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Exam Code: ARDMS Practice exam 2022 by team
ARDMS American Registry for Diagnostic Medical Sonography - 2022

Anatomy, Perfusion, and Function (30%)
Assess physical characteristics of anatomic structures
Assess perfusion and function of anatomic

Pathology, Vascular Abnormalities, Trauma, and Postoperative Anatomy (42%)
Assess anatomic structures for pathology
Assess anatomic structures for vascular
Assess anatomic structures for trauma-related
Assess aspects related to postoperative anatomy

Abdominal Physics Apply concepts of equipment/image optimization
Apply concepts of imaging artifacts 8%

Clinical Care, Practice, and Quality Assurance (20%)
Incorporate clinical data with performed study
Incorporate clinical standard/guidelines with
performed study
Obtain accurate measurements
Assist/support during procedures

Anatomy, Perfusion, and Function
Knowledge and/or skill related to anatomy, perfusion,
and function
1.A. Assess physical characteristics of anatomic structures (normal anatomy, anatomic variants, congenital anomalies)
1.A.1. Biliary system Knowledge of normal anatomy, anatomic regions, and anatomic variants
Knowledge of sonographic appearance of anatomic structures
Ability to recognize and utilize anatomic landmarks in obtaining and documenting diagnostic images
Ability to recognize and apply proper scan technique in obtaining and documenting diagnostic images
1.A.2. Breast
1.A.3. Chest
1.A.4. Liver
1.A.5. Neck (including: thyroid, parathyroid, salivary glands, lymph nodes)
1.A.6. Pancreas
1.A.7. Penis
1.A.8. Peritoneal cavity (including: stomach, bowel, appendix)
Ability to recognize, evaluate and document congenital anomalies
1.A.9. Prostate
1.A.10. Retroperitoneum (including: great vessels & branches)
1.A.11. Scrotum
1.A.12. Spleen
1.A.13. Superficial structures (for example:abdominal wall & subcutaneous tissue)
1.A.14. Urinary system
1.B. Assess perfusion and function of anatomic structures
1.B.1. Biliary system Knowledge of normal vascular anatomy and hemodynamics
Ability to recognize appearance of normal vascular flow patterns
Ability to recognize and utilize anatomic landmarks in evaluating and documenting perfusion and function
Ability to recognize and apply proper scan technique in evaluating and documenting perfusion and function
1.B.2. Chest
1.B.3. Liver
1.B.4. Neck (including: thyroid, parathyroid, salivary glands, lymph nodes)
1.B.5. Penis
1.B.6. Peritoneal cavity (including: stomach, bowel, appendix)
1.B.7. Prostate
1.B.8. Retroperitoneum (including: great vessels & branches)
1.B.9. Scrotum
1.B.10. Spleen
1.B.11. Superficial structures (for example: abdominal wall & subcutaneous tissue)
1.B.12. Urinary system 2. Pathology, Vascular Abnormalities, Trauma, and Postoperative Anatomy
Knowledge and/or skill related to pathology, vascular abnormalities, trauma, and postoperative anatomy
2.A. Assess anatomic structures for pathology
2.A.1. Abdominal wall for hernia (for example: ventral, inguinal, incisional)
Knowledge of etiology/pathophysiology of abnormal perfusion and function
Ability to recognize ultrasound findings related to abnormalities of anatomy, perfusion, and function in obtaining and documenting diagnostic images
Ability to recognize and apply proper scan technique in evaluating and documenting pathology
Ability to recognize foreign bodies, infection, fluid, masses, etc.
Knowledge of hernia types and their sonographic appearance
2.A.2. Adrenal glands for masses, hemorrhage, etc.
2.A.3. Biliary system for infection, masses, metastatic disease, obstructions, etc.
2.A.4. Breast for infection, abscess, masses, etc.
2.A.5. Chest for fluid, masses, etc.
2.A.6. Gastrointestinal system for masses, obstruction, pyloric stenosis, intussusception, etc.
2.A.7. Joints for abnormalities (for example: fluid)
2.A.8. Liver for hepatitis, fatty infiltration, cirrhosis, neoplasm, abscess, cyst, etc.
2.A.9. Neck (including: thyroid, parathyroid, salivary glands, lymph nodes) for diffuse parenchymal disease, inflammation, masses, etc.
2.A.10. Pancreas for infection, masses, obstruction, etc.
2.A.11. Penis for abnormalities
2.A.12. Peritoneal cavity (including: stomach, bowel, appendix) for fluid
2.A.13. Popliteal fossa for abnormalities (for example: masses, fluid)
2.A.14. Prostate for parenchymal disease or masses (for example: benign prostatic hypertrophy)
2.A.15. Retroperitoneum (including: great vessels & branches) for fibrosis, lymphadenopathy, etc.
2.A.16. Scrotum for fluid, hernia, masses, infection, parenchymal disease, etc.
2.A.17. Spleen for splenomegaly, parenchymal changes, masses, etc.
2.A.18. Superficial structures (for example: abdominal wall, subcutaneous tissue)
for foreign bodies, infection, fluid, masses, etc.
2.A.19. Urinary system for masses, obstruction, parenchymal disease, infection, etc.
2.B. Assess anatomic structures for vascular abnormalities
2.B.1. Liver for Budd-Chiari syndrome, arteriovenous fistula, portal vein thrombosis, collateralization, etc.
Knowledge of anatomic and vascular changes associated with vascular abnormities
Knowledge of sonographic findings associated with vascular abnormalities
Ability to recognize and apply proper scan technique in evaluating and documenting vascular abnormalities
2.B.2. Retroperitoneum (including: great vessels and branches) for aneurysm, dissection, thrombus, etc.
2.B.3. Scrotum for torsion, varicocele, etc.
2.B.4. Spleen for infarction, hemangiomas, etc.
2.B.5. Urinary system for renal artery stenosis, arteriovenous fistulas, etc.
2.C. Assess anatomic structures for trauma-related abnormalities
2.C.1. Hepatic system Knowledge of sonographic appearance as a result of trauma
Ability to rapidly prioritize and evaluate sonographic findings due to trauma
Ability to perform focused assessment for free fluid following a traumatic event
Ability to recognize and apply proper scan technique in evaluating and documenting trauma
2.C.2. Penis
2.C.3. Scrotum
2.C.4. Spleen
2.C.5. Superficial structures (for example: abdominal wall, subcutaneous tissue)
2.C.6. Urinary system
2.C.7. Focused assessment for free fluid related to traumatic events
2.D. Assess aspects related to postoperative anatomy
2.D.1. Anatomy of transplanted organs Knowledge of hemodynamics of transplanted organs
Knowledge of common causes of transplant failure
Ability to recognize signs of rejection
Ability to adjust scan technique based on patient condition and surgical history
Ability to distinguish characteristics of common anastomosis sites
Ability to recognize fluid collections
Ability to interpret and integrate surgical history with sonographic findings
Knowledge of surgical procedures used in organ transplant
Knowledge of surgical zones of the neck
Ability to evaluate and document findings within surgical zones of the neck
Knowledge of patterns and sonographic appearance of disease recurrence
Ability to evaluate transjugular intrahepatic
portosystemic shunts (TIPS)
Ability to recognize and apply proper scan technique in evaluating and documenting postsurgical findings
2.D.2. Perfusion and function of transplanted organs
2.D.3. Complications related to organ transplants
2.D.4. Abnormalities in postsurgical anatomy
2.D.5. Abnormalities in postsurgical breast
2.D.6. Abnormalities (for example: recurrent disease, lymphadenopathy) in postsurgical neck
2.D.7. Implanted medical devices (for example: transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt [TIPS])
3. Abdominal Physics Knowledge and/or skill related abdominal physics
3.A. Apply concepts of equipment/image optimization
3.A.1. Use appropriate transducer (for example: curvilinear, linear, phased array)
Ability to select the appropriate transducer and machine presets based on body habitus
Ability to use acoustic windows creatively to optimize visualization
Ability to adjust machine settings to maximize penetration while minimizing resolution loss
Knowledge of appropriate application of Doppler techniques
Ability to manipulate color, power, and pulsed wave settings to accurately display and measure blood flow
3.A.2. Use two-dimensional, real-time, grayscale imaging (for example: B-mode, compound, harmonic)
3.A.3. Use Doppler (for example: color, power, pulsed wave)
3.B. Apply concepts of imaging artifacts
3.B.1. Assess artifacts of gray-scale imaging (for example: shadowing, resonance, comet tail)
Ability to recognize artifacts and correlate them with anatomy and pathology
Ability to manipulate machine settings to enhance or
3.B.2. Assess artifacts of Doppler imaging minimize artifacts (for example: twinkle, spectral broadening)
4. Clinical Care, Practice, and Quality Assurance
Knowledge and/or skill related to clinical care, practice, and quality assurance
4.A. Incorporate clinical data with performed study
4.A.1. Assess indications for examination requested
Knowledge of appropriate indications and contraindications for a specific exam and/or procedure
Knowledge of potential effects of patient medications on an exam or procedure
Knowledge of lab values relevant to specific examinations
Ability to obtain and evaluate patient history relevant to the exam
Ability to assimilate patients signs and symptoms and modify the exam/or describe the findings
Ability to modify the exam based on information from other modalities
Ability to localize pathology for sonographic correlation
Ability to modify the exam based on real-time findings
Knowledge of modalities associated with the exam being performed
Ability to utilize resources, such as physicians, literature, or peers
4.A.2. Assess relevant clinical lab values for examination being performed
4.A.3. Assess relevant family history and patient signs/symptoms for examination being performed
4.A.4. Correlate ultrasound findings with previous imaging results
4.A.5. Evaluate images from other imaging modalities (for example: computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear medicine, x-ray)
4.B. Incorporate clinical standard/guidelines with performed study
4.B.1. Communicate effectively with the patient, physician, and others, including communication of findings that require immediate action
Ability to communicate with patient in a professional and appropriate manner to effectively explain procedures, deal with inappropriate behavior, and engage patient cooperation
Ability to communicate using appropriate medical terminology
Ability to modify exam preparation, patient position, and/or image acquisition based on patient condition and/or sonographic findings
Ability to recognize findings and/or situations that require immediate action and respond effectively
Knowledge of appropriate patient preparation for an exam and knowledge of factors that may affect patient preparation (for example: patient history, patient condition, sequencing requirements of multiple modality exams)
4.B.2. Inform patient or referring practitioner of examination preparations (for example: fasting for biliary imaging)
4.B.3. Maintain and protect patient confidentiality/privacy
4.B.4. Modify the examination based on patient condition and/or sonographic findings
4.B.5. Use multiple patient positions and scan planes to evaluate anatomic structures
Knowledge of sonographer scope of practice and regulations regarding patient information and interactions
4.C. Obtain accurate measurements
4.C.1. Obtain measurements of anatomic structures
Knowledge of normal measurement ranges
Knowledge of proper techniques for measuring anatomic structures
Knowledge of hemodynamics
Knowledge of normal and abnormal Doppler waveforms
Ability to analyze Doppler measurements
Ability to distinguish artifacts from actual blood flow
Ability to apply knowledge of measurement techniques (for example: Doppler and gray-scale)
4.C.2. Obtain measurements of Doppler waveforms
4.D. Assist/support during procedures
4.D.1. Obtain consent form and patient lab results prior to the procedure
Knowledge of sonographer's role in obtaining consent
Ability to verify and document patient consent
Ability to verify correct patient, side (laterality), and site
Knowledge of contraindications for specific procedures
Knowledge of proper safety precautions in interventional procedures
Knowledge of equipment and materials used for a specific procedure
Knowledge of interventional procedures and sonographer's role
Knowledge of protocols during surgical procedures, related to the sonographer's role
Ability to adapt protocol due to different circumstances
Ability to optimally display the needle path and tip
Ability to recognize implanted medical devices
Knowledge of potential post-procedural complications
4.D.2. Provide ultrasound guidance for procedures
4.D.3. Evaluate for post-procedural changes/complications

American Registry for Diagnostic Medical Sonography - 2022
Medical Diagnostic syllabus
Killexams : Medical Diagnostic syllabus - BingNews Search results Killexams : Medical Diagnostic syllabus - BingNews Killexams : NMC Guidelines For Competency Based Training Programme For DM Virology

The National Medical Commission (NMC) has released the Guidelines For Competency Based Postgraduate Training Programme For DM In Virology.

The discipline of virology has evolved from the initial description of a virus as 'contagium vivum fluidum' in the 19th century, to the concept of the virome in the 21st century. The field is a fascinating and rapidly evolving branch of medicine with immense relevance to humanity and modern medicine.

Viral diseases are an important contributor to morbidity and mortality to the infectious disease burden in the country, but are often under diagnosed and hence go undetected. Many of the new, emerging and re-emerging pathogens are viruses. Despite the felt need, services for viral diagnosis are still rudimentary at state level colleges in the country, owing to lack of both infrastructure and trained professionals in the discipline. Only a few tertiary care hospitals in the country have the set up of a clinical virology laboratory. There is strong emphasis on building capacity for viral diagnosis and research, with the Indian Council of Medical Research setting up a multi-tier network of virology laboratories across the country. This D.M. programme in virology will also help in enhancing specialized human resources for this activity.

Much of the progress in virology has been technology and expertise driven, and huge strides were made in the discipline with the advent of cell culture, monoclonal antibodies by hybridoma technology and, finally, nucleic acid-based tests. These have truly changed the face of medical virology, particularly in medicine. It is essential to take this discipline ahead in India, with a super- speciality program in this field.


The primary objective of the program is to produce a cadre of specialized medical virologists who would help establish clinical diagnostic services in various hospitals/centres in the country and provide training and knowledge dissemination in this super-speciality.

The secondary objectives of the program are manifold. The trainee is expected to acquire adequate understanding of processes involved in the pre-analytical, analytical and post- analytical phases of the clinical diagnostic laboratory testing for viral infections, as detailed below.

At the end of the course, the trainee is expected to be able to:

• Organise sample collection, transportation, processing and storage in an appropriate manner

• Perform/supervise the basic principles of viral assays/techniques

• Perform and interpret the results of assays /techniques and their clinical significance

• Troubleshoot all problems related to the assays/techniques, after proper root cause analysis

• Discuss results with treating clinicians and advise further investigations

• Assure quality of the assays/techniques concerned

• Plan, write and implement research projects in virology, analyze their results and publish these in peer-reviewed journals

• Coordinate with concerned agencies regarding viral diseases and their outbreaks

• Plan and execute epidemiological studies and provide advice in relation to viral diseases


A. Cognitive domain (Knowledge domain)

At the end of the course, the student should be able to understand and describe the following, in the context of the medically important viruses listed in the syllabus below:

1. The morphology and genomic organization of the virus

2. The epidemiology of the viral infection

3. The clinical presentation of the viral illness

4. The immune-pathogenesis of the infection

5. The laboratory diagnosis of the virus, including conventional and molecular approaches

6. Prophylaxis and treatment of infection

B. Affective domain (attitudes including communication and professionalism)

At the end of the course, the trainee should be able to understand and apply effectively the principles and practices pertaining to the following issues:

• Human ethics (including confidentiality, written informed consent, etc.)

• Animal ethics

• Counselling (pre- and post-test)

• Communication with patients and clinicians

• Professionalism and integrity

In view of this, the post graduate student should:

1. Should be able to function as a part of a team, develop an attitude of cooperation with colleagues, and interact with the patient and the clinician or other colleagues to provide the best possible diagnosis or opinion.

2. Always adopt ethical principles and maintain proper etiquette in dealings with patients, relatives and other health personnel and to respect the rights of the patient including the right to information and second opinion.

3. Develop communication skills to word reports and professional opinion as well as to interact with patients, relatives, peers and paramedical staff, and for effective teaching.

C. Psychomotor domain

At the end of the course, the student should acquire following skills and be able to do the following:

1. Virological techniques: At the end of the course the student should be able to perform independently, interpret, validate, provide troubleshooting and assure quality, for the following practical techniques:

• Isolation of viruses - Cell (tissue) culture;

- Embryonated hen's egg inoculation (various routes)

- Animal inoculation

• Staining and microscopy for viral inclusion bodies

• Electron microscopy

• Immunofluorescence

• Enzyme immunoassay/ ELISA

• Immunochromatographic tests (ICT) and other point-of-care (PoC) tests

• Immunoblotting/ Western blot assay

• Hemagglutination and haemadsorption

• Conventional serological assays (optional): Complement fixation test (CFT), hemagglutination inhibition, etc.

• Neutralization assay

• Nucleic acid extraction

• Nucleic acid amplification techniques (target amplification, e.g., PCR, real-time PCR, etc.; signal amplification)

• Amplicon detection techniques – Gel electrophoresis, hybridization, etc.

• Nucleic acid sequencing and sequence analysis


Course contents:

A. General Virology

• Principles of viral structure

• Viral taxonomy

• Replication of DNA and RNA viruses

• Innate responses to viral infections

• Adaptive immune response to viral agents

• Pathogenesis of viral infections

• Viral evolution

• Epidemiology of viral infections

• Bacteriophages

• Antiviral agents - mechanisms of action, PK/PD, clinical indications

• Antiviral resistance testing

• Immunization against viral diseases

• Diagnostic virology

B. Systemic Virology

(i) DNA viruses

• Poxviridae - Variola, Vaccinia, Molluscum contagiosum etc.

• Herpesviridae – HSV-1 and -2, HCMV, VZV, EBV etc.

• Adenoviridae

• Papillomaviridae

• Polyomaviridae - JCPyV, BKPyV etc.

• Parvoviridae - Parvovirus B19,

• Hepadnaviridae - HBV

(ii) RNA viruses

• Picornaviridae - Enterovirus (Poliovirus, Coxsackievirus etc.), Rhinovirus

• Orthomyxoviridae - Influenza

• Paramyxoviridae – Parainfluenza, Measles, Mumps, RSV, HPMV etc.

• Reoviridae - Rotavirus etc.

• Caliciviridae - Norovirus, Sapovirus etc.

• Astroviridae

• Coronaviridae – incl. SARSCoV, MERS CoV etc.

• Rhabdoviridae – Rabies, Chandipura virus etc.

• Flaviviridae - DENV, JE virus, KFD, Zika etc.

• Togaviridae - Chikungunya virus, Rubella virus

• Bunyaviridae - CCHF, Hanta etc.

• Arenaviridae

• Filoviridae - Marburg, Ebola virus etc.

• Retroviridae - HIV, HTLV 1&2

C. Clinical virology

• Viral infections of the skin - including pediatric exanthems and enanthems

• Viral respiratory infections - rhinitis, pharyngitis, croup, bronchiolitis, pneumonia etc.

• Viral CNS infections - encephalitis, meningitis, acute flaccid paralysis, etc.

• Viral gastroenteritis - viruses causing diarrhoea

• Viral hepatitis – e.g., due to HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV, HEV etc.

• Viral infections in the immunocompromised – e.g., in transplant recipients

• Congenital viral infections – e.g., due to HCMV, rubella, VZV, HIV etc.

• Sexually transmitted viral infections

• Ocular viral infections

• Oncogenic viral infections


• Prion diseases

D. Viral epidemiology

• Viral outbreak preparedness, investigation, prevention and control

• Emerging and re-emerging viruses

• Conventional and molecular epidemiology of viral infections

• Biosafety, containment and biosecurity for viruses (including standard precautions, use for personal protective equipment, hospital infection control and biomedical waste management)

• Vectors of viral diseases and their control

E. Viral immunology

• Immune responses to viral infections

• Immunopathogenesis of viral diseases

• Viral vaccines and vectors

F. Virological methods

• Techniques for viral diagnosis (as listed under the psychomotor domain)

• Principles of calibration and preventive maintenance of equipments

G. Research methodology

• As a part of the common training of all post-graduates

Psychomotor domain

1. Virological techniques: At the end of the course the student should be able to perform independently, interpret, validate, provide troubleshooting and assure quality, for the following practical techniques:

• Isolation of viruses - Cell (tissue) culture;

- Embryonated hen's egg inoculation (various routes)

- Animal inoculation

• Staining and microscopy for viral inclusion bodies

• Electron microscopy

• Immunofluorescence

• Enzyme immunoassay/ ELISA

• Immunochromatographic tests (ICT) and other point-of-care (PoC) tests

• Immunoblotting/ Western blot assay

• Hemagglutination and haemadsorption

• Conventional serological assays (optional): Complement fixation test (CFT), hemagglutination inhibition, etc.

• Neutralization assay

• Nucleic acid extraction

• Nucleic acid amplification techniques (target amplification, e.g., PCR, real-time PCR, etc.; signal amplification)

• Amplicon detection techniques – Gel electrophoresis, hybridization, etc.

• Nucleic acid sequencing and sequence analysis

2. Teaching skills/ Pedagogy: At the end of the course, the trainee should be able to teach and train undergraduates, post-graduates and technical staff, the theoretical and practical aspects of clinical virology


Formal Teaching:

1. Journal Club: 1 hour duration - Paper presentation/discussion - once per week.

2. Seminar: One seminar every week of one hour duration (afternoon)

3. Lecture/discussion: Lectures on newer Topics by faculty, in place of seminar as per need.

4. Case presentation: Presentation of clinical cases/ case scenarios of viral infection. The post graduate students will present a clinical case for discussion before a faculty and discussion made pertaining to its laboratory infection and management.

5. Combined Round/Grand Round: These exercises are to be done for the hospital once every 2-3 months involving presentation of unusual or difficult cases of viral infections. Presentation of cases in clinical combined / grand rounds and clinical series/ research data for the benefit of all clinicians and other related disciplines

6. Practical (laboratory bench-side) learning-teaching activities: During the laboratory postings, this will be ongoing, where the postgraduate student will learn from senior colleagues and peers, as well as teach virology to the microbiology post-graduate students

7. Microbiology undergraduate and post-graduate teaching programmes: The postgraduate student will participate in conducting these programmes (theory classes and practical exercises)

8. CMEs/Workshops: The postgraduate student should attend at least 2 of these during their posting.

9. A postgraduate student of a postgraduate degree course in broad specialities/super specialities would be required to present one poster presentation, to read one paper at a national/state

conference and to present one research paper which should be published/accepted for publication/sent for publication during the period of his postgraduate studies so as to make him eligible to appear at the postgraduate degree examination.

10. A postgraduate student of a postgraduate degree course in broad specialities/super specialities would be required to present one poster presentation, to read one paper at a national/state conference and to present one research paper which should be published/accepted for publication/sent for publication during the period of his postgraduate studies so as to make him eligible to appear at the postgraduate degree examination.


The Postgraduate students shall maintain a log book of the work carried out by them and the training programme undergone during the period of training including details of laboratory exercises and work done independently by the D.M. trainees. The log book shall be checked and assessed periodically by the faculty members imparting the training, including the clinical and external postings (described below).

12. Postings: Recommended schedule for three years training:

The postgraduate student is required to work full time in the Virology Department, and participate in the patient care-related and academic and research activities as described below. The orientation during the first year at the institution would include participation in the undergraduate teaching programmes, during all activities pertaining to virology. The postgraduate student should also participate in all postgraduate (M.D. Microbiology) academic activities pertaining to virology throughout their tenure. These may be arranged in collaboration with another local institution running these courses with MCI approval, if they are not available within the same institution.

In addition to the above, during the tenure, the following learning activities should be completed:

- Core curriculum of research methodology, biostatistics, ethics and principles of epidemiology: 1 month

- Viral diagnostic techniques (3 modules of 6 months each/ year, as follows)

  • Viral serology: 2 months
  • Viral culture and identification (including cell culture): 2 months
  • Molecular diagnostic tests in virology: 2 months

- Pathology posting: Histopathology of viral infections: 1 month

- Clinical virology postings (total duration 6 months; during 2nd or 3rd year): During this period the postgraduate students would spend the mornings in the concerned wards and the afternoons in the virology laboratory (processing and following up the clinical samples collected/ received). In the wards, they should assist in ward rounds with senior colleagues in these specialities, attend calls/consultations and participate in the bedside clinical teaching sessions related to cases with suspected viral infections.

  • Medicine (1 month)
  • Pediatrics (especially for congenital infections, viral respiratory infections and gastroenteritis, exanthems, etc.) (1 month)
  • Neurology (2 weeks to 1 month)
  • Transplant Medicine/ Nephrology (for opportunistic viral infections) (2 weeks to 1 month)
  • Oncology/ Haematology (for opportunistic viral infections) (2 weeks to 1 month)
  • Gastroenterology (especially for viral hepatitis) (2 weeks to 1 month)
  • HIV facilities: Counselling, ICTC, PPTCT and ART clinic (2 weeks)
  • Ophthalmology (ocular viral infections) (2 weeks)
  • Dermatology (2 weeks)

- External postings (arrangements must be formalized by the institution): 3rd year, first quarter with recognized national/international institutes in the concerned discipline.

13. The department should encourage e-learning activities


FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT, ie., during the training

Formative assessment should be continual and should assess medical knowledge, patient care, procedural & academic skills, interpersonal skills, professionalism, self directed learning and ability to practice in the system.

Quarterly assessment during the DM training should be based on:

1. Journal based / exact advances learning

2. Patient based /Laboratory or Skill based learning

3. Self directed learning and teaching

4. Departmental and interdepartmental learning activity

5. External and Outreach Activities / CMEs

The student to be assessed periodically as per categories listed in postgraduate student appraisal form (Annexure I).

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT, at the end of the course

The summative examination would be carried out as per the Rules given in POSTGRADUATE MEDICAL EDUCATION REGULATIONS, 2000.

The summative assessment examination shall include two heads:

A. Theory examination.

B. Practical, Clinical examination and Viva-voce.

Theory examination and Practical/Clinical, Viva-voce shall be separate heads of passing.

Theory examination shall comprise of four papers. Passing percentage shall be cumulatively 50% with minimum of 40% marks in each theory paper.

Practical /Clinical examination consisting of at least one long case, three short cases and viva-voce. Passing percentage shall be 50%.

Passing shall be separate for each head and failing shall be common, meaning thereby that clearance at theory and failure at practical / clinical shall amount to failure at Summative examination and vice versa.

The D.M. examination shall include: -

1. Outbreak investigation: The report of any one outbreak investigated, in coordination with the Department of Community Medicine, during the course is to be brought by each trainee at the time of the practical examination and to be assessed along with the practical skills.

2. Theory Examination:

There shall be four theory papers as follows:

Paper I: Basic sciences, as applied to the subject

Paper II: Subject specific (theoretical knowledge)

Paper III: Subject specific (application based)

Paper IV: exact advances in the subject

3. Clinical / Practical and Oral: Practical examination shall consist of carrying out special investigative techniques for diagnosis and therapy. Oral examination shall be comprehensive enough to test the trainee's overall knowledge of the subject.

The practical examination should consist of the following and should be spread over three days.

1. Three practical exercises, based on clinical case scenarios, leading to one test each from viral serology, culture and molecular assays, respectively. This would cover all aspects of the test, from clinical differential diagnosis to actual performance of the test, its interpretation and quality assurance.

2. Short exercises/ objectively structured practical examination (OSPE) exercises/ slides/ spots from various sections of the subject, related to applied aspects.

Oral Examination: To be conducted at the end of the practical examination

Recommended Reading: Books (latest edition):

• Reviews of Medical Microbiology by Jawetz

• Lennette's Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections

• Clinical Virology Manual (ASM)

• Medical Virology by White and Fenner

• Mandell, Douglas and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases

• Field's Virology

• Virology by Topley and Wilson


3-5 International and two national (indexed) journals

Sun, 09 Oct 2022 00:30:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : A look inside Syllabus

What really is a syllabus? Is it a tool or a manifesto? A machine or a plan? What are its limits? Its horizon? And who is it really for? And what would happen if you took the syllabus as seriously as you take the most serious forms of writing in your own discipline? 

It’s so familiar. The first day, the first class meeting, the noises, the competing interests of choosing seats and choosing neighbors, the geometry of students and backpacks, tools, food, books. For you, it’s curtain up. You’ve brought with you a set of handouts, the ones you quickly say are also and always available online in the course learning module. You distribute the handouts, making eye contact as you do it—everyone is so young, and the class is more diverse each time you steal a glance. You’re looking for their response, even before they’ve read a word of what you’ve set down. 

You remind yourself that your students are there for one of two reasons. Either they have to be there, or they want to be there. Either your course is a) required of everyone or maybe required in some specific track, or b) it’s an elective. You know that neither category guarantees an easy ride, and you wouldn’t want it any other way. Teaching is hard. One of your goals is to have the students who have to be there want to be there. Another goal is surely to make students who choose your course tell others that it was amazing, that you were terrific. Teaching is hard, you tell yourself again. Knowing that is part of being a teacher. 

You feel the electricity of performance, the responsibility of winning students over to your discipline. You run through what you’re going to say this hour in a distracted, internal monologue. A few moments later, and the class has settled down into what looks like an attentive studying of the handout. It feels as if it’s your moment to lose: students poring over the little world you’ve created for them, a place where the hierarchy of the university—your mastery, their innocent but open-minded ignorance—is mediated by a simple document and the set of rules to which it conforms. Their eyes turn to you. Electronics are stowed. You pick up a piece of chalk. House lights down. You begin. You will be at that blackboard, chalk in hand, for sixteen weeks, and during that time your voice, and your brilliance, will fill the space. 

You begin talking, but something strange is happening. All your expertise seems to have left you, and you’re jabbering on in what you recognize as a steady stream of amateurish nonsense. But that’s not the most horrifying part. What’s truly frightening is that the students are looking at you as if you’re making perfect sense—or, more accurately, as if it doesn’t matter whether you’re brilliant or banal. 

Then the alarm clock goes off and you wake up. It’s four a.m., still dark, and you don’t have to be on campus for another two weeks. You spent last night fine-tuning your syllabus one last time and in the process ratcheting up your own anxiety. 

You’ve just awakened from one version of the Academic’s Performance Dream. In the dream-class, you were about to tell the students something for sixteen weeks, which might be fine if your course were a one-way transmission to an adoring audience and nothing more. You wouldn’t really teach a class that way. 

And yet you’re beginning to concede that the dream that woke you is more or less a critique—your critique—of your own teaching, your unconscious mind accusing you of a particular kind of earnest, hardworking—what to call it?—laziness. You’re half-awake now and recognize too much of your own teaching style. It isn’t a horror show—far from it. Reasonably genial, largely inert, a series of solos in which you enacted knowledge of the subject, underscoring memorable points with chalk, points dutifully copied by a silent room of students whose own thoughts remained locked away for the semester or at least until the final exam. 

The sun’s coming up, and your morning resolution is not to teach that way again. You’re not even sure what kind of teaching that was, but it felt deeply incomplete. You’re awake now and, breaking the rules you’ve set for yourself, you’ve got your laptop open in bed. You’re anxiously looking over that syllabus one more time. Is it too much, too little, too complicated, too filled with arrows that point the student to side roads? Could you read your own syllabus and make a reasonable guess as to what the course wants to accomplish, as opposed to what your department’s course catalogue says that the course studies or describes? Could you recognize what the course challenges students to do? And how exactly would you, the teacher who wrote that syllabus, follow through on your own expectations for students? 

Dreaming or waking, these questions never seem to go away. Teachers aim high. Big targets, big goals. A class that sings with intellectual engagement. Rigorous but fair grading, and each student doing better than you had hoped. The gratification of giving the exemplary lecture to a room of attentive students. Your own delight in the difficulty that comes with thinking seriously about things that count. All good goals, which, taken together, add up to an ideal of the teacher-focused class. “You’re a star!” says somebody in the hallway, possibly without irony. 

But stars are bright, distant things, and the light they throw off is old, old news. What might it mean to teach now, to shine now, in the present, close to the moment and our students? This question is about more than diversity or age or ethnic sensitivity or a sympathetic engagement with the complexities of gender, or disability, or any of the other qualities that distinguish person from person. First or last, teaching is inevitably about all of these things.3 But to be present asks that we do so much more. Our students, hungry for something that starry light can’t provide by itself, need from us not just knowledge—even knowledge tempered by sensitivity—but craft. 

The myth of Prometheus—the Greek name means “forethought”—tells us that this most generous of Titans stole fire from the gods and brought it to us clay-built human creatures, functionally kindling life in our dark world. Teaching in the present is a bit like stealing fire. Here, o starry teacher, the fire is your own but briefly. Teaching is renouncing the glamour and assurance of the well-executed solo and sharing that light with your students, moving the focus from something we’ve long called teaching and giving the torch to learning. You can teach by yourself, or at least tell yourself that you can, but you can’t learn (let’s for a moment allow it to be a transitive verb meaning “to make them learn”) by yourself. 

Modern English learn has as one of its antecedents the Old English form gelaeran, which meant “to teach.” This etymological paradox isn’t a paradox at all, of course. If teaching is the thing that happens when students are learning, subject and object come to be bound together, like Aristophanes’s conception of the sexes balled up inseparably in The Symposium, a Möbius-like continuum of teaching and learning, enacted by teacher and student. 

We begin to discern the contours of this perplexing space of learning when we awake from the dream (it was always only a dream, never a solid reality) of the masterful teacher delivering knowledge. We can map out something so complex only by making a concerted effort to describe its nuances, conundrums, its areas of density and lightness. We perform this mapping and engage in this forethought when we compose a syllabus, but only if it is indeed an attempt to map the space of learning. Which means that, as we’ll say in several ways throughout this book, a syllabus isn’t so much about what you will do. It’s about what your students will do. 

This essay is an excerpt from Syllabus: The Remarkable, Unremarkable Document That Changes Everything by William Germano and Kit Nicholls.

William Germano is professor of English at Cooper Union. His books include Getting It Published and From Dissertation to Book. Twitter @WmGermano Kit Nicholls is director of the Center for Writing at Cooper Union, where he teaches writing, literature, and cultural studies.

Tue, 04 Oct 2022 09:05:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Artificial Intelligence and Health Care: What Premeds Should Know Medical Science Hospital: Confident Black Female Neurologist, Neuroscientist, Neurosurgeon, Looks at TV Screen with MRI Scan with Brain Images, Thinks about Sick Patient Treatment Method. Saving Lives © (Getty Images) Medical Science Hospital: Confident Black Female Neurologist, Neuroscientist, Neurosurgeon, Looks at TV Screen with MRI Scan with Brain Images, Thinks about Sick Patient Treatment Method. Saving Lives

With the advent of electronic medical records and wearable technology, data is becoming exponentially abundant in health care. Artificial intelligence has the potential to reshape medicine.

For example, AI can be used to aid doctors with their clinical decisions, find new tumor types in large research data sets, enhance the accuracy of diagnostic tests and Strengthen hospital operations. The applications of AI are endless.

Premedical students can get involved in the intersection of AI and medicine by learning specific skills and working on research projects.

Advancing Health Care Through AI: Innovative Applications

Dr. Justin Norden was interested in medicine upon entering Carleton College in Minnesota, but he was also interested in computer science. What began as one computer science class to learn the basics of programming blossomed into an intellectual passion, and Norden majored in computer science along with fulfilling his premed requirements.

"My computer science courses led me to better understand programming, data structures and algorithm design," Norden says. "All of this helped me in developing machine learning and AI applications in the future.”

Norden wanted to gain a deeper understanding of how his computer science degree could be applied to genomics and other health data applications, and he pursued a master’s in philosophy degree in computational biology at the University of Cambridge before entering the Stanford University School of Medicine.

Norden first applied his AI skills to analyze a large database of RNA sequencing data to understand the risks for developing colon cancer. He used machine learning techniques to create biomarker gene signatures in order to assess cancer risk.

At Stanford, Norden was curious about how to apply AI to digital health. He wanted to understand whether the data from wearable technologies could be leveraged to identify movement patterns in individuals and provide clinicians a more precise understanding of a patient’s disease. In one research study, he looked through accelerometer data in 4,000 patients and found several features that could differentiate among normal individuals, individuals with spinal stenosis and individuals with knee osteoarthritis.

Finally, Norden desired to see how new technologies were affecting health care delivery, so he joined the Stanford Center for Digital Health. He evaluated new technologies and studied the impact of digital health solutions. For example, one study assessed whether there were differences between in-person visits and telemedicine visits in how doctors ordered prescriptions, lab tests, procedures and images.

Building Skills, AI Project Experiences as a Premed

Norden advises premed students to first learn skills that are important in AI.

“I would highly recommend learning computer science. The more technical skills you develop before starting your clinical training," he says, "the more you will be able to bridge the fields of artificial intelligence, technology and medicine together.”

Math, data analytics and clinical medicine knowledge will be helpful, Norden adds. While he formally pursued a computer science major in college and a master's degree in computational biology, he encourages premeds to learn through informal arenas.

“There are a lot of great, free online classes that will teach you the necessary skills online," Norden says. "Interested premeds have more access now than ever before to learn AI.”

Once premeds gain coding skills, Norden highly recommends a next step: “My biggest advice for premeds is to find a project and a mentor – get involved in an AI project because there is so much opportunity and a great need in health care for these groundbreaking discoveries.”

Here are some avenues for premed students interested in AI projects:

Precision Medicine

One of the most common applications of AI in medicine is through precision medicine. AI can be used to understand patterns in patient attributes and then recommend a treatment plan based on AI analysis.

For example, a doctor can look at a cystic fibrosis patient’s specific genotype to help guide a personalized treatment regimen.

Patterns in Large Clinical Data Sets

AI is commonly applied to large clinical data sets to help researchers analyze patterns in data. For example, AI techniques have been used to understand gene expression data and tumor markers in cancer. In fact, researchers have been able to discover new cancer subtypes through this AI method.


One increasingly popular area among start-up companies is applying AI in radiology to more accurately identify abnormalities in patient diagnostic tests. For example, AI is now able to diagnose diseases in chest X-rays, like early stages of pneumonia.

Clinical Decision Support

Doctors and administrators can help design AI algorithms to guide physicians in clinical decision-making. For example, certain patient risk factors can alert doctors that a patient is at risk for an infection. Then the physician can either monitor the patient more closely or prescribe a medication to prevent an infection.

Hospital Administration

Hospitals are only beginning to discover how AI can be applied to hospital operations to increase patient follow-up appointments, optimize appointment slots and Strengthen billing. For example, AI can be used to identify patients who need follow-up appointments and then send them reminders to set up one.

Another example is that hospitals can develop AI tools to calculate optimal operating room efficiency. A newer, innovative application of AI in hospitals is emerging through smart sensors, which can detect when a patient falls and alert health care providers immediately.

Natural Language Processing

Speech recognition is one nonmedical AI application that is being improved over time, and it is helpful in medicine as well. Doctors use speech recognition software to dictate their notes, which improves physician charting efficiency.

Natural language processing is also powering medical chatbots that interact with patients to provide immediate answers and a first layer of medical support.

AI is revolutionizing health care, and premeds can explore exciting ways to advance medicine and scientific research in this interdisciplinary field.

Copyright 2022 U.S. News & World Report

Tue, 04 Oct 2022 02:05:01 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : CBSE Class 10 German Syllabus 2022-23: get Syllabus and Assessment Scheme

CBSE Class 10 German Syllabus 2022-23: Check CBSE Class 10 German Syllabus for the academic session 2022-2023. get the latest curriculum to know the required course content to be prepared for CBSE Class 10 German Annual exam 2022-23.

CBSE Class 10 German Syllabus 2022-23

CBSE Class 10 German Syllabus 2022-23: Class 10 Syllabus and Assessment Scheme for the foreign language German is available for free access on the academic website of CBSE. Candidates appearing for the CBSE board exams 2022-23 can get ready for the upcoming board examinations using this. 

German is an optional foreign language course offered by CBSE to students from class 6 onwards. Although learning any new language is considered difficult, 10 to 16 is generally considered the ideal age group to learn a foreign language. However, it definitely takes time, practice and commitment. It’s the same with the German language. The syllabus of German in CBSE class 10 is more focused on communication and practical usage than grammar. 

The assessment scheme for CBSE Class 10 German, in short, is as follows:

Section A - Reading  20
Section B - Writing 10
Section C - Applied Grammar  30
Section D -Textbook  20
Internal Assessment 20

View the complete syllabus for CBSE Class 10 German below:

Class X 

Lesson  Situation/Topic Speech intention Structure
Lesson 6 Food To present a topic To state advantages and disadvantagesTo conclude a presentation To thank the audience for their interest Indirect questions with question words and using “ob”Adjectives in Nominative and Accusative case without article 
Lesson 7 Media and Advertisements To report about something To ask for directions and describe the route To formulate a slogan for an advertisement Simple past tensePrepositions of place and direction in Accusative, Dative and Mixed Relative clause: Relative pronouns with prepositions.Degrees of adjectives: comparative and superlative
Lesson 8 Learning languages  To talk about limitations To talk about one’s own experience with a foreign language To negotiate Subordinate clauses: “weil” and “obwohl”Past perfect tense(Not to be tested in Grammar)
Lesson 9 Involvement in social causes To narrate about one’s own lifeTo speculate To state the order of events Relative clause: relative pronoun “wo”, “was”(Not to be tested in Grammar)Clause of time: “als” Clause of time:“nachdem”(Not to be tested in Grammar) 

Deleted Portion 

Lessons  Grammar Topics 
Lesson 8 Past perfect tense
Lesson 9 Relative clause: relative pronoun “wo”, “was” Clauses of time: “nachdem” 
Landeskunde Following pages not to be evaluated. Textbook pages 56, 57 Workbook Pages 64 and 94, 95


CBSE Class 10 German Syllabus 2022-23

Internal Assessment, Class X 

  (Total weightage out of 20)
1. Periodic tests, dictations 5/20
2. Listening comprehensions 5/20
3. Speaking activities – role play, presentations, recitation… (could be conducted as individual or group activity) 5/20
4. Regularity and quality of classwork & homework 5/20

PRESCRIBED TEXT BOOK: Beste Freunde B 1.1 (Lessons 5-8)

 (Hueber Publications, Published in India by Goyal Publishers)


  • Team Deutsch 2/1 
  • Planet 2 
  • Ping Pong 2 
  • Wir 3 
  • Langenscheidt Euro Dictionary 
  • K.M. Sharma; German-Hindi/ Hindi-German Dictionary. 
  • Rachna Publishing House

At Jagran Josh, you can also access CBSE Class 10 German Syllabus 2022-23 in pdf, if you wish to get and print. 

DOWNLOAD CBSE Class 10 German Syllabus 2022-23

Best of luck to all the candidates.


What is the syllabus of Class 10 CBSE 2022-23 German?

Syllabus of Class 10 CBSE 2022-23 German covers reading, writing, applied grammar and practical usage. Check the full syllabus and assessment scheme on Jagran Josh.

Is CBSE 10th German 2022-23 syllabus reduced?

Yes. You can check the deleted portion for the Class 10 German syllabus in this article on Jagran

Wed, 12 Oct 2022 19:37:00 -0500 text/html
Killexams : Besides100 MBBS, 60 nursing seats; AIIMS Bilaspur to also act as nodal institution for speciality, super speciality services

Shimla: A day after its inauguration by the honourable Prime minister, AIIMS Bilaspur is moving on the path of becoming the nodal institution for higher medical care in the state. Himachal Pradesh State Cabinet meeting held here Thursday under the chairmanship of Chief Minister Jai Ram Thakur gave the approval to draft MoU between the State Government and Central Government...

Shimla: A day after its inauguration by the honourable Prime minister, AIIMS Bilaspur is moving on the path of becoming the nodal institution for higher medical care in the state. 

Himachal Pradesh State Cabinet meeting held here Thursday under the chairmanship of Chief Minister Jai Ram Thakur gave the approval to draft MoU between the State Government and Central Government regarding AIIMS.It would make AIIMS to act as an apex body for medical education and research and act as a nodal institution for providing specialty and Super specialty levels of healthcare in the state.

Also Read:PM Modi to inaugurate AIIMS Bilaspur on October 5

A government spokesman said, under the MoU, AIIMS would act as a Training Center for Doctors, Nurses, and Health Workers, providing medical and para-medical courses both at undergraduate and postgraduate levels.

It would also provide a platform for conducting international and national level conferences and also a place for achieving excellence in the medical field.

Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Wednesday inaugurated the fully functional All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) in Himachal Pradesh's Bilaspur.

The AIIMS whose foundational stone was also laid by the Prime Minister in October 2017 -- has been established under the Central sector scheme Pradhan Mantri Swasthya Suraksha Yojana.

AIIMS Bilaspur, constructed at a cost of more than Rs 1,470 crore, is a state-of-the-art hospital with 18 specialty and 17 super specialty departments, 18 modular operation theatres and 750 beds with 64 ICU beds.

Spread over 247 acres, the hospital is equipped with 24 hours emergency and dialysis facilities, modern diagnostic machines like ultrasonography, CT scan, MRI etc., Amrit Pharmacy and Jan Aushadhi Kendra and also a 30-bedded AYUSH block.

The hospital has also set up the Centre for Digital Health to provide health services in tribal and inaccessible tribal areas of Himachal Pradesh.

Also, specialist health services will be provided by the hospital through health camps in the inaccessible tribal and high Himalayan regions like Kaza, Saluni, and Keylong.

The hospital will admit 100 students for the MBBS courses and 60 students for nursing courses every year.

Also Read:HP: Many IGMC's senior faculty members to join AIIMS Bilaspur

Thu, 06 Oct 2022 19:47:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : CBSE Class 10 Hindi deleted syllabus 2022-23: What NOT to Study?

Check to know the deleted portions of CBSE Class 10 Hindi (A & B) syllabus not to be assessed in CBSE Class 10 Hindi Board exam 2022-23.

CBSE Class 10 Hindi deleted syllabus 2022-23

CBSE Class 10 Hindi deleted syllabus 2022-23: CBSE Class 10 students are gradually beginning their preparations for the their Board Exams, likely to be commencing from February 2023. Now, as important as it is for students to know what to study, it is equally important for them to know what not to study.  Students of CBSE Class 10 Hindi must be aware that the board has reduced the portions to be assessed in this upcoming year. Certain Topics have been removed to unburden the students who were dealing with online classes and the pandemic itself.

In this article, you will get below the list of Topics that you do not need to study because these will not be assessed in the CBSE Class 10 Hindi Board exam 2022-23.

First, get the prescribed syllabus for 2022-23 from the link below:

The deleted syllabus for CBSE Class 10 Hindi A 2022-23:

CBSE Class 10 Hindi A deleted syllabus 2022-23

The deleted syllabus for CBSE Class 10 Hindi B 2022-23:

CBSE Class 10 Hindi B deleted syllabus 2022-23

If you are a candidate appearing for CBSE class 10 examinations then, also check:

How to Prepare for CBSE Class 10 Board exam 2022-23?

Click on the link below to analyse which Topics you need more practise in:

Best of luck to all the candidates.

What is the syllabus of Class 10 Hindi 2022-23?

The syllabus for CBSE Class 10 Hindi (A and B) can be accessed from this article by Jagran Josh

Can I get the Class 10 Hindi syllabus 2022-23 from here?

Yes, get CBSE Class 10 Hindi 2022-23 syllabus from Jagran Josh.

Fri, 14 Oct 2022 07:59:00 -0500 text/html
Killexams : Amit Shah to launch syllabus of medical education in Hindi in Bhopal

Union Home Minister Amit Shah will launch the Madhya Pradesh government’s project to impart medical education in Hindi at an event on October 16, 2022, a senior minister said on Friday.

According to the statement, the minister will unveil the textbooks of Hindi syllabus of medical education during a programme at Motilal Nehru stadium, state Medical Education Minister Vishvas Sarang said.

During the review of the preparations for the programme on Thursday, Chief Minister Shivraj Singh Chouhan said it was a programme to establish the pride of one’s mother tongue and a landmark event to change the mindset of people.

According to him, this will be an example to prove that specialised subjects can be taught in Hindi and not just in English.

Chouhan further said that apart from medical education, engineering, nursing and paramedical courses will also be taught in Hindi in the state in days to come.

“The first volume of books for subjects such as physiology, biochemistry and anatomy are ready and students studying in the first year of MBBS, will be given these books,” Sarang said. Textbooks for the three subjects were readied by a team of experts, he said, adding that the second volume of these books was being prepared.

“Books are being prepared in such a manner that technical terms such as blood pressure, spine, heart, kidney and liver or other important body parts and related terms are written in Hindi as they are pronounced in English. They will also be written in brackets in English,” Sarang said.

In the first year, physiology, anatomy and biochemistry are mainly taught to students, the minister said. 

With inputs from PTI.

Also Read: Jammu-Kashmir announces uniform academic calendar in schools

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Fri, 07 Oct 2022 17:45:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : GNTC Business Healthcare Technology Program Provides Shot In The Arm To Fight Medical Coder Shortage Georgia Northwestern Technical College’s Business Healthcare Technology program prepares graduates not only to help combat a nationwide shortage of medical coders but also to provide data that will influence medical protocols and patient outcomes. 
The American Academy of Professional Coders defines medical coding as the translation of healthcare diagnoses, procedures, medical services and equipment into universal medical alphanumeric codes.
“The aging Baby Boomers’ increased healthcare needs and the need for more statistical data—as we have discovered with the exact pandemic—have contributed to the increased demand for medical coding,” said Gina Stephens, instructor of Business Administrative Technology. “Medical coding offers many opportunities for specialization and growth.”  
The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts a need for more than 34,000 medical records and health information specialists annually over this decade. 
“The World Health Organization (WHO) develops and regulates diagnostic and procedural codes and collects data from countries around the world to track regional, state, national and global health statistics,” said Lisa Hunt, program director of Business Healthcare Technology. “Disease tracking allows us to identify and address outbreaks in their early phase, before they become endemic or pandemic in nature.” 
The data can be used when organizations like the Centers for Disease Control work with the WHO to address safe water, vaccination protocols, disaster planning, patient education and treatment, prevention guidelines and other environmental issues, she said. 
The WHO even tracks accidents with these codes. If the agency notes a higher number of accidents in a region, the cause of the accidents can be researched so that safety measures can be implemented, Ms. Hunt said.  
Pharmaceutical companies also use medical codes to identify medication resistance and new pharmacological needs and to examine the quality of care by tracking patient outcomes. Insurance companies, in turn, use that data to adjust premiums, she said. 
Many cutting-edge technologies and social viewpoints influence medical coding, Ms. Stephens said, adding that “artificial intelligence and social determinants of health are very interesting influences on medical coding.”  
Basic medical coding can be done with artificial intelligence, but complex decisions and audits require a coding expert, Ms. Hunt said, adding “we are training our students to code using Encoders, which is the current industry trend.”   
At its heart, medical coding begins with the healthcare provider, Ms. Hunt said. 
“If the data on a patient’s chart does not match the medical diagnosis (International Classification of Diseases code) or a procedural code, the provider or facility can be penalized financially or subject to criminal charges,” Ms. Hunt said. 
Federal oversight is conducted through the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, the Department of Health and Human Resources and the Office of the Inspector General, she said. 
The FBI reports tens of billions of dollars in losses annually from healthcare fraud. Facilities are also required to return millions of dollars each year for coding errors, abuse and fraud, she said.  
Inaccurate coding can also create a financial crisis or result in a negative impact on a patient’s life or wellbeing, Ms. Stephens said.
GNTC’s program covers many of the potential problems that can be avoided in coding errors, accounting fundamentals, electronic communications, internet research, electronic file management, healthcare regulation and compliance, effective communication skills and terminology, she said. The program also provides opportunities to upgrade present knowledge and skills or to retrain in the area of administrative technology. 
The program, launched in fall 2017, emphasizes the use of software and technology, she said.
Ms. Hunt said the program offers Medical Front Office Assistant courses; certificates in Medical Coding, Healthcare Documentation Specialist, Healthcare Billing and Reimbursement Assistant, and Healthcare Billing and Coding Specialist; a diploma in Business Healthcare Technology; and an associate degree in Business Healthcare Technology specializing in either Compliance and Reimbursement or in Practice Management.  
To date 300 students have earned a degree, diploma or certificate in the Business Healthcare Technology program, and 229 students have completed Medical Front Office Assistant courses, according to GNTC data.  
“Students can start at any level in the program,” she said. “Oftentimes, they begin by earning a certificate and work up to the associate degree. Courses transfer from the certificate level upward; this allows students to enter the workforce earlier and continue to work towards their degree post-employment.”   
As more and more college graduates seek opportunities to work at home, new graduates in this field rarely work from home. “They will be asked to work onsite until they are fully oriented to the company and show they are coding with 95% accuracy,” she said. 
The program also attracts a number of retired nurses and educators from the K-12 system who are looking for “work from home” opportunities during their retirement years, she said. 
“We also offer our program to high school students through Dual Enrollment,” Ms. Hunt stated. “Some of my best students come from this area.”
Ms. Hunt believes another way the program stands out is that the faculty has combined decades of experience in the healthcare field industry and higher education experience. She said the staff includes bilingual faculty, and 75 percent are Registered Nurses. 
“This breadth of experience allows us to understand healthcare from many different perspectives with a comprehensive view of facility organization,” Ms. Hunt said. 
Ms. Stephens oversees campus needs and serves as instructor on the Floyd, Gordon and Polk County campuses. Ms. Hunt is the program director and instructor at the Catoosa, Walker and Whitfield Murray County campuses.
Ms. Hunt earned her associate degree in nursing at Dalton State College, a bachelor’s degree in business administration at Colorado Technical University, her master’s degree in business administration in health administration at Colorado Technical University and a bachelor’s degree in health information administration from Stephens College.  
Ms. Hunt holds a registered nurse license in Georgia and a compact license, a multistate license that allows a nurse to practice with patients across state lines, she said. She has nursing experience in pediatrics, obstetrics, medical/surgical and industrial health, as well as a Red Cross volunteer and CPR instructor. She works with the American Council on Education on Accreditation in higher education programs and on the development of the ACE Military Guide. 
She teaches classes covering healthcare delivery systems, reimbursement, healthcare administrative procedures, practice law and ethics, management fundamentals and healthcare leadership and professional effectiveness. 
Ms. Stephens said she graduated with an associate degree in nursing from Georgia Highlands College and pursued her master’s degree in nursing at Western Governors University. She worked as a registered nurse for more than 20 years and also performed medical transcription and medical coding/quality assurance duties.  
Both a certified professional coder and an American Academy of Professional Coders (AAPC) approved instructor, Ms. Stephens has taught all courses within the Business Healthcare Technology department, as well as a few in the Allied Health program, she said. Her current classes mostly consist of those related to coding, auditing and reimbursement.
Thu, 06 Oct 2022 02:55:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : FRA approves new hike in the fee structure of UG medical courses


According to the notification issued by the FRA, the fees for the UG medical courses in private colleges were approved following a meeting on 8 October

When compared with last year, the fee structure for private medical colleges remains the same apart from other few changes

The Fee Regulatory Authority (FRA) has approved the increase in fees for the undergraduate (UG) courses offered by various private medical colleges across the state for the 2022-23 academic year. According to the notification issued by the FRA, the fees for the UG medical courses in private colleges were approved following a meeting on 8 October.

When compared with last year, the fee structure for private medical colleges remains the same apart from other changes.

The fee structure of K J Somaiya Medical College, Sion, has been hiked to Rs 11.27 lakh per year from Rs 10 lakh per year. There is a significant increase in the fee structure of Padmashree Dr Vitthalrao Vike Patil Medical College in Ahmednagar to Rs 11 lakh per year from Rs 9.8 lakh per annum. The fee structure of Nagpur’s NKP Salve Institute of Medical Science and Research Centre has also increased to Rs 11.6 lakh from Rs 10.6 lakh per year.

Prakash Institute of Medical Science and Research has reduced its fee to Rs 4.8 per year from Rs 8.4 lakh per year. While Kashibai Navale Medical College in Pune and MVPS Vasantrao Pawar Medical College in Nashik have made very minimal changes in their fee structure, BKL Walawalkar Medical College from Chiplun and Terna Medical College in Navi Mumbai has kept the fee structure unchanged.

After the implementation of the security deposit clause for admissions in Post-Graduate medical courses, parents now anticipate that the same will be followed in the case of UG admissions as well, which makes the declaration of approved fee structures of private medical colleges important for them.

Last updated on 10 Oct 2022

Mon, 10 Oct 2022 00:44:00 -0500 text/html
Killexams : In-service quota for PG medical courses in Karnataka cut by 192 seats in 2022

In 2021-22, Karnataka had 398 PG medical in-service quota seats; this year, the number is 206

In 2021-22, Karnataka had 398 PG medical in-service quota seats; this year, the number is 206

Karnataka’s share of in-service quota post-graduate (PG) medical seats for the academic year 2022-23 is down by 192. In 2021-22, the State had a total of 398 PG medical in-service quota seats. This year, the number is 206.

The State Government has reserved 70% of PG medical seats for non-service doctors, and 30% seats for government in-service doctors.

The Karnataka Examinations Authority (KEA) has released 4,157 PG medical and dental course seat matrix for the 2022-23 academic year. The seat matrix for Diplomate of National Board (DNB) courses is yet to be released.

No notification

The State Government has not published the gazette notification for PGNEET-2022 counselling. However, it has released the PG medical seat matrix and started the counselling process.

Within the 30% of in-service quota seats, the government has allotted 77% for doctors in the Health and Family Welfare Department, 12% for autonomous institutions, 6% for BBMP, and 5% seats for doctors in boards and corporation.

The Directorate of Medical Education (DME) has released a list of 130 in-service medical officers in the final eligibility list. Owing to the lack of aspirants, the DME has not reserved any seat for BBMP in-service doctors. But in the KEA PG medical seat matrix list, 13 seats are allotted for BBMP doctors.

Confusion over six names

There appears to be a mismatch in the doctors’ list, which is published by KEA and DME.

The DME has announced 116 names in the final eligible in-service medical officers’ list, who are working in the Health and Family Welfare Department. However, in the KEA provisional Verified list, six doctors have been added.

In the KEA list, all these six candidates are mentioned as in-service doctors of Health and Family Welfare Department. But these six names are not in the final eligible in-service medical officers list of the department.

An in-service doctor said, “In 2021, there were 398 MD and MS seats, and 114 DNB seats. But we don’t know why the government has cut 192 PG medical seats in our State’s share this year. If there are not enough eligible candidates, the remaining seats can be re-distributed to non-service doctors. Last year too, the government gave back over 100 DNB seats to the National Testing Agency before the second round of PG medical counselling. Every year, in-service doctors are facing the same injustice.”

Mon, 10 Oct 2022 08:59:00 -0500 en text/html
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