Headquartered near Chicago, CompTIA is a nonprofit trade association made up of more than 2,000 member organizations and 3,000 business partners. Although the organization focuses on educating and certifying IT professionals, CompTIA also figures prominently in philanthropy and public policy advocacy.
CompTIA’s vendor-neutral certification program is one of the best recognized in the IT industry. Since CompTIA developed its A+ credential in 1993, it has issued more than two million certifications.
In early 2018, CompTIA introduced its CompTIA Infrastructure Career Pathway. While you’ll still see the same familiar certifications that form the bedrock of the CompTIA certification portfolio, this new career pathway program more closely aligns CompTIA certifications to the real-world skills that IT professionals need to ensure success when managing and supporting IT infrastructures.
CompTIA certifications are grouped by skill set. Currently, CompTIA certs fall info four areas: Core, Infrastructure, Cybersecurity and Additional Professional certifications.
CompTIA IT Fundamentals+
CompTIA IT Fundamentals+ is ideal for beginners with a basic understanding of PC functionality and compatibility as well as familiarity with technology topics, such as hardware basics, software installation, security risks and prevention, and basic networking. It’s also ideal as a career planning or development tool for individuals beginning their IT careers or those seeking to make a career change. A single test is required to earn the credential. CompTIA launched a new IT Fundamentals+ test (Exam FC0-U61) in September 2018. This new test focuses on computing basics, database use, software development and IT infrastructure. The English version of the prior test (Exam FC0-U510) retires on July 15, 2019. Exams in other languages retire on December 1, 2019.
The CompTIA A+ certification has been described as an “entry-level rite of passage for IT technicians,” and for a good reason. This certification is designed for folks seeking a career as a help desk, support, service center or networking technician. It covers PC and laptop hardware, software installation, and configuration of computer and mobile operating systems. A+ also tests a candidate’s understanding of basic networking, troubleshooting and security skills, which serve as a springboard for CompTIA networking or security certifications or those offered by other organizations.
According to CompTIA, more than one million IT professionals hold the A+ certification. The A+ is required for Dell, Intel and HP service technicians and is recognized by the U.S. Department of Defense. CompTIA released new “Core” exams for the CompTIA A+ credential on January 15, 2019. These new exams provide additional focus on operational procedure competency and baseline security topics. Candidates must pass the Core 1 (exam 220-1001) and Core 2 (Exam 220-1002) exams. The Core 1 test targets virtualization, cloud computing, mobile devices, hardware, networking technology and troubleshooting. The Core 2 exams focuses on installation and configuring operating systems, troubleshooting software, operational procedures and security.
Many IT professionals start with the A+ certification. While the A+ credential is recommended, if you have the experience and don’t feel a need for the A+, you can move directly to the CompTIA Network+ certification. It’s geared toward professionals who have at least nine months of networking experience. A candidate must be familiar with networking technologies, media, topologies, security, installation and configuration, and troubleshooting of common wired and wireless network devices. The Network+ certification is recommended or required by Dell, HP and Intel, and is also an accepted entry-point certification for the Apple Consultants Network. The Network+ credential meets the ISO 17024 standard and just like the A+, it is recognized by the U.S. DoD. A single test is required to earn the certification.
CompTIA Security+ covers network security concepts, threats and vulnerabilities, access control, identity management, cryptography, and much more. Although CompTIA does not impose any prerequisites, the organization recommends that cert candidates obtain the Network+ credential and have at least two years of IT administration experience with a security focus. To obtain the Security+ certification candidates must pass on exam, SY0-501.
The CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI certification is aimed at Linux network administrators with at least 12 months of Linux administration experience. Such experience should include installation, package management, GNU and Unix commands, shells, scripting, security and more. The A+ and Network+ certifications are recommended as a preamble to this certification but are not mandatory. Candidates must pass two exams (LX0-103 and LX0-104) to earn this credential. The exams must be taken in order, and candidates must pass test LX0-103 before attempting LX0-104. In 2018, CompTIA began testing a new beta test (XK1-004). The beta test offering ended October 22, 2018. New exams generally follow beta test tests so interested candidates should check the Linux+ web page for updates.
As the cloud computing market continues to grow by leaps and bounds, the CompTIA Cloud+ certification has been keeping pace. This certification targets IT professionals with two to three years of experience in storage, networking or data center administration. A single exam, CV0-002, is required. It tests candidates’ knowledge of cloud technologies, hybrid and multicloud solutions, cloud markets, and incorporating cloud-based technology solutions into system operations.
CompTIA Server+ aims at server administrators with 18 to 24 months of experience with server hardware and software technologies, and the A+ certification is recommended. The Server+ credential is recommended or required by HP, Intel and Lenovo for their server technicians. It is also recognized by Microsoft and the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). A single exam, SK0-004, is required to achieve this credential.
CompTIA Cybersecurity Analyst (CySA+)
As cybercrime increases, the requirement for highly skilled information security analysts will continue to increase as well. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reports anticipated growth of 28 percent for information security analysts between 2016 and 2026, the fastest rate of growth for all occupations. One of the newer additions to the CompTIA certification portfolio is the Cybersecurity Analyst (CySA+) certification. The CySA+ credential is specifically designed to meet the ever-growing need for experienced, qualified information security analysts.
CySA+ credential holders are well versed in the use of system threat-detection tools, as well as the use of data and behavioral analytics to secure applications and systems from risks, threats and other vulnerabilities. CySA+ certification holders are not only able to monitor network behavior, but analyze results and create solutions to better protect against advanced persistent threats (APTs), intrusions, malware and the like.
CompTIA describes CySA+ as a bridge cert between the Security+ credential (requiring two years’ experience) and the master-level Advanced Security Practitioner Certification (CASP), which requires 10 years of experience. To earn a CySA+, candidates must pass a performance-based exam.
CompTIA Advanced Security Practitioner+ (CASP+)
While CompTIA no longer uses the “master” designation, the highly sought-after CASP+ certification is most certainly a master-level credential. Targeting practitioners, CASP is the only performance-based, hands-on certification currently available from CompTIA. This certification is designed for seasoned IT security professionals who plan, design and implement security solutions in an enterprise environment.
Although this certification doesn’t impose any explicit prerequisites, it’s not a bad idea to earn the Network+ and Security+ certifications before tackling the CASP exam. You should also have 10 years of IT administration experience plus a minimum of five years of technical security experience (thus securing this certification’s place as a “master” credential).
Booz Allen Hamilton, Network Solutions and Verizon Connect, among other companies, require CASP+ certification for certain positions. The U.S. Army and U.S. Navy also accept CASP+ as an industry-based certification required by employees and contractors who perform IT work in DoD data centers. The CASP+ certification requires that candidates pass the CAS-003 exam, which consists of 90 multiple-choice and performance-based questions.
The existing additional to the CompTIA certification family is the CompTIA PenTest+. An intermediate-level credential, PenTest+ is designed to complement the CySA+. While CySA+ is defensive in nature (focusing on threat detection and response), the PenTest+ credential is offensive, focusing on using penetration testing to identify and manage network vulnerabilities across multiple spectra.
There are no mandatory prerequisites, but the Network+ and Security+ (or equivalent skills) are highly recommended, along with a minimum of two years of information security experience. Candidates pursuing the cybersecurity career path may take the PenTest+ or CySA+ credential in any order.
The test was released in July 2018, and is focused on communicating and reporting results, analyzing data, conducting penetration testing and scanning, and planning assessments. The test also tests a candidate’s knowledge of legal and compliance requirements.
The CompTIA Project+ certification focuses exclusively on project management and is ideal for project managers who are familiar with project lifecycles from planning to completion, who can finish a project on time and under budget. Project managers interested in this certification should have at least one year of project management experience overseeing small- to medium-sized projects. The Project+ credential requires that candidates pass a multiple-choice exam, PK0-004.
CompTIA Cloud Essentials
The CompTIA Cloud Essentials certification is geared toward individuals who understand the business aspects of cloud computing and how to move from in-house to cloud storage. In addition, they should be familiar with the impacts, risks and consequences of implementing a cloud-based solution. A single test is required to earn the credential.
The CompTIA Certified Technical Trainer (CTT+) certification is perfect for anyone interested in technical training. It covers instructor skills, such as preparation, presentation, communication, facilitation and evaluation, in vendor-neutral fashion. Adobe, Cisco, Dell, IBM, Microsoft and Ricoh all recommend CTT+ to their trainers and accept it in lieu of their own in-house trainer certifications.
Two exams are required for the CTT+ credential: CompTIA CTT+ Essentials (TK0-201) and either CTT+ Classroom Performance Trainer (TK0-202) or CTT+ Virtual Classroom Trainer (TK0-203).
The CTT+ Classroom Performance Trainer and CTT+ Virtual Classroom Trainer are performance-based exams. In this case, you must submit a video or recording of your classroom (or virtual classroom sessions), and complete a form that documents your training preparation, delivery and student evaluations.
In addition to certification levels, CompTIA groups its certifications into several career paths:
The CompTIA Certifications page lets you pick a certification level and/or a career path and then returns a list of certifications to focus on. For example, one of the most popular career paths in IT is network administration. CompTIA’s Network and Cloud Technologies career path offers numerous certifications that can help you advance your network administration career, such as IT Fundamentals+, A+ and Network+ (Core certs), along with Cloud+ and Linux+ (Infrastructure certifications) and Cloud Essentials.
Those interested in network security (one of the fastest growing fields in IT) should consider the certifications in CompTIA’s Information Security career path. This includes all four of the Core credentials (IT Fundamentals, A+, Network+ and Security+) along with all cybersecurity certifications (CySA+, PenTest+ and CASP+).
CompTIA provides a comprehensive IT certification roadmap that encompasses certifications from CompTIA as well as a variety of other organizations, including Cisco, EC-Council, Microsoft, (ISC)2, ISACA, Mile2 and more.
Because CompTIA credentials do not focus on a single skill (such as networking or virtualization), CompTIA credential holders may find themselves in a variety of job roles depending on their experience, skill levels and areas of interest. Here are just a few of the possible careers that CompTIA credential holders may find themselves engaged in:
While the examples above are by no means exhaustive, they provide an overview of some available careers. Your career choices are limited only by your interests, imagination and determination to achieve your personal goals.
CompTIA provides various and extensive training options, including classroom training, study materials and e-learning. A wide range of CompTIA Authorized Training Provider Partners (CAPPs), such as Global Knowledge, Learning Tree International and more, operate all over the world. Classroom and online/e-learning offerings range in cost from $2,000 to $4,000, depending on the particulars. Visit the CompTIA Training page for more details.
CompTIA works with third parties to offer self-study materials (the search tool is available here). Content that has been through a vetting process is branded with the CompTIA Approved Quality Content (CAQC) logo. Other materials that allow you to study at your own pace, such as audio segments, lesson activities and additional resources, are available through the CompTIA Marketplace.
Finally, every CompTIA A+, Linux+, Network+, Server+, Security+ and IT Fundamentals+ certification candidates must check out CertMaster, CompTIA’s online test prep tool. CertMaster helps you determine which subjects you know well and those you need to brush up on, and suggests training to help you fill in the gaps.
Aruba Networks certifications
Aruba Certified Switching Professional (ACSP)
Aruba Certified Mobility Associate (ACMA)
Aruba Certified Mobility Professional (ACMP)
Established program with various learning tracks and a range of certifications.
Certifications identify technical knowledge and skills, design, deployment, and management in complex settings.
BICSI Technician (TECH)
Focused on supporting information technology systems, BICSI is a professional association with more than 26,000 members in approximately 100 countries.
The TECH credential is a midlevel certification targeting those with 1-3 years of documented industry experience.
The credential identifies professionals who understand and can apply installation-specific information, lead installation teams, perform testing and troubleshooting on copper and optical fiber installations, evaluate applications of cabling installation, make recommendations regarding codes and standards, and perform retrofits and upgrades for existing infrastructures.
Cisco Certified Network Associate Routing and Switching (CCNA)
Cisco Certified Network Professional Enterprise Certification and Training (CCNP Enterprise)
CCIE Enterprise Infrastructure Certification and Training
CCIE Enterprise Wireless Certification and Training
Cisco has a well-known and highly developed certification portfolio.
Certifications in this category are aimed at candidates interested in building careers in wired and wireless networking techniques and technologies, network design, or routing and switching technologies.
Certification paths range from entry level to expert.
Certifications are targeted to network specialists, administrators, support engineers and design engineers.
CIW (Certified Internet Web Professional)
CIW Network Technology Associate
Entry-level certification developed by CIW (formerly called Certification Partners).
The target audience includes technical sales, support engineers, network administrators, product managers and engineers.
Content focuses on mastering the basics of networking and exploring key concepts, skills and core terms to prepare candidates for job readiness in networking, internet protocols, network security, and more.
This is one of the most popular general networking certifications in the world.
It targets candidates seeking careers as network administrators, technicians or installers, help desk technicians, and IT cable installers.
Recognized or required by the Department of Defense, Dell, HP, Ricoh, Sharp and Xerox. Also required for Apple Consultants Network membership.
Certified Wireless Network Professional (CWNP)
Certified Wireless Network Administrator (CWNA)
Certified Wireless Design Professional (CWDP)
Certified Wireless Analysis Professional (CWAP)
Certified Wireless Network Expert (CWNE)
Established certification program offering a full complement of certifications ranging from entry-level to professional career certifications.
Certifications focus on enterprise Wi-Fi skills.
CWNP also offers Certified Wireless Security Professional (CWSP) and Certified Wireless Network Trainer (CWNT) credentials.
Electronics Technicians Association (ETA) International certifications
Computer Service Technician (CST)
Information Technology Security (ITS)
Network Computer Technician (NCT)
Network Systems Technician (NST)
Wireless Network Technician (WNT)
ETA offers more than 90 certifications targeting electronics professionals.
ETA is accredited by the International Certification Accreditation Council and has issued more than 180,000 certifications.
Extreme Networks certifications
Extreme Networks Certified Specialist (ECS)
Extreme Networks Sales Specialist (ESS)
Extreme Networks Design Specialist (EDS)
These technical certifications focus on practical, hands-on training to support and optimize an organization’s networks.
Multiple concentrations are available.
Hurricane Electric Internet Services certifications
Hurricane Electric IPv6 Certification
This free online certification project validates skills in basic IPv6 concepts.
Certification test includes IP address format, reverse DNS, localhost address, default routing, documentation prefix, link-local prefix, multicast prefix, traceroute, and IPv6 server configuration.
IPv6 Forum certifications
IPv6 Forum Silver or Gold Certified Engineer
The IPv6 Education Certification Logo Program promotes IPv6 education and helps candidates build skills to foster swifter adoption of IPv6.
Courses focus on practical application and consist of both instructor-led and hands-on lab instruction.
Juniper Networks certifications
Juniper Networks Certified Specialist Enterprise Routing and Switching (JNCIS-ENT)
Juniper Networks Certified Professional Enterprise Routing and Switching (JNCIP-ENT)
Juniper Networks Certified Expert Enterprise Routing and Switching (JNCIE-ENT)
JNCIS-ENT, JNCIP-ENT and JNCIE-ENT are vendor-specific credentials that address installation and support of LAN/WAN routers and switches in Juniper Networks’ technology-based networks.
Credential holders possess skills necessary to support large enterprise environments.
Nokia Network Routing Specialist II (NRS II)
This certification is for intermediate network professionals experienced with IP and Ethernet technologies.
NRS II certification recognizes advanced networking and service offerings that build on core aspects of Nokia service routing. The certification covers internet routing protocols, IP/MPLS networks, and implementing Nokia Layer 2 and Layer 3 services.
Note that Alcatel-Lucent operates as part of the Nokia Group. This certification was known as the Alcatel-Lucent Network Routing Specialist II (NRS II), and some study guides still refer to it as such.
Oracle Certified Expert, Oracle Solaris 11 Network Administrator
Oracle has a well-established vendor-specific certification program. This certification validates the technical skills of system administrators who work with LANs and the Oracle Solaris operating system (Oracle Solaris OS).
The credential was formerly Sun Certified Network Administrator (SCNA).
Palo Alto certifications
Palo Alto Networks Certified Network Security Engineer (PCNSE)
PCNSE credential holders possess knowledge and technical skills necessary to install, configure and implement Palo Alto Networks technologies at the advanced engineering level.
The credential is targeted to partners, system engineers, system integrators, support engineers, pre-sales system engineers, support staff or anyone using Palo Alto Network technologies.
Riverbed Professional Services (RPS) certifications
Riverbed Certified Performance Engineering (RCPE)
The Riverbed Certified Performance Engineering (RCPE) program has several tracks, including WAN optimization, network and infrastructure visibility, network configuration, and more. Courses span foundational, associate and professional levels.
RPS changed its education program from product-focused how-tos to a learning environment that teaches how to consider business needs, obstacles and solutions.
SolarWinds Certified Professional (SCP)
Credential validates skills in networking management fundamentals, network management planning, network management operations, network fault and performance troubleshooting, and Orion NPM administration.
The SCP is an accredited certification.
Vendor-specific credential for professionals who use Wireshark to analyze network traffic and then use that information to troubleshoot, optimize and secure networks.
Wireshark is considered the de facto open-source product for network protocol analysis, with more than 400,000 downloads per month.
The WCNA test was certified by the U.S. Army in 2009 and covers Wireshark functionality, TCP/IP network communications, and network troubleshooting and security.
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Top 7 Online Education Websites
The following online education websites offer thousands of online courses for students and life-long learners alike. While many are fee-based courses, you can also find many free courses as well.
1. Khan Academy
Khan Academy is a non-profit whose missions is "to provide a free, world-class education for anyone, anywhere." Khan Academy is free for both learners and teachers, and offers lessons for students from kindergarten through early college, with syllabu including math, grammar, science, history, AP® exams, SAT® and more. Khan Academy's founding partners include, among others, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Google, Ann & Jon Doerr and Reed Hastings.
Sample Free Courses: Algebra, Geometry, Statistics & Probability
Founded by Harvard and MIT, edX is a global non-profit that seeks to remove three barriers of traditional education: cost, location and access. edX has more than 20 million learners and 2,400 courses from a majority of the top-ranked universities in the world. Open edX is the open source platform behind edX, and it's open to educators and technologists who want to develop new educational tools. In addition to free courses, edX also offers courses for a fee.
Sample Free Courses: The Architectural Imagination (Harvard), Financial Analysis for Decision Making (Babson), Omnichannel Strategy & Management (Dartmouth)
Coursera has more than 35 million learners, 150 university partners, 2,700 courses, 250 specializations and four degrees. In addition to free courses, Coursera offers courses generally ranging from $29 - $99. Specializations and degrees are priced higher. Course instructors include experts from the world's top colleges and universities, and courses include recorded video lectures, community discussion forums and both graded and peer-reviewed coursework. You can also receive a course certificate for each course you complete.
Sample Free Courses: Machine Learning (Stanford), The Science of Well-Being (Yale), Successful Negotiation (University of Michigan)
Udemy, a global education marketplace, has 30 million students, 100,000 courses in 50 languages, 42,000 instructors and 22 million minutes of video instruction. Unlike other online education platforms driven by content from colleges and universities, Udemy allows content creators to curate their own courses and teach them online.
Sample Free Courses: Introduction to Python Programming
TED-Ed is TED's award-winning youth and education arm whose mission is to share and spread ideas from teachers and students. TED-Ed has a global network of more than 250,000 teachers that serves millions of teachers and students around the world every week. TED-Ed includes innovative content such as original animated videos and a platform for teachers to create interactive lessons.
Sample Free Courses: The Mysterious Science of Pain, How Do Self-Driving Cars See, What Causes Turbulence
Codeacademy is an interactive platform that teaches you how to code in multiple different programming languages. Most free courses can be completed in less than 11 hours. Codeacademy has helped train more than 45 million learners in subjects such as web development, programming, computer science and data science. Codeacademy alums work at Google, Facebook, IBM and Bloomberg, among other top companies. Codeacademy also offers a premium plan for a monthly fee.
Sample Free Courses: multiple programming languages
7. Stanford Online
Stanford Online, an education initiative at Stanford University, offers free online courses as well as professional certificates, advanced degrees and executive education. Stanford Online offers courses from Stanford's undergraduate and graduate schools, including Stanford Law School, Stanford Business School and Stanford Medical School, among others.
Sample Free Courses: Introduction to Innovation & Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship Through The Lens of Venture Capital, How To Learn Math
Whether you choose to supplement your existing education or learn a new skill, it's never too late to become a life-long learner. These online education courses can help you gain valuable knowledge, earn a certificate, complete a degree or simply expand your horizon.
The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.
Jul 11, 2022 (The Expresswire) -- Global “Data Storage Market” report provides a complete examination of market dynamics, size, share, current developments, and trending business strategies. This report gives a complete analysis of different segments on the basis of type, application, and region. The report outlines the market characteristics, and market growth Data Storage industry, categorized by type, application, and consumer sector. In addition, it provides a comprehensive analysis of aspects involved in market development before and after the Covid-19 pandemic.
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Market Analysis and Insights: Global Data Storage Market
This report focuses on global Data Storage Market Share, also covers the segmentation data of other regions in regional level and county level.
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the global Data Storage market analysis is estimated to be worth USD million in 2022 and is forecast to a readjusted size of USD million by 2028 with a CAGR of during the review period. Fully considering the economic change by this health crisis, by Type, Data Storage accounting for the Data Storage global market in 2021, is projected to value USD million by 2028, growing at a revised CAGR in the post-COVID-19 period. While by Application, leading segment, accounting for over percent market share in 2021, and altered to an CAGR throughout this forecast period.
In United States the Data Storage market size is expected to grow from USD million in 2021 to USD million by 2028, at a CAGR of during the forecast period.
List of TOP KEY PLAYERS in Data Storage Market Report are -● HPE ● NetApp ● Dell EMC ● IBM ● Pure Storage ● Hitachi ● Fujitsu ● Huawei ● Western Digital
Global Data Storage Market: Segment Analysis
The research report includes specific segments by region (country), by company, by Type and by Application. This study provides information about the sales and revenue during the historic and forecasted period of 2017 to 2028. Understanding the segments helps in identifying the importance of different factors that aid the market growth.
The Data Storage Market is Segmented by Types:● All-Flash Arrays ● Hybrid Storage Arrays ● HDD Arrays
The Data Storage Market is Segmented by Applications:● IT and Telecom ● BFSI ● Healthcare ● Education ● Manufacturing ● Media and Entertainment ● Energy and Utility ● Retail and e-Commerce ● Others
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Geographically, this report is segmented into several key regions, with sales, revenue, market share and growth Rate of Data Storage in these regions, from 2022 to 2028, covering● North America (United States, Canada and Mexico) ● Europe (Germany, UK, France, Italy, Russia and Turkey etc.) ● Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, Korea, India, Australia, Indonesia, Thailand, Philippines, Malaysia and Vietnam) ● South America (Brazil, Argentina, Columbia etc.) ● Middle East and Africa (Saudi Arabia, UAE, Egypt, Nigeria and South Africa)
Important Features that are under Offering and Key Highlights of the Reports:● To get insights into the countries in Data Storage market. ● To get extensive-ranging information about the top key players in this industry, their product portfolios, and key strategies embraced by the players. ● To get a complete overview of the Data Storage market. ● To know the future view for the market. ● To learn about the market plans that are being adopted by top organizations. ● To understand the supreme affecting driving and restraining forces in the market and their influence on the global market.
Key Questions Addressed by the Report● New products/service competitors are exploring? ● Key players in the Data Storage market and how extreme is the competition? ● What are the future market trends that manufacturers are emphasizing on in the future updates? ● For each segment, what are the crucial opportunities in the market? ● What are the key growth strategies embraced by key market players in the market? ● What are the key success strategies adopted by major competitors in the market?
An exhaustive and professional study of the global Data Storage market report has been completed by industry professionals and presented in the most particular manner to present only the details that matter the most. The report mainly focuses on the most dynamic information of the global market.
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Major Points from Table of Contents:
1 Data Storage Market Overview
1.1 Data Storage Product Scope
1.2 Data Storage Segment by Type
1.3 Data Storage Segment by Application
1.4 Data Storage Market Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)
2 Data Storage Estimates and Forecasts by Region
2.1 Global Data Storage Market Size by Region: 2017 VS 2021 VS 2028
2.2 Global Data Storage Market Scenario by Region (2017-2021)
2.3 Global Market Estimates and Forecasts by Region (2022-2028)
2.4 Geographic Market Analysis: Market Facts and Figures
3 Global Data Storage Competition Landscape by Players
3.1 Global Top Data Storage Players by Sales (2017-2021)
3.2 Global Top Data Storage Players by Revenue (2017-2021)
3.3 Global Data Storage Market Share by Company Type (Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3) and (based on the Revenue in Data Storage as of 2020)
3.4 Global Data Storage Average Price by Company (2017-2021)
3.5 Manufacturers Data Storage Manufacturing Sites, Area Served, Product Type
3.6 Manufacturers Mergers and Acquisitions, Expansion Plans
4 Global Data Storage Market Size by Type
4.1 Global Data Storage Historic Market Review by Type (2017-2021)
4.2 Global Market Estimates and Forecasts by Type (2022-2028)
4.2.3 Global Price Forecast by Type (2022-2028)
5 Global Data Storage Market Size by Application
5.1 Global Data Storage Historic Market Review by Application (2017-2021)
5.2 Global Market Estimates and Forecasts by Application (2022-2028)
6 North America Data Storage Market Facts and Figures
6.1 North America Data Storage by Company
6.2 North America Data Storage Breakdown by Type
6.3 North America Data Storage Breakdown by Application
7 Europe Data Storage Market Facts and Figures
8 China Data Storage Market Facts and Figures
9 Japan Data Storage Market Facts and Figures
10 Southeast Asia Data Storage Market Facts and Figures
11 India Data Storage Market Facts and Figures
12 Company Profiles and Key Figures in Data Storage Business
13 Data Storage Manufacturing Cost Analysis
13.1 Data Storage Key Raw Materials Analysis
13.1.1 Key Raw Materials
13.1.2 Key Raw Materials Price Trend
13.1.3 Key Suppliers of Raw Materials
13.2 Proportion of Manufacturing Cost Structure
13.3 Manufacturing Process Analysis of Data Storage
13.4 Data Storage Industrial Chain Analysis
14 Marketing Channel, Distributors and Customers
14.1 Marketing Channel
14.2 Data Storage Distributors List
14.3 Data Storage Customers
15 Market Dynamics
15.1 Data Storage Market Trends
15.2 Data Storage Drivers
15.3 Data Storage Market Challenges
15.4 Data Storage Market Restraints
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Online test Proctoring Market Size, Share 2022 Industry Growth, Demand, Emerging Technologies, Sales Revenue, Key Players Analysis, Development Status, Opportunity Assessment and Industry Expansion Strategies 2028
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India, 24th June 2022: Based out of Texas, USA, the International Institute for Procurement and Market Research (IIPMR) is offering 3 levels of Certifications in Supply Chain and 3 levels of Certifications in Market Research. IIPMRis the developer of globally recognized certifications in Supply Chain, Procurement and Market Research. All the certifications are online and the learning methodology consists of access to pre-recorded online lectures, downloadable study materials, case studies, practice test papers and online exam.
IIPMR has been a trusted learning partner forover12 years and has assistedprofessionals from more than 84 Countriesto successfully complete the certifications. Without any geographical restrictions, IIPMR on-boards leading senior leaders fromApple, Walmart, IBM, US Government, Coca-Cola, Procter & Gamble, Hewlett-Packard etc. who teach the aspirants. Over the years, IIPMR’s Top 3 Certifications have been globally recognized,highly respected and valued in the Supply Chain as well as the Market Research Industry.
Highlighting the benefits of the certifications,Mr. Rodney Griffith,Senior Director, IIPMR Membership Council, USA said,"Employers look at IIPMR Certifications in order to ascertain the quality of candidates they recruit. They treat it as a metric to make sure they are recruiting the right ones."
The top 3 supply chain certifications offered by IIPMR are given below:
Level 1: Certified Supply Chain Associate (CSCA)
IIPMR CSCA Certification is the first level of Certification offered by IIPMR. Students aspiring to start their career in the supply chain industry are eligible to enroll for CSCA Certification.
Fee:US $500 or EUR 425 or CAD $665 or INR 25,000 (Including Online Exam)
Eligibility: Should have completed any Graduation or Post Graduation
Work Experience: Not Required
Duration: 1 Month
Level 2: Certified Supply Chain Specialist (CSCS)
IIPMR CSCS Certification is the second level of Certification that teaches all aspects of supply chain such as logistics, warehousing, inventory management, demand forecasting, purchasing, procurement, supply chain risk and quality management principles such as six sigma, kaizen and Kanban.
Professionals with CSCS Certification are in high demand since it is ranked #1 by United States Supply Chain Council (usscmc.com) and Supply Chain Council of European Union (scceu.org)
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IIPMR CPP Certification is the third and highest level of Certification offered by IIPMR. It provides a holistic view of supply chain but delves deeper in to Procurement, Strategic Sourcing and how to achieve cost savings.
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IIPMR CRA Certification is the first level of Market Research course that is offered by IIPMR. It is done by students aspiring to enter the market research industry.
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The second level of market research certification offered by IIPMR is called Certified Research Expert (CRE). It is typically done by Research Analysts aspiring to become Research Managers.
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Level 3: Certified Research Professional (CRP)
IIPMR CRP Certification is the most valuable and highest level of market research certification offered by IIPMR. The CRP Certification is done by CEOs, Senior Market Research Managers, Director of Market Research, VP Research and Head of Market Research.
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Jun 28, 2022 (The Expresswire) -- Global “Bot ServicesMarket”2022 Research report is an in-depth study of the market Analysis. Along with the most accurate patterns and figures that uncovers a wide examination of the market offer. Bot Services Market size, Market status and position of worldwide and key areas, with points of view of makers, locales, item types and end businesses this report examination the highest organizations in worldwide and principle districts, and parts the Bot Services Market Analysis by item type and applications or end enterprises.All the fundamental data, needed to comprehend the vital advancements in the market spending in Bot Services market share and development patterns of each fragment and district.
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Global Bot Services Market Overview
The primary highlights of the report offer important details pertaining to profit estimations, statistics, and applications of this product. Our report covers regional analysis of the domestic markets, key company profiles, value chain analysis, consumption, demand, and growth areas. The report analyzes major market firms, focusing on their innovative developments, product launches, operations, and emerging market players to implement new business growth strategies. The report focuses on growth prospects, restraints, and trends of the global Bot Services market analysis. The study provides Porter’s five forces analysis to understand the impact of various factors such as bargaining power of suppliers, competitive intensity of competitors, threat of new entrants, threat of substitutes, and bargaining power of buyers on the global Bot Services market outlook.
Bot Services uses tracking and customer behavioral analysis to Boost corporate operations. Furthermore, when compared to on premise deployment, the deployment paradigm enables the implementation of analytics solutions at a low cost. Executives, data analysts, team leaders, managers, and professionals use business intelligence (BI) tools to collect, analyses, visualize, and report on numerous functions within a company and apply their results to their respective industries.
The report contains different market predictions related to revenue size, production, CAGR, Consumption, gross margin, price, and other substantial factors. While emphasizing the key driving and restraining forces for this market, the report also offers a complete study of the future trends and developments of the market. It also examines the role of the leading market players involved in the industry including their corporate overview, financial summary and SWOT analysis.
List of TOP KEY PLAYERS in Bot Services Market Report are: -
● AI INCORPORATED
● Astute Solutions
● 24/7 Customer
● Inbenta Technologies
● Microsoft Corporation
● Next IT Corp
● Nuance Communications
● Artificial Solutions
● CogniCor Technologies
● Rasa Technologies GmbH
● Creative Virtual Ltd
● Amazon Web Services
● Do You Dream Up
● Aspect Software
Global Bot Services Market Growth report serves to be an ideal solution for better understanding of the Market. It is helpful in finding out the size of the Market for specific products. These major players operating in this Market are in strong competition in terms of technology, innovation, product development, and product pricing. The Market study aids in making sales forecasts for its products and thereby, establishing harmonious adjustment between demand and supply of its products.
The report gives a comprehensive investigation of the global Bot Services market. The report contains huge data, measurable information focuses, factual reviewing, SWOT analysis, chance assessment, genuine scene, common exploration, and future improvement prospects. The analysis aims to specify market sizes in individual sections and countries in preceding years and forecast the worth in the subsequent years. The report saves valuable time as well as adds credibility to the work that has been done to grow the business.
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Global Bot Services Market Segmentation Analysis
Global Bot Services Market forecast report provides a holistic evaluation of the market. The report offers a comprehensive analysis of key segments, trends, drivers, restraints, competitive landscape, and factors that are playing a substantial role in the market.
By the product type, the market is primarily split into● Websites ● Contact Center and Customer Service ● Social Media ● Mobile Applications
Based on Component, Bot Services is a business solution that provides an in-depth analysis of crowd movement at large gathering locations such as airports and train stations, city malls, retail stores, convention centers, stadiums, and other venues. Data from a variety of sources, including closed-circuit television cameras (CCTV), commercial off-the-shelf cameras, and first- and third-party consumer data, is processed using powerful artificial intelligence approaches to present prediction crowd flow models and customer preference patterns.
By the end users/application, this report covers the following segments● BFSI ● Real Estate ● Media and Entertainment ● IT and Telecom ● Retail and Ecommerce ● Healthcare ● Others
Based on the End Use, the Bot Services Market Trend is bifurcated into Aromatic Industries, Automotive, Building and Construction, Paints, Agrochemicals, and others. It is a low-cost solution that outperforms most composite applications in terms of price vs. performance. In the next five years, hydrocarbon resin is expected to remain the second-largest application in the worldwide Bot Services Market, owing to increased usage in adhesives, coatings, printing inks, and rubber goods. Also growing construction activities will help this market is growing.
COVID-19 impact on the market
COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the novel coronavirus. Largely unknown before this outbreak across the world, COVID-19 has moved from a regional crisis to a global pandemic in just a matter of a few weeks. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 as a pandemic on March 11, 2020.
To know How COVID-19 Pandemic Will Impact This Market/Industry-Request a demo copy of the report-:https://www.researchreportsworld.com/enquiry/request-covid19/20923826
Geographic Segment Covered in the Report:
The Bot Services report provides information about the market area, which is further subdivided into sub-regions and countries/regions. In addition to the market share in each country and sub-region, this chapter of this report also contains information on profit opportunities. This chapter of the report mentions the market share and growth rate of each region, country and sub-region during the estimated period.● North America(USA and Canada) ● Europe(UK, Germany, France and the rest of Europe) ● Asia Pacific(China, Japan, India, and the rest of the Asia Pacific region) ● Latin America(Brazil, Mexico, and the rest of Latin America) ● Middle East and Africa(GCC and rest of the Middle East and Africa)
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Detailed TOC of Global Bot Services Market Research Report 2022 - Impact of COVID-19 on the Market
1 Bot Services Market Overview
1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Bot Services Market
1.2 Bot Services Market Segment by Type
1.3 Global Bot Services Market Segment by Application
1.4 Global Bot Services Market, Region Wise (2017-2029)
1.5 Global Market Size (Revenue) of Bot Services (2017-2029)
1.6 Influence of Regional Conflicts on the Bot Services Industry
1.7 Impact of Carbon Neutrality on the Bot Services Industry
2 Bot Services Market Upstream and Downstream Analysis
2.1 Bot Services Industrial Chain Analysis
2.2 Key Raw Materials Suppliers and Price Analysis
2.3 Key Raw Materials Supply and Demand Analysis
2.4 Market Concentration Rate of Raw Materials
2.5 Manufacturing Process Analysis
2.6 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis
2.7 Major Downstream Buyers of Bot Services Analysis
2.8 Impact of COVID-19 on the Industry Upstream and Downstream
3 Players Profiles
4 Global Bot Services Market Landscape by Player
4.1 Global Bot Services Sales and Share by Player (2017-2022)
4.2 Global Bot Services Revenue and Market Share by Player (2017-2022)
4.3 Global Bot Services Average Price by Player (2017-2022)
4.4 Global Bot Services Gross Margin by Player (2017-2022)
4.5 Bot Services Market Competitive Situation and Trends
5 Global Bot Services Sales, Revenue, Price Trend by Type
5.1 Global Bot Services Sales and Market Share by Type (2017-2022)
5.2 Global Bot Services Revenue and Market Share by Type (2017-2022)
5.3 Global Bot Services Price by Type (2017-2022)
5.4 Global Bot Services Sales, Revenue and Growth Rate by Type (2017-2022)
6 Global Bot Services Market Analysis by Application
6.1 Global Bot Services Consumption and Market Share by Application (2017-2022)
6.2 Global Bot Services Consumption Revenue and Market Share by Application (2017-2022)
6.3 Global Bot Services Consumption and Growth Rate by Application (2017-2022)
7 Global Bot Services Sales and Revenue Region Wise (2017-2022)
7.1 Global Bot Services Sales and Market Share, Region Wise (2017-2022)
7.2 Global Bot Services Revenue and Market Share, Region Wise (2017-2022)
7.3 Global Bot Services Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.4 United States Bot Services Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.5 Europe Bot Services Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.6 China Bot Services Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.7 Japan Bot Services Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.8 India Bot Services Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.9 Southeast Asia Bot Services Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.10 Latin America Bot Services Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.11 Middle East and Africa Bot Services Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
8 Global Bot Services Market Forecast (2022-2029)
8.1 Global Bot Services Sales, Revenue Forecast (2022-2029)
8.2 Global Bot Services Sales and Revenue Forecast, Region Wise (2022-2029)
8.3 Global Bot Services Sales, Revenue and Price Forecast by Type (2022-2029)
8.4 Global Bot Services Consumption Forecast by Application (2022-2029)
8.5 Bot Services Market Forecast Under COVID-19
9 Industry Outlook
9.1 Bot Services Market Drivers Analysis
9.2 Bot Services Market Restraints and Challenges
9.3 Bot Services Market Opportunities Analysis
9.4 Emerging Market Trends
9.5 Bot Services Industry Technology Status and Trends
9.6 News of Product Release
9.7 Consumer Preference Analysis
9.8 Bot Services Industry Development Trends under COVID-19 Outbreak
10 Research Findings and Conclusion
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Bridging Industry With Classrooms For Women In Tech
As businesses open up post the Coronavirus pandemic, there is an increasing need to think smart and think 360 degree. IBM has joined hands with Aspire For Her Foundation to help young Indian girls acquire the 360 degree knowledge and skill to make a seamless transition from classrooms to professional pitch in their tech careers.
18 year old Sneha Ganesh, a First Year student has just completed the IBM’s Open P-tech programme and is excited about the opportunities it offers. Sneha says, ”Such an amazing course! As the name suggests, the course was completely suited for anyone who is a beginner. It was very easy to grasp the concepts as they were taught in a visual manner with many real world examples. Not to mention the opportunity that was offered to chat with one of the world's best AI powered chatbots!
I love the Open P Tech platform and can't wait to explore many more courses and earn several badges!”
To girls like Sneha, who are aspiring to make a career in Data Science, this allows to add digital badges to their resume, that point to tangible learning. They are learning at their own pace, own time and beyond their classrooms.
This is a CSR initiative of IBM in India and they have partnered with Aspire For Her foundation, that was launched on Women’s Day 2020 ‘to motivate young women pursue amazing careers,’ says Madhura Dasgupta Sinha, the founder, a banker turned social entrepreneur.
The lockdown began soon after its launch but that did not hinder the growth of this community that now has over 15,000 strong members. There has been a surge of support from Corporates, institutions and individuals for these women.
Madhura says,” All of us at Aspire For Her are excited to launch this learning partnership with IBM's Open P Tech platform.
India lags behind in the Global Gender Gap index, as women do not enter the workforce or drop out early. Aspire For Her wants to change this story. The mission of Aspire For Her is to motivate young women to pursue amazing careers, we want to build a community of more than a million women to unleash the hidden power in the economy of our country.”
IBM is helping this community of women to come close to their dream tech careers.
Research shows that there is a low participation of women in STEM and STEM related roles (Science, Tech, Engineering and Maths). To change that is the aim of both IBM and Aspire For Her.
The course is free for the Aspire For Her members and supporters - ones who sign up on the platform. It is a global platform where they connect with Open P-Tech students across the globe.
While girls acquire knowledge through this programme and become industry ready, Aspire For Her provides opportunities to connect with great organisations looking to hire diverse talent.
Madhura says,” We are building winning mindsets - through career resources like mentors, role models, career previews and of course, through world-class learning opportunities like IBM's Open P Tech - which will take our members one step closer to their dream careers. With forward looking partners like IBM, we are certain that we will be able to attract more women in technology and bridge the gap between their aspirations and action. With many more exciting partnerships and alliances coming up, we are just getting started.”
Jayita Gupta, who pursued a course in Artificial Intelligence says, “The quality of content is beyond amazing! The course got me so hooked that I can't stop myself from going to the next chapter to see what's in store for me, I am absolutely loving it!”
Yashasvi Ghadale’s Quantum Computing lessons with Open P-Tech has taken her close to a dream career. She says,” Quantum Computing is something that I was deeply intrigued about since I first heard about it. With Learning@ASPIRE and IBM Open P-Tech, I was able to learn the science behind Quantum Computing and also explore what opportunities a career in this field holds!”
So why did IBM decide to partner with AFH on this journey?
Rumi Mallick Mitra, Leader, Strategy and New Initiatives for IBM Social Responsibility, India, says, “There is an urgent need for young learners to develop relevant skills that will help them to be successful in the job market. As a leading technology company, we believe this is not only a huge opportunity but also a responsibility that we have, and hence with Open PTECH we are striving to boost skillsets of young learners and provide a way to jump-start their careers.
The courses made available on Open PTECH like cybersecurity, blockchain, design thinking, AI and machine learning are critical 21st century skills for the digital era.
Through Open PTECH we ensure that access to these specialized courses are democratised and available freely. At IBM, we have a strong focus to enable and support women for success in life and STEM careers and ensuring this will contribute to our nation’s success also.
Through Aspire For Her, and with its stellar network of industry experts and mentors, we hope to be a part of the journey that can help these girls and young women to pursue their dreams.”
Just the help women in STEM need to leap to the careers they aspire for!
Many changes in physiological variables occur with chronic exposure to intense training loads. When these training loads become excessive, a broad class of terms is used to describe the attenuation in subsequent training and performance response. The most common are overexertion, overreaching, and overtraining, all of which typically involve unfavourable cardiovascular, neuromuscular, and/or hormonal alterations.1,2 To overcome the need for continual invasive measurements, exercise physiologists, coaches, and athletes often use resting heart rate (HR) to monitor fatigue and recovery relative to repeated training stimuli.1 However, the data on resting HR are equivocal, showing lower, normal, and faster resting HR in athletes suffering from these maladies.3,4 The reason for this disparity is not completely understood. Some theories suggest that these responses are due to exhaustion of the neuroendocrine system or a decrease in catecholamine sensitivity.3–6 Several studies suggest that alterations in autonomic balance that accompany strenuous exercise can be examined non-invasively by assessing heart rate variability (HRV).7–13 Overtraining induced by heavy training increases cardiac sympathetic modulation during supine rest and attenuates baroreflex mediated response during an orthostatic manoeuvre.12,14 Conversely, optimal exercise training increases cardiac vagal activity in relation to sympathetic activity.15,16
HRV is a function of the synergistic action between the two branches of the autonomic nervous system, which act in balance through neural, mechanical, humoral, and other physiological mechanisms to maintain cardiovascular variables in an optimal range during changing external or internal conditions. Disease, emotional stress, and physical stress can all influence autonomic balance. accurate reports also show that HRV is inversely related to all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality.17,18 Thus, the examination of HRV relative to parasympathetic activity alone or in combination with sympathetic nervous activity may provide a functional, non-invasive assessment of cumulative exertion and related fatigue.
A syllabu not fully examined in the literature related to chronic physiological stress is relative training volume and intensity. We theorise that a technique that may help in the examination of chronic exertion and HRV is to account for exercise training volume and intensity by using the TRIMPS concept initially proposed by Banister and Calvert19 and modified by Foster et al20 where TRIMPS stands for training impulse. In this paper, we examine the HRV response of professional road cyclists competing in a three week stage race known as the Vuelta a España, the third of the three annual classic stage races after the Giro d’Italia (April) and Tour de France (July). This type of race typically lasts 21–22 days, entails 70–90 hours of competition, and covers 3000–3500 km with only two days of rest. Despite the long duration of the daily stages (four to five hours and 150–200 km), exercise intensity is often high during the more physically taxing events, such as riding over high mountain passes, time trials, sprints, and “breakaways”.21 On the basis of a report suggesting that the basal activity of the pineal gland, adrenal glands, and testis is decreased after such an event,6 we believe that the nature of this race lends itself to the examination of HRV during chronic exposure to prolonged heavy exertion.
We recruited eight male cyclists from one of the world’s leading professional cycling teams. All were highly competitive in the professional category. Several finished within the top 10 of the Giro d’Italia, Vuelta a España, or Tour de France between 1995 and 2002. Their age (mean (SEM) 27 (1) years), height (179 (1) cm), body mass (65.5 (2.3) kg), and percentage body fat (8.3 (0.1)%) were assessed earlier in the season and before the race. Body fat was estimated using a skinfold method described elsewhere.6 Maximum rate of oxygen consumption (V˙o2max) for each rider was assessed four to five weeks before the race. All the subjects were in good health without arrhythmic events, as established by a normal physical examination including electrocardiograph and echocardiograph evaluation during the preceding year. All had normal endocrine and metabolic functions and no family history of diabetes mellitus. Written, informed consent was obtained from each subject in accordance with the regulations of the Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain.
The Vuelta a España begins in late August/early September on the Spanish Mediterranean coast. In 2001, it included 21 daily race stages, with two days of rest (day 10 and day 17) (table 1). During this three week period, a total of 2989 km were covered and the total time raced for the overall winner was ≈ 71 hours. The average total speed for this event was 42.5 km/h. The mean (SEM) daily distance covered per stage was 143 (13) km at altitudes ranging from sea level through to 2000 m above sea level. Most daily stages started at about 1330 hours and finished between 1700 and 1730 hours. Temperature ranged from 17°C to 30°C. Nutrition, hydration, timing of food intake, and sleep were kept constant throughout the entire three week period. This is normal practice in cycling competitions to maintain circadian rhythms and consistency among riders.22 Mean daily food intake during this type of competition is about 840 g carbohydrate, 200 g protein, and 158 g fat corresponding to about 23.5 MJ.22
During the four to five weeks before the race, all subjects performed an incremental exercise test to determine reference HRs corresponding to the ventilatory threshold (VT) and the respiratory compensation point (RCP). All tests were performed on a bicycle ergometer and followed a ramp protocol until exhaustion. Workload during these tests increased 25 W/min until exhaustion. These methods have been described in detail elsewhere.21 HR was continuously recorded during the tests with a telemeter (Polar S710; Polar Electro, Oy, Finland). The workload corresponding to VT was determined using the criteria of an increase in both the ventilatory equivalent of oxygen (Ve/Vo2) and end tidal partial pressure of oxygen (Peto2) with no concomitant increase in the ventilatory equivalent of carbon dioxide (Ve/Vco2).23 The workload eliciting the RCP was determined using the criteria of an increase in both Ve/Vo2 and Ve/Vco2 and a decrease in end tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Petco2).23
We also recorded HR for each rider during each stage of the race using the Polar S710 telemeter. All data recorded were analysed using a computer program (Polar Precision Performance 3.02; Polar Electro), which allows the user to select reference HR values relative to established levels of exercise intensity. To examine the exertional intensity/volume relation for each rider during the race, we divided recorded HR values into three phases according to the reference values obtained during a previous ramp cycle ergometer test. These phases were: I (light intensity; <VT); II (moderate intensity; between VT and RCP); III (high intensity; >RCP).
To estimate the exertional volume and intensity for each rider, we adopted a modified approach proposed by Foster et al19 to the original TRIMPS concept published by Banister and Calvert.20 This modified TRIMPS model integrates total exercise participation time and relative HR based on the phases outlined above into an exercise volume/intensity measurement. This measurement is obtained by taking the rider’s HR for the time spent in each phase and multiplying the accumulated time spent in this phase by a multiplier. Specifically, HR during phase I is scored as 1, HR during phase II is scored as 2, and HR in phase III is given a score of 3:
Total TRIMPS = (min of phase I HR min × 1) + (min of phase II HR min × 2) + (min of phase III HR min × 3)
To assess HRV we collected baseline (day 0) RR intervals two days before the race and during the two allotted rest days after stages 1–9 (day 10) and stages 10–15 (day 17). We used these days because our data were obtained under field testing conditions in which rider time was at a premium relative to their competition schedule. We were unable to collect data on the last day of the event because this was not a rest day and riders were preparing for the final day of racing (table 1). We used an IBM compatible PC equipped with a program for signal processing and HRV analysis (Polar Precision Performance SW 3.02). A two channel electrocardiograph signal was detected by a Polar Heart Rate Monitor and transmitted online to a Polar S810 watch receiver. The computer program labelled each QRS complex, and the resulting signal was passed through a filter that eliminates ectopic beats and artifacts. In addition, an RR interval tachogram was displayed for manual editing, and areas of ectopy or artefact were identified and removed by manual deletion. Each edited RR interval was replaced with an average value. Segments containing more than 15% of edited RR intervals were interpreted as a premature beats and excluded from data analysis. These segments accounted for <2% of edited 10 minute intervals in every subject. The filtering techniques are described in previous reports.24,25
Resting RR intervals were collected in the supine position for 15 minutes during baseline on day 10 and day 17. HRV was estimated from the last four minutes of data collection. Data were collected on subjects each test morning when they woke up in a semidarkened room. The stability and reliability of time and frequency domain measures of short term resting HR and HRV assessed day to day for five consecutive days in healthy active men has been reported previously. The authors of these reports suggest that, when HRV is measured in early morning, after an overnight fast and before any strenuous activity, the measurements are highly reproducible (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.97 for all HR and HRV indices).26 This was the procedure followed in our study, HRV measurements on days 10 and 17 being performed in early morning after an overnight fast. Because we were operating under field conditions, all subjects breathed spontaneously. Frequency and time domain methods were used to calculate HRV.
To assess the time domain measures, we analysed the standard deviation of all RR intervals (SDNN) over the given measurement period and the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent RR intervals (rMSSD). SDNN reflects the parasympathetic and sympathetic influence, and rMSSD is considered to be an index of parasympathetic modulation of HR.27
We used an autoregressive model to estimate the power spectrum densities for the frequency domain. The power spectra were quantified by measuring the area in three frequency bands. We reported the high frequency power (PHF; 0.15–0.40 Hz; measures the beat to beat variability and appears to be mediated by variations in parasympathetic activity), low frequency power (PLF; 0.04–0.15 Hz; thought to reflect both vagal and sympathetic activities), and total frequency power (PT; 0.04–0.40 Hz; represents overall variability).27
We began our analysis using a repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance to determine overall statistical effects for HR and HRV indices. If a significant statistical result was noted, a Fisher’s least significant difference, post hoc analysis was undertaken. TRIMPS data were examined for absolute values, as well as for relative contributions—that is, TRIMPS/day. To normalise their distribution, we applied a natural logarithmic transformation (ln) to all HRV variables analysed in the frequency domain (PHF, PLF, PT). We used a Pearson product-moment correlation analysis to examine the relation between the exercise volume and intensity—that is, TRIMPS—and resting HR and HRV.
The mean (SEM) physiological characteristics of the riders in this study included a V˙o2max of 75.6 (2.2) ml/kg/min, maximal power output of 498 (14) W, and HRmax of 191 (1) beats/min. Average VT occurred at a power output of 325 (13) W (78.9 (2.5)% of V˙o2max) and a HR of 152 (3) beats/min (79.6 (1.5)% HRmax). Average RCP occurred at a power output of 438 (12) W (91.3 (1.4)% of V˙o2max) and a HR of 176 (3) beats/min (90.5 (1.1)% HRmax).
Overall, our repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance showed significant effects for TRIMPS and all resting HR and HRV variables (p<0.001). Only the TRIMPS data showed significant post hoc effects after an analysis of group means. However, significant correlations were found for all HRV indices accumulated in stages 10–15. Details of these findings are outlined below.
Stages 1–9 of racing were characterised by 1235 km of riding inclusive of two days of time trials (56 km), five days of flat, mass start stage racing (823 km), and two days of mountain stages (356 km). Total TRIMPS experienced for riders during this period was 2466 (90) (274 (10) TRIMPS/day; table 2). Day 10 was a rest day. Stages 10–15 were characterised by 923 km of riding inclusive of one up hill or mountain time trial (17 km), two days of flat, mass start stage racing (377 km), and three days of mountain stages (529 km). Total TRIMPS experienced for riders during this time period was 2055 (65) (343 (11) TRIMPS/day).
Comparisons of total TRIMPS showed that even though overall TRIMPS for stages 1–9 were greater than for stages 10–15 (p<0.0002), average TRIMPS/day was greater during stages 10–15 (p<0.01). Specific phase comparisons showed a greater accumulation of TRIMPS for phase I (p<0.007) and phase III (p<0.0005). However, no differences were noted for phase II absolute TRIMPS. When expressed as TRIMPS/day, in phase I (p<0.02) and phase II (p<0.001) they were greater for stages 10–15 than for stages 1–9, despite four fewer days of racing during the latter time period.
Post hoc analysis examining group mean HRV comparisons showed no significant statistical effect between baseline (day 0), day 10, and/or day 17 (table 3). Furthermore, no significant correlation was observed between TRIMPS or TRIMPS/day accumulated during stages 1–9 and either time domain HRV indices (fig 1A, C) or frequency domain HRV indices (fig 2A–F). However, a significant inverse correlation was observed for total TRIMPS accumulated in stages 10–15 and each HRV component: rMSSD (r = −0.93; p<0.001; fig 1B), SDNN (r = −0.94; p<0.001; fig 1D), lnPLF (r = −0.79; p<0.02; fig 2B), lnPHF (r = −0.94; p<0.001; fig 2D), and lnPT (r = −0.97; p<0.001; fig 2F). The same results were observed when we expressed the data as TRIMPS/day for each HRV index (data not presented).
The principal finding from this trial is the observation that changes in supine resting HRV are inversely related to exercise volume and intensity. Although several other groups have examined the relation between “overtraining” and HRV,8–13 this is the first paper to examine the relation between HRV and chronic exposure to heavy exercise after adjustment for the training volume/intensity relation. Although we did not examine overtraining/overreaching per se, we believe that adjusting for the volume/intensity relation is important for future studies investigating the relation between HRV and periods of heavy physical exercise for the following reasons. Firstly, athletic training and competition are stochastic and prone to changing intraindividual responses to an imposed exercise challenge. Inherent within this paradigm is the idea that adaptation is, in and of itself, allostatic and dependent on a variety of mechanisms including psychosocial, neuroendocrine, musculoskeletal, and cardiovascular responses. A fundamental difficulty in using HRV to examine changes associated with chronic bouts of heavy physical exertion is accounting for individual responses to and from a training stimulus.
For example, during each one of the professional three week stage races (Giro d’Italia, Tour de France, Vuelta a España), some riders are selected to try to win stage victories and are often protected by drafting techniques. This reduces physical exertion in an effort to “save” that cyclist for greater effort needed later in the race or overall competition in general. To accomplish this, other riders, known as domestiques, play a supportive role by blocking and working for the rider selected to attempt a stage win. Inevitably, these riders expend a greater amount of energy during competition and training (fig 3). Examining the group means in our study suggests a trend for various HRV indices to increase from baseline to day 10, and then generally be maintained through to day 17 of stage racing (table 3). Although not significant, all HRV indices tended to increase during the first 10 days of racing and remain higher than baseline through to day 17. However, the statistical error—that is, SEM—surrounding the mean of the data suggests that there is great intraindividual variability in HRV during race conditions, which will prevent differences in the mean group variables between time points reaching statistical significance. Therefore, quantifying physical exertion relative to training volume and intensity seems to be a more logical way of examining the relation between an athlete’s response to exercise training and competition. To adequately examine the relation between HRV and physical exertion in the field, it is necessary to account for the relative degree of physical effort expended by each rider. We illustrate this in our present study using a modified TRIMPS concept.
From these results, there seems to be little correlation between HRV and exercise volume during stages 1–9. However, strong inverse correlations are observed between HRV and exercise volume and intensity in stages 10–15. One of the most distinguishing features between these two periods is the average TRIMPS/day accumulated by the riders. Even though each rider rode a greater distance and accumulated more TRIMPS in stages 1–9 than in stages 10–15, it is notable that more TRIMPS/day were accumulated during the second time period. Overall, however, we suggest that the HRV alterations observed are due to the cumulative physical effort over all 15 stages of racing. This pattern is observed by examining the HRV response of a team leader and domestique in figs 1 and 2: a decrease in HRV is observed for the domestique after 15 stages of racing, whereas there is little change in the HRV values of the team leader. Unfortunately, there are no similar trials with which to compare our results. The closest may be those reports examining HRV, exercise, and/or “overtraining.”
For example, Uusitalo et al28 examined changes in baroreflex sensitivity, plasma volume, and resting HR and blood pressure variability induced by heavy training in female endurance athletes. During this trial, nine athletes increased their training intensity and volume component by 100–130% for six to nine weeks. In five overtrained athletes, defined as having a decrease in V˙o2max, PLF increased during supine rest. The same group, using a similar trial design, later confirmed the results of this trial.12 Again, five subjects were defined as being overtrained, showing a decrease in V˙o2max, and an increase in low frequency spectral power PLF during supine rest. Changes in total spectral power PT during standing correlated positively with changes in V˙o2max. The authors concluded that heavy training can increase cardiac sympathetic modulation during supine rest and attenuated biphasic baroreflex mediated response appearing just after shifting to an upright position.
In contrast, Hedelin et al29 reported HRV findings in nine elite canoeists involved in a six day training camp consisting of cross country skiing and strength training totalling about 13 hours, which corresponded to a 50% increase in the athletes’ training load. During this short period of vigorous training, time to exhaustion, V˙o2max, and maximal lactate decreased. However, no group changes in HRV were found at rest or after a tilt test. Although resting HR did decrease, this was attributed to an increase in plasma volume. The authors concluded that HRV did not seem to be affected by short term “overtraining.” In a case study presented by the same group, however, increased high frequency and total powers (PHF and PT) in the supine position were observed in one athlete after a diagnosis of overtraining.9 Interestingly, the authors concluded that there is a shift toward increased HRV, particularly the high frequency range, together with a reduced resting HR. They further suggest that this causes a cardiac autonomic imbalance with extensive parasympathetic modulation when overtrained. Thus, some disagreement exists in the literature about HRV and overtraining. We hypothesise that true overtraining and heavy exertion would attenuate the HRV response for several reasons. Firstly, HR is intrinsically regulated by the balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. In brief, stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system increases HR through the release of adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine), which accelerate depolarisation of the sinoatrial node. The same catecholamines also increase cardiac contractility. Parasympathetic activity is regulated by the release of acetylcholine, which acts on the vagus nerve to attenuate sinus discharge. Both of these factors can influence HRV and are referred to as autonomic balance. Optimal exercise conditioning, coupled with adequate recovery, creates a healthy “imbalance” per se between the activities of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system in favour of greater vagal dominance. This is due to an increase in parasympathetic activity and possibly a decrease in sympathetic activity.30,31 In addition, training may also decrease the intrinsic rate of firing of the sinoatrial node pacemaker tissue,32,33 which accounts for the bradycardia associated with highly conditioned athletes.32,33 Thus, if excessive training were to alter the high frequency component of HRV—that is, parasympathetic tone—one would expect to see a decrease in the variable.
Secondly, and in support of this premise, overtraining syndromes are characterised by a decreased intrinsic sympathetic activity and sensitivity of target organs to catecholamines, as indicated by decreased catecholamine excretion, decreased β adrenoceptor density, decreased β adrenoceptor mediated responses, and increased resting plasma noradrenaline concentrations and responses to exercise.34 Earlier studies on athletes showed that changes in activity of the autonomic nervous system, as assessed by HRV during a dynamic orthostatic test, may detect signs of fatigue that may result in overtraining. An impaired baroreflex response after the tilt is such a marker.12,14 Although we attempted to perform an “orthostatic test” by having the cyclists stand for six minutes after supine HRV data had been collected, the orthostatic test is typically performed using a tilt table. Our data are not shown because we feel that they are inconsistent and show great variability—that is, SD and SEM. We attribute this to several possibilities including accessory muscle movement while the athletes were maintaining their balance or “fidgeting.” In addition, HRV in general has been shown to be greater in athletes than in those predisposed to cardiovascular events,17,18,22,26 further suggesting that HRV would increase during a “state of health” or decrease during a state of disease or stress.
Using as an example the study of Hedelin et al,29 the athletes (canoeists) were probably not overtrained, but simply overreached. Moreover, although the training was intense, it only amounted to about two hours a day. Although strenuous and tiring, it may have been insufficient to elicit any change in autonomic balance in such a short period of time. This is supported by data in our study showing no changes in HRV after 10 days of competitive riding at about four to five hours a day. Support for our hypothesis comes from the study of Pichot et al13 who monitored the HRV of seven middle distance runners undertaking three weeks of heavy training, followed by a relatively restful week. The results showed a significant and progressive decrease in parasympathetic indices (by 41%) during the three weeks of heavy training. This was followed by a 46% increase during the rest week. Conversely, indices of sympathetic activity followed the opposite trend. The most obvious explanation for the fact that we did not find HRV differences across the three measurement periods in our study is the individual variance in TRIMPS. Thus, the HRV comparison within the whole group is probably affected by individual volume and intensity of exercise expended during the race, which is supported by our observation that HRV correlated negatively with TRIMPS.
Another explanation for our findings relates to cardiac fatigue and alterations in the neuroendocrine axis, which is accompanied by a reduction in cardiac β adrenergic responsiveness associated with exercise.35 One cause of these responses may be the sustained tachycardia of nearly 21 days of continuous professional racing. Left ventricular function has been shown clinically to be transiently decreased after supraventricular tachycardia(s) or rapid pacing.36–38 These types of change, in addition to a reduction in cardiac β adrenergic responsiveness, have been noted after as little as one hour of exercise,35,39 as well as after the completion of an Ironman triathlon.40 The reduced responsiveness to catechols also correlates closely with the degree of cardiac fatigue, as measured by a reduction in ejection fraction. Another factor that may also explain the inverse relation between TRIMPS and HRV indices is the potential for adrenal exhaustion associated with 21 day stage races. Previous work from Lucia et al6 during the 1999 Vuelta a España has shown a decrease in basal concentrations of several hormones associated with the basal activity of the pineal gland, adrenal glands, and testis, suggesting a degree of adrenal exhaustion in professional riders during this type of activity.
Our study has several limitations because of its nature as a field study. Firstly, we did not have a control group with which to compare our data. This may be partially overcome through our analysis, which accounted for each rider’s relative degree of exercise volume and intensity. Secondly, we were not able to control for breathing during this trial, as this was performed under professional racing conditions and “extracurricular” rider time was at a premium. Previous research has shown that uncontrolled breathing may cause a shift of the respiratory peak, as assessed by frequency domain analysis, from high frequency to the lower frequencies and result in an increase in low frequency power (PLF) and a decrease in high frequency power (PHF).27 However, riders were compared against themselves under consistent resting conditions and showed no decrease in high frequency power, which has been shown not to influence HRV outcomes appreciably.41 Lastly, it should be mentioned that alterations in HRV are influenced by simultaneous training induced changes that are also non-linear.42,43 Thus, the best way to study true autonomic balance would be by the use of drugs to block the sympathetic and/or the parasympathetic system, as HRV only gives an indirect estimation of autonomic balance. However, this approach would be impractical in day to day monitoring of training athletes.
Overtraining and overreaching are not clearly understood or easily monitored. The use of HRV shows promise in diagnosing these maladies, but may be confounded if group mean responses that do not account for individual differences are examined. The TRIMP concept offers a solution to this problem that is simple to administer by accounting for the individual exertion response of each athlete to a training stimulus.
Our data strongly suggest that changes in HRV are directly related to volume and intensity of exercise, as athletes who showed the greatest cumulative physical exertion also showed the largest decrease in supine HRV. We therefore suggest that future investigations of the relation between long periods of chronic physical exertion should devise means of quantifying the intensity/volume relation of the athletes under investigation. Given the extent and ease of use of HR monitors today, this can be easily accomplished for most endurance athletes using this type of HR monitoring technology.
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