However, the pandemic fundamentally altered where and how people work, upending many long-standing norms and practices. One of the most prevalent changes to training and collaboration has been the growth of digital training courses, which have been adopted by more than half of enterprises. The three key takeaways to leverage this new normal are: The first is the deregulation to accelerate the growth of large firms. The growth of large firms increases a country’s resilient economic transformation. With more assets, they are inherently more resilient and are better equipped to endure economic storms. Policymakers should prioritize policies for facilitating the entrance and growth of such firms, through domestic deregulation and encouraging foreign direct investment.  The second one is agricultural productivity-led growth and the development of the agro-food system. A second strategy leading to increased resilience and transformation is to Improve agricultural productivity-led growth and the development of the agro-food system. The third is the support for smaller businesses. Globally, small businesses have been hit the hardest by the pandemic. Those businesses that are best able to adapt to digital ways of working (including remote work) and that are more insulated from global supply chain constraints are in a better position to rebound. Additionally, the ability to Improve productivity or reduce cost through cloud based “as a Service” consumption of compute and connectivity has benefitted many sectors of the economy – both large and small.

What are some of the efforts IBM is making to Improve the telecommunication industry on the continent?

There are a few significant efforts IBM is making in Africa to support telecom development, including Digital4Agriculture Initiative. IBM’s Digital4Agriculture Initiative (D4Ag) aims to foster African start-ups in the agricultural sector and strengthen the long-term living conditions of local small farmers by increasing productivity and quality. With the help of digital expertise from IBM Services and access to accurate weather data provided by IBM’s The Weather Company, D4Ag is helping over 36 African agricultural companies better prepare for the digital future. Another one is satellite towers. IBM is working with a global business partner to introduce AI based solutons to reduce cell tower energy costs and Improve sustainability. We are working with a large regional telecom operator to pilot this solution in Africa. The other one is micro-lending via Blockchain. In many emerging markets, food retailers along with smallholder farmers, struggle to secure loans and develop a credit history. And without the proper financing, scaling a business is nearly impossible. To tackle this, IBM has rolled out a pilot withh Kenya-based food logistics startup, Twiga Foods, to facilitate micro-lending options for food vendors using blockchain.

Increasing data traffic is inspiring a rise in the number of data centres in Nigeria and Africa. What level of new growth is expected in the data centre sector? Is Africa primed for fullscale local cloud hosting capabilities?

Technologies such as the cloud, big data, and IoT generate more data through high-end applications and need more efficient systems for data processing. These technologies are growing the demand for advanced IT infrastructure in the African data center market. Enterprises prefer servers that can reduce space in the data center environment without affecting performance. The competition between branded and ODM server suppliers will continue because multiple enterprises opt for server infrastructure based on open community designs (OCP). The increasing demand for server shipments will continue to grow moderately as enterprises move to the cloud or colocation platforms for their IT infrastructure operations. The data centre market in Africa has attracted significant investments in accurate years, led by Nigeria, South Africa, Kenya, Egypt and Ethiopia. Global cloud service providers, including IBM, are expanding their presence with new cloud regions. In fact, more than nine data centres in Africa have added as much as 30,000 square feet or more of additional space each in 2021. Several local governments are supporting these initiatives by developing special economic zones, and industrial parks, which provide tax exemptions for data center development.

Sat, 23 Jul 2022 23:45:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://punchng.com/high-cost-of-5g-devices-affecting-launch-in-nigeria-ibm/
Killexams : Cloud Computing Market Is Anticipated to Expand With a CAGR of 18% From 2022 to 2025 | 118 Report Pages

The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.

Aug 08, 2022 (The Expresswire) -- [Report Pages No 118] In 2022, What is “Cloud Computing Market” Insights?

"The Cloud Computing market revenue was 112267 Million USD in 2019, and will reach 303072 Million USD in 2025, with a CAGR of 18.0% during 2020-2025."

Cloud Computing Market Insights 2022 By SaaS, IaaS, PaaS (SaaS, IaaS, PaaS1), Applications (Government, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises, Large Enterprises1), Regions and Forecast to 2027. The global Cloud Computing market size is projected to reach multi-million by 2027, in comparison to 2022, with unexpected CAGR during the forecast period, the Cloud Computing Market Report Contains Full TOC, Tables and Figures, and Chart with In-depth Analysis Pre and Post COVID-19 Market Outbreak Impact Analysis and Situation by Region.

During the COVID-19 period, the global economy may be affected in three different ways: directly as it relates to production and demand, indirectly as it relates to supply chains and markets, and as a result of its financial consequences on firms and financial markets. Analysts monitoring the situation around the world explain that producers will be rewarded after the COVID-19 crisis. In this report, we provide an additional illustration of the latest economic slowdown, COVID-19 impact on the industry, and the latest scenario.

Final Report will add the analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on this industry.

TO KNOW HOW COVID-19 PANDEMIC AND RUSSIA UKRAINE WAR WILL IMPACT THIS MARKET - REQUEST SAMPLE

This Cloud Computing Market report includes the estimation of market size for value (million USD) and volume (K Units). Both top-down and bottom-up approaches have been used to estimate and validate the market size of the Cloud Computing Market, to estimate the size of various other dependent submarkets in the overall market. Key players in the market have been identified through secondary research, and their market shares have been determined through primary and secondary research. All percentage share splits, and breakdowns have been determined using secondary sources and Checked primary sources.

Get a trial PDF of report - https://www.marketgrowthreports.com/enquiry/request-sample/18478838

The research covers the current Rectifiers market size of the market and its growth rates based on 6-year records with a company outline of Key Players/Manufacturers:

● IBM Corp. ● Google LLC ● Hewlett Packard Enterprise Development LP ● Microsoft Corp. ● SAP SE ● Amazon Web Services Inc. ● Oracle Corp. ● Alibaba Cloud ● Salesforce.com Inc. ● Adobe Inc.

Cloud Computing Market Analysis and Insights:

The Global Cloud Computing Market is anticipated to rise at a considerable rate during the forecast period, between 2022 and 2027. In 2021, the market is growing at a steady rate and with the rising adoption of strategies by key players, the market is expected to rise over the projected horizon.

The Cloud Computing market revenue was 112267 Million USD in 2019, and will reach 303072 Million USD in 2025, with a CAGR of 18.0% during 2020-2025. Cloud computing is shared pools of configurable computer system resources and higher-level services that can be rapidly provisioned with minimal management effort, often over the Internet. Cloud computing relies on sharing of resources to achieve coherence and economies of scale, similar to a public utility.

This report elaborates the market size, market characteristics, and market growth of the Cloud Computing industry, and breaks down according to the type, application, and consumption area of Cloud Computing. The report also introduces players in the industry from the perspective of the industry chain and marketing chain and describes the leading companies.

In Chapter 2.3 of the report, the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on the industry was fully assessed. Fully risk assessment and industry recommendations were made for Cloud Computing in a special period. This chapter also compares the markets of Pre COVID-19 and Post COVID-19.

Chapter 2.5 covers the analysis of the impact of COVID-19 from the perspective of the industry chain.

In addition, chapters 6-10 consider the impact of COVID-19 on the regional economy.

Get a trial Copy of the Cloud Computing Market Report 2022

The report further studies the market development status and future Cloud Computing Market trend across the world. Also, it splits Cloud Computing Market Segmentation by Type and by Application to fully and deeply research and reveal market profile and prospects.

On the basis of product type this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into:

● SaaS ● IaaS ● PaaS

On the basis of the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, consumption (sales), market share and growth rate for each application, including:

● Government ● Small and Medium-sized Enterprises ● Large Enterprises

Chapters 7-26 focus on the regional market. We have selected the most representative 20 countries from 197 countries in the world and conducted a detailed analysis and overview of the market development of these countries.

● North America (United States, Canada and Mexico) ● Europe (Germany, UK, France, Italy, Russia and Turkey etc.) ● Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India, Australia, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia and Vietnam) ● South America (Brazil, Argentina, Columbia etc.) ● Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa)

SOME OF THE KEY QUESTIONS ANSWERED IN THIS REPORT:

● What is the global (North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa) sales value, production value, consumption value, import and export of Cloud Computing? ● Who are the global key manufacturers of the Cloud Computing Industry? How is their operating situation (capacity, production, sales, price, cost, gross, and revenue)? ● What are the Cloud Computing market opportunities and threats faced by the vendors in the global Cloud Computing Industry? ● Which application/end-user or product type may seek incremental growth prospects? What is the market share of each type and application? ● What focused approach and constraints are holding the Cloud Computing market? ● What are the different sales, marketing, and distribution channels in the global industry? ● What are the upstream raw materials and manufacturing equipment of Cloud Computing along with the manufacturing process of Cloud Computing? ● What are the key market trends impacting the growth of the Cloud Computing market? ● Economic impact on the Cloud Computing industry and development trend of the Cloud Computing industry? ● What are the market opportunities, market risk, and market overview of the Cloud Computing market? ● What are the key drivers, restraints, opportunities, and challenges of the Cloud Computing market, and how they are expected to impact the market? ● What is the Cloud Computing market size at the regional and country-level?

Inquire more and share questions if any before the purchase on this report at - https://www.marketgrowthreports.com/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/18478838

Major Points from Table of Contents -

Global Cloud Computing Market Research Report 2022-2027, by Manufacturers, Regions, SaaS, IaaS, PaaS and Applications

1 Introduction

1.1 Objective of the Study

1.2 Definition of the Market

1.3 Market Scope

1.3.1 Market Segment by Type, Application and Marketing Channel

1.3.2 Major Regions Covered (North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Mid East and Africa)

1.4 Years Considered for the Study (2017-2027)

1.5 Currency Considered (U.S. Dollar)

1.6 Stakeholders

2 Key Findings of the Study

3 Market Dynamics

3.1 Driving Factors for this Market

3.2 Factors Challenging the Market

3.3 Opportunities of the Global Cloud Computing Market (Regions, Growing/Emerging Downstream Market Analysis)

3.4 Technological and Market Developments in the Cloud Computing Market

3.5 Industry News by Region

3.6 Regulatory Scenario by Region/Country

3.7 Market Investment Scenario Strategic Recommendations Analysis

4 Value Chain of the Cloud Computing Market

4.1 Value Chain Status

4.2 Upstream Raw Material Analysis

4.3 Midstream Major Company Analysis (by Manufacturing Base, by Product Type)

4.4 Distributors/Traders

4.5 Downstream Major Customer Analysis (by Region)

Get a trial Copy of the Cloud Computing Market Report 2022

5 Global Cloud Computing Market-Segmentation by Type

6 Global Cloud Computing Market-Segmentation by Application

7 Global Cloud Computing Market-Segmentation by Marketing Channel

7.1 Traditional Marketing Channel (Offline)

7.2 Online Channel

8 Competitive Intelligence Company Profiles

9 Global Cloud Computing Market-Segmentation by Geography

9.1 North America

9.2 Europe

9.3 Asia-Pacific

9.4 Latin America

9.5 Middle East and Africa

10 Future Forecast of the Global Cloud Computing Market from 2022-2027

10.1 Future Forecast of the Global Cloud Computing Market from (2022-2027) Segment by Region

10.2 Global Cloud Computing Production and Growth Rate Forecast by Type (2022-2027)

10.3 Global Cloud Computing Consumption and Growth Rate Forecast by Application (2022-2027)

11 Appendix

11.1 Methodology

12.2 Research Data Source

Continued….

Browse complete table of contents at -

https://www.marketgrowthreports.com/TOC/18478838#Tables

Reasons to buy this report:

● To get a comprehensive overview of the Cloud Computing Market ● To gain wide ranging information about the top players in this industry, their product portfolios, and key strategies adopted by the players. ● To gain insights of the countries/regions in the Cloud Computing Market.

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Killexams : Get to Know Jimmy Tsang, Pondurance VP of Marketing

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*** This is a Security Bloggers Network syndicated blog from Blog | Pondurance authored by Pondurance. Read the original post at: https://www.pondurance.com/blog/jimmy-tsang-vp-marketing/

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The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.

Aug 08, 2022 (The Expresswire) -- [Report Pages No 120] In 2022, What is “Neuromorphic Chip Market” Insights?

"The Neuromorphic Chip market revenue was 2601 Million USD in 2019, and will reach 7424 Million USD in 2025, with a CAGR of 19.1% during 2020-2025."

Neuromorphic Chip Market Insights 2022 By Image Recognition, Signal Processing, Data Processing, Others (Image Recognition, Signal Processing, Data Processing, Others1), Applications (Defense and Aerospace, Automotive, Medical, Industrial, Others1), Regions and Forecast to 2027. The global Neuromorphic Chip market size is projected to reach multi-million by 2027, in comparison to 2022, with unexpected CAGR during the forecast period, the Neuromorphic Chip Market Report Contains Full TOC, Tables and Figures, and Chart with In-depth Analysis Pre and Post COVID-19 Market Outbreak Impact Analysis and Situation by Region.

During the COVID-19 period, the global economy may be affected in three different ways: directly as it relates to production and demand, indirectly as it relates to supply chains and markets, and as a result of its financial consequences on firms and financial markets. Analysts monitoring the situation around the world explain that producers will be rewarded after the COVID-19 crisis. In this report, we provide an additional illustration of the latest economic slowdown, COVID-19 impact on the industry, and the latest scenario.

Final Report will add the analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on this industry.

TO KNOW HOW COVID-19 PANDEMIC AND RUSSIA UKRAINE WAR WILL IMPACT THIS MARKET - REQUEST SAMPLE

This Neuromorphic Chip Market report includes the estimation of market size for value (million USD) and volume (K Units). Both top-down and bottom-up approaches have been used to estimate and validate the market size of the Neuromorphic Chip Market, to estimate the size of various other dependent submarkets in the overall market. Key players in the market have been identified through secondary research, and their market shares have been determined through primary and secondary research. All percentage share splits, and breakdowns have been determined using secondary sources and Checked primary sources.

Get a trial PDF of report - https://www.marketgrowthreports.com/enquiry/request-sample/18473212

The research covers the current Rectifiers market size of the market and its growth rates based on 6-year records with a company outline of Key Players/Manufacturers:

● Hewlett Packard Enterprise Co. ● Lockheed Martin Corporation ● IBM Corporatioon ● General Vision Inc. ● General Vision, Inc. ● Brain Corporation ● Qualcomm Technologies Inc. ● Numenta, Inc. ● Vicarious FPC Inc. ● Knowm Inc. ● CEA Leti ● HRL Laboratories LL ● Intel Corporation ● Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd.

Neuromorphic Chip Market Analysis and Insights:

The Global Neuromorphic Chip Market is anticipated to rise at a considerable rate during the forecast period, between 2022 and 2027. In 2021, the market is growing at a steady rate and with the rising adoption of strategies by key players, the market is expected to rise over the projected horizon.

The Neuromorphic Chip market revenue was 2601 Million USD in 2019, and will reach 7424 Million USD in 2025, with a CAGR of 19.1% during 2020-2025. A neuromorphic chip is an analog data processor inspired by the biological brain.

This report elaborates the market size, market characteristics, and market growth of the Neuromorphic Chip industry, and breaks down according to the type, application, and consumption area of Neuromorphic Chip. The report also introduces players in the industry from the perspective of the industry chain and marketing chain and describes the leading companies.

In Chapter 2.3 of the report, the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on the industry was fully assessed. Fully risk assessment and industry recommendations were made for Neuromorphic Chip in a special period. This chapter also compares the markets of Pre COVID-19 and Post COVID-19.

Chapter 2.5 covers the analysis of the impact of COVID-19 from the perspective of the industry chain.

In addition, chapters 6-10 consider the impact of COVID-19 on the regional economy.

Get a trial Copy of the Neuromorphic Chip Market Report 2022

The report further studies the market development status and future Neuromorphic Chip Market trend across the world. Also, it splits Neuromorphic Chip Market Segmentation by Type and by Application to fully and deeply research and reveal market profile and prospects.

On the basis of product type this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into:

● Image Recognition ● Signal Processing ● Data Processing ● Others

On the basis of the end users/applications, this report focuses on the status and outlook for major applications/end users, consumption (sales), market share and growth rate for each application, including:

● Defense and Aerospace ● Automotive ● Medical ● Industrial ● Others

Chapters 7-26 focus on the regional market. We have selected the most representative 20 countries from 197 countries in the world and conducted a detailed analysis and overview of the market development of these countries.

● North America (United States, Canada and Mexico) ● Europe (Germany, UK, France, Italy, Russia and Turkey etc.) ● Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India, Australia, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia and Vietnam) ● South America (Brazil, Argentina, Columbia etc.) ● Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa)

SOME OF THE KEY QUESTIONS ANSWERED IN THIS REPORT:

● What is the global (North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, South America, Middle East and Africa) sales value, production value, consumption value, import and export of Neuromorphic Chip? ● Who are the global key manufacturers of the Neuromorphic Chip Industry? How is their operating situation (capacity, production, sales, price, cost, gross, and revenue)? ● What are the Neuromorphic Chip market opportunities and threats faced by the vendors in the global Neuromorphic Chip Industry? ● Which application/end-user or product type may seek incremental growth prospects? What is the market share of each type and application? ● What focused approach and constraints are holding the Neuromorphic Chip market? ● What are the different sales, marketing, and distribution channels in the global industry? ● What are the upstream raw materials and manufacturing equipment of Neuromorphic Chip along with the manufacturing process of Neuromorphic Chip? ● What are the key market trends impacting the growth of the Neuromorphic Chip market? ● Economic impact on the Neuromorphic Chip industry and development trend of the Neuromorphic Chip industry? ● What are the market opportunities, market risk, and market overview of the Neuromorphic Chip market? ● What are the key drivers, restraints, opportunities, and challenges of the Neuromorphic Chip market, and how they are expected to impact the market? ● What is the Neuromorphic Chip market size at the regional and country-level?

Inquire more and share questions if any before the purchase on this report at - https://www.marketgrowthreports.com/enquiry/pre-order-enquiry/18473212

Major Points from Table of Contents -

Global Neuromorphic Chip Market Research Report 2022-2027, by Manufacturers, Regions, Image Recognition, Signal Processing, Data Processing, Others and Applications

1 Introduction

1.1 Objective of the Study

1.2 Definition of the Market

1.3 Market Scope

1.3.1 Market Segment by Type, Application and Marketing Channel

1.3.2 Major Regions Covered (North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Mid East and Africa)

1.4 Years Considered for the Study (2017-2027)

1.5 Currency Considered (U.S. Dollar)

1.6 Stakeholders

2 Key Findings of the Study

3 Market Dynamics

3.1 Driving Factors for this Market

3.2 Factors Challenging the Market

3.3 Opportunities of the Global Neuromorphic Chip Market (Regions, Growing/Emerging Downstream Market Analysis)

3.4 Technological and Market Developments in the Neuromorphic Chip Market

3.5 Industry News by Region

3.6 Regulatory Scenario by Region/Country

3.7 Market Investment Scenario Strategic Recommendations Analysis

4 Value Chain of the Neuromorphic Chip Market

4.1 Value Chain Status

4.2 Upstream Raw Material Analysis

4.3 Midstream Major Company Analysis (by Manufacturing Base, by Product Type)

4.4 Distributors/Traders

4.5 Downstream Major Customer Analysis (by Region)

Get a trial Copy of the Neuromorphic Chip Market Report 2022

5 Global Neuromorphic Chip Market-Segmentation by Type

6 Global Neuromorphic Chip Market-Segmentation by Application

7 Global Neuromorphic Chip Market-Segmentation by Marketing Channel

7.1 Traditional Marketing Channel (Offline)

7.2 Online Channel

8 Competitive Intelligence Company Profiles

9 Global Neuromorphic Chip Market-Segmentation by Geography

9.1 North America

9.2 Europe

9.3 Asia-Pacific

9.4 Latin America

9.5 Middle East and Africa

10 Future Forecast of the Global Neuromorphic Chip Market from 2022-2027

10.1 Future Forecast of the Global Neuromorphic Chip Market from (2022-2027) Segment by Region

10.2 Global Neuromorphic Chip Production and Growth Rate Forecast by Type (2022-2027)

10.3 Global Neuromorphic Chip Consumption and Growth Rate Forecast by Application (2022-2027)

11 Appendix

11.1 Methodology

12.2 Research Data Source

Continued….

Browse complete table of contents at -

https://www.marketgrowthreports.com/TOC/18473212#Tables

Reasons to buy this report:

● To get a comprehensive overview of the Neuromorphic Chip Market ● To gain wide ranging information about the top players in this industry, their product portfolios, and key strategies adopted by the players. ● To gain insights of the countries/regions in the Neuromorphic Chip Market.

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Killexams : IBM Expands Power10 Server Family to Help Clients Respond Faster to Rapidly Changing Business Demands

New Power10 scale-out and midrange models extend IBM's capabilities to deliver flexible and secured infrastructure for hybrid cloud environments

ARMONK, N.Y., July 12, 2022 /PRNewswire/ -- IBM (NYSE: IBM) today announced a significant expansion of its Power10 server line with the introduction of mid-range and scale-out systems to modernize, protect and automate business applications and IT operations. The new Power10 servers combine performance, scalability, and flexibility with new pay-as-you-go consumption offerings for clients looking to deploy new services quickly across multiple environments.

IBM Corporation logo. (PRNewsfoto/IBM)

IBM announced an expansion of its Power10 server line with mid-range and scale-out systems.

 Digital transformation is driving organizations to modernize both their applications and IT infrastructures. IBM Power systems are purpose-built for today's demanding and dynamic business environments, and these new systems are optimized to run essential workloads such as databases and core business applications, as well as maximize the efficiency of containerized applications. An ecosystem of solutions with Red Hat OpenShift also enables IBM to collaborate with clients, connecting critical workloads to new, cloud-native services designed to maximize the value of their existing infrastructure investments.

The new servers join the popular Power10 E1080 server introduced in September 2021 to deliver a secured, resilient hybrid cloud experience that can be managed with other x86 and multi-cloud management software across clients' IT infrastructure. This expansion of the IBM Power10 family with the new midrange and scale-out servers brings high-end server capabilities throughout the product line. Not only do the new systems support critical security features such as transparent memory encryption and advanced processor/system isolation, but also leverage the OpenBMC project from the Linux Foundation for high levels of security for the new scale-out servers.  

Highlights of the announcements include:

  • New systems: The expanded IBM Power10 portfolio, built around the next-generation IBM Power10 processor with 2x more cores and more than 2x memory bandwidth than previous Power generations, now includes the Power10 Midrange E1050, delivering record-setting 4-socket compute1, Java2, and ERP3 performance capabilities. New scale-out servers include the entry-level Power S1014, as well as S1022, and S1024 options, bringing enterprise capabilities to SMBs and remote-office/branch office environments, such as Capacity Upgrade on Demand (CuOD).
  • Cloud on premises with new flexible consumption choices: IBM has recently announced new flexible consumption offerings with pay-as-you-go options and by-the-minute metering for IBM Power Private Cloud, bringing more opportunities to help lower the cost of running OpenShift solutions on Power when compared against alternative platforms. These new consumption models build on options already available with IBM Power Virtual Server to enable greater flexibility in clients' hybrid journeys. Additionally, the highly anticipated IBM i subscription delivers a comprehensive platform solution with the hardware, software and support/services included in the subscription service.
  • Business transformation with SAP®: IBM continues its innovations for SAP solutions. The new midrange E1050 delivers scale (up to 16 TB) and performance for a 4-socket system for clients who run BREAKTHROUGH with IBM for RISE with SAP. In addition, an expansion of the premium supplier option is now available to provide more flexibility and computing power with an additional choice to run workloads on IBM Power on Red Hat Enterprise Linux on IBM Cloud.

"Today's highly dynamic environment has created volatility, from materials to people and skills, all of which impact short-term operations and long-term sustainability of the business," said Steve Sibley, Vice President, IBM Power Product Management. "The right IT investments are critical to business and operational resilience. Our new Power10 models offer clients a variety of flexible hybrid cloud choices with the agility and automation to best fit their needs, without sacrificing performance, security or resilience."

The expansion of the IBM Power10 family has been engineered to establish one of the industry's most flexible and broadest range of servers for data-intensive workloads such as SAP S/4HANA – from on-premises workloads to hybrid cloud. IBM now offers more ways to implement dynamic capacity – with metering across all operating environments including IBM i, AIX, Linux and OpenShift supporting modern and traditional applications on the same platforms – as well as integrated infrastructure automation software for improved visibility and management.

The new systems with IBM Power Virtual Server also help clients operate a secured hybrid cloud experience that delivers high performance and architectural consistency across their IT infrastructure. The systems are uniquely designed so as to protect sensitive data from core to cloud, and enable virtual machines and containerized workloads to run simultaneously on the same systems. For critical business workloads that have traditionally needed to reside on-premises, they can now be moved into the cloud as workloads and needs demand. This flexibility can help clients mitigate risk and time associated with rewriting applications for a different platform.

"As organizations around the world continue to adapt to unpredictable changes in consumer behaviors and needs, they need a platform that can deliver their applications and insights securely where and when they need them," said Peter Rutten, IDC Worldwide Infrastructure Research Vice President. "IBM Power continues its laser focus on helping clients respond faster to dynamically changing environments and business demands, while protecting information security and distilling new insights from data, all with high reliability and availability."

Ecosystem of ISVs and Channel Partners Enhance Capabilities for IBM Power10

Critical in the launch of the expanded Power10 family is a robust ecosystem of ISVs, Business Partners, and lifecycle services. Ecosystem partners such as SVA and Solutions II provide examples of how the IBM Ecosystem collaborates with clients to build hybrid environments, connecting essential workloads to the cloud to maximize the value of their existing infrastructure investments:

"SVA customers have appreciated the enormous flexibility of IBM Power systems through Capacity Upgrade On-Demand in the high-end systems for many years," said Udo Sachs, Head of Competence Center Power Systems at SVA. "The flexible consumption models using prepaid capacity credits have been well-received by SVA customers, and now the monthly pay-as-you-go option for the scale-out models makes the platform even more attractive. When it comes to automation, IBM helps us to roll out complex workloads such as entire SAP landscapes at the push of a button by supporting Ansible on all OS derivatives, including AIX, IBM i and Linux, as well as ready-to-use modules for deploying the complete Power infrastructure."

"Solutions II provides technology design, deployment, and managed services to hospitality organizations that leverage mission critical IT infrastructure to execute their mission, often requiring 24/7 operation," said Dan Goggiano, Director of Gaming, Solutions II. "System availability is essential to maintaining our clients' revenue streams, and in our experience, they rely on the stability and resilience of IBM Power systems to help solidify their uptime. Our clients are excited that the expansion of the Power10 family further extends these capabilities and bolsters their ability to run applications securely, rapidly, and efficiently." 

For more information on IBM Power and the new servers and consumption models announced today, visit: https://www.ibm.com/it-infrastructure/power

About IBM

IBM is a leading global hybrid cloud and AI, and business services provider, helping clients in more than 175 countries capitalize on insights from their data, streamline business processes, reduce costs and gain the competitive edge in their industries. Nearly 3,800 government and corporate entities in critical infrastructure areas such as financial services, telecommunications and healthcare rely on IBM's hybrid cloud platform and Red Hat OpenShift to affect their digital transformations quickly, efficiently, and securely. IBM's breakthrough innovations in AI, quantum computing, industry-specific cloud solutions and business services deliver open and flexible options to our clients. All of this is backed by IBM's legendary commitment to trust, transparency, responsibility, inclusivity, and service. For more information, visit www.ibm.com.

SAP and other SAP products and services mentioned herein as well as their respective logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of SAP SE in Germany and other countries. Please see https://www.sap.com/copyright for additional trademark information and notices.

1Comparison based on best performing 4-socket systems (IBM Power E1050 3.15-3.9 GHz, 96 core and Inspur NF8480M6 2.90 GHz, Intel Xeon Platinum 8380H) using published results at https://www.spec.org/cpu2017/results/rint2017.html as of 22 June 2022. For more information about SPEC CPU 2017, see https://www.spec.org/cpu2017/.

2Comparison based on best performing 4-socket systems (IBM Power E1050 3.15-3.9 GHz, 96 core; and Inspur NF8480M6 2.90 GHz, Intel Xeon Platinum 8380H) using published results at https://www.spec.org/cpu2017/results/rint2017.html as of 22 June 2022. For more information about SPEC CPU 2017, see www. http:/spec.org/cpu2017

3Comparison based on best performing 4-socket systems (1) IBM Power E1050; two-tier SAP SD standard application benchmark running SAP ERP 6.0 EHP5; Power10 2.95 GHz processor, 4,096 GB memory, 4p/96c/768t, 134,016 SD benchmark users, 736,420 SAPS, AIX 7.3, DB2 11.5,  Certification # 2022018  and (2) Dell EMC PowerEdge 840; two-tier SAP SD standard application benchmark running SAP ERP 6.0 EHP5; Intel Xeon Platinum 8280 2.7 GHz, 4p/112c/224t, 69,500 SD benchmark users (380,280 SAPS), SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 and SAP ASE 16, Certification # 2019045. All results can be found at sap.com/benchmark Valid as of 7 July 2022. 

Contact:
Ben Stricker
ben.stricker@ibm.com

Cision View original content to get multimedia:https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/ibm-expands-power10-server-family-to-help-clients-respond-faster-to-rapidly-changing-business-demands-301584186.html

SOURCE IBM

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Killexams : AI Regulation: Where do China, the EU, and the U.S. Stand Today?

Wednesday, August 3, 2022

Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems are poised to drastically alter the way businesses and governments operate on a global scale, with significant changes already under way. This technology has manifested itself in multiple forms including natural language processing, machine learning, and autonomous systems, but with the proper inputs can be leveraged to make predictions, recommendations, and even decisions.

Accordingly,enterprises are increasingly embracing this dynamic technology. A 2022 global study by IBM found that 77% of companies are either currently using AI or exploring AI for future use, creating value by increasing productivity through automation, improved decision-making, and enhanced customer experience. Further, according to a 2021 PwC study the COVID-19 pandemic increased the pace of AI adoption for 52% of companies as they sought to mitigate the crises’ impact on workforce planning, supply chain resilience, and demand projection.  

Challenges of Global Regulation

For these many businesses investing significant resources into AI, it is critical to understand the current and proposed legal frameworks regulating this novel technology. Specifically for businesses operating globally, the task of ensuring that their AI technology complies with applicable regulations will be complicated by the differing standards that are emerging from China, the European Union (EU), and the U.S.

China

China has taken the lead in moving AI regulations past the proposal stage. In March 2022, China passed a regulation governing companies’ use of algorithms in online recommendation systems, requiring that such services are moral, ethical, accountable, transparent, and “disseminate positive energy.” The regulation mandates companies notify users when an AI algorithm is playing a role in determining which information to display to them and deliver users the option to opt out of being targeted. Additionally, the regulation prohibits algorithms that use personal data to offer different prices to consumers. We expect these themes to manifest themselves in AI regulations throughout the world as they develop.

European Union

Meanwhile in the EU, the European Commission has published an overarching regulatory framework proposal titled the Artificial Intelligence Act which would have a much broader scope than China’s enacted regulation. The proposal focuses on the risks created by AI, with applications sorted into categories of minimal risk, limited risk, high risk, or unacceptable risk. Depending on an application’s designated risk level, there will be corresponding government action or obligations. So far, the proposed obligations focus on enhancing the security, transparency, and accountability of AI applications through human oversight and ongoing monitoring. Specifically, companies will be required to register stand-alone high-risk AI systems, such as remote biometric identification systems, in an EU database. If the proposed regulation is passed, the earliest date for compliance would be the second half of 2024 with potential fines for noncompliance ranging from 2-6% of a company’s annual revenue.

Additionally, the previously enacted EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) already carries implications for AI technology. Article 22 prohibits decisions based on solely automated processes that produce legal consequences or similar effects for individuals unless the program gains the user’s explicit consent or meets other requirements. 

United States

In the United States there has been a fragmented approach to AI regulation thus far, with states enacting their own patchwork AI laws. Many of the enacted regulations focus on establishing various commissions to determine how state agencies can utilize AI technology and to study AI’s potential impacts on the workforce and consumers. Common pending state initiatives go a step further and would regulate AI systems’ accountability and transparency when they process and make decisions based on consumer data. 

On a national level, the U.S. Congress enacted the National AI Initiative Act in January 2021, creating the National AI Initiative that provides “an overarching framework to strengthen and coordinate AI research, development, demonstration, and education activities across all U.S. Departments and Agencies . . . .” The Act created new offices and task forces aimed at implementing a national AI strategy, implicating a multitude of U.S. administrative agencies including the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), Department of Defense, Department of Agriculture, Department of Education, and the Department of Health and Human Services.

Pending national legislation includes the Algorithmic Accountability Act of 2022, which was introduced in both houses of Congress in February 2022. In response to reports that AI systems can lead to biased and discriminatory outcomes, the proposed Act would direct the FTC to create regulations that mandate “covered entities”, including businesses meeting certain criteria, to perform impact assessments when using automated decision-making processes. This would specifically include those derived from AI or machine learning. 

The Federal Trade Commission is Proactive

While the FTC has not promulgated AI-specific regulations, this technology is on the agency’s radar. In April 2021 the FTC issued a memo which apprised companies that using AI that produces discriminatory outcomes equates to a violation of Section 5 of the FTC Act, which prohibits unfair or deceptive practices. And the FTC may soon take this warning a step farther—in June 2022 the agency indicated that it will submit an Advanced Notice of Preliminary Rulemaking to “ensure that algorithmic decision-making does not result in harmful discrimination” with the public comment period ending in August 2022. The FTC also recently issued a report to Congress discussing how AI may be used to combat online harms, ranging from scams, deep fakes, and opioid sales, but advised against over-reliance on these tools, citing the technology’s susceptibility to producing inaccurate, biased, and discriminatory outcomes.

Potential Liability for Businesses in the U.S.

Companies should carefully discern whether other non-AI specific regulations could subject them to potential liability for their use of AI technology. For example, the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) put forth guidance in May 2022 warning companies that their use of algorithmic decision-making tools to assess job applicants and employees could violate the Americans with Disabilities Act by, in part, intentionally or unintentionally screening out individuals with disabilities. Further analysis of the EEOC’s guidance can be found here.    

Broader Impact on U.S. Businesses

Many other U.S. agencies and offices are beginning to delve into the fray of AI. In November 2021, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy solicited engagement from stakeholders across industries in an effort to develop a “Bill of Rights for an Automated Society.” Such a Bill of Rights could cover subjects like AI’s role in the criminal justice system, equal opportunities, consumer rights, and the healthcare system. Additionally, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), which falls under the U.S. Department of Commerce, is engaging with stakeholders to develop “a voluntary risk management framework for trustworthy AI systems.” The output of this project may be analogous to the EU’s proposed regulatory framework, but in a voluntary format.

What’s Next?

The overall theme of enacted and pending AI regulations globally is maintaining the accountability, transparency, and fairness of AI. For companies leveraging AI technology, ensuring that their systems remain compliant with the various regulations intended to achieve these goals could be difficult and costly. Two aspects of AI’s decision-making process make oversight particularly demanding:

  • Opaqueness where users can control data inputs and view outputs, but are often unable to explain how and with which data points the system made a decision.

  • Frequent adaptation where processes evolve over time as the system learns.

Therefore, it is important for regulators to avoid overburdening businesses to ensure that stakeholders may still leverage AI technologies’ great benefits in a cost-effective manner. The U.S. has the opportunity to observe the outcomes of the current regulatory action from China and the EU to determine whether their approaches strike a favorable balance. However, the U.S. should potentially accelerate its promulgation of similar laws so that it can play a role in setting the global tone for AI regulatory standards.  

 

Thank you to co-author Lara Coole, a summer associate in Foley & Lardner’s Jacksonville office, for her contributions to this post.

Wed, 03 Aug 2022 09:20:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.natlawreview.com/article/ai-regulation-where-do-china-eu-and-us-stand-today
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