Free A7 Latest Questions with Practice Test and questions answers gives the most current and 2022current Pass4sure An Introduction to Purchasing Strategy braindumps with questions answers and even real questions for the latest articles of CIPS A7 Exam. Training our Real A7 braindumps to boost your knowledge and even pass your A7 test with good Represents. We 100% assurance your success throughout the Test Centre, covering each one particular of the themes of the test and even enhancing your Expertise of the A7 test. Pass with full surety with these appropriate questions.

Exam Code: A7 Practice exam 2023 by team
An Introduction to Purchasing Strategy
CIPS Introduction thinking
Killexams : CIPS Introduction thinking - BingNews Search results Killexams : CIPS Introduction thinking - BingNews Killexams : Introduction to Logic and Critical Thinking No result found, try new keyword!In this course, you will learn what an argument is. The definition of argument will enable you to identify when speakers are giving arguments and when they are not ... Sat, 24 Dec 2022 02:31:00 -0600 text/html Killexams : Importance of design thinking for a future designer

Design thinking is a process for creative problem-solving. It is a way of thinking that emphasizes creativity and collaboration. Design thinking has its roots in design, but it can be applied to any area where problem-solving is needed.

Design thinking begins with an open mind. The first step is to comprehend the situation. Once the problem has been identified, the following phase is to produce suggestions. This is done through brainstorming or other methods of creative thinking. After the ideas are generated, they are evaluated and critiqued. The best ideas are then selected and refined. The solution’s implementation is the last phase.

Design thinking is an iterative process. This means that it can be used over and over again, as new problems arise. It is also flexible, so it can be adapted to different situations.

Importance of design thinking

Design thinking is important for future designers because it allows them to think about the user’s needs and how to design for them. It also allows designers to come up with creative solutions to problems and to think outside the box. Additionally, design thinking helps designers to understand the importance of collaboration and how to work with other people to create a successful product.

Benefits of the design thinking approach

Design thinking has a number of benefits that make it well-suited for use by future designers. Perhaps the most important of these is its focus on the user. By putting the needs of the user first, design thinking can help ensure that products and services are more likely to be successful.

Another key benefit of design thinking is its emphasis on collaboration. Designers often work in teams, and design thinking can help them to work together more effectively. Additionally, client input is essential to the design process, and design thinking can help designers to solicit feedback and incorporate it into their designs. Finally, design thinking is flexible and can be adapted to a variety of situations. This makes it an ideal approach for future designers who may need to deal with complex problems or rapidly changing conditions.

Applications of design thinking

Design thinking has several applications in a variety of sectors.  It can be used to solve problems in business, government, education, healthcare, and more.

Some specific examples of how design thinking can be used include:

– improving customer service by designing better customer experiences

– developing new products or services by understanding customer needs

– increasing efficiency in organizations by redesigning processes

– creating more engaging and effective educational materials

– addressing social issues through design

The urgency of Design thinking for a future designer?

Design thinking is becoming more and more important for modern designers. It is a unique approach to problem-solving that can be used to create solutions to difficult problems in various fields. Design thinking focuses on understanding the needs of customers, gaining insights, and creating innovative solutions that address their challenges. It is an essential part of the design process and will help future designers build useful and desirable products. This article will explore the importance of design thinking for a future designer, from its benefits to how it can be applied in practice. So read on to learn more about why design thinking is such an important tool for designers in today’s world.

Future of design thinking
Design thinking is a process for creative problem-solving. It is a way of thinking that allows you to see problems from different perspectives and find innovative solutions. Design thinking is not only for designers but for anyone who wants to be more creative and innovative in their work. There are many different methods of design thinking, but the basic process is always the same.  The first step is to understand the issue. This means looking at the problem from all angles and understanding all of the stakeholders involved. The second step is to generate ideas. This can be accomplished through brainstorming, mind mapping, or other forms of creativity. The third step is to select the best idea and develop it into a solution. The fourth step is to implement the solution and evaluate its effectiveness.

The future of design thinking lies in its ability to help people solve complex problems in creative ways. As our world becomes more complex, there will be an increasing need for people who can think outside the box and come up with innovative solutions. Design thinking will continue to grow in popularity as more people realize its potential.

It is an iterative process that helps designers think creatively to solve problems. The future of design thinking will help designers be even more innovative and solve complex problems. Design thinking will continue to evolve and be used in different industries to help create new products, services, and experiences.

Facebook Twitter Linkedin Email


Views expressed above are the author's own.


Sun, 22 Jan 2023 00:29:00 -0600 Dr. Latika Chaudhary en-US text/html
Killexams : The Strangely Counterintuitive Power of Negative Thinking No result found, try new keyword!We all hear about the power of positive thinking, and seemingly all the time. By now, we know that studies show it can result in anything from decreasing depression to increasing our lifespan. Thu, 26 Jan 2023 03:52:00 -0600 text/html Killexams : How to Stop Catastrophic Thinking at Bedtime

Like our emotions, negative and irrational thoughts will also adversely affect our sleep. No doubt, once we are in bed, all sorts of thoughts will invade our mind, anything from the work that we must complete to financial issues that are a cause of concern. Because sleep is solitary process, we have a great deal of time (the entire night!) to think about our problems and work through all the scenarios by ourselves. Not only is this a daunting task, but it’s also a problematic one: At a moment when we are supposed to be relaxing, we are confronting these issues alone and in a state of irrationality, especially if we are sleep deprived.

False beliefs about sleep or other subject matters also negatively impact our sleep; it’s a common thread among a great number of my patients. In a state of hyper-arousal (as occurs with insomnia) or sleep deprivation, the mind ruminates about anything, whether this be logical or illogical (primarily the latter). The most common illogical thought that occurs as we experience insomnia is the effect it will have on us the subsequent day. We feel that we cannot function adequately at work or home, and this will affect our performance, which would ultimately lead to disastrous consequences. We may convince ourselves that we are close to termination at our jobs, or that our loved ones are annoyed with us, or that we will sustain a potentially hazardous car accident. This is called catastrophizing, and we can counter this irrationality by recalling how few instances there are when our fears have come to fruition.

Read More: The Sleep Cure: The Fountain of Youth May Be Closer Than You Ever Thought

If you experience insomnia most nights, and if you have convinced yourself that your insomnia is putting you in grave danger, the percentage of these occurrences must be high. In other words, if your insomnia was a legitimate cause of termination, a breakup, or more, then you would be experiencing these things all the time. But reality tells us this is not so: You may want to formulate evidence for these occurrences to see that the evidence does not conform to reality and try to write these down. As always, writing is helpful because if these thoughts occur again, you have already dismissed them as not worthy of further elaboration.

Evaluating your thoughts considering this new evidence, you may want to modify your initial irrational thought and rephrase it in a way that is realistic. For example, if the irrational thought is that you will get fired if you don’t sleep and perform your best, rephrase it in a way that conforms to what happened in the past in your bouts with insomnia: “I may not perform my best at work and may be irritable, but I will get through this day without being terminated.”

Consider also debunking myths that may not necessarily relate to your sleep. Recognize that you may not need eight hours of sleep, a thought that could have guided your perception of perfect sleep and the inability to attain this holy grail. A recent study conducted at Washington University School of Medicine showed that the “sweet spot” of sleep is six and a half hours, where cognitive performance is stable over time. Also, recall that going to bed early may be detrimental because your inability to fall asleep at that time may make the connection between your bed and sleep less robust.

Instead, recognize that your best option in this situation is to prolong the time that you go to bed, so that you can not only build up a greater homeostatic drive to sleep but also to sever the links between your insomnia and the bed or bedroom environment. Looking specifically at the homeostatic drive to sleep, you may see that the nights you did not sleep well actually led to better nights subsequently. This is because the drive to sleep has had time to build up and naturally put you to sleep. Adenosine is an important sleep-inducing substance that builds up naturally in our brain. Once it has reached a threshold with higher and higher concentrations, it inhibits arousal and causes sleepiness. It leads to increased sleep pressure and subsequent rebound sleep. In other words, adenosine is like a natural sleep medication that our brain produces to ensure that we fall asleep if we haven’t slept for a while. In essence, this compound is telling us to “let go” and let things take their course, naturally.

Another method that I have found to be increasingly helpful but more difficult to grasp when it comes to insomnia is countering the catastrophizing by pushing it to its limit. When you start worrying, introduce the mantra of “to hell with it all,” so you can find peace in your worries. Essentially, if you’re already thinking that your life has gone or will go wrong, you have nothing left to lose. This approach pushes the catastrophizing to such an extreme degree that, when it comes time to worry, you’ve already encountered the worst-case scenario and come to terms with it.

Most people have difficulty imagining their lives as “messed-up” because that is what they are trying to desperately avoid. But when you have already made this a foregone conclusion, you have already let go; use it to your advantage and reverse it. As the ancient Chinese philosopher and writer Lao Tzu once said, “When I let go of what I am, I become what I might be.”

So let go, and let sleep do its thing—as it was meant to do.

More Must-Reads From TIME

Contact us at

Wed, 08 Feb 2023 17:00:00 -0600 en text/html
Killexams : Telltale Signs You’re in a Black-and-White Thinking Pattern

DO YOU FIND yourself thinking in extremes or absolutes? For example, you view everyone you know as good or bad, and every decision you make as all or nothing, and there’s no in-between. If so, you might be in a

pattern of black-and-white thinking.

Also known as polarized thinking, all-or-nothing thinking, or dichotomous thinking, black-and-white thinking refers to a habit of thinking in polar opposites without accepting any possibility of a gray area, according to the American Psychological Association (APA).

“The way we think is so personal and shaped by our unique lived experiences,” explains Anisha Patel-Dunn, D.O., a psychiatrist and chief medical officer at LifeStance Health. “However, polarized thinking is often an unhealthy coping mechanism that can negatively impact our mental health.”

Black-and-white thinking is sometimes a symptom of a personality disorder, like narcissism or borderline personality disorder, as well as eating disorders, depression, or anxiety, according to APA.

Many people engage in black-and-white thinking even when they don’t have a mental health diagnosis. It can have a major impact on your relationships, your ability to succeed, and other aspects of your life, says Christopher Hansen, LPC, Ph.D., a licensed professional counselor and clinical supervisor at Thriveworks in San Antonio.

“Thinking that is so rigid and unrealistic can't help but impact overall life quality,” he says. “People with severe cognitive distortions have a very hard time communicating with society, and many go undiagnosed and treated, which is sad because the treatment is very effective.”

If you find yourself constantly thinking in absolutes, mental health experts explain how it might be affecting you and how you can change your thinking.

Black-and-white thinking refers to a rigid mindset, Hansen says. “It doesn’t allow the person the latitude to see nuances in situations or life in general.”

what is black and white thinking

Getty Images

In other words, you don’t consider gray areas or middle ground.

Dichotomous, or black-and-white, thinking is a cognitive distortion. It prevents you from seeing things for how they usually are, which is nuanced, complex, and always changing, according to APA.

For example, Hansen says dichotomous thinkers might believe they’ll get a speeding ticket if they go one mile over the speed limit, while others realize other factors are at play or that there’s probably some leeway.

“The black-and-white thinker tends to follow rules to the letter,” he explains.

Signs of Black-and-White Thinking

You might be a black-and-white thinker if you catch yourself using these terms often:

  • Always
  • Never
  • Perfect
  • Terrible
  • Good
  • Bad

Everyone says these things sometimes, of course. But, when you notice that these absolute words come up frequently in your thoughts and conversations, you might be too rigid in your thinking.

Another sign is viewing people or situations in your life as perfect or flawed, saint or sinner, or good or bad, according to Psychology Today.

Who Black-and-White Thinking Affects

Black-and-white thinking is often a learned habit that’s influenced by a mental health condition, trauma, or other factors, Dr. Patel-Dunn says.

black and white thinking signs symptoms

Getty Images

“Just as with any unhealthy coping technique, if it becomes a habit we repeatedly turn to in response to stress, we begin to develop a pattern,” she says. “Without awareness of these thought distortions or understanding the strategies we can use to change them, we may feel like we’re stuck in a loop of these automatic thoughts.”

Dichotomous thinking contributes to anxiety and depressive disorders. It’s also a characteristic of narcissistic or borderline personality disorder, research shows, and eating disorders, where someone might consider certain foods good or bad.

People aren’t always aware of their distorted thinking or that it’s affecting their lives, however, Hansen adds. “Through our upbringing, experiences, relationships, and life in general, the way we think becomes ingrained.”

How Black-and-White Thinking Affects Relationships

Communication is at the heart of relationships of all types. When someone is set in black-and-white thinking, there’s no happy medium when dealing with conflict or other situations, only right or wrong, Hansen says.

“So you can imagine that compromise is very difficult for someone with this type of thinking, and there is never any leeway in most things as it causes them anxiety, depression, anger, and overall angst,” he adds.

This way of thinking might also interfere with someone’s ability to see a situation objectively, so they might overreact or respond inappropriately to stressful or triggering events, Dr. Patel-Dunn says.

Someone might quit a job, end a relationship, or suddenly start viewing someone who was once a friend as a bad person, for instance.

Why It Interferes With Success

Dichotomous thinking is an unhealthy coping strategy, similar to substance abuse or overexercising, Dr. Patel-Dunn says. This can take a toll on your mental well-being.

“When we’re not mentally feeling our best, it can be incredibly challenging to live our lives to the fullest and enjoy the things we’re most passionate about,” she says.

When you have limiting or polarizing views about yourself, like that you’re good or bad at certain things or define your career too narrowly, it can inhibit your ability to accomplish your goals. Research also links black-and-white thinking to perfectionism, which is driven by a fear of failure and often causes emotional distress.

At work, dichotomous thinkers might view their jobs and abilities in a rigid way. This might cause issues with co-workers, who might view dichotomous thinkers as negative, not team players, or not forward-thinking, Hansen says.

How You Can Break Out of Black-and-White Thinking

It can be challenging to change distorted thinking on your own, since you might not even realize you’re doing it.

what is black and white thinking signs symptoms

Getty Images

“One thing people can do on their own is practice catching themselves anytime they feel a mental or physical symptom and then see if they can identify the thought that is causing the anxiety,” Hansen says.

You might need to work with a mental health professional, especially if dichotomous thinking is interfering with your day-to-day functioning, Dr. Patel-Dunn says.

Cognitive behavioral therapy can help you learn to question automatic thoughts by recognizing that not all thoughts are true and understanding the root of certain thinking to work through thought distortions, she explains.

“It may feel challenging at first, but our brains can rewire through what's known as neuroplasticity,” Dr. Patel-Dunn says. “You can train your brain to think differently by practicing new habits repeatedly.”

Basically, you’ll learn to replace negative thoughts with more realistic and healthy ones, Hansen adds. After a couple of months, the new way of thinking becomes your norm.

“Help for cognitive distortions such as black-and-white thinking are very effective and generally available,” he says.

Headshot of Erica Sweeney

Erica Sweeney is a writer who mostly covers health, wellness and careers. She has written for The New York Times, HuffPost, Teen Vogue, Parade, Money, Business Insider and many more.

Thu, 26 Jan 2023 02:34:00 -0600 en-us text/html
Killexams : Dyslexic Thinking For Sustainability

I have a couple of post-graduate degrees, my second book is about to be published and...I can’t tell the time on a watch.

Nor can I tell my right from left, and couldn’t spell my own name until I was 12 years old. Which was around the same age I became passionate about social justice and environmental issues. My work since means that I’ve been lucky enough to get to know a lot of wonderful people in the sustainability, justice and ESG fields.

As a diagnosed dyslexic myself, I began to suspect I wasn’t the only neurodiverse person working in change-making. So, late last year, I asked fellow sustainability folk on LinkedIn a question that had been buzzing around my mind for a while:

Nearly 250 people responded, and to my surprise, well over half – 57% – said they are neurodiverse, either diagnosed or not. Far more than the one in seven that is reportedly typical of society at large

Sustainability and neurodiversity, it seems, go hand in hand.

Perhaps, the over-representation of atypical mental states in sustainability fields shouldn’t be that surprising. It’s been well documented that neurodiverse people -particularly those with ADHD and/or autism – are associated with a strong sense of justice and fairness. The world’s most influential climate campaigner, Greta Thunberg, is autistic. World-changing figures like Albert Einstein, Carl Jung, and Mother Teresa are all thought to have been dyslexic.

Even the World Economic Forum have explored the topic, quoting recently published scientific theories that humans have actually evolved to specialise in different but complementary ways of processing information. People with dyslexia, scientists suggest, are specialised in exploring the unknown. This is the consequence of having ancestors that experienced major environmental instability. The ability to adapt became paramount. And what group of human beings is more adaptable than one that includes a range of different thinking styles, working interdependently to solve problems together?

If neurodiverse people evolved in response to environmental crisis, could we help solve our current one?

Understanding of neurodiversity has grown in accurate years, and with it public awareness and support. There’s still a long way to go, but we are collectively beginning to recognise that the goal should be about much more than inclusion. Neurodiverse ways of thinking could bring new angles and alternative approaches that will help us navigate the world’s most pressing challenges.

So with that in mind – what does it take to think, and solve global challenges, like a dyslexic?

1. Assume you’re wrong

Neurodiverse people have grown up in a world that measures success by a limited set of metrics, which means we know ‘failure’ well. We are familiar with what it feels like to make a mistake. When working in sustainability and justice, there’s a lot to be said for assuming that you’re wrong. Being aware of how you might have misinterpreted someone or something can make your judgements far more considered – and make you much less likely to misinterpret something in the first place.

2. Question everything

Neurodiverse people often don’t automatically ‘get’ social rules. Instead of knowing and accepting a certain social ‘norm’ or piece of etiquette, we might ask – why? A great question to ask of, well, most things about our world. In 2023 we need to change our systems faster and further. Just because most people have always done something one way, doesn’t mean it’s the best way.

3. Be itched by injustice

Unfairness and exclusion don’t make logical sense. Neurodiverse people are often highly logical and systematic in their thinking – and prejudices don’t make logical sense. This doesn’t mean neurodiverse people are free of prejudice, but it does mean we’re quick to spot injustices in the world and are passionate to address them. Everyone could do with a better nose for unfairness.

4. Find another way

The easy, straight path from A to B is often unavailable to neurodiverse people. I for one didn’t learn my ABCs until I studied the history of the alphabet during a degree in Classics. The winding, off road path is often the only option for dyslexics – and down it, there are discoveries and creative solutions you otherwise wouldn’t stumble across. So, imagine the most straightforward path isn’t open to you. Where can you go instead?

5. Try anything

Being neurodiverse can make things usually considered ‘easy’, very hard. Being pushed to do hard things quickly taught us neurodiverse folk that it’s possible to keep jumping off cliffs and hoping we’ll fly. Yes, it’s terrifying. But solving problems that matter will take just this kind of courage and boldness.

Neurodiverse people like me spend a lifetime learning how to fit into a neurotypical world. But perhaps neurotypicals – the remaining 43% of the sustainability community that responded to my poll – could learn a thing or two from us about how to do things differently. Thinking like a dyslexic, even if you aren’t one, opens up new ways to build a fairer and greener world.

Sat, 21 Jan 2023 10:00:00 -0600 Solitaire Townsend en text/html
Killexams : The visionary thinking behind Black History Month

Communities and individuals often struggle with how to commemorate Black History Month, an occasion particularly relevant today given the resurgence of debates about race, historical knowledge, and school curricula. While there is no one “right” way to observe Black History Month, meaningful actions usually have characteristics in common: reflecting on the origins of Black History Month, engaging with Black culture in a way that draws connections between the past and present, and planning for sustained study and struggle against anti-Blackness year-round. To support this kind of thoughtful commemoration, I encourage everyone to read Carter G. Woodson’s 1933 classic, The Mis-education of the Negro, which advocated for all of these practices.

Black History Month, African American studies, and the many national initiatives designed to eliminate racism in education all have some ties to the work of a single man — Woodson — beginning more than a century ago. The child and student of formerly enslaved people, Woodson was a public school teacher for nearly 30 years, and in 1912, only the second Black person to earn a doctorate from Harvard. In 1926, Woodson inaugurated Negro History Week — now celebrated as Black History Month — through the Association for the Study of African American Life and History, which he’d established years earlier (it’s the same organization that announces the annual Black history theme). Woodson’s critiques of American schooling emerged from rigorous academic study and a lifetime of personal experiences. He concluded that the violence Black people experienced was directly tied to systematic processes of mis-education experienced by all Americans, but they had particularly nefarious implications for Black people. As he proclaimed in the book, “There would be no lynching if it did not start in the schoolroom.”

In Mis-education, Woodson outlined why “Negro History” (the precursor to African American studies) and a commemorative holiday to popularize it were necessary for combatting the violent realities of anti-Blackness in the modern world. Distortions of Black life and culture were being systematically sustained through school curricula and societal representations, Woodson argued, and these narrative scripts justifying and motivating violence against Black people created an enduring social problem. Schools, education, and the system of knowledge had to be recognized, collectively, as a key battleground in Black people’s struggle for freedom. Perhaps, even, the primary battleground that set the terms for all others in the fight for racial justice. The book identified anti-Blackness in education as a fundamental problem at the heart of the Black freedom struggle.

Like Black History Month, Mis-education became iconic because it was deeply aligned with perennial struggles in African American life. Woodson named key dynamics in American education that generations of Black people worked to confront — underrepresentation of Black history and culture in curricula, the overrepresentation of European and white American history, white philanthropists’ and education officials’ paternalistic relationship to Black schools and educators, white suspicion of independent Black intellectual thought, and the need for a philosophy of education that was responsive to the needs of African Americans as a group forged through a distinct history (and ongoing reality) of anti-Black domination. Until Mis-education, no scholar of Woodson’s prominence had expressed so directly, or so forcefully, such an incisive social analysis of race, power, and education.

A central aim of Black History Month, as conceived by Woodson, was to infuse education for students (and the American public) with critical knowledge about racial domination, as well as complex portrayals of Black people’s resistance and human striving. The commemorative holiday, like the book, demanded that we redefine the social mission of education. More concerned with the kind of educational opportunities provided for Black students than with quantifying increases among the Black educated elite, Woodson demanded new metrics for measuring meaningful educational achievement, focusing on “whether these ‘educated’ persons are actually equipped to face the ordeal before them or unconsciously contribute to their own undoing by perpetuating the regime of the oppressor.”

For these reasons, Woodson wrote, “The education of any people should begin with the people themselves, but Negroes thus trained [in American schools] have been dreaming about the ancients of Europe and about those who have tried to imitate them.” Such mis-education diminished possibilities for a positive Black self-image, he insisted, and it impeded the development of necessary critiques of white supremacy.

The spirit of Woodson’s argument in Mis-education still resonates. The book widely circulated after Woodson’s 1950 death, especially following demands for Black studies in American colleges and universities in the late ‘60s. I first read it in the summer of 2007, after my freshman year of college, in a study group of five African American men. The book was required practicing for the University of California, Berkeley chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, the historically Black fraternity we hoped to join. We clung to Woodson’s words, shocked to be practicing them for the first time — their relevance to our lives immediately apparent. Years later, Woodson’s text became central to my first book, Fugitive Pedagogy, and I regularly teach Mis-education in my courses at Harvard. Student responses are consistent: Woodson’s words from 90 years ago feel prescient to them. This could have been written today, many say.

I enjoy listening to hip-hop and R&B artist Lauryn Hill’s 1998 Grammy award-winning album, The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill, probably the most popular memorialization of the book. But practicing the book itself during Black History Month is my commemorative act, besides teaching the text year-round. My desire for a more teachable edition of Mis-education — one of the great books in Black studies — led me to prepare an updated version of this classic text. The 2023 Penguin Classics edition of The Mis-education of the Negro, to be released January 31, will be the first time this seminal book is published by a mainstream press, giving Woodson’s ideas broader reach. (My introduction in the new edition details Woodson’s biography and key educational and historical context.)

To honor Black History Month, I can think of nothing better than engaging in the kind of sustained study of Black life and culture that Woodson championed — the prerequisite for action.

Jarvis R. Givens is an associate professor at the Harvard Graduate School of Education and a faculty affiliate in the department of African and African American studies at Harvard University. Send comments to

Wed, 01 Feb 2023 16:22:00 -0600 en-US text/html
Killexams : What is Putin thinking?

I’ve begun talking to myself. Not good. But who else can I talk to? I’m surrounded by fools and incompetents. Yes, there are those who defend me and the special military operation I initiated a year ago next month to restore Russia’s dignity, power and glory. But how many of them are just hungry for crumbs from my table?

Half a million young Russians have now fled rather than fight for the Fatherland. There was a time when traitors were not allowed to just pack up and leave. Maybe it’s time to enforce such rules again.

I need to be honest with myself: The Ukrainians have surprised me. When I took Crimea back from their sweaty hands nine years ago, they just whined and licked their wounds.

This time they’re fighting like grizzly bears. And my generals? They failed me. I should have shot a few right away to encourage the others.

I do blame myself for not remembering how stubborn Ukrainians can be. Stalin found that out when he began collectivizing agriculture. The peasants didn’t like that. So, Stalin took away their grain and let a few million starve to death. That taught them a lesson! It’s time to deliver them another.

I also underestimated Zelenskyy, that comedian, that Jew. I thought as soon as he saw my tanks rolling toward Kiev — not Kyiv, damn it! — he’d run crying to the West where he’d deliver speeches for gelt.

Perhaps I should have limited myself to what Biden called a “minor incursion.” The problem is I’m not getting any younger. I don’t have years to spend slicing the kolbasa.

Russia isn’t like Britain and France. They resigned themselves to the loss of their empires, to being has-beens, vassals of the uncultured, decadent, mongrel Americans.

We Russians are too proud to accept such a fate. We’ve always been an empire, not a nation-state. Yes, during the Soviet era, we claimed to be anti-imperialists, but only idiots believed us.

Our imperial possessions still stretch over 11 time zones. Vladivostok means “conqueror of the East.”

But I see a problem there. Vladivostok was Chinese before we Russians annexed it. Xi Jinping is my friend, but he knows that if Russia weakens, he will have an opportunity to expand his empire. He has hundreds of millions of people he can send north to take our land and exploit our resources. But that problem must wait. For now, I need him. And for now, Taiwan is at the top of his to-conquer list.

I’m encouraged by last week’s meeting of senior Western defense officials in Germany. They’re divided.

The Germans are still refusing to send their Leopard 2 tanks to the Ukrainians. Herr Scholz, mein alter Freund, fears me. With reason.

I’m told quite a few Americans — mostly Republicans, which seems odd since I thought they were the tough guys — want to cut support to Ukrainians and even reduce military spending. And I’m hearing that the French are practicing a novel about me called “The Wizard of the Kremlin.” Nice title!

German pacifists, American isolationists, French appeasers — they’re helping me decide what to do next: Refuse to negotiate and plan a spring offense that will finally force the Ukrainians to submit. The Ukrainians may think they want freedom, but what they need is order — the order that a czar provides.

Biden has surprised me, too, frankly. When he was vice president, he and Obama gave me Syria on a silver platter. Then, as president, Biden surrendered to those medieval barbarians in Afghanistan.

After that, his highest priority was “waging a war” against fossil fuels. Which didn’t prevent him from telling the Germans to go ahead with the Nord Stream 2 pipeline, which would have made them more dependent on my fossil fuels.

So, it only seemed logical that he’d respond to my special military operation by just wagging his finger and imposing some new sanctions.

But when the Ukrainians refused to submit, Biden felt compelled to send them weapons — to a point. I get it: His strategy is to show restraint — stopping short of giving them weapons that can strike inside Russia — in the hope that I’ll show restraint, too.

Nuclear weapons are my trump card. If I didn’t have them, Biden might have done what Bush the First did after Saddam swallowed Kuwait.

But my strategy is more clever than his: I threaten to play the nuclear card, but I don’t. I hold it because to use it is to lose it. And if this strategy brings me victory in Ukraine, I can play it again.

Moldova would be the lowest-hanging fruit. It’s not a NATO member. After that, maybe I’d invade Lithuania from Belarus. Even if I took only the southern part of that country, I’d then have a land bridge to Kaliningrad, where my Baltic fleet is based.

Yes, Lithuania is a member of NATO, but which other NATO members are going to send their troops to die to liberate southern Lithuania, especially after Ukraine and Moldova have been ceded?

From there, I could move on to reclaim other breakaway provinces of Russkiy mir. “The hen pecks grain by grain,” as my grandfather would say.

Of course, if my nuclear blackmail strategy fails, I’ll have to lower my sights. I’ll have to ask Scholz or Macron to arrange a cease-fire — freezing the conflict but with me still in possession of Crimea and at least some of Donbas. That would deliver me time to prepare for another round of fighting.

What would Peter the Great do?

I have so much to decide. And the only one with whom I can have an honest and intelligent conversation is me.

• Clifford D. May is founder and president of the Foundation for Defense of Democracies (FDD) and a columnist for The Washington Times.

Thu, 26 Jan 2023 02:52:00 -0600 en-US text/html
Killexams : INFO-609 Introduction to Spatial Thinking & GIS

3 Credits

  • INFO-609-01


    3:00 pm – 5:50 pm

    Manhattan - W14, 518

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are tools for managing, describing, analyzing, and presenting information about the relationships between geographically referenced information. This course provides a strong foundation and overview of many of the underlying concepts in GIS as well as a practical skill set utilizing GIS software and data. Additionally, the course focuses on map design to maximize the message and impact of map output. Finally, students are introduced to spatial metadata standards and best practices for long term preservation.

Mon, 08 Aug 2022 20:31:00 -0500 en-us text/html
Killexams : Bird study links spatial thinking with not getting eaten
Image of a colorful bird in a field.

It's pretty easy to link humans' intelligence to our success as a species. Things like agriculture, building cities, and surviving in harsh environments require a large collection of mental skills, from good memory to the ability to communicate and work together. But it's often less clear what role intelligence plays in species with less obvious mental capabilities. In many cases, it's hard to even measure mental capacities; in other cases, it's hard to guess which capacities might Improve survival.

A new study looks at a bird species that doesn't have much of a reputation for braininess: the pheasant. But the researchers behind the study find that pheasants have substantial differences in spatial thinking, and some aspects of that spatial capacity make a difference when the birds are released into the wild. Those birds that do well with navigating a complex maze adopted a larger home territory and did better at avoiding being eaten. And, almost as an accident, the study finds that the birds tend to get eaten more often when they wander out of familiar territory.

Can’t outfox the foxes

Parrots and corvids have reputations as the brainiacs of the bird world. Pheasants, not so much. But they do have advantages for the study of mental abilities. They're easy to raise in captivity, where they can be given various tests, and will adjust easily if released into the wild. They're also big enough that it's easy to attach tracking devices to see what they're doing after they've been released.

For this study, the birds were subjected to three different tests of their mental abilities. One was simple, testing their ability to associate a specific color with a food reward. Another involved navigating a complex two-dimensional maze to get access to food, which engages both visual and memory systems. And finally, they were put in a chamber with four exits and a single piece of food in each exit. This taxed visual working memory for the birds to know which exits they've already retrieved food from.

Once the birds had been tested for these mental capabilities, they were fitted with trackers and released into the English countryside. Of the 126 pheasants released, 45 fell victim to attacks by predators within the four months of the experiment—the local fox population taking the blame in all cases.

Once the four months were up, the researchers analyzed the location data and checked for correlations with the mental capabilities the birds had shown earlier.

Home on the range

The positional data was dense enough that it was easy to identify the "home range" adopted by each animal—the area in which a pheasant spent the majority of its time. It's also clear how spatial abilities might influence the home ranges that animals adopted. But performance in two of the tests wasn't correlated with anything the researchers looked at. The exception was navigating the maze, where ability correlated with the size of the home range: those animals that performed well tended to have larger home ranges.

This wasn't a matter of these birds simply traveling farther. The distance they traveled outside this home range did not correlate with performance in any spatial tests.

The clearest result came when the researchers looked into where animals died due to predation: Most of these instances took place outside the home range. There was no indication that this is because birds adopted their home ranges in a way that avoided dangerous locations. In many cases, the deaths occurred in a location that was both at the periphery of one animal's range (the dead one) but in the middle of the range of a second. So it appears this effect was related to how birds responded once at risk of predators, rather than their ability to avoid them in the first place.

Avoiding being eaten correlated with high performance on two of the tests: the maze navigation and the multiple-exit test, which challenged visual working memory. Birds that performed well on both tests were least likely to get eaten, even though they also had the most area within the periphery of their home ranges (because said ranges were large). Performing well on just one of the two tests left birds at greater risk of being eaten, while (oddly), birds that performed poorly on both were also more likely to avoid predators.

Brains and evolution

There are a couple of caveats here that are potentially important. The first is that other researchers have done similar experiments with other birds and haven't always gotten results that are consistent with these. The second is that, were they raised in the wild, the animals would have spent some time with their parent and might have learned something about predator avoidance during this time.

Assuming that the results apply to wild birds, however, this suggests there is a significant advantage to having a home range. It's not clear whether that's because familiarity allows birds to have heightened vigilance in areas that predators frequent or because they can better use the landscape to escape once a predator attacks.

There's also some evidence that spatial cognition skills in pheasants are weakly heritable, suggesting that predation could apply an evolutionary selection to this trait. This doesn't mean a selection for general intelligence, as spatial reasoning is only a small component of that. But at least on this one measure, this provides a hint of how evolution can select for intelligence.

Nature Ecology & Evolution, 2023. DOI: 10.1038/s41559-022-01950-5  (About DOIs).

Fri, 27 Jan 2023 11:28:00 -0600 John Timmer en-us text/html
A7 exam dump and training guide direct download
Training Exams List