Scholarships are available to those who qualify. There are three scholarship programs currently available. These will be awarded to a limited number of applicants meeting the following conditions: 1) United States citizens or permanent residents currently on unemployment and/or 2) from diverse populations/underrepresented backgrounds. If you apply and are found eligible for multiple, you may be able to receive the scholarships simultaneously, further reducing program costs, depending on availability.
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The Cybersecurity Bootcamp is a training provider program on the New York State Eligible Training Provider List (ETPL) and can be found at the ETPL. The ETPL program is used to identify training that may be federally funded under the Workforce Innovation & Opportunity Act (WIOA) meaning that you may be eligible for up to $5,000, even if you do not live in New York State through state reciprocity agreements.
Eligibility is based on several factors that are regionally specific, including if the job being trained for is identified in the local region as one in demand. It may often be true that cybersecurity is not specifically listed but IT support is and our program is good training for that kind of entry level position as well.
If interested, regardless of where you live, you will need to contact and work with your local employment counselor at your local unemployment office to assess your eligibility and apply for a grant. More information can be found at the link below even if you do not live in Monroe County, New York, and with your local employment counselor.
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TechRochester is offering $1,500 scholarships to Rochester area residents who have been displaced as a result of COVID and are pursuing an IT certification to help shift their career.
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All notification of cancellations or withdrawals from the programme must be sent in writing to Eruditus Executive Education. 80% can be obtained up to 30 days before the programme start date and 20% is non-refundable. Due to the costs incurred for programme preparation and administration, any cancellations or requests for transfers or deferrals received 30 days or less from the programme start, or once the programme has commenced, are ineligible for any refund. In the occurrence of a force majeure event deemed to be disruptive to the delivery of the programme, some elements of the programme may be postponed. In such cases, once the programme has commenced, we will not be able to provide refunds.
The engineering and management program consists of 32 credit hours in engineering and management, 31 credit hours in mathematics and science, 18 credit hours in electrical science, and 18 credit hours in other courses. 3 credit hours are in free electives.
All courses are 3 credits unless noted.
Clarkson Common Experience
The following courses are required for all students, irrespective of their program of study. These courses are offered during the fall semester, with FY100 First-Year Seminar being required of only first-year students. Both FY100 and UNIV190 are typically taken during the fall semester of the first year at Clarkson.
FY100 First-Year Seminar (1 credit)
UNIV190 The Clarkson Seminar (3 credits)
Engineering and Management Core Requirements
Students are required to complete the following courses:
Engineering and Management
Students are required to complete the following Professional Experience:
Internship, co-op, or directed research related to the student's professional goals
Math and Science Courses for Engineering and Management
Students must complete the following courses:
Engineering Science Courses for Engineering and Management
Students must complete the following courses:
Students must choose one of the following courses:
Business Courses for Engineering and Management
Students must complete the following courses:
A professional elective in E&M is a 3-credit course (or equivalent) that predominantly covers engineering or engineering management knowledge. Examples of such courses include any sophomore-, junior- or senior-level course in engineering; any junior- or senior-level course in a topical knowledge area(s) in the Guide to the Engineering Management Body of Knowledge, 3rd edition, ASEM, 2013; or courses focused on information technology.
Knowledge Area/University Course Electives
Students will have at least 15 credit hours available to use toward Knowledge Area and/or University Course electives to satisfy the Clarkson Common Experience requirements.
Students will have approximately 3 credit hours available to use toward courses of their choice.
History majors not only explore the past, gaining insights into how societies change over time, but also develop important reading, writing, research and interpretive skills. History represents a fascinating, flexible major that permits you to study the broadest possible range of human experience.
Study of history opens many possible professional doors, rather than preparing students to do one thing. NIU history graduates have gone on to teach in schools; conduct museum and archival work; graduate from law and other professional schools; find work in government, military and private-sector employment; and attend graduate school in a variety of disciplines.
This trial showed that 5% fluorouracil was significantly more effective than imiquimod, MAL-PDT, or ingenol mebutate at 12 months after the end of treatment for multiple actinic keratosis lesions in a continuous area. Findings from the modified intention-to-treat analysis and the per-protocol analysis were similar, which indicates the robustness of the results.
Although there is substantial literature about different field-directed and lesion-directed treatments, studies often lack head-to-head comparisons, differ substantially in choice of outcome measures, and are underpowered.14,21-23 Our randomized clinical trial compared four field-directed treatments with 12 months of follow-up.
Previously, two network meta-analyses have been published. One meta-analyis, by Vegter and Tolley,24 indicated that aminolevulinic acid PDT (ALA-PDT) with the use of BF-200 ALA gel resulted in the highest probability (75.8%) of total clearance of actinic keratosis lesions, as compared with 0.5% fluorouracil (59.9%), 5% imiquimod (56.3%), and MAL-PDT (54.8%), with a follow-up of 3 to 12 months. But this meta-analysis did not include 5% fluorouracil, as was used in our trial. The other meta-analysis, by Gupta and Paquet,25 suggested that 5% fluorouracil was the most effective treatment when complete clearance of all lesions was assessed. However, in the 2015 European Dermatology Forum guidelines, the majority of experts did not express a preference for any of the most commonly prescribed treatments.16 They agreed that 3.75% imiquimod, ALA-PDT, MAL-PDT, ingenol mebutate (0.015% or 0.050%), and 0.5% fluorouracil were equally effective in patients with multiple actinic keratosis lesions.16 However, there was less agreement on the effectiveness of 5% fluorouracil. In our trial, we used the most commonly prescribed dosing regimens of the therapies studied. Alternative regimens (e.g., different concentrations or duration of therapy) might result in differences in effectiveness between treatments.
An important gap in the current literature is that most studies assessing the effectiveness of field-directed treatments exclude grade III actinic keratosis lesions. In this trial, the population included patients with grade III actinic keratosis lesions; in this way, it is more representative of patients seen in daily practice. Exclusion of patients with grade III lesions was associated with slightly higher rates of success in the fluorouracil, MAL-PDT, and ingenol mebutate groups than the rates in the unrestricted analysis.
The reported adverse events in this trial are well-known treatment-related side effects that have been described in the corresponding summary of product characteristics. No treatment-related serious adverse events occurred. Overall, treatment with fluorouracil was not associated with a higher frequency of adverse events during and after treatment than the other treatments. High scores for pain and burning sensation were reported most often during MAL-PDT treatment. Pain can be an important reason for a patient to decline further treatment. In our trial, only 3.2% of the patients (5 of 155) in the MAL-PDT group did not complete the entire treatment owing to pain, but the proportion of patients who would undergo this treatment again and would recommend it to others was lower than for the other treatments, which indicates that pain may have influenced patient satisfaction with PDT. Satisfaction with treatment and improvement in health-related quality of life at 12 months after the end of treatment were highest in the fluorouracil group. This may be explained in part by the fact that fluorouracil was the most effective treatment. However, the high proportion of patients willing to undergo retreatment after initial treatment failure also suggests that patients treated with fluorouracil may have had less inconvenience and discomfort than those treated with imiquimod, MAL-PDT, or ingenol mebutate, for which the proportion of patients who declined retreatment were higher.
Dermatologists and primary health care providers are both confronted with actinic keratosis lesions very frequently. Because of the increasing age of the general population and the high recurrence rate of actinic keratosis, this condition puts a high burden on the health care system, with 5 million dermatology visits per year in the United States alone.26,27 Our results could affect treatment choices in both dermatology and primary care. From a cost perspective, fluorouracil is also the most attractive option.28 It is expected that a substantial cost reduction could be achieved with more uniformity in care and the choice for effective therapy.
This randomized trial has some limitations. Approximately half the patients who were assessed for eligibility declined to participate in this trial, usually because of personal preference or disfavor regarding a specific therapy. Patients’ declining to participate is a common problem in randomized trials and may threaten external validity. The median age of the eligible trial population, 75 years, was similar to that of patients who participated, but the ratio of men to women was 4:1 in the eligible population and 9:1 in the trial population, which suggests that men were more willing to participate. Generalizability of the findings would be affected if the effectiveness of the evaluated treatments depends on sex, but sex-specific treatment response seems unlikely. To avoid substantial interobserver variation, all counts were performed by a single observer who was unaware of the treatment assignments. There may still be intraobserver variation, but random measurement errors result in nondifferential misclassification, which tends to dilute differences between baseline and follow-up counts of actinic keratosis lesions. However, potential underestimation of the reduction in actinic keratosis lesions will occur in all treatment groups and is unlikely to affect the comparison among groups.29 Adherence to therapy with fluorouracil and imiquimod, which are applied for 4 consecutive weeks, was high in this trial (88.7% and 88.2%, respectively), but in daily practice, adherence may be lower. In this respect, ingenol mebutate, which is applied for only 3 consecutive days, had the advantage of better adherence (98.7%), but owing to the observed low probability of remaining free from treatment failure of only 28.9% in the long term, ingenol mebutate might be reserved for situations in which alternative treatments are not feasible.
In our trial, adherence was assessed by asking patients 2 weeks after the end of treatment how often they had used the therapy. This method may be subject to error.
In conclusion, we found that after 12 months of follow-up, 5% fluorouracil cream was significantly more effective than 5% imiquimod cream, MAL-PDT, or 0.015% ingenol mebutate gel in the treatment of patients with multiple grade I to III actinic keratosis lesions on the head. No new toxic effects were identified in this trial.
The Ministry of Health set goals to screen everyone in Egypt 18 years of age or older (a target population of 62.5 million) within 1 year and to provide treatment paid for by the state to all those with HCV viremia. Planning started in May 2018. The country was divided into three screening phases, each to be screened over a period of 2 or 3 months. Each phase included 7 to 11 states, 100 to 150 administrative divisions, and a screening target population of 17.9 million to 23.3 million, as detailed in the Supplementary Appendix (Table S2 and Fig. S2).
Screening was conducted in all Ministry of Health hospitals; all primary and rural health units; Egyptian Health Insurance Organization–managed clinics, university hospitals, and military and police hospitals; and all youth centers in all screened areas. Mobile screening teams in specially outfitted vehicles augmented the screening efforts by visiting crowded areas on special occasions (mosques for Friday prayers, churches for Sunday mass, soccer stadiums during game times, and picnic areas and shopping malls on holidays), as well as factories, office buildings, train stations, and subway stations.
Each screening phase had 5800 to 8000 screening teams, each including a physician, a nurse, and a data-entry person. Screening sites were open 12 hours per day, 7 days per week. Training started 2 months before screening launch in each phase, in which 800 trainers were taught how to train the screening teams to use the rapid diagnostic test for the detection of HCV antibodies, to record data and results in the database, and to set further appointments electronically.
The World Health Organization (WHO)–approved rapid diagnostic test11 (SD Bioline HCV, Abbott) was used. Negotiations led to a price reduction to $0.58 per test, including the test kit, the safety lancet, and sharps-disposal containers; the cost also included supply-chain management and delivery to each of 380 central health facilities, which in turn distributed to the screening sites.
HCV RNA levels were measured with the use of a real-time quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay (Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV Test, Roche Diagnostics). Negotiations resulted in a cost of $4.80 per test, inclusive of the machines and logistics of setting up the machines, training the technicians, connecting the machines to the central database, and transferring the equipment from one phase to the next. PCR machines were set up in one to three laboratories in each state. Samples that were collected in the district referral hospitals were transported by the supplier to the test laboratories.
Population data at the national, state, and district levels were obtained from the Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics 2017 national census.12,13 The names and national identification numbers of persons 18 years of age or older who were registered in each electoral district were obtained from the National Elections Authority,14 which automatically registers everyone 18 years of age or older for voting in the district of his or her residence and has a comprehensive database of all persons 18 years of age or older.
Persons could be screened in any phase and any site, regardless of their residence. Participation in screening was voluntary, with no financial or in-kind incentives for participating and no punitive consequences for not participating. Participation in screening was encouraged and emphasized through a massive national advertisement campaign. Television advertisements ran on all channels throughout the screening period, several popular movie and music stars were contracted for the advertising campaign, and television and radio talk shows repeatedly had the national HCV screening program as their main theme. Newspaper advertisements and billboards on many roads were part of the advertising campaign, and millions of text messages were sent to cell phones in each phase.
Immediately before screening, the person’s national identification number was electronically checked against the NCCVH database (which includes data on patients previously treated for HCV infection with direct-acting antivirals since 2014). Patients who had been previously treated were not tested for HCV antibodies.
Persons were tested for HCV antibodies with the use of a finger-prick rapid diagnostic test, with results available within 20 minutes. Seropositive patients had appointments immediately scheduled electronically for a date within 2 to 15 days in the closest assigned center for evaluation and treatment. At the center, patients received clinical evaluation, underwent abdominal ultrasonography, and had blood drawn for HCV RNA and liver-function tests, as detailed in the Supplementary Appendix. Patients returned for results after 5 days, and treatment was prescribed for those with viremia. All patients were treated with sofosbuvir (400 mg daily) plus daclatasvir (60 mg daily) with or without ribavirin for a duration of 12 or 24 weeks, depending on the presence or absence of cirrhosis and the stage of cirrhosis. The time between screening and the dispensing of medication was usually 10 days but ran to 4 weeks for some patients who were delayed in scheduling or attending follow-up appointments. The shortest time to dispensing treatment was 6 days, and the longest time was 30 days.
Turnout for evaluation was continuously monitored. A call center contacted seropositive persons who did not show up for their evaluation appointments and patients with viremia who did not return for treatment, in order to inquire about reasons for no-shows and to assign new appointments if necessary.
Continuous political support from the Egyptian presidency helped make all necessary resources available. The WHO through its local office monitored the campaign as an independent verification agent.
Baseline characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients who were treated in this program were compared with those of patients presenting for treatment before this screening program.10 (Details are provided in the Methods section in the Supplementary Appendix.)
Total costs of the HCV components of the program were calculated to estimate costs of identifying a seropositive patient and a patient with viremia. Costs of cure per patient were also estimated.
Details of data that were collected and analyzed are provided in the Supplementary Appendix. The following were calculated at country, state, and district levels: the percentage of persons in the target population who participated in screening and the prevalence of HCV seropositivity among persons screened for HCV antibodies. Confidence intervals for percentages were calculated with the use of the Wilson method in R software, version 3.6.1.
Results in each state and district were compared and analyzed according to sex, age group, and urban or rural residence. State-level prevalence was compared with that in the most exact nationwide survey, the 2015 DHS.7 Different geographic regions as detailed in Table S1 were compared. For patients with complete data, we analyzed data available as of September 30, 2019, regarding the outcome of evaluation of seropositive patients and the outcome of treatment (incidence of sustained virologic response at 12 weeks after completion of treatment).
All analyses were performed with the use of IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, version 25.0. All tests of significance were two-sided, and a P value of less than 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance.