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Becoming a computer technician is a great point of entry into the IT field. In addition, computer hardware certifications can help demonstrate your knowledge and competency in maintaining computers, mobile devices, printers and more. Below, you’ll find our pick of six computer hardware certifications to help you get your IT career off the ground.

Although we cover our favorite hardware certifications here, the idea that hardware can operate independently of software (or vice versa) isn’t true. If you dig into the curriculum for any specific hardware-related certs in any depth, you’ll quickly realize that software is in control of hardware.

Software comes into play for installation, configuration, maintenance, troubleshooting and just about any other activity you can undertake with hardware. The hardware label simply indicates that devices are involved, not that hardware is all that’s involved.

Job board search results (in alphabetical order, by certification)

Certification SimplyHired Indeed LinkedIn Jobs Total
A+ (CompTIA) 1,566 2,396 2,282 2,187 8,431
ACMT (Apple) 134 258 196 44 632
BICSI Technician (BICSI) 384 657 30 92 1,163
CCT (Cisco) 473 826 601 722 2,622
RCDD (BICSI) 276 378 377 104 1,135
Server+ (CompTIA) 2,318 3,064 1,250 1,069 7,701

Differing factors, such as specific job role, locality and experience level, may impact salary potential. In general, hardware professionals can expect to earn somewhere in the mid-$60,000s. SimplyHired reports average earnings at $71,946 for IT technicians, with highs reported at almost $116,000. The average national salary for computer hardware technicians ranges from about $31,000 to more than $53,000. However, some certifications command higher salaries. Certification Magazine’s “Annual Salary Survey” (Salary Survey 2018) average salaries for CompTIA Server+ at $98,060 and the A+ credential at $97,730.

CompTIA A+

The CompTIA A+ certification is the granddaddy and best known of all hardware credentials. For anyone serious about working with PCs, laptops, mobile devices, printers or operating systems, the A+ should at least be on their radar, if not in their game plan.

Since the first A+ credential was awarded in March 1993, the program continues to draw active interest and participation. With more than 1 million IT professionals now possessing the A+ credential, it is something of a checkbox item for PC technicians and support professionals. It also appears in a great many job postings or advertisements.

A+ is also ISO 17024 compliant and accredited by ANSI. Thus, this credential must be renewed every three years in keeping with concomitant requirements for continuing education or regular examinations to maintain certification currency. Some 20 continuing education units (CEUs) are required for renewal.

Earning an A+ from CompTIA involves passing two exams: 220-901 and 220-902. exam 220-901 focuses on hardware, networking, mobile devices, connectivity and troubleshooting. exam 220-902 draws on knowledge of installing and configuring common operating systems (Windows, Linux, OS X, Android and iOS). It also covers issues related to cloud computing, security and operational procedures. Candidates will find a variety of question formats, including standard multiple-choice, drag-and-drop and performance-based questions on these exams.

Candidates who earn the A+ often find themselves in job roles that include technical support specialist, field service technician, IT support technician, IT support administrator or IT support specialist. The A+ is recognized by the U.S. Department of Defense (in DoD Directive 8140/8570.01-M). Also, technology companies, such as Ricoh, Nissan, Blue Cross Blue Shield, Dell, HP and Intel, require staff to earn the A+ certification to fill certain positions.

The A+ certification encompasses broad coverage of PC hardware and software, networking and security in its overall technical scope.

A+ Facts and Figures

Certification name  CompTIA A+
Prerequisites & required courses 9-12 months of experience recommended
Number of exams  Two exams (maximum of 90 questions, 90 minutes): 220-901 and 220-902 (CompTIA Academy Partners use the same numbers)
Cost per exam  $211 per exam. Exams administered by Pearson VUE. exam vouchers available at CompTIA
Self-study materials

CompTIA offers several self-study materials, including exam objectives, sample questions and study guides ($178 for the eBook $198 for the print edition), as well as classroom and e-learning training opportunities. Credential seekers may also want to check out the CertMaster online learning tool. Links to CompTIA training materials may be found on the certification webpage.

Recommended books:

CompTIA A+ 220-901 and 220-902 exam Cram, 1st Edition, by David L. Prowse, published Jan. 30, 2016, Pearson IT Certifications, exam Cram Series, ISBN-10: 0789756315, ISBN-13: 978-0789756312

CompTIA A+ Certification All-in-One exam Guide, 9th Edition (Exams 220-901 and 220-902) by Michael Meyers, published Jan. 4, 2016, McGraw-Hill Education, ISBN-10: 1125958951X, ISBN-13: 978-1259589515

ACMT: Apple Certified Macintosh Technician

Given the popularity of Apple products and platforms, and widespread use of Macintosh computers in homes and businesses of all sizes, there’s demand galore for Mac-savvy technicians.

The AppleCare Mac Technician (ACMT) 2018 credential is Apple’s latest hardware-related ACMT certification. (The credential was formerly called the Apple Certified Macintosh Technician or Apple Certified Mac Technician.) Per Apple, the ACMT 2018 “qualifies a technician to repair all the Mac products that were covered by prior ACMT certifications, plus all other Mac products that were produced before April 2018.” Technicians with the ACMT certification who work at an Apple-authorized service facility are allowed to perform service and repairs.

The ACMT’s two required exams are the Apple Service Fundamentals and the ACMT 2018 Mac Service Certification. Service Fundamentals focuses on customer experience skills, ESD and safety, troubleshooting and deductive reasoning, and product knowledge. The Mac Service exam covers troubleshooting and repair of Mac hardware (mainly Apple iMac and MacBook Pro systems). Note that the Apple Service Fundamentals exam is also required for the Apple Certified iOS Technician (ACiT) 2018 certification.

The ACMT 2018 is a permanent credential and does not require annual recertification. However, as new products are added to the Apple portfolio, AppleCare will make associated courses available through Apple Technical Learning Administration System (ATLAS). You must complete these courses to service new products.

ACMT Facts and Figures

Certification name AppleCare Mac Technician (ACMT) 2017
Prerequisites & required courses AppleCare Technician Training recommended
Number of exams Two exams (must be taken in this order):

Apple Service Fundamentals exam (SCV-17A) OR Apple Service

Fundamentals exam (SVC-18A)


ACMT 2018 Mac Service Certification exam (MAC-18A) Each exam: 70 questions, 2 hours, 80 percent passing score

Tests administered by Pearson VUE; Apple Tech ID number required

Cost per exam TBD
Self-study materials Self-paced training: Apple Technical Learning Administration System (ATLAS)

AppleCare Technician Training, $299

Instructor-led training courses: LearnQuest

BICSI Technician and Registered Communications Distribution Designer

BICSI is a professional association that supports the information and communications technology (ICT) industry, mainly in the areas of voice, data, audio and video, electronic safety and security, and project management. BICSI offers training, certification and education to its 23,000-plus members, many of who are designers, installers and technicians.

BICSI offers several certifications aimed at ICT professionals, who mainly deal with cabling and related technologies. Two credentials, the BICSI Technician and the BICSI Registered Communications Distribution Designer (RCDD) are pertinent (and popular) in this story.

The BICSI Technician recognizes individuals who lead an installation group or team, perform advanced testing and troubleshooting of cable installations, evaluate cabling requirements, recommend solutions based on standards and best practices, and roll out new and retrofit projects. Technicians must be well versed in both copper and fiber cabling.

Candidates need a good deal of knowledge about the hardware, networking devices and communications equipment to which they connect cables.

To earn the credential, candidates must pass a single two-part exam consisting of a hands-on practical evaluation and a written exam. In addition, candidates must possess at least three years of verifiable ICT industry installation experience within the past five years. Credentials are valid for three years. Certification holders must earn 18 hours of continuing education credits (CECs) in each three-year credentialing cycle and pay the current renewal fees to maintain this credential.

Interested candidates should also check out other BICSI certifications, such as the Installer 1 (INST1), Installer 2 Copper (INSTC) and Installer 2 Optical Fiber (INSTF).

An advanced credential, the Registered Communications Distribution Designer (RCDD) is so well respected that the Department of Defense Unified Facilities requires RCDD for all telecom-related design projects. The RCDD is geared toward experienced ICT practitioners with at least five years of ICT design experience. Alternatively, candidates who do not have the requisite experience but who possess at least two years of design experience plus three years of knowledge “equivalents” (combination of approved education, certifications or education), may also sit for the exam. All experience must have been within the preceding 10 years.

RCDD candidates should be able to create and prepare system design specifications and plans, as well as recommended best practices for security design requirements, for business automation systems. RCDDs are also well versed in data center, cabling systems and design for wireless, network, and electronic security systems.

To earn the credential, candidates must meet the experience requirements, submit the application plus credentialing fees, along with a current resume. In addition, candidates must submit four letters of reference two of which much be from current or former clients. One reference may be personal while the remaining references must come from the candidate’s employer.

Other advanced BICSI certifications include the  Outside Plant (OSP) Designer, Data Center Design Consultant (DCDC) and Registered Telecommunication Project Manager (RTPM).

BICSI Technician Facts and Figures

Certification name BICSI Technician
Prerequisites & required courses Three or more years of verifiable ICT industry installation experience (must be within past five years to qualify)

Adhere to the BICSI Code of Ethics and Standards of Conduct

Physical requirements: Distinguish between colors, stand for extended periods, lift and carry up to 50 pounds, climb ladders, and possess manual dexterity necessary to perform fine motor tasks

Technician exam prereqs: Both the Installer 2, Copper and Installer 2, Optical Fiber credentials OR the Installer 2 credential

Note: There are no additional credentials required for candidates attempting the Technician Skip-Level exam.

Recommended prerequisites:

50 hours review of BICSI Information Technology Systems Installation Methods Manual (ITSIMM)

TE350: BICSI Technician Training course ($2,545)
IN225: Installer 2 Copper Training course ($2,305)
IN250: Installer 2 Optical Fiber Training course ($2,505)

Number of exams One two-part exam, including written exam (140 multiple-choice questions*) and hands-on, performance-based exam (hands-on performance exam delivered last day of TE350 course; written exam administered the day after the completion of the TE350 course)

*If the candidate doesn’t have both the Copper and Optical Fiber Installer 2 credentials or an Installer 2 credential, the written Skip Level exam will have 170 questions.

Cost per exam $295 (non-refundable application fee must be received by BICSI 15 days prior to exam; retake fee of $130 applies)
Self-study materials Information Technology System Installation Methods Manual, 7th edition electronic download, $220 member/$240 non-member; print and download combo, $260 member/$290 non-member; printed manual, $220 member/$240 non-member, Web-based training through BICSI CONNECT

BICSI Registered Communications Distribution Designer (RCDD) Facts and Figures

Certification name BICSI Registered Communications Distribution Designer (RCDD)
Prerequisites & required courses

Five or more years of verifiable ICT industry design experience (must be within past 10 years to qualify)


Two or more years of verifiable ICT design experience (must be within the past ten years) plus three additional years of ICT equivalents from approved education, experience, or ICT licenses or certification (CCNA, for example)

Adhere to the BICSI Code of Ethics and Standards of Conduct

Recommended prerequisites:
Minimum of 125-150 hours review of BICSI’s Telecommunications Distribution Methods Manual (TDMM)

DD101: Foundations of Telecommunications Distribution Design ($1,030) (BICSI  CONNECT online course)

DD102: Designing Telecommunications Distribution Systems ($2,815)

125-150 hours of TDMM study

TDMM flash cards ($275)

RCDD Test Preparation Course ($925) (BICSI CONNECT online course)

Number of exams One exam (100 questions, 2.5 hours)
Cost per exam $495 BICSI member/$725 non-member application fee, (non-refundable application fee must be received by BICSI 15 days prior to exam; retake fee of $225 BISCI member/$340 non-member)
Self-study materials

Telecommunications Distribution Methods Manual, 13th edition (TDMM) electronic download ($310 member/$380 non-member; print and download combo, $350 member/$435 non-member; printed manual, $310 member/$380 non-member)

Web-based training through BICSI CONNECT

CTT Routing & Switching: Cisco Certified Technician Routing & Switching

Cisco certifications are valued throughout the tech industry. The Cisco Certified Technician, or CCT, certification is an entry-level credential that demonstrates a person’s ability to support and maintain Cisco networking devices at a customer site.

The Routing & Switching credential best fits our list of best computer hardware certifications, and it serves as an essential foundation for supporting Cisco devices and systems in general.

The CCT requires passing a single exam. subjects include identification of Cisco equipment and related hardware, such as switches and routers, general networking and service knowledge, working with the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC), and describing Cisco IOS software operating modes. Candidates should also have a working knowledge of Cisco command-line interface (CLI) commands for connecting to and remotely servicing Cisco products.

CCT Routing & Switching Facts and Figures

Certification name Cisco Certified Technician (CCT) Routing & Switching
Prerequisites & required courses


Recommended training: Supporting Cisco Routing and Switching Network Devices (RSTECH) ($299)

Number of exams One: 640-692 RSTECH (60-70 questions, 90 minutes)
Cost per exam 


Exam administered by Pearson VUE.

Self-study materials Cisco Study Material page provides links to the course, study groups, exam tutorials, and other related content, including exam syllabus, training videos and seminars.

CompTIA Server+

CompTIA also offers a server-related certification, which steps up from basic PC hardware, software, and networking subjects to the more demanding, powerful, and expensive capabilities in the same vein usually associated with server systems.

The CompTIA Server+ credential goes beyond basic subjects to include coverage of more advanced storage systems, IT environments, virtualization, and disaster recovery and business continuity topics. It also puts a strong emphasis on best practices and procedures for server problem diagnosis and troubleshooting. Although Server+ is vendor-neutral in coverage, organizations such as HP, Dell, Intel, Microsoft, Xerox, Lenovo and HP use Server+ credentialed technicians.

Those who work or want to work in server rooms or data centers, with and around servers on a regular basis, will find the Server+ credential worth studying for and earning. It can also be a steppingstone into vendor-specific server technician training programs at such companies as those mentioned above, or with their authorized resellers and support partners.

Note that the CompTIA Server+ exam is still listed on that organization’s website as “good for life,” meaning it does not impose a renewal or continuing education requirement on its holders. The SK0-004 launched on July 31, 2015. Typically, exams are available for at least two years. If CompTIA’s revision history for Server+ is any guide to future updates and revisions, then it’s likely that we’ll see a new exam making an appearance sometime before the end of 2019.

Server+ Facts and Figures

Certification name  CompTIA Server+
Prerequisites & required courses  No prerequisites

Recommended experience includes CompTIA A+ certification plus a minimum of 18-24 months IT-related experience

Number of exams  One: SK0-004 (100 questions, 90 minutes, 750 out of 900 passing score)
Cost per exam $302. exam administered by Pearson VUE. exam vouchers available at CompTIA.
Self-study materials

CompTIA offers a number of self-study materials, including exam objectives, its CertMaster online study tool, sample questions, books and more. Formal training courses are also offered. Links to CompTIA training courses may be found on the certification web page. Additional resources may also be found at the CompTIA Marketplace.

CompTIA Server+ Study Guide: exam SK0-004, 1st edition, by Troy McMillan, published June 20, 2016, Sybex, ISBN-10: 1119137829, ISBN-13: 978-1119137825

Beyond the Top 5: More hardware certifications

There are many more hardware-oriented certifications available that you might want to consider. As you get into IT and start to develop a sense of your own interests and observe the hardware systems and solutions around, you’ll be able to dig deeper into this arena.

You can investigate all the major system vendors (including HP, Dell, IBM, and other PC and server makers) as well as networking and infrastructures companies (such as Juniper and Fortinet) to find hardware-related training and certification to occupy you throughout a long and successful career.

Although ExpertRating offers many credentials, we rejected them after viewing several complaints regarding the general quality of the courses. Obviously, such complaints are from disgruntled customers but were enough to make us proceed with caution.

This is also an area where constant change in tools and technology is the norm. That means a course of lifelong learning will be essential to help you stay current on what’s in your working world today and likely to show up on the job soon.

Tue, 28 Jun 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Oracle Certification Guide: Overview and Career Paths

Oracle offers a multitude of hardware and software solutions designed to simplify and empower IT. Perhaps best known for its premier database software, the company also offers cloud solutions, servers, engineered systems, storage and more. Oracle has more than 430,000 customers in 175 countries, about 138,000 employees and exceeds $37.7 billion in revenue.

Over the years, Oracle has developed an extensive certification program. Today, it includes six certification levels that span nine different categories with more than 200 individual credentials. Considering the depth and breadth of this program, and the number of Oracle customers, it’s no surprise that Oracle certifications are highly sought after.

[For more information read our Oracle CRM review, and our review of Oracle’s accounting suite.]

Oracle certification program overview

Oracle’s certification program is divided into these nine primary categories:

  • Oracle Applications
  • Oracle Cloud
  • Oracle Database
  • Oracle Enterprise Management
  • Oracle Industries
  • Oracle Java and Middleware
  • Oracle Operating Systems
  • Oracle Systems
  • Oracle Virtualization

Additionally, Oracle’s credentials are offered at six certification levels:

  • Junior Associate
  • Associate
  • Professional
  • Master
  • Expert
  • Specialist

Most Oracle certification exams are proctored, cost $245, and contain a mix of scored and unscored multiple-choice questions. Candidates may take proctored exams at Pearson VUE, although some exams are offered at Oracle Testing Centers in certain locations. Some exams, such as Oracle Database 12c: SQL Fundamentals (1Z0-061) and Oracle Database 11g: SQL Fundamentals (1Z0-051), are also available non-proctored and may be taken online. Non-proctored exams cost $125. Check the Oracle University Certification website for details on specific exams.

Oracle Applications and Cloud certifications

The Oracle Applications certification category offers more than 60 individual credentials across 13 products or product groups, such as Siebel, E-Business Suite, Hyperion, JD Edwards EnterpriseOne and PeopleSoft. The majority of these certifications confer Certified Implementation Specialist for some specific application, with various Certified Expert credentials also available. The Application certifications aim at individuals with expertise in selling and implementing specific Oracle solutions.

Oracle’s newest certification category is Oracle Cloud, which covers Java Cloud as well as a number of Oracle Cloud certifications, including Oracle Database Cloud. Cloud certs fall into seven sub-categories:

  • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
  • Platform as a Service (PaaS), including Data Management, Application Development, Management Cloud and Mobile Cloud Service
  • Software as a Service (SaaS) – Oracle Customer Experience Cloud, including Service, Sales, Marketing and CPQ Cloud
  • Software as a Service (SaaS) – Oracle Customer Experience Cloud, including Service, Sales, Marketing, CPQ Cloud, and the rest of their CRM software offering

  • Software as a Services – Oracle Enterprise Resource Planning Cloud, including Financials, Project Portfolio Management, Procurement and Risk Management Cloud

  • Software as a Service – Oracle Human Capital Management Cloud, including Workforce Rewards, Payroll, Talent Management and Global Human Resources Cloud
  • Software as a Service – Oracle Supply Chain Management Cloud, including Order Management, Product Master Data Management, Product Lifecycle Management, Manufacturing, Inventory Management, Supply Chain Planning and Logistics Cloud

These credentials recognize individuals who deploy applications, perform administration or deliver customer solutions in the cloud. Credentials mostly include Associate and Certification Implementation Specialists, with one Mobile Developer credential offered plus a professional-level Oracle Database Cloud Administrator.

Oracle Database certifications

Certifications in Oracle’s Database category are geared toward individuals who develop or work with Oracle databases. There are three main categories: Database Application Development, MySQL and Oracle Database.

Note: Oracle Database 12c was redesigned for cloud computing (and is included in both the Cloud and Database certification categories). The current version is Oracle Database 12c R2, which contains additional enhancements for in-memory databases and multitenant architectures. MySQL 5.6 has been optimized for performance and storage, so it can handle bigger data sets.

Whenever a significant version of either database is released, Oracle updates its certifications exams over time. If an exam isn’t available for the latest release, candidates can take a previous version of the exam and then an updated exam when it becomes available. Though MySQL 5.6 certifications and exams are still available for candidates supporting that version, the new MySQL 5.7 certification track may be more appropriate for those just starting on their MySQL certification journeys.

Oracle currently offers the Oracle Database Foundations Certified Junior Associate, Oracle Certified Associate (OCA), Oracle Certified Professional (OCP), Oracle Certified Master (OCM), Oracle Certified Expert (OCE) and Specialist paths for Oracle Database 12c. In addition, Oracle offers the OCA credential for Oracle Database 12c R2 and an upgrade path for the OCP credential. Because many of these certifications are also popular within the Oracle Certification Program, we provide additional exam details and links in the following sections.

Other database certifications

Oracle Enterprise Management Certifications

The Oracle Enterprise Manager Certification path offers candidates the opportunity to demonstrate their skills in application, middleware, database and storage management. The Oracle Enterprise Manager 12c Certified Implementation Specialist exam (1Z0-457) certifies a candidate’s expertise in physical, virtual and cloud environments, as well as design, installation, implementation, reporting, and support of Oracle Enterprise Manager.

Oracle Database Foundations Certified Junior Associate

The Oracle Database Foundation Certified Junior Associate credential targets those who’ve participated in the Oracle Academy through a college or university program, computer science and database teachers, and individuals studying databases and computer science. As a novice-level credential, the Certified Junior Associate is intended for individuals with limited hands-on experience working on Oracle Database products. To earn this credential, candidates must pass the Oracle Database Foundations (novice-level exam) (1Z0-006).

Oracle Certified Associate (OCA) – Oracle Database 12c Administrator

The OCA certification measures the day-to-day operational management database skills of DBAs. Candidates must pass a SQL exam and another on Oracle Database administration. Candidates can choose one of the following SQL exams:

  • Oracle Database 12c SQL (1Z0-071)
  • Oracle Database 12c: SQL Fundamentals (1Z0-061) NOTE: This exam will be retired on November 30, 2019.

Candidates must also pass the Oracle Database 12c: Installation and Administration (1Z0-062) exam.

Oracle Certified Associate – Oracle Database 12cR2 Administrator

To earn the Oracle Database 12cR2 OCA credential, candidates must first earn either the Oracle Database SQL Certified Associate, Oracle Database 11g Administrator Certified Associate, or the Oracle Database 12c Administrator Certified Associate.  In addition, candidates are required to pass the Oracle Database 12cR2 Administration exam (1Z0-072).

Oracle Certified Professional (OCP) – Oracle Database 12c Administrator

The OCP certification covers more advanced database skills. You must have the OCA Database 12c Administrator certification, complete the required training, submit a course submission form and pass the Oracle Database 12c: Advanced Administration (1Z0-063) exam.

Professionals who possess either the Oracle Database 11g Administrator Certified Professional or Oracle Database 12c Administrator Certified Professional credential may upgrade to the Oracle Database 12cR2 Administration Certified Professional credential by passing the Oracle DBA upgrade exam (1Z0-074).

Oracle Certified Master (OCM) – Oracle Database 12c Administrator

To achieve OCM Database 12c Administrator certification, you must have the OCP Database 12c Administrator certification, complete two advanced courses, and pass the Oracle Database 12c Certified Master exam (12cOCM), complete the course submission form, and submit the Fulfillment Kit request.

Oracle also offers the Oracle Database 12c Maximum Availability Certified Master certification, which requires three separate credentials, including the Oracle Database 12c Administrator Certified Master, Oracle Certified Expert, Oracle Database 12c-RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration, and Oracle Certified Expert, Oracle Database 12c – Data Guard Administration.

Oracle Certified Expert (OCE) – Oracle Database 12c

The OCE Database 12c certifications include Maximum Availability, Data Guard Administrator, RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administrator, and Performance Management and Tuning credentials. All these certifications involve prerequisite certifications. Performance Management and Tuning takes the OSP Database 12c as a prerequisite and the Data Guard Administrator certification requires the OCP Database 12c credential. The RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administrator provides candidates the most flexibility, allowing candidates to choose from the OCP Database 11g, OCP Databases 12c, Oracle Certified Expert – Real Application Clusters 11g and Grid Infrastructure Administration.

Once the prerequisite credentials are earned, candidates can then achieve Data Guard Administrator, RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administrator or Performance Management and Tuning by passing one exam. Achieving OCP 12c plus the RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration and Data Guard Administration certifications earns the Maximum Availability credential.

Oracle Database Certified Implementation Specialist

Oracle also offers three Certified Implementation Specialist credentials: the Oracle Real Application Clusters 12c, Oracle Database Performance and Tuning 2015, and Oracle Database 12c. Specialist credentials target individuals with a background in selling and implementing Oracle solutions. Each of these credentials requires candidates to pass a single exam to earn the designation.

Oracle Industries certifications

Oracle Industries is another sizable category, with more than 25 individual certifications focused on Oracle software for the construction and engineering, communications, health sciences, insurance, tax and utilities industries. All these certifications recognize Certified Implementation specialists for the various Oracle industry products, which means they identify individuals proficient in implementing and selling industry-specific Oracle software.

Oracle Java and Middleware Certifications

The Java and Middleware certifications span several subcategories, such as Business Intelligence, Application Server, Cloud Application, Data Integration, Identity Management, Mobile, Java, Oracle Fusion Middleware Development Tools and more. Java and Middleware credentials represent all levels of the Oracle Certification Program – Associate, Professional and so on – and include Java Developer, Java Programmer, System Administrator, Architect and Implementation Specialist.

The highly popular Java category has certifications for Java SE (Standard Edition), and Java EE (Enterprise Edition) and Web Services. Several Java certifications that require a prior certification accept either the corresponding Sun or Oracle credential.

Oracle Operating Systems certifications

The Oracle Operating Systems certifications include Linux and Solaris. These certifications are geared toward administrators and implementation specialists.

The Linux 6 certifications include OCA and OCP Linux 6 System Administrator certifications, as well as an Oracle Linux Certified Implementation Specialist certification. The Linux 6 Specialist is geared to partners but is open to all candidates. Both the Linux OCA and Specialist credentials require a single exam. To achieve the OCP, candidates must first earn either the OCA Linux 5 or 6 System Administrator or OCA Linux Administrator (now retired) credential, plus pass an exam.

The Solaris 11 certifications include the OCA and OCP System Administrator certifications plus an Oracle Solaris 11 Installation and Configuration Certified Implementation Specialist certification. The OCA and OCP Solaris 11 System Administrator certifications identify Oracle Solaris 11 administrators who have a fundamental knowledge of and base-level skills with the UNIX operating system, commands, and utilities. As indicated by its name, the Implementation Specialist cert identifies intermediate-level implementation team members who install and configure Oracle Solaris 11.

Oracle Systems certifications

Oracle Systems certifications include Engineered Systems (Big Data Appliance, Exadata, Exalogic Elastic Cloud, Exalytics, and Private Cloud Appliance), Servers (Fujitsu and SPARC) and Storage (Oracle ZFS, Pillar Axiom, Tape Storage, Flash Storage System). Most of these certifications aim at individuals who sell and implement one of the specific solutions. The Exadata certification subcategory also includes Oracle Exadata X3, X4 and X5 Expert Administrator certifications for individuals who administer, configure, patch, and monitor the Oracle Exadata Database Machine platform.

Oracle Virtualization certifications

The Virtualization certifications cover Oracle Virtual Machine (VM) Server for X86. This credential is based on Oracle VM 3.0 for X86, and recognizes individuals who sell and implement Oracle VM solutions.

The Oracle VM 3.0 for x86 Certified Implementation Specialist Certification aim at intermediate-level team members proficient in installing OVM 3.0 Server and OVM 3.0 Manager components, discovering OVM Servers, configuring network and storage repositories and more.

The sheer breadth and depth of Oracle’s certification program creates ample opportunities for professionals who want to work with Oracle technologies, or who already do and want their skills recognized and validated. Although there are many specific Oracle products in which to specialize in varying capacities, the main job roles include administrators, architects, programmers/developers and implementation specialists.

Every company that runs Oracle Database, Oracle Cloud, or Oracle Linux or Solaris needs qualified administrators to deploy, maintain, monitor and troubleshoot these solutions. These same companies also need architects to plan and design solutions that meet business needs and are appropriate for the specific environments in which they’re deployed, indicating that the opportunities for career advancement in Oracle technologies are abundant.

Job listings and hiring data indicate that programmers and developers continue to be highly sought-after in the IT world. Programming and development skills are some of the most sought-after by hiring managers in 2019, and database administration isn’t far behind. A quick search on Indeed results in almost 12,000 hits for “Oracle developer,” which is a great indication of both need and opportunity. Not only do developers create and modify Oracle software, they often must know how to design software from the ground up, package products, import data, write scripts and develop reports.

And, of course, Oracle and its partners will always need implementation specialists to sell and deploy the company’s solutions. This role is typically responsible for tasks that must be successfully accomplished to get a solution up and running in a client’s environment, from creating a project plan and schedule, to configuring and customizing a system to match client specifications.

Oracle training and resources

It’s not surprising that Oracle has an extensive library of exam preparation materials. Check the Oracle University website ( for hands-on instructor-led training, virtual courses, training on demand, exam preparation seminars, practice exams and other training resources.

A candidate’s best bet, however, is to first choose a certification path and then follow the links on the Oracle website to the required exam(s). If training is recommended or additional resources are available for a particular exam, Oracle lists them on the exam page.

Another great resource is the Oracle Learning Paths webpage, which provides a lengthy list of Oracle product-related job roles and their recommended courses.

Ed Tittel
Ed is a 30-year-plus veteran of the computing industry. He has worked as a programmer, technical manager, classroom instructor, network consultant and a technical evangelist for companies that include Burroughs, Schlumberger, Novell, IBM/Tivoli and NetQoS. He has written for numerous publications, including Tom’s IT Pro, and is the author of more than 140 computing books on information security, web markup languages and development tools, and Windows operating systems.

Earl Follis
Earl is also a 30-year veteran of the computer industry, who worked in IT training, marketing, technical evangelism, and market analysis in the areas of networking and systems technology and management. Ed and Earl met in the late 1980s when Ed hired Earl as a trainer at an Austin-area networking company that’s now part of HP. The two of them have written numerous books together on NetWare, Windows Server and other topics. Earl is also a regular writer for the computer trade press with many e-books, white papers and articles to his credit.

Tue, 28 Jun 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Apple Is a Better Deal Than Microsoft No result found, try new keyword!Without considering its PEG ratio, many investors would pass over Apple because its P/E more than doubles the ratios of IBM, Microsoft and Dell, which range from 12 to 16. . With a PEG of 1 ... Sat, 02 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en-us text/html Killexams : The Best Data Analytics Certifications For Your Next Career Move

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Killexams : Everyone and their Grandma is Expecting a Big Stocks Bear Market Rally

How to Protect your Wealth by Investing in AI Tech Stocks

Stock-Markets / Stock Market 2022 Jun 23, 2022 - 08:14 PM GMT

By: Nadeem_Walayat


Everyone and their grandma has been eagerly awaiting a big bear market bounce since at least the start of May that has repeatedly failed to materialise, why? It's because everyone and their grandma has been expecting a big market rally that's why! Here's another update on the state of the AI stocks portfolio in advance of finalising my 3 YEAR US house prices trend forecast.

My bear market expectations remain for the Dow to target a trend to 29,600 due to be achieved during August / Early September for an approx 20% top to bottom bear market target.

Note: The information provided in this article is solely to enable you to make your own investment decisions and does not constitute a personal investment recommendation or personalised advice.

This analysis (Everyone and their Grandma is Expecting a Big Stocks Bear Market Rally) was first made available to patrons who support my work.So for immediate first access to ALL of my analysis and trend forecasts then do consider becoming a Patron by supporting my work for just $4 per month.

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7 Weeks Down

So far during May every bear market low has failed to hold where even whole day rallies soon resolved in sending the indices to new bear market lows as was the case on Friday that came after Thursdays close and pre market strength early Friday that had sowed the seeds for the long anticipated by BIG market rally to begin, which instead on Fridays open plunged to new lows soon to reverse higher before the end of the day with the Dow ending marginally higher on the day.

The S&P better illustrates the false bottom price action during Thursday which implied that the bottom was holding at an over sold state for that potential strong bear market rally which even had me fooled. Instead apparently out of the blue the market broke to a new bear market low which triggered a string of buy limit orders in target stocks including MU, TSM, Qualcom, SYNA, HPQ, AMAT, GOOG and NVIDIA, buying equivalent to about 1.5% of my portfolio.

The problem is that virtually everyone, even the clowns on CNBC have been anticipating at least a strong bear market bounce for virtually the whole of May which has repeatedly failed to materialise which implies there is a wall of potential selling building up waiting for the rally to be triggered at the indicated red resistance levels that can only now be overcome through significant buying pressure that when it happens should propel the stock market significantly higher.

However when one looks under the hood of the market as my article of 30th April illustrated (Why APPLE Could CRASH the Stock Market!) that the chances of a significant corrective rally looked bleak due to many large cap stocks having weak stock prices and that the key mega-caps Apple and Microsoft which had held the market up to that point were about to crack, which they subsequently did.

Both Apple and Microsoft have a lot further lower to go i.e. Apple will probably trade to below $120, Microsoft to below $220 and then we have a whole host of already crushed tech giants headed further lower such as Amazon, Nvidia and Tesla just to name 3! So it is going to be tough for the indices to rally given underlying weakness in many major stocks, against others such as AMD which are behaving more strongly/.

We all want the bear market to provide us a respite by giving us a rally, but one has to face facts that the Apple and Microsoft nuts have cracked.So despite the stock market being very oversold and always appearing to be on the cusps of making a run higher, until we see the selling in the mega caps exhaust itself then we may not get much of any rally i.e. Apple falling to at least $120, Microsoft under $230, Nvidia under $140 and possibly as deep as under $100. Amazon perhaps to $1700 and Tesla to below $600.

The bottom line is that the e stock market IS very over sold across numerous measures and in fact has been for the whole of May hence why so many have busted the market has bottomed calls, as everyone and their grandma continues to expect, hope, even pray for a big bear market rally to sell into which IS the over whelming consensus view given that is appears very compelling across multiple metrics.

So what would another 10% drop in the market do to market participant expectations? Will they expect an even bigger bounce or come to believe the perma doom merchants that they are in for a rerun of 2000 style 90% collapse or worse and thus throw in the towel and SELL, resolving to avoid stocks forever more. Will 10% do that ? 15%? 20%? That's what it will take to hit bottom.


Several patrons have asked for a technical take on the Nasdaq. First step is to make sure that the Nasdaq produces reliable technical signals which on a quick review resolves to a 75% probability.

The Nasdaq chart on break below 13,000 is clearly indicating it wants to go much lower than the downwards price action to date coming off the late March high as all rallies since have been very feeble which implies the Nasdaq is targeting support at 11,000 to 10,700, or about a further 10% drop from the 11,835 close where it 'should' hold for a bounce but we will only know for sure when we get there and see how the Nasdaq behaves between 11,000 and 10,700. Should support hold then it is likely that Nasdaq will target a corrective rally back to 13,000 where depending on whether it reaches or breaks above it will sow the seeds for what comes afterwards.

So pulling all the threads together it looks like the big bear market bounce that everyone is expecting won't materialise until we see the likes of Apple trade down to $120, which is about a 13% drop on the last close of $137.5 when the institutions will likely step in to accumulate for the long-run. So contrary to most investor expectations the stock market is probably more likely to head 10% lower than higher during the next week or so and I can imagine the fear that will engender in all those who have been desperately waiting for the big bounce that instead resolves into a big drop that in many cases may result in PANIC selling right at the BOTTOM which is the investing fate of most investors to FOMO Buy near the top and PANIC sell near the bottom and then decide they have suffered enough pain and so forget about the stock market for a number of years.


My portfolio currently stands at 65% invested. AI stocks 43.3%, high risk 21.9% and cash 34.8%. The table has been updated with a buying range and new columns EGF12M and Stock Price Fair value aimed towards giving a better indications of future prospects in terms of accumulating in the present. Remember the name of the game is to gain exposure to target stocks at as low multiples as possible compared to where the stock traded in the accurate past as this will increase the potential reward over the long run. For instance a stock that averages earnings growth of 20% per annum, will see it's earnings and likely average stock price X6 over the next 10 years. However during that time the stock will trade to a state of being over valued and to a state of being under valued in terms of average earnings expectations, which can make the difference between for instance a X8 or X4 return over 10 years. However once invested, then the only thing to really focus upon are the periods of over valuations to seek to reduce exposure to as over valuation means future earnings are priced into the present which at best means the stock goes nowhere for several years, or at worst suffers a significant drop which is what we are now experiencing as the over valuations of 2021 evaporate.

Taking AMD as an example that reached a state of being very overvalued by November 2021, traded on a PE of 70, which was discounting approaching 2 years worth of future growth in its current stock price and thus prompted me to reduce exposure along with for most of the AI tech stocks. Whilst today AMD is trading on a PE of 27.4, less than half that of November 2021, all whilst AMD continues to command a strong expected growth rate of 36% which means if nothing changes then AMD's PE will fall to just 17 in 1 years time, whilst if one applies a conservative 20% average growth rate over the next 10 years suggests buying AMD today gives expectations for a X5 to X6 return over the next 10 years on a conservative terminal multiple of 20. Whilst buying AMD at a PE of 70 would have cost at least two whole years of growth for a return of X 4.5 to X 5.5. Now one can dream of getting AMD on a PE of under 20 but given the strong growth rate that is going to be a tough ask. Note during the whole of this exercise I have NOT MENTIONED PRICE ONCE! Which is unfortunately is what most investors obsess over. It is NOT PRICE that is important but the valuation for it is that which will determine the probable return. Which is why I am not bothered where the bottom will be all I want is exposure to good stocks at low valuations for potential returns of X5 to X6 over the next 10 years and likely more should AMD trade to an over valued state once more for me to reduce exposure into and then buy back when closer to fair value as I have been doing during this bear market. Of course one can just invest and forget. and ride out bear markets but for that to work then one really does need to INVEST AND FORGET!

The price one pays is far less important than what most investors obsess over trying to catch THE bottom, then wince when the stock price falls by 10% from where they thought the bottom was i.e. it does not matter if one bought AMD at $93.5, $83.5 or $103.5 for all that means is one bought AMD in the current PE range of a 24 to PE 30, with a cost of at worst 2 quarters worth of growth which makes for marginal difference over 10 years. The key thing is one is not going to get any potential reward unless one a) has exposure and b) REMAINs invested for the long-run. There is NO point investing in stocks if after a 20% price jump an investors starts seeking to sell that which they worked so hard to buy, that is NOT investing that is TRADING! Though of course the future is unwritten so a good company can go bad which should be reflected in quarterly earnings reports so allow one to decrease exposure to.

Remember folks the Quantum AI mega-trend stocks are literal gravy trains that are currently parked at the station for probably not much longer, so I am not wasting precious time as I get my monetary baggage on board each train every time prices deviate from their highs to new lows as whatever happens to their stock prices during 2021 will prove temporary as my implied expectation for what Google could deliver of June 2020 illustrates.

So all who are worrying about a few percent here or there or worse waiting for the bottom that they will only see in the rear view mirror will in the not too distant future be wishing they had bought into the primary AI tech stocks at current prices! Mark my words you will wish you could buy AMD for under $95! Nvidia for under $180, Google for under $2400, Qualcom for under $160! Facebook for under $220, TSMC for under $100, Micron for under $70, AMAT for under $110, Lam Research for under $500 and so on, all of which will be seen as bargain basement ultra cheap prices in the not too distant future that most investors will dream of a second chance to buy at.

So all aboard, CHOO CHOO! Else suffer the fiat currency train wreck.

Table Big Image -

AI stocks Table explained

The fundamentals for stocks CHANGE to varying degree following each earnings report, hence volatile price action around earnings reports. So one needs to keep upto speed on both the direction of travel and changes in the companies fundamentals.

P/E Ratio - The starting point is the the P/E ratio which is calculated by dividing the share price by the sum of the last 4 reported quarterly earnings per share which is readily available, though different sites use GAAP or non GAAP EPS, my preference is for non GAAP. Higher the PE the more expensive a stock, so the simple aim is to buy stocks for as low a PE as possible, but on it's own the PE is very limited.

Buying Range - High probability range for stocks to trade within to accumulate which replaces buying levels as what one buys at what level is determined by ones existing exposure i.e. if one has no exposure then one would accumulate towards the top of the range and then scale in should prices continue to decline down towards the bottom of the range.

Earnings Growth Factor (EGF) - Gives an indication of the direction of travel of earnings where the higher the positive percentage the better. Whilst a negative EGF warns of contracting earnings which should command a LOW P/E ratio to justify accumulation. EGF is calculated by dividing share price by latest EPS X4 then divided by current P/E ratio -1 for example (2X2)=4, 100/4 = 25, Current P/E 30, thus 30/25-1 = EGF +20%.

E/C Ratio - A formulae encompassing 15 inputs such as Price to Book, Price to Sales, P/E etc to better determine which stocks are cheap or expensive in relative terms where 15 is the minimum reading.

EGF12M - Similar to the EGF, however instead of the current quarter EPS X4 I am,using my own estimated EPS for the next 12 months to arrive at the EGF12M percent, as an indication of how strongly a stocks earnings could grow over the next 12 months.

Stock Price Faire Value - Based on the current PE ratio divided by the fair value PE ./ Ratio which is usually 18 for most stocks that is adjusted by the 12M EGF. i.e. Google PE 19.8 divided by (18* EGF12M) = 20 = 1 X share price $2186 = 2212. So one wants to buy a stock for as well below the fair value as possible, whilst buying above the fair value one is over paying to some degree for exposure to a stock. Note it is not a price target but an indicator of how cheap a stock price is compared to future earnings expectations.

MY % Exposure - Is how much I have invested in a stock as percent of the target amount i.e. if my target for a stock is £10k, and I have invested £5k then the exposure is 50%.

Port % (AI +Hi Risk+Cash) - My holding in each stock as a percent of AI stocks + High Risk stocks + Cash on account. So basically my public portfolio

Target % of - Is my target percent of portfolio (AI+ High risk + Cash).


QAULCOM $131.6 - Stands out head and shoulders above the rest. P/E 13.5, EGF +18%, EC 15, EGF12M +33%, that resolves to a Fair value price of $232, with the current stock price at just $131.6 and thus remains at the top of my list to accumulate during the bear market where each new low prompts me to buy more.

MICRON $68.9 - P/E 9.3, EGF +5%, EC 15, EGF12M +43%, Fair value $191! NO it's not going to get to $191 over the next 12 months but it does suggest that there is a very high probability of Micron trading to new all time high within the next 12months, that is unless the fundamentals change to a great extent over the coming quarters.

TSMC $90.8 - P/E 19.9, EGF +23%, EC 18, EGF12M +34%, Fair value $110. Trading near 20% below fair value, TSMC is an easy stock to accumulate into the only real risk is a Chinese invasion, Another week like this and I will be 100% invested.

AVGO $543 - P/E 18.2, EGF +13%, EC 36, EGF12M +24%, Fair value $664. The AVGO stock price refuses to drop, which given fair value is $664 should not come as much surprise why. So I have had to bite the bullet and start accumulating to at least get to 20% exposure ahead of possible better opportunities yet to come perhaps in advance or on earnings day 2nd of June.


AMAZON $2151 - P/E 40.4, EGF -68%, EC 286, EGF12M -38%, Fair Value $591. I would be shocked if Amazon fell to $591! And I am sure all those who FOMOd into it will be put off from investing for life! But all of the metrics are WARNING that Amazon is very high risk that most investors have remained BLIND to all the way from it's high of $3700 down to it's accurate low of $2100. Amazon is very high risk which is why I keep reducing my max exposure to the stock and if there is one stock I am eager to lighten exposure to during a bear market rally then it is Amazon.

MICROSOFT $252.5 - P/E 27.6, EGF -3%, EC 50, EGF12M 9%, Fair Value $179. Everyone is eager for a piece of Microsoft as am I but not at $252! Microsoft could easily fall to below $200, unless it posts fantastic earnings to change it's fundamentals.

ASML $533 - P/E 32, EGF -14%, EC 58, EGF12M 20%, Fair Value $360. I am eager to invest in this monopoly but it is not cheap, so I await for an earnings blood bath of sorts to enable me to accumulate much beyond my current 50% the $450 to $400 range as I doubt it will get anywhere near $360.


NVIDIA $167 - P/E 43.7, EGF +19%, EC22 , EGF12M +56%, Fair Value $107. Nvidia floated high as a kite above $300 during 2021 from where a drop to $200 seemed impossible to most, but the red flags were there all along warning that the stock price was headed to below $200 and could even fall as low as $140 which is what I often warned at the time, still I understand full well why many remained invested in Nvidia because it is a fantastic AI tech stock! So whilst Nvidia could fall to under $100, and even if one paid something daft like say an average of $260 a share, 3 or 4 years form now you will probably still be up 100%. So it is a safe over valued stock by virtue of it's future growth rate of +56%, the highest of all stocks. Hence why I have not waited for the price to drop anywhere near the target low before accumulating sub $200 and thus I am now 20% invested eager to get to at least 50% invested which could be achieved as early as this week when it reports earnings on the 25th.

APPLE $137.5 - P/E 22.3, EGF -1%, EC15 , EGF12M +3%, Fair Value $115. The numbers suggest that Apple could enter a trading range for several years, so whilst I will accumulate exposure to Apple at between $128 and $116. I don't think I will go much over 25% invested. I am not seeing what others see in Apple to me it's a mixed bag, not too bad but also not too good either. So just enough exposure to satisfy my thirst to have a stake as less than a year ago Apple was my 2nd largest holding after Microsoft.

AMD $93.5 - P/E 27.4, EGF 33%, EC33 , EGF12M +36%, Fair Value $83. AMD is firing on all cylinders and came tantalising close to it's fair value. If there is one stock I could get over exposed to then that stock is AMD. I am 72% invested and should I see say $80 and lower then I will probably go over well over 100% invested.


Pfizer sand Medifast look good. Healthcare sector continues to outperform.

Facebook stock price should be stable and continue base building around $200.

IBM breaks below $130, targeting $120 buying opportunity.

I don't see much further downside for Lam and AMAT

Intel continues to sleep.

Principles for Dealing with the Changing World Order (Ray Dalio)

A number of patrons mentioned Ray Dalio and his new book "Principles for Dealing with the Changing World Order" and asked for my opinion, In respect of which Ray Dalio posted a high production 40 minute youtube video of the same title.

However after watching the video I see at least 3 flaws in his rise of China to displace the US thesis.

1. Each empire that replaced the previous empire tended to be freer than the one before, which is definitely not true with China.

2. That the new expire had a rising if not an exploding population, which again not true with China which is set to see it's population fall whilst the US remains on an upwards trend trajectory for many more decades.

3. The US empire does not stand alone i.e. there is NATO and AUKUS. Whilst it is very difficult for China to create similar alliances given that China rates much higher on the Xenophobia scale so it is very difficult for the peoples of other nations to come close together to the extent they can with the US i.e. free movement of peoples and ideas between allies. That and the likely candidates of Iran, Russia and Pakistan are more likely to drag China into wars it does not want to fight than to support Chinese imperial ambitions. Which in the wake of Russia Ukraine War makes such formal alliances now even less probable.

And it does not help that China is apparently at war with it's tech sector due to CCP control freak fears, which just makes US tech giants more dominant. That's the problem with totalitarian states, they don't entirely get the big picture which is the Quantum AI Mega-trend, far more important than trying to catch up to the US in terms of the number of aircraft carriers. So when I start to see China take the lead in Quantum computers. AI and Chip fab's then one could take the the threat from China more seriously but at the moment the CCP appears to be doing it's best to crush China's tech sector. That and the United States effectively outlawing competing chinese tech firms such as Huawei due to security concerns, I am just not seeing any serious threat from China to the continuing dominance of the US Empire.

So I guess unfortunately for Ray Dalio and his thesis, this time it's going to be different, unless another empire emerges that is more liberal than the US and has a rising population. That's not to say China is going to go away anytime soon as a significant geopolitical player. it's just that it is not going to displace the US empire much as the Russian Empire (Soviet Union) trundled along for some 40 years before it collapsed, so may be the fate of the Chinese empire i.e. reach peak ambition some distance from where the US sits and then decline either slowly like the British Empire or rapidly like the Russian empire.

The West has demonstrated in Ukraine that totalitarian states are at a huge disadvantage and thus all those going on about CHINA, CHINA, CHINA need to read what I wrote many months ago, that just like the Russian military is a case of an Emperor without clothes the same is probably true of China, Where there could be a huge difference between what Xi Ping thinks his military can do than what it can actually achieve on the battlefield and where battlefields are concerned it will be infinitely harder for China to take Taiwan than Russia to take bordering Ukraine.

So if Xi ping decides to invade Taiwan the ultimate outcome could be the flying of the white sun over the blue field at the forbidden city.

Though before anyone comments, the West can also make huge military blunders such as in Iraq and Afghanistan, but totalitarian states without mechanisms to remove leaders from power before they go insane are more prone to making such huge blunders as we see Putrid's blundering army in Ukraine.

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By Nadeem Walayat

Copyright © 2005-2022 (Market Oracle Ltd). All rights reserved.

Nadeem Walayat has over 30 years experience of trading derivatives, portfolio management and analysing the financial markets, including one of few who both anticipated and Beat the 1987 Crash. Nadeem's forward looking analysis focuses on UK inflation, economy, interest rates and housing market. He is the author of five ebook's in the The Inflation Mega-Trend and Stocks Stealth Bull Market series that can be downloaded for Free.

Housing Markets Forecast 2014-2018The Stocks Stealth Bull Market 2013 and Beyond EbookThe Stocks Stealth Bull Market Update 2011 EbookThe Interest Rate Mega-Trend EbookThe Inflation Mega-trend Ebook

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Disclaimer: The above is a matter of opinion provided for general information purposes only and is not intended as investment advice. Information and analysis above are derived from sources and utilising methods believed to be reliable, but we cannot accept responsibility for any trading losses you may incur as a result of this analysis. Individuals should consult with their personal financial advisors before engaging in any trading activities.

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Thu, 23 Jun 2022 08:14:00 -0500 text/html
Killexams : Quantum Computing 101: Brilliant, Google, Microsoft Training Workers

Xconomy San Francisco — 

From Microsoft and IBM to Alphabet’s unit X and Canada’s D-Wave Systems, companies are racing to build powerful quantum computers that may solve problems beyond the capacity of the most sophisticated conventional processors, and do it much faster.

It’ll be some years before such uber-computers are robust and reliable enough for broad commercial use. But tech companies are already writing the novel kinds of software these revolutionary computers will need in order to operate—and businesses are even helping to train the workforce for a future era of “quantum speed-up.’’ For that training task, Microsoft and X, the cutting-edge research arm of Google parent company Alphabet, have partnered with a San Francisco-based educational technology company called Brilliant.

In a new course offered by Brilliant, students can learn the basics about quantum computing, write some quantum code, and provide it a spin on a system that simulates the workings of a quantum computer—all using their smartphones if they like, says chief operating officer Eli Ross.

Advanced skill in quantum computing is rare—even more rare than expertise in other emerging fields where engineers are highly sought, such as in artificial intelligence disciplines like machine learning and deep learning. The global number of high-level researchers in quantum computing may be less than a thousand, the New York Times estimated in October. And that scarcity could stymie progress for companies in the field.

“To date, the tech talent shortage in quantum science has been a critical bottleneck to the industry’s progress,’’ the quantum software company Zapata Computing said as it announced a $21 million Series A funding round in April.

Brilliant and its two big partners hope to do something about that bottleneck.

Brilliant teaches STEM topics, from math fundamentals on up, by feeding online students with small, digestible bites of content along with exercises that encourage them to make immediate use of what they’ve learned.

Among Brilliant’s courses is an introduction to basic, classical computer science concepts, like the fact that each “bit’’ of information consists of only one of two numbers: zero or one. (A string of 8 bits, such as 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0, makes up a byte, which codes for a single letter or other character, such as an “A” or a “&.’’)

In its new course, though, Brilliant is teaching students to set aside that traditional CompSci canon and grapple with the bizarro-world perspective of quantum computing, which looks at 0 and 1 and says, “Why choose?’’

In quantum computing, the units of information are known as quantum bits, or “qubits,’’ that can each stand for 0, or 1, or—brace yourself—they can be said to represent both 0 and 1 at the same time. This startling feat is achieved when quantum computer designers nudge the qubits into a state called superposition.

Tech innovators anticipate that computers based on such underpinnings could outperform conventional processors by exponential leaps when tackling certain complex problems. (Dive in here for a quick explainer from WIRED to find out how the quantum speed-up might result from this technology.) The technical challenges are huge, but companies are pouring resources into creating qubit chips, quantum software, and cloud-based services where enterprise-scale businesses can test out early quantum computers.

Not surprisingly, conventional software algorithms won’t do for these quantum computers. They’re based on quantum mechanics—which concerns the behavior of atoms, subatomic particles, and energy—-rather than on the classical physics that describes the familiar behavior of relatively large-scale things like tennis balls. (Subatomic particles such as electrons can exist in transient, in-between states, similar to superposition in a qubit.)

Brilliant’s class in quantum computing moves on to explain much more complex and counterintuitive concepts—like what happens when two qubits become entangled. Along with superposition, entanglement is a key technique in amplifying computing power. There’s a payoff for mastering all this weirdness, because it opens up a universe of strange possibilities. (Hint: Teleportation!)

The course introduces students to Microsoft’s Q# programming language, which was designed to work with the real quantum computers that have already been built. Though these machines are still at an experimental stage, and so far lack the capabilities needed to tackle the most challenging computational tasks, they are already serving as test beds for their inventors and for selected companies invited to explore their potential.

Developers of these powerhouse computers want more researchers and programmers to be up to speed on quantum computing—and standing ready to pose really big questions—as the technology matures and becomes more widely available. Quantum computers could deliver breakthroughs in fields from code-breaking to drug development and to the design of super-catalysts, advocates say. Their anticipated ability to bust through the encryption that shields sensitive data raises national security concerns—one of the reasons why quantum computing is an arena of intense international competition.

Cambridge, MA-based Zapata Computing is one of the US companies competing to make hires from the scanty global pool of quantum computing experts. Zapata’s work on a software platform for quantum computing is based on a collection of quantum algorithms it licensed from Harvard University. Zapata’s hiring struggles may have been worsened by restrictive US immigration policies, its CEO and co-founder Christopher Savoie told the New York Times late last year.

Zapata helped organize a campaign to bolster US education and research on quantum computing as a co-founder of the Quantum Industry Coalition—one of the groups that advocated for the passage of a new federal statute, the National Quantum Initiative Act, which became law in December. It sets up a multi-part initiative to support not only research in quantum computing, but also a raft of US educational programs in the field. Much of this 10-year initiative will involve universities and research centers, which can apply for millions of dollars in funding from federal grants.

Companies are already contributing to the training of experienced engineers through entry points such as Microsoft’s Quantum Development Kit.

But Brilliant and its partners Microsoft and X also provided students anywhere a quick way to get started in the field when the company first offered its Quantum Computing course to existing users in December.

Since then, 26,000 people have enrolled in the course, COO Ross says. Although Quantum Computing is classified as one of Brilliant’s advanced courses, students don’t need to be … Next Page »

Mon, 30 May 2022 12:00:00 -0500 Bernadette Tansey en text/html
Killexams : Mr Market’s stories follow stock prices, Scientific investors follow fundamentals

For 2022, the markets are down. The Nifty 50 is down by around 6% and S&P 500 is down by around 14%. However, the Nasdaq 100 and Nifty IT are both down by around 24%. As Mr. Market is wont to do, when stock prices are up, the stories are optimistic, and when stock prices are down, the stories are pessimistic.

With technology stocks, both global and Indian, in a bear market, it is no surprise that the stories doing the rounds are negative. The focus is on a
US recession, which has “35% probability”; which actually means there is “65% probability” of US growth and no recession. US inflation and the US Fed’s interest rate hikes are “worrying”. The global supply chain disruption is a worry. The Russia-Ukraine war is a worry. Higher crude oil and commodity prices are a worry. No doubt all these are important factors and pose a risk to growth. But there is always a lot to worry. There was a lot to worry about in 2020 and 2021. Remember Covid? Global supply chains were disrupted throughout this period.

However, also consider, US unemployment is near an all-time low of 3.6%. US real GDP growth is expected to be nearly 3% and nominal growth at 7%. US employers are unable to find candidates, with many more jobs outstanding than the number of candidates available.

Many companies are reducing guidance since they would like to be conservative. Also, supply chain disruptions can have a revenue impact, especially for consumer goods companies, even when they have strong demand. Higher commodity prices can cause reduced margins. In prudence, companies would rather lower guidance now and get the benefit of beating guidance, if things turn out normal.

Now, moving to technology companies. US technology companies are down 24%. Many of these were “long duration” companies. These were hyper-growth, negative cash flow companies that were expected to become cash flow positive 10-15-20 years from now. The discounted cash flow-based valuation of such companies is highly sensitive to the discount rate. And the discount rate is related to the Fed fund rate or the risk-free rate. So the Fed announcing an aggressive interest rate increase path, causing the share prices of these companies to fall, is no surprise. However, in sympathy, or in contagion, even large Big Tech companies with very strong positive cash flows of billions of dollars also fell, taking down the Nasdaq-100.

(See disclaimer at the end) This makes large companies like Apple, Facebook (Meta), Google (Alphabet), Microsoft, Amazon etc. available at a price to cash flow ranging from as low as 9 to 32. Most of these companies are expected to grow in double digits, mostly on the higher side. The situation is similar with numerous smaller technology companies with positive cash flows and high growth rates. But they are all down.

Coming to Indian IT companies, the situation is even more bizarre. These companies have strong positive cash flows. They have high growth rates. Even a US recession is unlikely to have practically any negative impact on them. Their US clients are in the midst of a multi-year digital transformation cycle that cannot be stopped. The first leg of this is moving to the Cloud. The Cloud is growing at 20% according to Garner, but for Indian IT companies it is growing at nearly 40%. The deals and order books are in place and deal pipelines are strong. Customers would rather accelerate movement during difficult times, as observed during Covid. That the Cloud business is growing strongly can be confirmed from the guidance and outlook provided by cloud platform owners, such as Microsoft Azure, Amazon AWS, Google GCP and IBM. This can be confirmed from the outlook of Indian IT services companies such as TCS, Infosys, Wipro and the smaller firms.

However, Indian IT companies are still down. The Rupee depreciating against the Dollar is favourable to Indian IT companies. With the Fed increasing interest rates, even with the RBI following suit, it is likely to put pressure on the Rupee. This works in favour of Indian IT companies, both in revenue and margin terms.

It doesn’t make sense that one of the healthiest sectors in the Indian listed space should be down 24% when the overall Indian markets are down 6%. But rather than find reason in Mr Market’s whimsical mind, it makes sense to grab the opportunity, or at least consider it strongly, when it arises. Indian IT companies are available at PE ratios in the 20s, with expected growth rates in double digits. Even in a high interest-rate environment, this is probably fairly-priced or better. And these companies are providing exposure to themes such as digital transformation, cloud and metaverse.

Similarly, US technology firms — those with strong positive cash flows and growth rates — provide exposure to Artificial Intelligence, Internet of Things, 5G, Cyber Security, Blockchain, Metaverse, Digital Work, Digital Life, and many more interesting themes. And these too are available at attractive valuations from a long-term perspective.

Mr. Market is mispricing technology stocks in both India and the US. If it suits one’s investment objectives and risk profile, one can consider deep diving and building a portfolio or investing in a professionally designed portfolio of such companies. Such opportunities are relatively rare.

Disclaimer: Any mention of stocks, securities or ETFs is not a recommendation to buy, sell or hold. We or our clients may be buying, selling or holding the above-mentioned stocks and might change our opinions in future. Investing in equity markets is subject to market risks. Global investing has added risks, including country and currency risk. Investors should take the advice of their financial advisor and make investment decisions according to their individual risk profile and investment objectives. Mon, 06 Jun 2022 19:33:00 -0500 en text/html Killexams : Master in Computer Science

Computer scientists impact society through their work in many areas. The advancement of technology has transformed the way and speed with which individuals work, communicate, and exchange information. As we now depend daily on the stability and reliability of our technology systems, there is a very strong demand for individuals with a background in computer science. Graduate level computer scientists are generally hired to work with the next generation of technology in areas such as computer systems, networking, database administration, operating systems, search engines, software engineering, and custom applications.

A variety of programming languages and software packages are used at the graduate level. Graduate students are expected to have the ability to immediately learn these languages and packages as needed for their programs. There are also many opportunities for independent study, projects, and research.

Integrated Bachelor of Science/Master of Science in Computer Science

An integrated baccalaureate and master’s degree program provides the opportunity for outstanding undergraduates to earn both degrees in five years. Typically, a baccalaureate degree requires four years to complete and a master’s degree requires an additional two years. However, the integrated degree programs are intended to be accomplished over a period of five years. In addition to earning both degrees a year early, the integrated programs may include additional opportunities to participate in a variety of experiential educational activities such as a master’s project or thesis.

View detailed integrated degree requirements for computer science.

Assistantship Opportunities

A limited number of teaching assistantships, which provide a monthly stipend and a tuition waiver, are available. Undergraduate and graduate grade point averages, scholarship records, recommendations, and a personal statement provide the criteria for awarding assistantships. Teaching Assistants must maintain a 3.0 GPA, exhibit satisfactory progress toward their degree, and satisfactorily perform their assigned duties in order to retain their assistantships.

Computer Facilities

At Western, you will have access to a large IBM mainframe and SUN computers. There are also large laboratories with the latest microcomputers available. Our access to microcomputers is as good as any university in the United States. It is our goal to provide you experience on a variety of computing equipment and the associated software so that you can judge which type of equipment is best suited for the problems you encounter during your working career.

Faculty Expertise

Department faculty have a variety of experiences, degrees, and research interests. The faculty have doctorates from such universities as Florida State University, Illinois Institute of Technology, Indian Institute of Science, Northwestern University, Southern Methodist University, SUNY Buffalo, University of Illinois, University of Iowa, and University of Western Ontario. Their current research interests are in the areas of artificial intelligence, computer architecture, databases, distributed processing, graphics, languages, networking, simulation, and software engineering.

Please refer to the graduate catalog for detailed program information and course requirements.

Computer Science (CS) Courses

CS 410G Operating Systems

Overview of the concepts/theory of operating systems with emphasis on process management, memory management, file management, scheduling, device management, and synchronization.

CS 412G Graphical User Interface Programming

Development of programs that use multiple windows, dialog boxes, mouse input, interapplication communication using API calls, object-oriented frameworks and application builders.

CS 420G Computer Communication and Networks

Survey of the operational features of telecommunications systems, computer networks, and distributed-processing systems. Considerations for the design of real-time systems.

CS 460G Artificial Intelligence Methods

An introduction to the main principles and methods of artificial intelligence. Solving problems by searching, knowledge and reasoning; machine learning; current AI applications. Programming paradigms relevant to AI will be explored.

CS 465G Computer Graphics

Introduction to computer-generation of graphs and pictures, using both character and pixel graphics methods, in two and three dimensions. Animation techniques, CAD methods.

CS 470G Database Systems

Survey of data models with emphasis on the relational model. Data normalization. Query languages and query optimization. Design and security considerations. Exposure to commercial database management systems.

CS 473G Computer Simulation

This class will introduce the science and art of computer based simulation. We will focus on discrete event simulation using the simulation languages ProModel and GPSSH. The class will focus on discrete event simulation, but will also cover Monte Carlos and continuous simulations. Scientific method and statistics will be used to develop, analyze, and report on a student developed simulation project.

CS 483G Microcomputer Systems with Database Applications

Covers command language, programming logic and applications of database systems for the non-computer science major.

CS 484G Network and Data Communications Concepts

Concepts and design of commercial computer and telecommunications networks. Course is designed for non‑majors, especially those who will manage/operate networks in business environments.

CS 488G Introduction to Programming with Visual Basic

Introduction to the principles of programming for Windows in Visual Basic. Principles include event-driven programming, control structures, properties, events, methods of controls, and forms.

CS 500 Intensive Programming Review

This course will review computer programming, object-oriented design, linear and non-linear data structures, and the software development lifecycle. All concepts will be reinforced through hands-on programming assignments and projects.

CS 512 Advanced Operating Systems

Topics chosen from the theory of distributed, parallel, and concurrent operating systems. Other possible subjects include secure systems and formal models of operating systems.

CS 513 subjects in Operating Systems

Topics to include additional depth, readings, and/or examination of research trends in operating systems.

CS 522 Advanced Database Design and Administration

Advanced relational database concepts. This course will examine subjects such as relational database management system design (RDBMS), including discussion of the major components of a RDBMS; query optimization strategies and cost estimation techniques; active databases, advanced transaction processing; and concurrency control.

CS 523 subjects in Database Systems

Topics to include additional depth, studying and/or examination of research trends in Database Systems.

CS 530 Design and Analysis of Algorithms

Fundamentals of the design and analysis of algorithms, space and time-complexity issues, dynamic programming, greedy algorithms, linear programming, NP-completeness, multithreaded algorithms, and applications.

CS 540 Computer Simulation

Statistical techniques used in computer simulations. Construction and verification of simulation models. Programming projects.

CS 548 Advanced Artificial Intelligence

The course will include subjects from Expert Systems, Knowledge Engineering, Soft Computing, and other advanced topics.

CS 549 subjects in Artificial Intelligence

Course covers modern trends in artificial intelligence.

CS 550 Workshop


CS 556 Advanced Computer Networks

In depth studies of computer networks and the services built on top of them.

CS 557 subjects in Computer Networks

Survey of computer networks covering current trends and advanced topics. Survey of research papers from classic literature through contemporary research.

CS 560 Computer Architecture

Study of computer architecture for large-scale and small-scale systems. Microprogramming concepts. Minicomputer and microcomputer design and applications, projects on small‑scale systems.

CS 561 Advanced Computer Architecture

Investigation of techniques to enhance system performance. subjects may include compiler optimization, hardware optimization, branch prediction, speculation, exploitation of instructional-and loop-level parallelism, etc.

CS 562 subjects in Computer Architecture

Advanced subjects to include additional depth, readings, and/or examination of research trends in computer architecture.

CS 566 Advanced Computer Graphics

Study and programming of problems beyond the introductory level, such as real time computer graphics using modern programming languages and graphics development environments.

CS 567 subjects in Computer Graphics

Designed to gain depth in computer graphics. Possible subjects include the study of 3-D modeling for, and the development of, multi-user virtual worlds.

CS 575 Independent Study

An investigation of issues related to computer science not specifically covered in other courses.

CS 585 Software Engineering

Covers the design and implementation of large software applications through the study of team approaches and industrial standards.

CS 590 subjects in Computer Science

This course is designed to provide students knowledge at the frontier of a rapidly changing technology. It is offered in the following areas: a) expert database systems; b) object-oriented programming; c) fundamentals of computer arithmetic; d) computing theory for software engineers; e) design of decision support systems; f) complexity; g) cybernetics; h) fuzzy logic; i) distributed computing. j) knowledge engineering; k) software maintenance; l) systems analysis.

CS 595 Graduate Computer Science Internship

A one-semester on-the-job experience in an industrial facility or research laboratory.

CS 599 Master's Project

Special software or hardware project work, in lieu of a thesis.

CS 600 Research

Research project for the MS Thesis

CS 601 Thesis


Sun, 22 May 2022 23:06:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Biomedical Sciences Bachelor of Science Degree Course BIOL-265

Evolutionary Biology

This course investigates the historical framework of evolutionary biology and the meaning/nature of evidence pertinent to biological evolution. subjects will include: earth history, the evolution of proteins and the genetic code, molecular evolution, neutral theory vs. selection, genetic variation, natural selection, migration, mutation, genetic drift, fitness, population dynamics and genetics, speciation, systematics and classification systems, molecular phylogenetics, the evolution of eukaryotic organisms, behavioral evolution, historical biogeography, and human evolution and variation. (Prerequisites: (BIOL-101 and BIOL-102 and BIOL-103 and BIOL-104) or (BIOL-121 and BIOL-122) or (BIOL-123 and BIOL-124 and BIOL-125 and BIOL-126) or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall).


Cell Biology

This course will address the fundamental concepts of cell biology. Class discussions, assignments, and laboratory projects will 1) Explore the structure-function relationships that drive cellular processes at the molecular, cellular and tissue level. 2) Investigate the mechanisms of cellular signaling and the transmission of genetic information. 3) Examine energy transformation strategies and the biochemical pathways used for synthesis and breakdown of ATP and other important biomolecules. 4) Investigate the organizational strategies used by cells to form functional tissue and organ systems. (Prerequisites: (BIOL-206 and BIOL-216) or BIOL-201 or BIOL-202 or BIOG-240 or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Spring).


Cell Physiology

This course is a study of functional eukaryotic cellular physiology with an emphasis on the role of global gene expression in cellular function and disease. Nuclear and cytoplasmic regulation of macromolecular synthesis, regulation of cellular metabolism, control of cell growth, and the changes in cell physiology in disease are covered. This course also covers the technology used for studying changes in gene expression associated with cell differentiation and disease. The associated laboratory covers microarray techniques. This includes design and implementation of an experiment to acquire gene expression data, analyzing the acquired data using simple computer programs, such as MAGIC, and writing a research paper explaining findings. (Prerequisites: BIOL-201 or BIOL-302 or BIOG-240 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Fall).


Food Microbiology

This course presents the microbiology of foods. subjects include microbial food spoilage, foodborne pathogens, food preservation techniques, and environmental parameters found in foods important in the survival of food spoilage microbes and foodborne pathogens. The lab will include exercises on isolating heterotrophs from all kinds of food, isolation of fungi from various foods, and the survival of various pathogens in food and beverages. (Prerequisites: BIOL-204 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Spring).


Biology of Cancers


Tissue Culture

This course will present the techniques and applications of culturing eukaryotic cells, tissues, and organs in vitro. Emphasis will be placed on mammalian systems. Lectures will cover the historical background of tissue culture, how to authenticate cell lines, basic cell culture techniques; as well as stem cells, tissue engineering, and the role of cell culture in regenerative medicine. In the laboratory, students will be introduced to growth curves, cloning techniques, primary cell culture, and making a cell line; as well as detecting mycoplasma and other cell culture contaminants. (Prerequisites: BIOL-201 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Fall).



Introduction to the principles of inheritance; the study of genes and chromosomes at molecular, cellular, organismal, and population levels. (Prerequisites: (BIOL-206 and BIOL-216) or BIOL-201 or BIOL-202 or BIOG-240 or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer).


Developmental Biology

This course is a study of the processes of growth, differentiation and development that lead to the mature form of an organism. The course will also address how developmental biology is integrated with other aspects of biology including disease, ecology, and evolution. (Prerequisites: (BIOL-206 and BIOL-216) or BIOL-201 or BIOL-202 or BIOG-240 or equivalent courses.) Lab 3 (Fall).



The overall goal of this course is to familiarize students with the theory and analysis of genomics data. Students will survey subjects including the structure, organization, and expression of the genome in a diverse array of organisms ranging from microbes to humans. Students will also become familiar with the analysis of next generation ‘omics-type data through a series of computational activities and problem sets. A hands-on laboratory component will guide students through a rigorous investigation of genomes. (Prerequisites: BIOL-321 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Fall).


Introduction to Population Genetics

This course consists of a study of DNA, genes, inheritance, genetic variation, genetic architecture, and change within and among populations. Fundamental genetics subjects include DNA, gene, and chromosomal structure and function along with, transmission genetics, Mendelian inheritance patterns, sex-linked inheritance, genetic linkage, and the Hardy-Weinberg Principle. Population based subjects will include genetic variation, its importance, how it originates and is maintained as well as inbreeding, random mating, mutation, migration, selection, genetic drift, the effects of small population size, fitness, population subdivision, the shifting balance theory, inter-deme selection, kin selection, neutral theory, molecular evolution, molecular clocks, multi-gene families, gene conversion, artificial selection, the genetic basis of quantitative traits and the fundamental theorem of natural selection. (Prerequisites: BIOL-265 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Spring).


Advanced Immunology

This course is an in-depth treatment of the molecular and cellular events associated with innate and adaptive immune responses. The response of the host to the environment of microbes and pathogens will be emphasized. Recognition and response of the host to the infectious agents and the resolution of the disease state will be examined at the cellular and molecular levels. The immune response to tumors will be treated and medical advances in treating neoplastic disease using immunological therapy will be presented. The laboratories will focus on the cellular and molecular techniques employed in the modern immunology laboratory. A laboratory module employing hybridoma techniques will provide an intensive experience with monoclonal antibodies and their use in diagnostics and disease treatment. (Prerequisites: BIOL-201 or BIOL-302 or BIOG-240 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Spring).


Human Genetics

The course provides an overview of concepts and applications in human genetics. subjects include classical and complex mechanisms of inheritance, the human genome, human origins & evolution, forensic applications, personalized medicine, and ethical issues. (Prerequisites: BIOL-321 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall).



This course is an introduction to virology with specific emphasis on the molecular mechanisms of virus infection of eukaryotic cells and virus-cell interactions. Virus structure, genetics, the infectious cycle, replication strategies, pathogenesis, persistence, effects on host macromolecular synthesis, viral oncogenesis, viral vectors, emerging viral diseases, and strategies to protect against and combat viral infection will be discussed. (Prerequisites: BIOL-201 or BIOL-302 or BIOG-240 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall).


Bacterial-Host Interactions: Microbiomes of the World

This course focuses on the bacterial and host (human, insect, plant, animals and fungi) mechanisms used in interactions with hosts during both pathogenesis and symbiosis. We will explore molecular, microbiome and genomic levels, drawing on the disciplines of genomics, biochemistry, molecular biology and cell biology. Several of the agonistic and antagonistic interactions will illustrate broader principles and contribute to our fundamental understanding of biological processes. The results of these interactions have a strong impact on biological productivity, and so are also ever increasing important in human health. An emphasis will be on the roles of molecules and cell structures in determining the outcome of an interaction. Course is intended to allow students to develop knowledge of host-bacterial interactions at the molecular to organismal level, with an emphasis on several model symbiotic- and patho-systems. Knowledge about bacterial mechanisms use to associate with host organisms and the different strategies bacteria employ to gain entry, damage host tissue and obtain nutrients for growth will be explored. We will also illustrate several mutualistic relationships between eukaryotic hosts with partner symbiotic bacteria. Genomic approaches to describe microbiomes (microbial communities) on host organisms and in environments will also be explored. (Prerequisites: BIOL-204 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Spring, Summer).


Microbial and Viral Genetics

The goal of this course is to gain an understanding of the genetic systems of prokaryotes and their viruses. There are two major foci: (1) the mechanisms bacteria and their viruses employ to preserve the integrity of their genomes and regulate gene expression, and (2) the mechanisms by which these entities acquire new genetic material. The relevance of these processes to evolution and the development of new traits that facilitate survival under new environmental conditions (e.g., antibiotic resistance) is highlighted, especially with regard to clinically, industrially and agriculturally important microbes. Molecular processes whose discovery led to the formation of important research and/or biotechnological tools will also be discussed. Students will participate in laboratory projects which highlight important mechanisms, such as transformation, transduction, lysogeny, conjugation and CRIPSR-Cas acquired adaptive immunity. (Prerequisites: (BIOL-206 and BIOL-216) or BIOL-201 or BIOL-202 or BIOG-240 or equivalent courses.) Lab 3 (Fall).


Eukaryotic Gene Regulation and Disease

This course presents an overview of gene expression in eukaryotic systems, with an emphasis on how disease can result when gene regulation is disrupted. Points of control that are examined include: chromatin structure, transcription initiation, transcript processing, stability and modification, RNA transport, translation initiation, post-translational events, and protein stability. The mechanisms involved in regulating these control points are discussed by exploring specific well studied cases. The significance of these processes is highlighted by a discussion of several diseases that have been shown to be due to defects in gene regulation. (Prerequisites: BIOL-201 or BIOL-302 or BIOG-240 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Spring).


Genetic Engineering

This course is a laboratory-intensive introduction to the theoretical basis, laboratory techniques, and applications of gene manipulation. (Prerequisites: BIOL-201 or equivalent course.) Lab 8 (Spring).


Genetic Diseases and Disorders

The identification of genetic causes of disease has been one of the major modern scientific breakthroughs. This course examines a range of inherited diseases, how causative genetic variations were or are being identified, and what this means for the treatment of the diseases. Scientific literature will be utilized, both current and historical. (Prerequisites: BIOL-321 or equivalent course or graduate student standing.) Lecture 3 (Spring).


Instrumental Analysis

This course presents a preliminary treatment of instrumental theory and technique. The course will cover the theory and implementation of spectroscopic, mass spectrometric, and chemical separations instrumentation and techniques. Instrumental techniques include: atomic and molecular emission and absorption and emission spectroscopies, atomic and molecular mass spectrometry, gas chromatography, and high performance liquid chromatography. (Prerequisites: CHMA-161 or CHMG-142 or equivalent course. Corequisities: CHMA-265 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall).


Biochemistry for Health Sciences

This course will focus on the application of biochemical knowledge to the field of medicine. Students will learn the basic functions of water, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids in humans, then explore implications of this knowledge in nutrition and metabolism and its relationship to health and disease. (Prerequisites: CHMG-142 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall).


Biochemistry I

This course introduces the structure and function of biological macromolecules and their metabolic pathways. The relationship between the three-dimensional structure of proteins and their function in enzymatic catalysis will be examined. Membrane structure and the physical laws that apply to metabolic processes will also be discussed. (Prerequisite: CHMO-231 or CHMO-331 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer).


Biochemistry Lab

An introduction to the theory and practice of modern experimental biochemical laboratory techniques and concepts. The weekly two-hour lecture provides a theoretical framework for the course and includes a discussion of the properties of biomolecules and how those properties are exploited in the separation and characterization of the molecules. Practical laboratory techniques include the preparation of buffers, centrifugation, chromatography, electrophoretic methods, and UV-visible spectrophotometry as applied to the isolation and characterization of proteins and nucleic acids. The manipulation of genetic material in E. coli will also be executed. This course will be offered in a writing intensive format where the students will write and submit the different sections found in scientific papers (abstract, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, conclusions, references, figures, tables) in an iterative fashion that will include regular feedback from the instructor. (Prerequisites: CHMB-402 or equivalent course.) Lec/Lab 5 (Fall, Spring).


Organic Chemistry l

This course is a study of the structure, nomenclature, reactions and synthesis of the following functional groups: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes. This course also introduces chemical bonding, IR and NMR spectroscopy, acid and base reactions, stereochemistry, nucleophilic substitution reactions, and alkene and alkyne reactions. In addition, the course provides an introduction to the use of mechanisms in describing and predicting organic reactions. (Prerequisites: CHMG-142 or CHMG-131 or equivalent course. Corequisites: CHMO-235 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer).


Organic Chemistry II

This course is a continuation of the study of the structure, nomenclature, reactions and synthesis of the following functional groups: aromatic systems, alcohols, ethers, epoxides, and carbonyls. This course will introduce the use of mechanisms in describing and predicting organic reactions. (Prerequisites: CHMO-231 or CHMO-331 or equivalent course. Corequisites: CHMO-236 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring).


Organic Chemistry Lab I

This course trains students to perform techniques important in an organic chemistry lab. The course also covers reactions from the accompanying lecture CHMO-231. (Corequisite: CHMO-231 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer).


Organic Chemistry Lab II

This course teaches students to apply basic lab techniques to organic synthetic experiments reactions covered in the accompanying lecture COS-CHMO-232. This course will also help students to solidify the concepts taught in lecture. The course will continue to instruct students in maintaining a professional lab notebook. (Prerequisites: CHMO-235 or equivalent course. Corequisites: CHMO-232 or equivalent course.) Lab 3 (Fall, Spring).


Sports Physiology & Life Fitness

This course goes inside the science of physical fitness providing the student with an in depth physiological understanding of how the body adapts and improves through exercise activity. Students actively perform a series of self-assessments which they must analyze in order to determine their current state of fitness. With this data students develop exercise programs tailored to their needs and interests. Stress management and nutrition are examined allowing students to incorporate these two important areas into their plans to be fit for life. Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer).


Fitness Prescription

This course is designed to provide instruction to prepare students for certification as a Personal Trainer. It examines the role exercise plays in both the enhancement of health and fitness as well as the improvement of athletic performance. Students will develop a basic understanding of how the human body functions while physically active. Case studies are utilized to assist in the development of practical skills. (Prerequisites: (MEDG-101 and MEDG-103) or (MEDG-102 and MEDG-104) or BIOL-101 or BIOL-121 or (BIOL-123 and BIOL-125) or (BIOL-124 and BIOL-126) or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall).


Exercise for Special Populations

This course is designed for those who are interested in the science of exercise and fitness for individuals with diagnosed disease states, or high performance requirements. The theoretical and diagnostic value of exercise testing will be reviewed. This information will then be used to create exercise prescriptions and understand the therapeutic benefit that exercise will have on specific conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and obesity. High performance individuals functioning in challenging environments such as, astronauts, high altitude climbers, and ultramarathoners will also be considered. (Prerequisites: EXSC-205 or EXSC-206 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Spring).


Strength Training for Performance

Stronger athletes make better athletes no matter what the sport and this course teaches techniques of optimal training to enhance the muscular fitness of all manner of athletes. Physiological principles of strength development and basic musculoskeletal anatomy are reviewed and general program design is discussed. Utilizing case studies, students develop sport specific programs which will be presented to the class. Students will also produce strength training manuals outlining appropriate guidelines for improved performance. (Prerequisites: (MEDG-101 and MEDG-103) or (MEDG-102 and MEDG-104) or BIOL-101 or BIOL-121 or (BIOL-123 and BIOL-125) or (BIOL-124 and BIOL-126) or equivalent courses.) Lec/Lab 3 (Fall).


Coaching Healthy Behavior

This course will teach students to encourage those with long standing lifestyle habits that contribute to their chronic illness to change is a very challenging proposition. It addresses this problem by incorporating psychological, sociological and counseling principles, along with coaching skills, into an intervention technique that emphasizes the positive and leads people to choose and adhere to a wellness lifestyle. Students will review case studies and meet with professionals in the field. (Prerequisites: (MEDG-101 and MEDG-103) or (MEDG-102 and MEDG-104) or BIOL-101 or BIOL-121 or (BIOL-123 and BIOL-125) or (BIOL-124 and BIOL-126) or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Spring).



As a study of human movement this course will cover subjects that begin with a review of the functional anatomy of the musculoskeletal system including both the upper and lower extremity as well as the spinal column and thorax. Factors of linear and rotary motion are reviewed along with postural analysis and movement elements associated with pushing, pulling and throwing objects. There is no separate Lab for this class and laboratory experiences will be incorporated into specifically designated lecture times. At the conclusion of this course students will have a functional capability to assess the intricacies of human movement. (Prerequisites: MEDS-250 or equivalent courses.) Lab 3 (Fall).


Theory of Athletic Injury

Even the very best athletes experience injury and being able to recognize and respond to those conditions is a crucial skill for those who will work with athletes. Students will learn the signs and symptoms of injury and the process of first response as well as how to support athletes through rehab. Successful students will learn how to incorporate injury reduction techniques into the training programs they develop for the athletes they serve. (Prerequisites: (MEDG-101 and MEDG-103) or (MEDG-102 and MEDG-104) or BIOL-101 or BIOL-121 or (BIOL-123 and BIOL-125) or (BIOL-124 and BIOL-126) or equivalent courses.) Lec/Lab 3 (Fall).


Training High Performance Athletes

Aerobic capacity, strength, flexibility, speed, power, agility, nutrition, and rest are all crucial to the success of athletes and for trainers the need to appropriately coordinate all these factors is a significant challenge. This course explores the interrelationship of the multifactorial principles of athletic performance. Using case studies, modeling, flow sheets and scheduling plans students develop techniques that will lead athletes to success in their training routines. (Prerequisites: (MEDG-101 and MEDG-103) or (MEDG-102 and MEDG-104) or BIOL-101 or BIOL-121 or (BIOL-123 and BIOL-125) or (BIOL-124 and BIOL-126) or equivalent courses.) Lec/Lab 3 (Spring).


Exercise Physiology

Exercise Physiology is the scientific basis for the field of exercise science. This course provides students with an opportunity to deepen their understanding of the body’s responses and adaptations to exercise. Neuromuscular physiology is reviewed along with energy systems and mechanisms of fatigue. The cardiorespiratory system is examined with a focus on control and regulation during activity and there is a look at the physiological components of exercise training. Environmental factors that impact sport activities as well as training techniques which optimize performance will be reviewed. The differences in performance and adaptation that exist between children, adolescents, and adults as well as between males and females will be compared and contrasted. Exercises influence on long term health and fitness will conclude the course. Laboratory experiences will allow students to integrate and apply the concepts of exercise physiology through investigative experiments. (Prerequisites: (MEDS-250 and MEDS-251) or (1026-350 and 1026-360) or equivalent courses.) Lab 3 (Fall).


Language of Medicine

Language is a systematic means or method of communicating ideas, events, or feelings. It is a combination of words or symbols used to encode and decode information. Medicine has a language to communicate information regarding the human body, its functions, diseases, tests, and procedures. This course explores the language of medicine, the rules of “language,” language mechanics that apply how to create words, define terms, and identify abbreviations. In addition to learning the fundamentals, the student will gain experience in writing, using the language of medicine, as well as interpreting that language into everyday English. Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer).


History of Medicine

This course explores various discoveries in the history of medicine and the individuals credited with the discoveries. The course begins in ancient Greece and ends with modern times. Individuals such as Hippocrates, Vesalius, Harvey, Jenner, Leeuwenhoek and Roentgen will be discussed. (Prerequisites: (BIOL-101 and BIOL-102 and BIOL-103 and BIOL-104) or (BIOL-121 and BIOL-122) or (MEDG-101 and MEDG-102 and MEDG-103 and MEDG-104) or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Spring).


Medical Genetics

This course will serve as an introduction to the field of medical genetics. Throughout the course we will survey several human variations and diseases of medical importance. Clinical case reports will be incorporated to illustrate the underlying genetic principles. (Prerequisites: (BIOL-123 and BIOL-125 and BIOL-124 and BIOL-126) or (BIOL-101 and BIOL-102 and BIOL-103 and BIOL-104) or (BIOL-121 and BIOL-122) or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall).


Biomedical Research

This course provides an opportunity for in-depth experiential learning through collaborative work on an independent research project. Ind Study (Fall, Spring, Summer).


Premedical Studies Seminar

This course prepares students to navigate the admissions process and interviews for medical, osteopathic, optometry, podiatric and dental school. The preparation will also address issues related to the field of medicine, including alternatives, ethics, and financial concerns. Lecture 1 (Fall).


Introduction to Pharmacology

This course provides an overview of the pharmacy profession (educational requirements, professional responsibilities and opportunities, role of the pharmacist in the health care team) and a detailed look into basic pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetic, and pharmaceutical principles. The pharmacodynamics principles covered include mechanisms of drug action, drug-receptor interaction theory, dose-response relationships, structure-activity relationships, and principles of drug metabolism. Pharmaceutical subjects include formulations, drug product design, excipients, dosage forms, and elimination rate. Lastly, specific disease states will be covered that will clearly, and effectively demonstrate many of the subjects taught. The diseases will be approached by presenting the etiology followed by the pharmacotherapy, including the details of the multiple drug classes that are used for any one-disease state. (Prerequisites: (MEDS-250 and MEDS-251) or (1026-350 and 1026-360) or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall).


Diagnosing the Criminal Mind

This course will introduce students within the biomedical sciences, physician assistant, psychology and criminal justice fields to understand basic clinical diagnostic terms, symptoms and behaviors that pertain to clients who commit crime. The course will introduce students to the relationship between mental health, drug addiction, crime and violence. Students will be involved in mock trials, debates and case write ups. Lecture 3 (Fall).


Introduction to Infectious Diseases

This is an advanced course in the mechanisms by which bacteria and fungi cause disease in humans. The course subjects include the clinical signs of each disease, diagnosis of each disease, pathogenic mechanisms used by the organisms to cause disease, treatment of the disease, and prevention of the disease. The laboratory component of this course will consist of a mixture of methodologies used in the identification of the infectious agents, evaluation of the host response to the infection, case studies, student presentations of articles related to infectious disease and other assignments aimed at deepening the understanding the infectious disease process. (Prerequisites: (BIOL-123 and BIOL-125 and BIOL-124 and BIOL-126) or (BIOL-101 and BIOL-102 and BIOL-103 and BIOL-104) or (BIOL-121 and BIOL-122) or (MEDG-101 and MEDG-102 and MEDG-103 and MEDG-104) or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall).


Patient Care

Students will be introduced to key elements of integrated, high-quality patient care. Through lectures, videos, demonstrations, and discussions essential aspects of team-based patient care will be explored. Vital skills and behaviors such as professionalism, communication, documentation, workplace safety, patient assessment, patient positioning and transfers will be presented. Infection control, global health issues, and medications will also be examined. Students will be encouraged to share their personal experiences and thoughts about class topics. (Prerequisites: (BIOL-123 and BIOL-125 and BIOL-124 and BIOL-126) or (BIOL-101 and BIOL-102 and BIOL-103 and BIOL-104) or (BIOL-121 and BIOL-122) or equivalent courses.) Lec/Lab 2 (Spring).


Care-Based Genetic Counseling

This course will provide students with an inside look at the profession of genetic counseling and its patients through in-depth case studies of genuine patient scenarios, role playing and lectures focused on realistic challenges faced by genetic counselors. This course will focus on combining scientific information about genetic disorders with the psychosocial aspects of counseling sessions that will provide provide an accurate perspective of the profession. Students will participate in role playing exercises, keep detailed journals and participate in mock patient interviews. (Prerequisites: MEDS-245 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Spring).


Introduction to Global Health

This introductory course will evaluate the modern challenges of global health from a multidisciplinary perspective. The key concepts of global health will be discussed, including various health determinants, human rights, healthcare systems, culture’s impact on health, environmental concerns, nutrition, communicable and noncommunicable diseases, women’s health issues, child and adolescent health, injuries, natural disasters and complex humanitarian emergencies, poverty’s impact on health and more. Students will be expected to be active learners, lead classroom activities on certain days as part of group research project presentations, and actively participate in discussions. (This class is restricted to undergraduate students with at least 2nd year standing.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring).


Field Studies in Molecular Epidemiology

This is a study abroad course for students interested in a pre-medical, pre-health or global health experience in sub-Saharan Africa. It is designed for those interested in medical or graduate school, tropical infectious diseases or a public health career, that provides opportunity for foreign travel. The focus is on molecular epidemiology of tropical diseases of interest (malaria, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis), for which opportunities to study are not available in the United States. Such opportunities include but are not limited to simple to complex molecular diagnostic methods and related laboratory hands on experience. (Prerequisites: This class is restricted to students with at least 2nd year standing.) Lecture 3 (Spring).


Placebo, Suggestion, Research and Health

This course provides a foundation for understanding the history and science of placebo effects with a focus on how these effects influence research design, therapeutics and health. A model of placebo effects – comprised of conditioning, expectation, social influence, and paradigm – is developed and applied to both health and common diseases in order to recognize that all health interventions are at least placebos. The question is whether they are anything more. The course structure and process include assigned readings, quizzes, creative class projects, studying advertisements, hearing from pharmaceutical company representatives, and class discussion designed to provoke critical thinking. (Prerequisites: (BIOL-123 and BIOL-125 and BIOL-124 and BIOL-126) or (BIOL-101 and BIOL-102 and BIOL-103 and BIOL-104) or (BIOL-121 and BIOL-122) or (MEDG-101 and MEDG-102 and MEDG-103 and MEDG-104) or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Spring).


Applied Psychophysiology and Self-Regulation

Learn how to change your mind. This course explores the evolving field of psychophysiology and its applications for therapeutic self-regulation in health care as well as its implications for the related fields of psychology, biomedical engineering, computer science, and medical economics. By focusing on the mind as an emergent phenomenon of bidirectional brain and body interaction, we realize how much of our own physiology we can and do self-regulate. We will review research on hypnosis, biofeedback, meditative strategies, and psychophysiological monitoring. The course structure integrates lecture, demonstration, discussion and individual self-monitoring projects. Weekly quizzes provide feedback on learning. (Prerequisites: (BIOL-123 and BIOL-125 and BIOL-124 and BIOL-126) or (BIOL-101 and BIOL-102 and BIOL-103 and BIOL-104) or (BIOL-121 and BIOL-122) or (MEDG-101 and MEDG-102 and MEDG-103 and MEDG-104) or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Biannual).


Community Healthcare

This seminar course is a unique opportunity for students who are serious about pursuing a career in healthcare. The course will focus on the study of key issues concerning community health care and developing practical approaches to supporting patients. Students consider obstacles to effective health care as well as strategies for enabling at-risk patients to play a more active role in promoting their health and well-being. subjects covered include: challenges of delivering adequate healthcare in the community; population health; the concept of “underinsurance”; the business of healthcare; health literacy and measuring outcomes. Students in the course will be expected to undertake at least one subsequent internship (MEDS 475 Health Coach Practicum) with Rochester Regional Health and the Greater Rochester Independent Practice Association (GRIPA). Students complete an application before registering for this course. Acceptance into the course is contingent upon passing a screening and interview process. Lecture 2 (Fall, Spring).


Biomedical Ethics

This course will explore key ethical principles, guidelines and regulations that inform decision making and best practices in biomedical research, public health and clinical medicine including issues of informed consent, experimental design, acceptable risk, research integrity, medical errors, for-profit medicine, refusal of care, end-of-life decisions, physician assisted death, substance abuse and ethical use of animals in research. Students will also have multiple opportunities to further develop critical thinking and effective professional communication skills in a seminar format. (Prerequisites: (BIOL-123 and BIOL-125 and BIOL-124 and BIOL-126) or (BIOL-101 and BIOL-102) or (BIOL-121 and BIOL-122) or (MEDG-101 and MEDG-102) and (UWRT-150 or ENGL-150 or ISTE-110) or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall).


US Healthcare

The course will explore the beginnings of the healthcare delivery in America, and the economics of the healthcare enterprise. It will also explore the role of government in providing and regulating the delivery of healthcare services as well as ethical issues that affect the doctor-patient relationship. Finally, the course will examine the healthcare systems of other industrialized nations and compare and contrast those systems with that of the U.S. Lecture 3 (Spring).


Researching the Criminal Mind

This course will introduce students to clinical research as it pertains to symptoms, behaviors, the prediction of violent behaviors and treatment outcomes among offenders who commit crime. The course will introduce students to evidenced based science and the application to forensic populations, manuscript preparation, clinical case write ups and small grant proposals. (Prerequisites: MEDS-311 or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Spring).


Pathophysiology of Organ Systems I

This course is designed to provide the students with the necessary foundation of the physiologic and pathologic processes that underlie the spectrum of human disease entities and is taught in the context of clinical scenarios that demonstrate the basic science principles in a real-world context of health care. Emphasis is placed on the fundamental principles of cell injury and repair, infection, neoplasia, and inflammation as well as hemodynamic disorders, thromboembolic disease and shock. Additional emphasis is placed on organ systems and their disorders such as the circulatory, liver, gallbladder and biliary systems. Material is presented in the context of case studies, utilizing clinical findings and addressing underlying basic physiologic, biochemical and immunologic processes as they relate to patient care and individual patient problem cases. (Prerequisites: Restricted to students in the College of Health Sciences and Technology with at least 3rd year standing who have completed MEDS-250 and MEDS-251 or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall).


Pathophysiology of Organ Systems II

This course is second in a sequence designed to provide the students with the necessary foundation of knowledge and under-standing of the physiologic and pathologic processes that underlie the spectrum of human disease entities and is taught in the context of clinical scenarios that demonstrate the basic science principles in a real-world context of health care. Emphasis is placed on the pathophysiology of the central nervous system, lower urinary tract, male and female reproductive organs, gastrointestinal tract, spleen, pancreas, kidneys and endocrine system. Material is presented in the context of case studies, utilizing clinical findings and addressing underlying basic physiologic, biochemical and immunologic processes as they relate to patient care and individual patient problem cases. (Prerequisites: MEDS-415 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Spring).


Clinical Microbiology

Clinical microbiology is a detailed study of the bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites relevant to human infectious diseases, including their historical significance and impact on society. This course will also focus on giving the student an appreciation and clear understanding of emerging/re-emerging infectious disease agents particularly those infectious disease agents commonly encountered in a hospital setting. (Prerequisites: (BIOL-123 and BIOL-125 and BIOL-124 and BIOL-126) or (BIOL-101 and BIOL-102 and BIOL-103 and BIOL-104) or (BIOL-121 and BIOL-122) or (MEDG-101 and MEDG-102 and MEDG-103 and MEDG-104) or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Spring).


Clinical Microbiology Lab

Clinical microbiology is a detailed study of the bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites relevant to human infectious diseases, including their historical significance and impact on society. This course provides a hands-on experience in identifying these types of agents. The course will also focus on giving the student an appreciation and clear understanding of emerging/re-emerging infectious disease agents particularly those infectious disease agents commonly encountered in a hospital setting. (Prerequisites: (BIOL-123 and BIOL-125 and BIOL-124 and BIOL-126) or (BIOL-101 and BIOL-102 and BIOL-103 and BIOL-104) or (BIOL-121 and BIOL-122) or (MEDG-101 and MEDG-102 and MEDG-103 and MEDG-104) or equivalent. Co-requisite: MEDS-417 or equivalent.) Lab 2 (Spring).



Introduction to parasites of medical importance and the diseases they cause. It includes study of a variety of parasites classified by diseases such as blood and intestinal protozoan parasites, nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes. Examples of important parasitic diseases to be covered include malaria, sleeping sickness, elephantiasis, river blindness, leishmaniasis, amebic dysentery, and babesiosis. Coursework includes an examination of the distribution and transmission, pathogenesis, clinical signs and symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and control. Contribution of parasitic infections to economic and health inequities between developed and developing countries will be analyzed. (Prerequisites: (MEDG-101 or MEDG-102 or BIOL-101 or BIOL-102 or BIOL-121 or BIOL-122 or BIOL-123 or BIOL-124) or equivalent course and at least 3rd year student standing.) Lecture 3 (Spring).



This course will combine lecture, literature review, and small group discussions/presentations to introduce students to the fundamental concepts of human endocrinology. subjects covered will include: digestion and metabolism; growth and aging; arousal/mood; sexual dimorphism and reproduction; and neuroendocrinology. Discussion of relevant human diseases/disorders will be used to illustrate related biochemical/anatomical pathways and mechanisms. (Prerequisites: MEDS-250 and (MEDS-242 or BIOL-201 or BIOL-302) or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall).


Introduction to Neuroscience

This course will focus on the human nervous system, and its regulation of behavior and complex function. Background information on neuroanatomy, cellular physiology, neurotransmission, and signaling mechanisms will pave the way for an in-depth analysis of specialization at the systems level. Our goal will be to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying normal human behaviors and pathogenic states. (Prerequisites: MEDS-250 or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Spring).


Addiction Pharmacology

This course will explore the general concepts, social consequences, policy, and other aspects of substance abuse and addiction. Multiple perspectives will be presented, including those of addicts, health-care providers, and family/friends affected by addiction. Then, commonly abused drugs will be discussed in detail. subjects to be presented and discussed for each drug class include: epidemiology, pathophysiology, drug class information, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics actions, short-term and long-term consequences of misuse (including overdose), and contemporary pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment modalities. Availability of resources used to address substance abuse will also be presented. (Prerequisites: (MEDS-311) or (BIOL-101 and BIOL-102) or (BIOL-121 and BIOL-122) or (MEDG-101 and MEDG-102) or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Spring).



The course covers applications of epidemiology to the study of the distribution and determinants of health and diseases, morbidity, injuries, disability, and mortality in populations. Epidemiologic methods for the control of conditions such as infectious and chronic diseases, community and environmental health hazards, and unintentional injuries are discussed. Other subjects include quantitative aspects of epidemiology, including data sources; measures of morbidity and mortality; evaluation of association and causality; and various study design methods. Contemporary subjects in public health (e.g. swine flu, HIV/AIDS, SARS), outbreak investigation, and containment strategies will be examined, analyzed, and thoroughly discussed. (Prerequisites: (MEDG-101 or MEDG-102 or BIOL-101 or BIOL-102 or BIOL-121 or BIOL-122 or BIOL-123 or BIOL-124) or equivalent course and at least 3rd year student standing.) Lecture 3 (Spring).


Cardiac Imaging


Examining the Clinical Experience

This course builds off of the clinical experiences of students currently working or volunteering in a clinical setting. The course will include informal and formal writing assignments. subjects addressed include the following: the roles of the various healthcare professionals; understanding sensitivity and diversity; logistics of the health care system – in-patient and out-patient; privacy and safety issues associated with patients and care providers; documentation methods. (Currently volunteering or working in a healthcare setting) (Prerequisites: Students with at least 2nd year standing who has completed First-Year Writing and is currently working or volunteering in a healthcare position.) Lecture 1 (Fall).


Health Coach Practicum

This course is a continuation of MEDS 370 and provides an opportunity for students to apply key concepts in health coaching to assist members of the community. Students will cover such subjects as self-management, motivational interviewing, cultural competency and goal setting. Students will have the opportunity to collaborate with health care professionals in identifying barriers to healthcare as well as creating ways to Excellerate patient outcomes. Journaling and progress notes are writing formats that will be covered and provide the student with a way to express their experiences in both a reflective and a professional manner. (Prerequisites: MEDS-370 or equivalent course.) Clinical 3 (Fall, Spring).


Human Gross Anatomy

This course exposes students to details of human anatomy through cadaver dissection. Lecture material stresses functional and clinical correlates corresponding to laboratory exercises. (Prerequisites: (MEDS-250 and MEDS-251) or (1026-350 and 1026-360) or equivalent courses.) Lab 6 (Spring).


Biomedical Sciences Co-op

One semester of paid work experience in a healthcare related field. CO OP (Fall, Spring, Summer).


Human Development

This course will provide a survey of the primary biological events, mechanisms and underpinnings of human development from conception through aging. It will use case studies, human clinical and laboratory research papers to enrich and illustrate key points related to human developmental milestones. A significant emphasis will be placed on understanding developmental disabilities and adult-onset degenerative disorders, and also in relating biological events to an individual’s larger psychosocial functioning. Students will also Excellerate professional communication skills through discussions, writing and revision. (Prerequisites: MEDS-422 or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Spring).


Biomedical Research

This course provides an opportunity for in-depth experiential learning through collaborative work on an independent research project. Ind Study (Fall, Spring, Summer).


Interdisciplinary Research

This course will provide an independent, interdisciplinary research opportunity to enhance the experiential learning component of the Biomedical Sciences Program. Students will engage in preparatory studying and original research in an academic discipline or environment outside of their immediate major. Proposed work may span a broad variety of disciplines within a unifying theme of project goals and potential outcomes with strong application to human health and development. Examples may include mechanical, electrical or biomedical engineering: imaging science and optics; entrepreneurship and biotechnology; epidemiology, community health, and public policy. Ind Study (Fall, Spring, Summer).


Medical Pathophysiology

This course is designed as an introductory course in pathophysiology, the study of disease and its consequences. It covers the basic mechanisms of disease, concentrating on the diseases that are most frequently encountered in clinical practice. The major subjects of discussion will emphasize the general pathologic processes; this will provide a basis for understanding diseases affecting specific organ systems. Clinical correlations will be made as examples of how physiological processes can go awry in the generation of a particular disease. (Prerequisites: (MEDS-250 and MEDS-251) or (1026-350 and 1026-360) or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring).


Oral Microbiology

This course is designed to deliver an understanding of the microbial population of the oral cavity as it relates to health and disease. Throughout the course, the presence, absence, influence and consequences of various microbial species will be presented relative to the anatomy of the oral cavity and subsequent disease. The course will also illuminate the connection between the oral cavity, inflammation and surprising conditions chronic and acute conditions that seemingly are unrelated to the oral cavity. (Prerequisites: MEDS-417 or BIOL-204 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Spring).


Histology & Histopathology

This foundational course in the study of human biology and medicine provides students with a detailed exploration of the microscopic and structural anatomy of normal human tissues and organs, with special emphasis given to the relationships between the cellular architecture of human organs and organ systems and their functions. The course also examines human pathologies as a manifestation of the loss of cellular integrity leading to alterations in the histological features of diseased organs. (Prerequisites: MEDS-250 and MEDS-251 and MEDS-242 or equivalent courses.) Lab 3 (Fall).


Advanced Clinical Neuroanatomy

This is an integrated course encompassing lectures, laboratory exercises and clinical case discussions. Laboratory exercises will focus on detailed examination of the human brain as well as the internal circuitry of myelin-stained sections through the spinal cord, brainstem, and forebrain. The exercises will reinforce concepts stressed in lectures and clinical case discussions. (Prerequisites: MEDS-425 or equivalent courses.) Lec/Lab 4 (Fall).


Human Immunology

Introduction to the fundamental facts and concepts on immunology to include: innate and adaptive immunity; cells, molecules, tissues and organs of the immune "system"; cell communication and interaction; antibody structure and function; and the application of these concepts to infectious diseases, vaccine design, autoimmune diseases, cancer, transplantation, regulation of the immune response, allergic reactions and immunosuppression. Students will gain an understanding of immunological principles and techniques, and their application to contemporary research, with results from instructor’s research laboratory (Prerequisites: (BIOL-101 and BIOL-102) or (BIOL-121 and BIOL-122) or (BIOL-123 and BIOL-125 and BIOL-124 and BIOL-126) or (MEDS-250 and MEDS-251) or equivalent courses.) Lecture 3 (Fall).


Independent Study

This course will provide students the opportunity for independent study in a course of strong interest. Ind Study (Fall, Spring, Summer).


Foundations of Nutrition Sciences

This is an introductory course in nutritional science concepts and application to current nutrition issues. This course covers the study of specific nutrients and their functions, the development of dietary standards and guides and how these standards are applied throughout the lifecycle. Students learn to analyze their own diets and develop strategies to make any necessary dietary changes for a lifetime of good health. Current health and nutrition problems and nutrition misinformation will be discussed. Online sections are asynchronous. Students are assessed by learning activities such as: weekly quizzes and discussion boards, homework assignments, and a final diet analysis project. In person sections are synchronous lectures and class discussions. Students are assessed by learning activities such as: exams, homework, assignments and final project analysis. Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring).


Sports Nutrition

This course will provide an introduction to the integration between exercise and nutrition-related subjects by exploring the intimate link among nutrition, energy metabolism, and human exercise response. The course content will sort fact from fiction and help students and practitioners obtain the knowledge they need to provide sound advice to athletes and active individuals. (Prerequisite: College level science course preferred.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer).


College Physics I

This is an introductory course in algebra-based physics focusing on mechanics and waves. subjects include kinematics, planar motion, Newton’s laws, gravitation; rotational kinematics and dynamics; work and energy; momentum and impulse; conservation laws; simple harmonic motion; waves; data presentation/analysis and error propagation. The course is taught using both traditional lectures and a workshop format that integrates material traditionally found in separate lecture, recitation, and laboratory settings. Lab 4 (Fall, Spring, Summer).


College Physics II

This course is an introduction to algebra-based physics focusing on thermodynamics, electricity and magnetism, optics, and elementary subjects in modern physics. subjects include heat and temperature, laws of thermodynamics, fluids, electric and magnetic forces and fields, DC electrical circuits, electromagnetic induction, opyics, the concept of the photon, and the Bohr model of the atom. The course is taught using both traditional lectures and a workshop format that integrates material traditionally found in separate lecture, recitation, and laboratory settings. (Prerequisites: PHYS-111 or 1017-211 or equivalent course.) Lab 4 (Fall, Spring).

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Now that we’re into the second half of 2022, with the Independence Day holiday behind us, we can take stock of the changes that the last six months have brought. And those changes have been dramatic. As this year got started, the S&P 500 was coming off of a 27% annual gain. Today, the index is down 20%, putting it into a bear market. The losses have been broad-based, and have left many otherwise sound equities languishing at low prices. It’s a circumstance that has a lot of unhappy investors won

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A2010-503 exam dump and training guide direct download
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