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Exam Code: 98-349 Practice test 2022 by team
98-349 Windows Operating System Fundamentals

Exam Title : Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA) - Windows Operating System Fundamentals
Exam ID : 98-349
Exam Duration : 45 mins
Questions in test : 40-60
Passing Score : 700 / 1000
Official Training : 40349
Exam Center : Pearson VUE
Real Questions : Microsoft Windows Operating System Fundamentals Real Questions
VCE practice test : Microsoft 98-349 Certification VCE Practice Test

Topic Details Understanding operating system configurations (15–20%) Configure Control Panel options - Configure administrative tools, configure accessibility options, configure power settings, configure File Explorer settings Configure desktop settings - Configure profiles, display settings, and shortcuts; configure and customize Start Menu; configure Task Bar settings; configure toolbars; configure notifications Configure native applications and tools - Configure Microsoft Edge, configure Cortana, configure Hyper-V, configure settings using MSCONFIG, configure processes and applications using Task Manager, configure computer management Configure mobility settings - Configure Sync Center, Windows Mobility Center, and Remote Desktop Configure and use management tools - Configure MMC, configure the Windows PowerShell console and Windows PowerShell ISE Installing and upgrading client systems (15–20%) Identify Windows operating system editions - Identify hardware and compatibility requirements, determine appropriate editions per device type Identify upgrade paths - Identify upgrade paths from previous Windows versions, identify application compatibility Understand installation types - Perform a clean install, upgrade via Windows Update, migrate from previous Windows versions, perform removable media installation, perform network installation Understand operating system architecture - Understand kernel mode; understand user mode; understand memory, IRQs, drivers, CPUs, and UI; understand 32-bit versus 64-bit architecture Managing applications (15–20%) Configure applications - Understand local versus network applications, configure desktop applications, configure app startup options, configure Windows features, configure Windows SmartScreen, configure application removal, configure Windows Store apps Configure user account control (UAC) - Understand standard user versus administrative user, understand types of UAC prompts and levels Configure antivirus settings - Configure Windows Defender and the Malicious Software Removal tool Understand services - Understand service start-up types, service accounts, and service dependencies Managing files and folders (15–20%) Understand file systems - Understand FAT32, NTFS, and ReFS Understand file and print sharing - Configure File System permissions, configure Share Permissions, configure HomeGroup settings, configure print drivers, configure effective permissions, create shares, create mapped drives Understand encryption - Understand BitLocker and Encrypting File Systems (EFS) Understand libraries - Understand offline files, configure libraries, add multiple local locations to a library, add networked locations Managing devices (15–20%) Connect devices - Connect, enable, and disable plug-and-play and Bluetooth devices; connect and disconnect printers; install third-party software for devices; install device drivers Understand storage - Understand disk types, security (encryption), storage device types (eSATA, USB, IEEE 1394, iSCSI, InfiniBand), and storage drive types (basic, primary, extended, logical, dynamic disk, VHDs); configure OneDrive use; optimize drives Understand printing devices - Understand local printers, network printers, print queues, print-to-file, and Internet printing Understand system devices - Understand video, audio, and infrared input devices; understand Device Manager Understanding operating system maintenance (15–20%) Understand backup and recovery methods - Configure System Restore; configure a recovery drive; configure recovery boot options, such as Last Known Good, and various Safe Mode options; recover files from OneDrive Understand maintenance tools - Understand Disk Defragmenter, Disk Cleanup, Task Scheduler, and System Information Configure updates Configure Windows Update options; implement Insider Preview, Current Branch, and Current Branch for Business scenarios; manage update history; roll back updates
Windows Operating System Fundamentals
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Killexams : Microsoft Fundamentals action - BingNews Search results Killexams : Microsoft Fundamentals action - BingNews Killexams : Digital Gaming Market 2022 Fundamentals and expected to raise moderately over 2030

The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.

Oct 14, 2022 (Alliance News via COMTEX) -- Report Ocean recently added a research report on the Digital Gaming market. The report includes an extensive analysis of the market's characteristics, COVID-19 impact, size and growth, segmentation, regional and country breakdowns, competitive environment, market shares, trends, and strategies. In addition, it traces the development of the market over time and projects regional market growth. It compares the market to other markets and situates it in relation to the larger market.

Other business intelligence tools include market definition, regional market opportunity, sales and revenue by region, manufacturing cost analysis, industrial chain, market effect factors analysis, global market size forecast, market data and graphs and statistics, tables, bar and pie charts, and more. Obtain a thorough report (with a full TOC, more than 100 tables, figures, and charts). - Extensive Analysis Impact Analysis of the Pre- and Post-COVID-19 Market Outbreak.

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Market Overview

The growing digital gaming demand from the social’ casual and core gamers’ increase penetration of the portable gaming devices such as smartphones and tablets and preference for paymium and freemium subscription models are supporting the growth of the digital gaming market especially in the emerging markets of Asia Pacific’ Middle East and Africa (MEA). Despite’ certain factors like piracy’ games utilizing lot of space and traditional systems not capable of supporting the AAA games may still impact the growth of the digital gaming market.

The Digital Gaming market is one of the rapidly growing market across the globe. The Digital Gaming market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 17.2% during the period of 2015-2020.The growth of gaming market is due to an increasing demand for the freemium subscription model and is expected to grow at a CAGR of 20.3% during the period of 2015-2020. The market is growing due to increasing in the use of smartphones and tablets for gaming. In addition’ the growing audience of gaming especially youngsters is fostering the demand for the market.

One of the major trend in the market seen is integration of virtual technologies into the gaming. Nowadays’ vendors are coming up the mobile gaming applications integrated with virtual technologies that will help the customer in offering easy controls. Moreover’ Apple’s new product was launched with the concept of virtual technologies that attracted all gadgets lovers to use it. However’ the internet bandwidth and increasing government policies in some countries is impacting the growth of the market.

The Digital Gaming market is analysed in six regions – North America’ Western Europe’ Central Eastern Europe’ Middle East & Africa’ Latin America and Asia-Pacific. The Middle East & Africa (MEA) region is one of the emerging regions for the digital gaming market growth resulting in huge business investments from most of the players. MEA’s digital gaming market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 25.4% during the period of 2015 to 2020. The vendors present in US are trying to capture the market for gaming in APAC as there is less competition present and there is an increase in the young population in countries such as Vietnam and India. Some of the players present in the market are Microsoft’ Nintendo’ Samsung’ and Sony.

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This study covers and analyses “Digital Gaming market” globally. Bringing out the complete key insights of this industry’ this report aims to provide an opportunity for players to understand the latest trends’ current market scenario’ government initiative and technologies related to the market. In addition’ helps the venture capitalist in understanding the companies better and take informed decisions.

Region/Country Cover in the Report

United States
South Korea

According to the statistics available’ the total global population in the year 2013 was 6.40 billion out of which 2.40 billion had access to the internet (online users) and 1.20 billion users are active gamers. Thus’ these statistics clearly shows how much scope of growth is there for the digital gaming market space. Today’ the gamers are preferring freemium model as it gives them freedom to play games for free’ and play on the latest gaming versions and ease of playing the game from any of the game devices such as smartphones’ smart TVs’ tablets’ pcs and game consoles.

Today’ gaming platforms such as iOS and android are one of the popular gaming platform. The gamers prefer puzzles’ casual’ action and sports games on these platform. League of Legends’ Counter strike’ crossfire and candy crush are some of the popular digital games. Presently’ more than 32% of the people in the age group of 18-35 years spend on an average 22 hours in a week on playing games. To attract the gamers and to maximize their gaming reach’ the gaming platform providers provides attractive virtual gifts to the gamer in order to move into next level by inviting more people to the game.

Companies are supporting freemium model due to the increase demand from the gaming audience. In near future’ lot many innovations such as virtual gaming will be seen in the digital gaming space and also’ the games will be of low cost and high resolution with improved graphics. Thus’ improving the gamer’s overall gaming experience.

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The Global Digital gaming market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 17.2%during the period of 2015-2020′ respectively. The gaming platform is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 22.9% followed by gaming devices which is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 21.2% during the forecasted period 2015-2020.

Key Players Covered in the Report
Sony Corporation
Microsoft Corporation
Nintendo Co.’ Ltd.
Samsung Electronics Co Ltd
LG Electronics Inc.
Zynga Inc.
Electronic Arts Inc. (EA)
King Digital Entertainment Plc
Sega Games Co. Ltd
NVidia Corporation
Google Inc’ Inc.
International Business Machines Corp
Apple Inc
Facebook Inc
Tapinator’ Inc

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The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.

Thu, 13 Oct 2022 22:05:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Cybersecurity awareness tips from Microsoft to empower your team to #BeCyberSmart

October is Cybersecurity Awareness Month, and I’m excited about what Microsoft and our partners in the industry have planned to help everyone stay #CyberSmart. 2022 may have offered some respite from the previous year’s rush to enable a remote and hybrid workforce, but the increased use of personal devices also left security professionals with even more endpoints to manage and secure. As illustrated by breaches like the March 2022 attack on Shields Health Care Group1 that impacted two million people and the April ransomware attack that became a national emergency for the Costa Rican government,2 we all need to be cyber defenders to protect what matters.

Technology can only do so much; it’s people who remain our greatest strength. That’s why Microsoft is taking this opportunity during Cybersecurity Awareness Month to help security professionals educate their employees on fundamentals highlighted by the National Cybersecurity Alliance, such as protecting their identities, updating their software and devices, and not falling prey to phishing schemes.3 Be sure to explore the resources and skilling opportunities in our Cybersecurity Awareness Month website, such as the #BeCyberSmart education kit with assets to help people to protect their data both at work and at home.

People have become the primary attack vector for cyber attackers around the world, so humans rather than technology now represent the greatest risk to organizations.

SANS 2022 Security Awareness Report

Security starts with awareness

In today’s boundaryless workplace, comprehensive security is essential. That kind of 360-degree protection requires education and awareness to safeguard identities, data, and devices. Awareness programs help enable security teams to effectively manage their human risk by changing how people think about cybersecurity and helping them practice secure behaviors. The SANS 2022 Security Awareness Report analyzed data from more than a thousand security professionals from around the world to identify how organizations are managing their human risk. The report found that more than 69 percent of security awareness professionals are part-time, meaning that they spend less than half their time on security awareness.

According to the SANS report, cybersecurity awareness professionals should endeavor to:

  • Engage leadership by focusing on terms that resonate with them and demonstrate support for their strategic priorities. “Don’t talk about what you are doing, talk about why you are doing it.”
  • Consider having a 10-to-1 ratio of technical security professionals to human-focused security professionals.
  • Partner with other departments in the organization—such as communications, human resources, and business operations—to help engage and communicate with your workforce.
  • Make the training simple to understand and follow. “Just like working out—it’s the frequency that’s important.” And dedicate time to collecting information about the impact of your awareness programs.

It’s up to each of us to #BeCyberSmart

In 2022, the most common causes of cyberattacks are still malware (22 percent) and phishing (20 percent).4 Even with the rise of ransomware as a service (RaaS) and other sophisticated tools, human beings remain the most reliable, low-cost attack vector for cybercriminals worldwide. For that reason, it’s vital that we all stay informed about how to prevent breaches and defend ourselves, both at work and at home.

Security practitioner authenticating access on a Surface tablet while preparing to work from home.

Here are some basic steps we can all take to #BeCyberSmart:

Phishing: Deceptive emails, phony websites, fake text messages—these kinds of phishing scams accounted for 30 percent of attacks in 2021.5 During Terranova’s annual Gone Phishing Tournament last year, 19.8 percent of participants clicked on the phishing email link, while 14.4 percent downloaded the fake document.6 So, how can we avoid taking the bait?

  • Check the sender’s email address for verifiable contact information. Common phishing tip-offs include a misspelled or unrelated sender address. If in doubt, do not reply. Instead, create a new email to respond.
  • Don’t click on links or open email attachments unless you have Verified the sender.
  • For more tips, visit the Federal Trade Commission phishing site.

Devices and software: Unpatched, out-of-date devices and software are a leading access point for cybercriminals. That’s why practicing good cyber hygiene is so important for avoiding destructive malware that can steal users’ personal information. To help keep your devices safe:

  • Enable the lock feature on all your mobile devices.
  • Activate multifactor authentication on your sensitive apps and accounts.
  • Run antivirus software and install system updates immediately.

Scams: Criminals will often contact you seeking to “fix” a nonexistent problem. The email or text message will contain a sense of urgency, such as “Act now to avoid having your account locked!” If you see this type of message, do not click the link. And remember to always report any suspected scam so the organization can take action. A few tips to remember:

  • Be skeptical of unsolicited tech support calls or error messages requesting urgent action.
  • Do not follow any prompts to get software from any third-party website.
  • When in doubt, open a separate browser page and go directly to the company’s webpage.

Passwords: Passwords are our first line of defense against unauthorized access to accounts, devices, and files. However, the average person now has more than 150 online accounts; password fatigue is always a danger. Some tips on how to protect your passwords include:

Fostering a more diverse cybersecurity workforce

As of April 2022, there are more than 700,000 vacant cybersecurity positions in the United States, with a predicted 3.5 million cybersecurity positions going unfilled worldwide by 2025.7 That’s why Microsoft continues to reach out to students, veterans, people re-entering the workforce—anyone with an interest in becoming a cybersecurity defender. This year for Cybersecurity Awareness Month, we’re also acting on Microsoft’s initiatives to increase cybersecurity education access and help close the workforce gap. In partnership with the Last Mile Education Fund, Microsoft aims to reach at least 25,000 students by 2025 with scholarships and additional resources related to cybersecurity pathways.  

On October 7, 2022, we’re again hosting the Microsoft Student Summit, a virtual skills event designed to inspire higher education students toward a career in tech. This one-day event offers students the opportunity to engage with the Microsoft student developer community, hopefully providing inspiration and stoking a passion for innovation. We’re also continuing to help students move into real-world employment by offering learning sessions aligned to Microsoft certifications for security, compliance, and identity. Eligible students can take up to eight fundamental certification exams for free this academic year.

Helping to create the next generation of cybersecurity defenders is critically important, and we want to make sure the doors are open to everyone. That’s why we’re continuing our partnership with Girl Security, helping to empower adolescent girls, women, and gender minorities by demystifying cybersecurity and developing the in-demand skills needed for employment. Microsoft is also partnering with other organizations to leverage the message from this moment in October 2022 to bring more women to the industry, with a Community College Pathways to Cybersecurity Success webinar with Women in Cybersecurity (WiCys) and a virtual event with the Executive Women’s Forum focused on cybersecurity careers at Microsoft.

We’re always working on new educational initiatives, so stay tuned to our Security blog and check for updates on our cybersecurity awareness and education website.

Stay cyber smart year-round

Cybersecurity Awareness Month is a special time for us as we collectively come together—industry, academia, and government—to promote the importance of a secure online environment. We know that cybercriminals are persistent and driven, working all day, every day with no days off. That’s why we need to work together on awareness and education year-round and build a culture of cyber defenders. Please continue to visit our cybersecurity awareness and education website to learn more about cybersecurity education programs from Microsoft, and get our new cybersecurity education kit to use in your organization. Everyone has a role to play in cybersecurity, and when we learn together, we are more secure together.

Learn more

Explore our best practices and educational resources with our Cybersecurity Awareness website.

To learn more about Microsoft Security solutions, visit our website. Bookmark the Security blog to keep up with our expert coverage on security matters. Also, follow us at @MSFTSecurity for the latest news and updates on cybersecurity.

1Shields Health Care Group data breach affects 2 million patients, Bill Toulas. June 7, 2022.

2A massive cyberattack in Costa Rica leaves citizens hurting, Carla Rosch. June 1, 2022.

3National Cybersecurity Alliance.

4Alarming Cyber Statistics For Mid-Year 2022 That You Need To Know, Chuck Brooks. June 3, 2022.

5Verizon 2021 Data Breach Investigation Report, Verizon. 2021.

6Gone Phishing Tournament, Terranova Security.

7Cybersecurity Jobs Report: 3.5 Million Openings In 2025, Cybersecurity Ventures. November 9, 2021.

Tue, 04 Oct 2022 04:00:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : The Fundamentals Of Influencer Marketing

What exactly is influencer marketing? How does it differ from other forms of advertising? And why should marketers care?

Influencer marketing has become a powerful tool for businesses looking to reach new audiences.

Marketers use various strategies to identify influential individuals and gain access to their followers.

In this article, we’ll discuss what influencer marketing is and the variable for incorporating influencer marketing into a brand’s strategy.

What Is Influencer Marketing?

Influencer marketing uses celebrities, athletes, bloggers, and other influential figures to market brands.

Influencers are those who have large social media followings and have the ability to influence their audience.

Brands use influencers to promote their product or service through paid advertisements, free giveaways, and endorsements. In addition, they can generate significant brand awareness and loyalty through paid or unpaid posts.

The goal is to get them to share valuable information and create excitement around a particular topic, product, or service. The key benefit for brands is that they reach a larger audience at a lower cost than traditional advertising methods.

The Right Influencer

However, this opportunity comes with some responsibility on the part of the brand.

Brands must be careful when choosing an influencer because it’s easy for them to fall in love with the idea of working with someone influential.

Unfortunately, without thorough background research, this can lead to a situation where a potentially ideal influencer promotes products that aren’t aligned with a brand’s values. Therefore, it’s important to ensure the influencer you want to work with aligns with your brand’s goals and values.

Influencer marketing also requires brands to pay influencers fairly. If you don’t pay your influencers what they deserve, they won’t promote your brand in the vision you want them to. Additionally, you can risk a potentially fruitful relationship.

Creating A Plan

When collaborating with an influencer, it’s essential to not just think of the total cost but the project’s goals and establish what you would like accomplished in the front end.

This can include a discovery call to plan out potential posts or how-to videos. Will you provide the content and supporting information, or will they? Of course, all this will affect the cost and time involved in creating the posts.

Influencer marketing has become one of the most effective ways to get people talking about your business online. It’s essential to know how to find the right influencers for your niche to ensure your message gets across.

Why We All Need Influencer Marketing & How We Can Use It

A study showed that in 2022 influencer marketing is set to reach $16.4 billion and 75% of brand marketers plan to include influencer marketing in this year’s strategy. This type of marketing is growing fast and doing well.

And this isn’t just for B2C brands, since 86% of B2B brands find influencer marketing a valuable strategy. That’s a considerable return on investment if you have the right approach.

If you’re only using traditional digital marketing (SEO, PPC, social media, etc.), you’re clearly missing out on a huge opportunity to increase your ROI.

It doesn’t matter if you’re an agency, brand, or business – everyone can benefit from trying influencer marketing.

Don’t believe me? You should. Influencer marketing is not “out of your league.” Here’s why.

Influencer Marketing For Agencies

How many clients does your agency have? That’s how many new influencing opportunities your agency has at its fingertips.

Agencies can use their clients, the ones they like and like them, to help promote their agency for them.

Think of it like receiving a referral or customer review.

If someone enjoys working with you and the business next door asks how they got so successful so quickly, they’re going to tell the next-door business all about your agency and how you helped them.

Case Studies & New Content

Capitalize on this process and ask your clients for video testimonials to become a part of your referral program (create one) and if you can use their results for case studies.

If you’ve been able to impact a client positively, they’re highly likely to approve you sharing the story of how you took them from one to 10.

Gather a dozen different case studies from your past and current clients to publish on your website, social pages, email newsletters, and ads. This isn’t only additional content but content your existing and new clients will appreciate.

You can also make the case study an appealing PDF and share it with the case study client for them to share among their peers.

If you help them reach their goals, they’ll love the PDF filled with graphics, charts, and impressive numbers to share with other business owners.

Trial By Error

Another way to utilize your clients for influencer marketing is to ask your clients to test out a new product.

If they’re a big client of yours, it’s appropriate to let them know that your agency is trying to innovate with all of the tech advances, and you want to try a new strategy or product with them as a test.

FREE Of Charge

If things work out with the test, woohoo! You’ve added another section to the contract. And you have a new service or product to charge for in the future.

If things don’t work out, you get insightful and honest feedback from the client and know how to fix the product or plan.


One of the most significant ways I see brands utilize influencer marketing is by partnering up with other brands.

Before I get too deep into this, I want to clarify that there are prominent corporate players like Sprint and Blue Apron. And they’re also individual brands like famous Instagram users and YouTube celebrities.

A brand can be an individual brand, like you trying to grow your role as a digital marketer in the industry. However, it can also represent a larger entity for cosmetics and skincare like Maybelline.

Now, back to the brands and the whole influencer marketing idea. Brands will partner together in campaigns to help widen their audience with influencer marketing.

They can use relevant brands in the same industry or reach out of the spectrum and partner with entirely different brands to increase their exposure to a new audience.

When you work with an influencer in a different industry, you get a level of influencer where you can capitalize on the new audience. Be strategic in who you reach out to and ask to partner up in a new influencing campaign.

Partnering with the wrong brand will profoundly impact your brand’s reputation and possibly ruin it.

Red Bull partnering with Coca-Cola for a new content campaign also wouldn’t be the best of ideas. On the one hand, Red Bull is heavily involved in extreme sports. But, they’ve chosen that angle due to their genuine product, an energy drink named Red Bull that essentially “gives you wings,” to be extreme.

Sure, the Red Bull athletes could do an incredible stunt riding a mountain bike down the ledge of the mountain holding both a Coca-Cola and a Red Bull can, but what would be the point?

It wouldn’t make sense because, technically, the two can be seen as competitors. They both are on-the-go drink manufacturers.

Instead, Red Bull could partner with Nike and do a content campaign featuring Nike’s new apparel line, Red Bull’s energy drink, and summer sports.

Just because your brand is in the same industry as another doesn’t mean a collab will work. It’s important to research how your consumers will react to the ad.


We can most commonly recognize influencer marketing when businesses do it.

If your business makes pipes for the plumbing industry, head to that list of the most famous plumbers and start reaching out.

Doing outreach is a huge part of influencer marketing. It almost feels like putting on a public relations or journalist hat for a second as you try and narrow down your influencers.

Once you’ve found an influencer who has agreed to help promote your product, don’t just stop there. The more influencers you have, the more brand exposure you get, as well as trust.

The word will get around if one of the most famous plumbers uses your pipes for repairs. Other plumbers will trust the renowned plumber and follow in their footsteps to purchase and use only your pipes.

When To Pay An Influencer

Sometimes, you don’t need to pay an influencer. Instead, samples of the product you’re asking them to promote, discounts, or free services usually suffice.

It changes and becomes a more costly strategy when you pick who the influencer is and depends on the type of content you want.

The bigger the influencer, the more they’ll want.

If you’re aiming for that Kardashian type of exposure, you will need to break out the wallet. And the credit card. And possibly your mortgage.

Influencers Who Cost, A Lot

If you’re a brand, business, or agency with goals like a Kardashian type of exposure and the budget to match. Then, by all means, reach out to your lawyers and start preparing contracts for when you lock in those influencers.

Make sure your contracts clearly state the expectations of the influencer. For example, if you want them to run the content by you before they publish it, specify that in the contract.

If you want the influencer to only be able to promote your plumbing pipes and not work with any other pipe companies, state it in the contract.

Influencers Of Little To No Cost

For the rest of us, focus on the more affordable influencers. These people may already invest much of their time promoting your brand because they love your product or what you do.

Death Wish Coffee is an excellent example of this.

People love their product, the ridiculously strong coffee that comes with a side of sarcasm. The brand speaks its customer’s language, making it fun for customers to engage and promote the product themselves.

This coffee company can monitor its hashtag mentions and unlock hundreds of potential influencers that would love to receive a free month of coffee for posting more about their brand.

Look at what kind of mentions your brand, business, or agency is attracting online and follow the conversation. You’ll quickly discover who’s talking about you the most.

Finding An Influencer

Then, look at their followers if they have a healthy following reach out and see if they’d be interested in partnering up with you on an influencer campaign.

Don’t stop reading. I know those of you who are rolling your eyes yelling, “NO ONE MENTIONS MY BRAND!”

Don’t worry. I’ve got a solution for you, too. Look at your big competitors. Think of the Red Bulls and Coca-Colas of your industry.

See what kind of mentions they’re getting and from who. Then, reach out to those influencers and pitch away.

You never know who will say yes unless you ask.

Plus, they may not want as much as you think or even be willing to promote for free after getting to know more about you and your business.

Nowadays, there are numerous influencer marketing tools out there that can help connect you with the right people and brands. So, if you’re having trouble finding people you want to work with, it can be beneficial to supply one of the tools a try.

Final Thoughts

Influencer marketing has become much more than just a buzzword.

Marketers have been using influencers to promote their products for years, but brands are now using influencers to build customer relationships and create new revenue streams.

By leveraging the power of social media platforms like Facebook and Instagram, marketers can connect directly with consumers through influencers.

This can help to increase brand awareness and drive sales. It can also open your brand, business, or agency to new audiences.

As we get closer to the end of this year, try strategizing the influencer marketing opportunities you have out there.

More Resources:

Featured Image: Anton Vierietin/Shutterstock

Wed, 12 Oct 2022 23:52:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : The First 4 Fundamentals About Consciousness and the Brain

Every fall, new students join the lab, eager to learn about consciousness and the brain. At this time of the year, I always ask myself, "What are the fundamental ideas about consciousness and the brain that should be taught first?" I always find myself revising, updating, streamlining, and making clearer the ideas in introductory lectures and the lab manual (Morsella, 2022). Below are the four fundamentals that, over the years, have always been presented first, both in the manual and in lab discussions.

The first thing to learn is what a “conscious content” is. Any particular thing one is conscious of has been referred to as a “conscious content.” A conscious content could be the sight of a coffee cup, an afterimage, a song that keeps playing in one’s mind, a percept, an urge (e.g., to scratch a sunburn), the smell of an ice cream sundae, or an autobiographical memory (e.g., memory of last summer’s camping trip).

The term “conscious content” refers to the most basic form of consciousness: If a creature is capable of having an experience of any kind—pain, nausea, a pleasant dream, or the sound of a bell—then it possesses this basic form of consciousness (Morsella, 2022). In short, to have an experience of any kind is to have some kind of conscious content. Sometimes people refer to this kind of basic consciousness as “awareness,” which means the same thing: Being aware of a cup or ringing in the ears is to experience these conscious contents.

The second thing to learn is the term “conscious field.” The conscious field is made up of all the conscious contents that are activated at one moment in time: the sight of an ice cream sundae plus the smell of coffee plus the feeling of the chair on which one is sitting plus the song that one cannot get out of one’s mind plus the memory of the doctor reminding one to cut down on sweets.

We are not aware of, and have no conscious contents for, many things going on in the brain or body—peristalsis in the gut, how the pupils in the eye are controlled, and many other activities in the nervous system (e.g., motor and syntactic programming). These processes are said to be unconscious. There is usually no experience about them. We know of these processes mainly through memorizing about them in textbooks. We have no direct experience about them. In short, “unconscious events are those processes that, though capable of systematically influencing behavior, cognition, motivation, and emotion, do not influence the organism’s subjective experience in such a way that the organism can directly detect, understand, or self-report the occurrence or nature of these events” (from Morsella & Bargh, 2011).

Knowledge of unconscious process leads to the third important fundamental about consciousness and the brain: Not all brain processes and regions are associated with consciousness. Consciousness is associated with only a subset of the regions and processes. Researchers are attempting to home in on these circuits associated with consciousness (e.g., Morsella et al., 2016; Morsella, 2022).

The fourth fundamental is an observation that holds some clues about why one needs a fully operational conscious field, one in which many conscious contents are presented: Each conscious content activates brain processes, including, to some extent, behavioral inclinations. Consider the classic Stroop task (Stroop, 1935). In the task, subjects are instructed to name the color in which a word is written. When the word and color are incongruent (e.g., RED presented in blue), “response conflict” leads to increased error rates and response times. The response conflict arises because, though one intends to name only the color in which the word is printed, the stimulus (RED) activates involuntarily the “word reading” action plan (to utter “red”).

Because conscious contents can activate processes that influence behavior, it is essential that one conscious content (e.g., a tasty ice cream sundae) not be presented alone to have too much influence on behavior. Such a monopoly would not lead to adaptive behavior. Each content should be “checked” by other conscious contents (e.g., the memory that the doctor recommended cutting down on sweets). (This is called a “frame check”; Morsella et al., 2016.) Because voluntary behavior is influenced by the many conscious contents in the field, we respond to a given stimulus (the tasty sundae) not in isolation but in light of the other contents (e.g., memory of doctor) composing the conscious field.

With these four fundamentals, incoming students not only understand new terms but also begin to appreciate the important role of the conscious field in yielding adaptive actions that are context-sensitive. Over the years, these four fundamentals have consistently appeared at the beginning of the lab manual (Morsella, 2022), and I can’t foresee an introduction to the lab without them.

Tue, 11 Oct 2022 12:14:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : How will the new CPI data affect the gold market?

Fresh inflation data is to be released tomorrow. While it may trigger daily fluctuations, the precious metals’ medium- term fundamentals remain bearish.

While risk assets attempted a daily rally on Oct. 11, Bank of England (BOE) Governor Andrew Bailey spoiled the party with his hawkish warning to U.K. pension funds. After restarting QE to curb the rapid rise in U.K. interest rates, he said:

My message to the funds involved and all the firms is you’ve got three days left now. You’ve got to get this done. The essence of financial stability is that [intervention] is temporary. It’s not prolonged.”

Thus, while gold bucked the trend, it was another down day for silver, mining stocks and the S&P 500. Furthermore, with Fed officials undeterred by the financial market volatility, Cleveland Fed President Loretta Mester said on Oct. 11:

“Unacceptably high and persistent inflation remains the key challenge facing the U.S. economy. Despite some moderation on the demand side of the economy and nascent signs of improvement in supply-side conditions, there has been no progress on inflation.”

She added:

“Given current economic conditions and the outlook, at this point the larger risks come from tightening too little and allowing very high inflation to persist and become embedded in the economy.”

As a result, Mester reiterated that a dovish pivot is out of touch with fundamental reality.


Source: Reuters

Therefore, with central bankers ignoring investors’ cries for help, suddenly, buying the dip isn’t so profitable anymore (you have been warned). However, with the Consumer Price Index (CPI) scheduled for release on Oct. 13, volatility could be amplified depending on the result. As such, while material intraday swings could be the norm for the foreseeable future, the PMs’ medium-term fundamentals remain profoundly bearish. To that point, with Big Tech a major driver of the S&P 500’s performance, rate hikes and quantitative tightening (QT) should weigh on both. Likewise, since the GDXJ ETF is more correlated to the S&P 500’s movement than its precious metals peers, the junior miners are caught in the crossfire.


To explain, the dark blue line above tracks central bank liquidity, while the light blue line above tracks the combined market capitalization of Apple, Amazon, Meta Platforms, Alphabet, Microsoft, Netflix, and Tesla. If you analyze the relationship, you can see that quantitative easing (QE) and low interest rates were a boon for Big Tech post-GFC. 

However, with the trend reversing, the Fed needs to remove liquidity to quell inflation, and the policy stance should continue to suppress Big Tech’s multiples, while the GDXJ ETF should underperform gold as the drama unfolds. 

In addition, while investor sentiment remains highly depressed, the economic impact of the liquidity drain has been relatively minimal outside of the U.S. housing market. Moreover, with the Atlanta Fed projecting resilient real GDP growth in Q3 and demand outweighing supply in the U.S. labor market, the economic climate isn’t as bad as the daily price action suggests.

However, with more rate hikes needed to suppress demand, a sharp rise in bankruptcies could spark the next bout of panic.


To explain, Bank of America counted recession (the light blue line) and bankruptcy stories (the dark blue bars). If you analyze the relationship, you can see that bankruptcies often move in lockstep with recessionary fears.

However, the right side of the chart shows how bankruptcy stories remain well below recession stories. Yet, that gap should close in the months ahead, as money-losing companies that rely on debt/equity financing to survive could be the next shoe to drop.

For context, I wrote on Oct. 10 that Minneapolis Fed President Neel Kashkari noted the issue on Oct. 6. He said:

“I fully expect that there are going to be some losses and there are going to be some failures around the global economy as we transition to a higher interest rate environment, and that’s the nature of capitalism.

“We need to keep our eyes open for risks that could be destabilizing for the American economy as a whole. But to me, the bar to actually shifting our stance on policy is very high. It should not be up to the Federal Reserve or the American taxpayer to bail people out.”

As a result, with Fed officials warning investors they're on their own until inflation subsides, a cold winter should confront risk assets.

More employment strength

I’ve long warned that a demand-driven U.S. labor market is bullish for Fed policy, and as long as the employment outlook remains constructive, the central bank should make life difficult for gold, silver, mining stocks, and the S&P 500. I added on Oct. 10:

While I stated on Sep. 22 that a resilient U.S. labor market gives the Fed the green light to hammer inflation, Waller made the point for me.


Source: Bloomberg

So with more supportive data hitting the wire recently, the results are bullish for the U.S. federal funds rate (FFR), the U.S. 10-Year real yield and the USD Index. 

For example, the Conference Board released its Employment Trends Index (ETI) on Oct. 10. The headline index increased from 118.48 in August (a downward revision) to 120.17 in September. Frank Steemers, Senior Economist at The Conference Board, said:

“Some easing to labor shortages is expected as the demand for workers diminishes. However, recruitment and retention difficulties will not disappear as the unemployment rate is only projected to rise to around 4.5% in 2023 and labor supply remains challenged. In this environment, wage growth may also remain elevated. Companies will need to prepare for continued labor shortages and further Improve their sourcing and retention strategies to remain competitive.”

Thus, while demand destruction is the perfect ingredient for a dovish pivot, we’re far from that scenario.


On top of that, the NFIB released its Small Business Optimism Index on Oct. 11. The headline index increased from 91.8 in August to 92.1 in September. Moreover, the NFIB’s jobs report (released on Oct. 6) revealed:

“64% reported hiring or trying to hire in September, up one point from August. Eighty-nine percent of those owners hiring or trying to hire reported few or no qualified applicants for their open positions. Twenty-seven percent of owners reported few qualified applicants for their open positions and 30% reported none.”

In addition:

“Small business owners’ plans to fill open positions remain high, with a seasonally adjusted net 23% planning to create new jobs in the next three months, up two points from August.

Therefore, despite the Fed’s efforts, small business labor demand increased month-over-month (MoM).


Source: NFIB

Also noteworthy, the percentage of small businesses with at least one unfilled job opening is closer to its all-time high than its pre-COVID-19 level.


Source: NFIB

Add it all up, and the U.S. labor market remains on solid footing. Likewise, while Wall Street assumes its gloomy mood can influence Fed policy, the reality is that Main Street considers inflation more problematic than decelerating demand.


Source: NFIB

To explain, the red rectangles above show how inflation and the cost of labor are high on the list of small businesses' "single most important problem." In contrast, the percentage of respondents citing poor sales declined from 4% in September 2021 to 3% in September 2022, and the current memorizing is only 1% above its all-time low.

As such, the Fed still has plenty of room to raise the FFR before the U.S. labor market suffers, and a realization is profoundly bearish for gold, silver, and mining stocks.

The bottom line

With the ‘’good news is bad news’ mantra maiming the bulls, a resilient Main Street is highly bearish for Wall Street. Moreover, with the S&P 500 and the GDXJ ETF selling off mid-day on Oct. 11, anxiety is contagious. So while the CPI release could be a ‘sell the rumor, buy the news’ event, the PMs and the S&P 500’s fundamental issues are far from solved.

In conclusion, the PMs were mixed on Oct. 11, as gold ended the day in the green. Conversely, the U.S. 10-Year real yield ended the day flat, and the USD Index delivered a similar performance. However, the Fed’s inflation fight is bullish for both metrics, and they should hit higher highs in the months ahead.

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Wed, 12 Oct 2022 01:49:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Breast cancer awareness fundamentals

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Thu, 13 Oct 2022 19:16:00 -0500 en text/html,30321
Killexams : Fundamentals of a Strain Gauge Transducer

Strain gauges are those tiny sensors that look like little wire resistors, which is essentially what they are. These transducers are sensing devices that measure load, pressure, torque, displacement, and even acceleration. The resistance of a strain gauge changes under a force.

The global market for strain gauges is projected to reach USD 240.6 million by 2026, from USD 188 million in 2020, at a CAGR of 4.2 percent, predicts 360ResearchReports. China is the largest consumer of strain gauges with North America as a distant second place.

Strain Basics

Strain gauges measure the force of strain but also stress. In engineering terms, the strain is a dimensionless quantity that is a ratio of the change in length to the original length of an object. Thus, stretching material results in a positive strain while compressing it will produce a negative strain. The strain is a measurement of the force applied divided by the initial cross-sectional area of an object.

A strain gauge is composed of a thin-film, metal foil insulated by a flexible substrate. Current is passed through the gauge as the surface of the object being measured is stretched or compressed, which causes the resistance in the gauge to change. This change in resistance is proportional to the change in length on the surface of the object being tested:

    Change in resistance/resistance = Gage factor x strain

Strain gauges work by measuring the change in resistance across a thin conductive foil. The gauge factor (or “gage factor”) is the sensitivity of the strain gauge, i.e., the linear portion. It converts the change in resistance to the change in length. 


The strain gauge’s resistance is directly proportional to how much strain (or stress) the sensor is experiencing due to the force applied.  Typically, this variation in resistance is measured with a Wheatstone Bridge circuit, in which the strain gauge comprises one of the resistive paths in the bridge. In this arrangement, the quarter or one arm of the bridge formed by the strain gauge is the active gauge while the other arms are fixed value resistors or unstrained gauges.

In an ideal case, the strain gauge is the only resistor in the circuit that varies and then only due to a change in strain on the surface of the specimen to which it is attached. (See, “Fundamentals of Strain Gauge Instrumentation Amplifiers”)


In addition to load, pressure, displacement, and acceleration, strain gauges are used to measure torque – such as those applied by a motor, turbine, or engine to fans, generators, wheels, or propellers. This equipment is found in power plants, ships, refineries, automobiles, and industry. Power is obtained by measuring the strain and rotational speed on a shaft.

An interesting torque application using a strain gauge was found in the development of a bicycle power meter. As reported at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, strain gauges were used to measure the genuine torque applied by the cyclist when powering a bicycle, i.e., pushing the pedal. A strain gauge was mounted on a separate sensor member that was retrofitted in-between existing bicycle cranksets. The main challenge was to provide an accurate measurement of torque by eliminating the non-contributing forces and moments on the system. The goal was to develop a cost-effective solution for an accurate power-measuring device for a cyclist.

Power meters enable professional athletes to track their training progress. Most bicycle power meters use strain gauges to measure applied torque and, when combined with angular speed, calculate power. One of the more common types is the chainring-based power meter. It’s important that a good power meter only measures the torque (about spindle axis: z-axis) which is responsible for genuine power output.

To accurately know the power output, the first step is to precisely measure the torque applied by the cyclist who is responsible for the power generation. Formally, torque (or the moment of force) is the product of the magnitude of the force and the perpendicular distance of the line of action of a force from the axis of rotation.  The SI unit for torque is the newton meter (N•m).  

The genuine torque applied by the cyclist requires the elimination of all the unproductive forces and moments in the system, for example, the bending of the crank chain towards the frame when the cyclist is pedaling. A sensor member was designed and placed in between the chainring and the crank arm, interconnecting these two parts. A full-bridge pattern was selected and mounted on the sensor member. The strain gauge in the sensor member was connected in such a way that the novel arrangement only outputted the pedaling axis’ torque. Thus, the special arrangement and circuit diagram enabled accurate measurement of the torque that was responsible for the genuine power output.

John Blyler is a Design News senior editor, covering the electronics and advanced manufacturing spaces. With a BS in Engineering Physics and an MS in Electrical Engineering, he has years of hardware-software-network systems experience as an editor and engineer within the advanced manufacturing, IoT and semiconductor industries. John has co-authored books related to system engineering and electronics for IEEE, Wiley, and Elsevier

Thu, 06 Oct 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : US dollar price action setups: CAD, EUR, GBP, JPY

US Dollar Talking Point:

  • The US Dollar is holding near highs after last week’s breakout. Tomorrow’s release of CPI data is the big US driver for this week.
  • This morning’s PPI report came in hot, printing at 0.4% v/s 0.2% expected. This highlights continued inflationary pressure in the US economy and we’ll get another piece of data on the matter tomorrow morning with the release of CPI data for the month of September.
  • GBP/USD put in another dramatic fall after reversing in-front of the 1.1500 level last week, and USD/JPY is at a fresh 24-year-high. EUR/USD is roughly unchanged on the day at this point, even despite the reports around the ECB that the bank is preparing for larger rate hikes in the not-too-distant future.
  • The analysis contained in article relies on price action and chart formations. To learn more about price action or chart patterns, check out our DailyFX Education section.

Recommended by James Stanley

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When I last looked at the US Dollar on Thursday, the currency was setting up for yet another bullish breakout, showing an ascending triangle pattern with resistance at a familiar spot. That breakout has continued to run and we even saw a fresh high print yesterday, with DXY finding resistance at another familiar level of 113.50.

Short-term price action in the USD retains a bullish lean at this point, but, notably, there has been underside resistance from the bullish trendline that guided the ascending breakout last week. Prices tried to pose a deeper pullback yesterday but quickly pushed back-up to resistance after Andrew Bailey sent a stern warning to UK pensions. Current resistance at 113.50 has already been tested, and there’s another level above that at 113.82. Beyond that, I’m tracking another prior swing at 114.28 after which the current 20-year-high comes into play, plotted at 114.78.

Short-term, there’s a possible inverse head and shoulders pattern in here that keeps the door open for breakouts from the neckline, which shows around current resistance.

On the support side of the matter, current support is showing at another prior price action swing around 113.05, after which support at 112.58 comes into the picture. If that’s broken-below, the same zone of resistance from last week’s ascending triangle comes into the picture and that’s plotted around 111.75.

US Dollar Two-Hour Price Chart

US Dollar two hour chart

Chart prepared by James Stanley; USD, DXY on Tradingview


I think the weekly chart is notable here as it highlights an aggressively bearish trend that’s shown no signs yet of letting up. Last week’s early trade saw a glimmer of hope as prices pushed up to the parity level for a resistance test. But that was quickly squashed as sellers returned and push prices right back down into the .9700’s.

EUR/USD Weekly Chart

eurusd weekly chart

Chart prepared by James Stanley; EURUSD on Tradingview

EUR/USD Shorter-Term

Short-term, EUR/USD is trying to hold that support around the .9700 psychological level after the 300 pip move off of the parity handle. An attempted recovery yesterday was quickly faded with prices returning right back to the .9700 handle. This gives the appearance of a short-term head and shoulders pattern which is the inverse of what I looked at above in the USD/DXY.

This keeps the door open for bearish breakout scenarios on pushes below support, which I’m tracking at the bearish trendline connecting this week’s swing-lows. A break-above yesterday’s high invalidates the bearish theme and re-opens the door for short-term bullish breakout potential, tracking into next resistance-turned-support-turned resistance at .9835.

EUR/USD Two-Hour Chart

eurusd two hour chart

Chart prepared by James Stanley; EURUSD on Tradingview


This is a tough one given the headlines

When in these situations I’ll usually default to techs for workable strategy as, at the very least, that can be incorporated into risk management. And techs have remained fairly clean from my point of view.

I had warned of such a move on September 23rd, saying ‘Cable is in Collapse Territory.’

The currency collapsed a few days later… I then looked at it the article ‘British Pound Technical Analysis,’ sharing levels of note for recovery plays. As the recovery continued to work, it was the resistance zone around the 1.1500 level that loomed large and that’s eventually what came in to help mark the exact top.

Bears began hitting the pair in earnest again mid-week, and by Thursday GBP/USD had already turned. The pair pushed all the way down to the 1.1000 psychological level, which was holding as support early in yesterday’s session until Andrew Bailey sent a series of remarks regarding the Bank of England’s Monetary Policy that seemed to do little to instill confidence around the situation, which led to another downside break in Sterling.

At this point, prices have attempted to start a recovery after that fresh low yesterday and the prior support zone, spanning from 1.1000-1.1023 is helping to hold short-term lows. A hold above 1.1000 keeps the door open for another push up to resistance around the 1.1112 level, but if bulls can’t hold the psychological level we could see another quick and hastened downside move.

At this point, the bullish side of the pair does feel a bit as though it’s playing in-between the cracks of a larger macro theme.

GBP/USD Two-Hour Price Chart

gbpusd two hour chart

Chart prepared by James Stanley; GBPUSD on Tradingview


I’ll keep this one short as the tech backdrop speaks for itself. I’ve looked at this one from a few different vantage points of late, with a key resistance level coming into play last week at 1.3833.

A week later, that resistance remains, and price action is showing an ascending triangle formation and could likely even be argued as an inverse head-and-shoulders pattern, which keeps the door open for continued bullish breakout potential.

USD/CAD Four-Hour Price Chart

usdcad four hour chart

Chart prepared by James Stanley; USDCAD on Tradingview


While the above situation in USD/CAD seems rather simple from a technical perspective, USD/JPY is anything but and this is largely due to the fundamentals behind the matter.

The carry in USD/JPY remains strong on the long side, which I highlighted a couple of weeks ago after the intervention-fueled dip. But, the theoretical line-in-the-sand from the Ministry of Finance is being tested through at the moment as that was thought to be around the 145.00 level. USD/JPY closed above that price last week and the move on Monday was tepid, in what appeared to be caution in case there was another intervention announcement.

But, as the week has worn on and as no announcements have come out, traders have continued to push the envelope and price is now at fresh 24-year-highs. The next major area of resistance is at 147.65, which was the high in 1998 when the BoJ was last actively-engaged in an intervention campaign. Above that level, USD/JPY is trading at fresh 32-year-highs and that swing is all the way up at the 160.00 psychological level.

USD/JPY Daily Chart

usdjpy daily chart

Chart prepared by James Stanley; USDJPY on Tradingview

--- Written by James Stanley, Senior Strategist, & Head of DailyFX Education

Contact and follow James on Twitter: @JStanleyFX

Wed, 12 Oct 2022 20:08:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Tuesday's Market Minute: The Technicals and Fundamentals Collide This Week

This week may be the one that provides the catalyst for the much anticipated “capitulation” event traders have been waiting for to call a “bottom”. The economic reports this week are nothing short of monumental, geopolitical tensions have reached levels we haven’t seen since the Cuban Missile Crisis, and credit markets haven’t seen this much attention since 2008. 

The Technicals: From a technical standpoint, the market has breached the key level of support back in June and is now testing the exact September lows, which also coincides with the August 2020 highs. This current level also aligns with the 200-Week SMA. This indicator is critical: over the last 11 years the SPX has bounced off this moving average, except for the COVID-19 market sell-off where this trend was violated for only one month before the market began its ascent to all-time highs. From a Fibonacci Retracement standpoint, a 50% retracement from the COVID lows to the January peak would settle out at the 3,503 level – a retracement level that would be considered healthy by most chart technicians. But technical trends are not enough, let’s check out the fundamentals. 

The Fundamentals: PPI and CPI data this week will be the focus. A hot memorizing from either could continue this downward slide as the market will assume the Fed will have to continue its aggressive rate hiking program. Another key datapoint to keep an eye on will be the 10-year and 30-year treasury bond auction. If we see a large dealer takedown, meaning the dealers will have to purchase the remaining bonds not purchased by others in the marketplace, that could supply another sign of credit market weakness – leading to rates increasing further. Lastly, banks will begin to report earnings on Friday. A key line item to keep on your radar will be the amount of Loan Loss Reserves banks set aside. As a result of the Great Financial Crisis, banks are required to set aside cash in anticipation of perceived losses they may incur due to loan defaults from their customer base. Outside of the commentary we will hear from executives in the sector, this will be the key item to gauge where banks may see cracks in the financial system.

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Tue, 11 Oct 2022 04:24:00 -0500 text/html
Killexams : Injection mold cooling: A return to fundamentals

We read and hear a lot about “breakthroughs” in our industry: Robots eliminate operators; auto-feeding systems never allow the machine to go dry; snazzy signal processors and transducers monitor every microsecond of the molding process. With all this gadgetry, however, are we seeing more profit and a return on investment for the money spent? Not really, because we have been dazzled by technology and ignored the fundamentals.

Recently, I got an e-mail from a guy who had just taken over the position of lead technician. He wondered about the use of chillers and their expense. He also wondered about the quality of his products when the setup sheet used "tower water" as the main source of cooling for molds and machines.

The trouble with tower water

Let's hit the simple but often overlooked problem first—tower water. When people first build a molding plant, they decide on the number and size of the molding machines and calculate the power and cooling requirements. What they tend to ignore is what happens when additional machines are purchased, because that is covered in the “safety margins” of the original designs.

Heat exchange is necessary because:

  • the machine generates its own heat; and
  • the mold will heat up because it must cool the 300°+ plastic that is injected into it.

Heated machine oil is cooled directly from the tower. The molten plastic's heat first dissipates into the mold steel, is transferred to the cooling circuits and then to the mold's heat exchanger (generically called a Thermolater, although there are other suppliers) and finally to the tower's evaporative cooling circuits.

Evaporative cooling depends on the evaporation of water. This depends on the outside temperature, relative humidity and a host of other variables. It is obvious that when the outside air changes, the temperature of the tower water also will change. As the tower water's temperature changes, your mold temperature will change, and the dimensions and quality of your parts will change.

Another reason to avoid directly putting tower water in your mold is scale buildup. With water flowing through a mold you have the perfect setup for electrolysis, where the minerals in the water will plate out onto the waterlines. Just 1/64 in. (0.4 mm) of scale buildup can reduce the heat-transfer efficiency of a waterline by 60%, even with adequate flow.

Fun facts about heat distortion temperatures

First fun fact: The ideal ejection temperature for any molded part is when it reaches 80% of the material's heat distortion temperature (HDT). Second fun fact: If you check the literature, no thermoplastic resin's HDT is so low that the 80% figure turns out to be room temperature or lower. There are some practical exceptions: Thin-walled elastomers tend to turn themselves inside out during ejection. If dimensions are not sacrificed, if you “over-cool” the part prior to ejection it can be rigid enough to conventionally eject.

These fun facts beg a simple question: If this is correct, why do we need chillers? You use a chiller in an attempt to overcome inadequate cooling in a mold.

Most molds use a Thermolator to maintain mold temperature so that the part can reach 80% of HDT as efficiently as possible. Keep in mind plastic is a poor conductor of heat. The heat from the plastic radiates relatively slowly into the mold steel. The heat-transfer characteristics of the mold steel and the water in the cooling lines are many times faster.

The weak link in this plastic-metal-water heat-transfer system is the water's flow rate. When water flows smoothly like a gentle stream, it flows in layers: This is called laminar flow. The layer that is in contact with something—the walls of the waterline or the bottom of the stream—will flow very slowly. The water at the top of the stream or the center of the waterline only has to slip past itself and flows must faster. With laminar flow, the heat transfers very slowly because it has to heat up this stationary layer before the flowing layers can pick it up and exit the mold.

The laminar flow effect stops when the flow increases. It ceases to flow in layers and begins to tumble over itself. This is called turbulent flow. With the water tumbling over itself in a waterline, it picks up heat directly from the mold steel. Turbulent flow is measured with a very complex dimensionless number called a Reynolds number that uses flow volume, the size of the flow channel, the heat of the water and the viscosity of the water. Instead of going through the calculus, a rule of thumb is 1 gallon per minute (GPM) per circuit will always supply you turbulent flow in normal molding situations.

Image: Maksim Kabakou/Adobe Stock

You can purchase flow meters cheaply. Hook them in-line and see what you have. The results might surprise you. Here are some examples.

Age: Like everything else, Thermolators and chillers wear out with time. A Thermolator is not something we tend to do maintenance on. First, check your Thermolator's output pressure as stated in its operating manual. In many cases, the pumps are old, tired and incapable of creating enough pressure to pump the needed 1 GPM per circuit. Repair, replace or retire worn-out equipment.

Line resistance: Let’s do a mind experiment—you want to water your front and back lawn at the same time. You only have one faucet in the front of your house. With a T connector, you hook up a 15-foot hose for the front yard and a 75-foot hose to go around your house and into the backyard. You put two identical sprinklers on each hose. Turning on the water, you think equal amounts will go to each yard but you notice the front yard sprinkler is shooting 25+ feet into the air while the backyard sprinkler is only shooting up five feet. You wonder why—the same pressure source should be the same flow. You forgot about the energy it takes to push the water through the longer hose. Water will always take the path of least resistance. Twenty-foot lines from the Thermolator to the mold require the unit to work harder and only make your utility company rich.


Figure 1: In the best of all worlds, each cavity has individual cooling with a circuit that goes to the main machine manifold. All pressures and flows are equal.

Figures 2 and 3 show four cavities looped together. The resistance of each baffle will compound on the next, severely impeding flow. Figure 2 shows an external loop; figure 3 shows an internal loop.


Figures 4 and 5 show a ladder loop. You can fall into a productivity trap if it isn't designed well (one of the major excuses to use a chiller). Both figures supply you the illusion of one circuit cooling only two cavities. Figure 4 shows the "in" and "out" at the bottom of the ladder. This is like our mind experiment. The majority of the flow will cool the cavities closest to inlet. It will become less and less the farther away you get from the inlet and outlet. Figure 5 shows the inlet at the bottom and the outlet at the top. While the bottom of the ladder sees a high inlet pressure, it also sees a high resistance to the outlet, thus balancing the flow.

Many molds are built with short and long circuits. Look at the mold designs and designate the circuits that can be looped and what should not be making all the circuits close to the same amount of flow.

How do we document waterline hookups? I've seen photographs (hard to see with more than eight circuits), sketches (hard to read) and descriptions (sometimes hard to do). The best solution is to take from the written description you get for driving directions from your GPS.

In Figure 6 you can see circuit #1 has five loops while circuit #4 is straight through without any loops. It's amazing how techs think they can commit these “waterline maps” to memory. They can't.

Another “flow killer” is so obvious it is sad. If you have more than 15 machines, there is a better than 80% chance you can find at least one pinched-off circuit. You have looped two circuits together with a length of hose that is too short, bending it sharply and pinching it closed.

Follow up—avoiding common mistakes

Have a setup guide available when hanging a mold and have someone:

  • Check the hookups;
  • make sure the water is turned on; and
  • periodically splice a flow meter into the circuits to be sure they aren't clogged and that your pumps are working properly.

Waterline diameter

Realizing how silly this sounds, I have seen large molds cooled with ¼-in.-diameter waterlines. The physics of the Reynolds number and commonsense will tell you a small-diameter waterline and a complex path, or one with several restrictive fountains or bubblers, will require an extremely high pressure to get 1 GPM flow. Good mold design will also tell you a cooling line can only efficiently cool within three diameters of its outer wall.

If you can only remember one thing on the syllabu of cooling a mold, put the Mississippi River through the mold. Temperature is easy to regulate but flow determines the mold's temperature.


Injection molding should be both fun and boring. The fun side comes with psyching out the process to balance everything. All this effort should come when you first run/qualify the mold. If you did your homework properly, the boring part is sitting back and watching the profits roll in.


At the end of a few e-mails, my guy tested and scraped a few worn-out Thermolators. He got the engineer to re-write clearly the process sheets and waterline diagrams. He and his crew went on constant hunts and found pinched off waterlines.

The results:

  • Less scrap, higher productivity;
  • more consistent outputs;
  • less use of utility-eating chillers;
  • reduced time invested in troubleshooting.

In other words, more profits for less work.

About the author

Bill Tobin has more than 30 years of hands-on experience in injection molding. Through his company, WJT Associates, he writes articles, presents papers and teaches seminars helping people Improve their profits and productivity. He can be contacted at [email protected].

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