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Securing the Vault

By Russ Banham

Pity the poor information technology security officer, confronted with a fusillade of cyber threats. No sooner has one chink in the armor been mended than another crack appears elsewhere. When you consider the increasing depth of expertise of organized criminals, it is a serious challenge.

The insidious combination of spyware and phishing (one of several social engineering frauds deceiving people into thinking a scam perpetrated by a hacker is a bona fide request for information) joins many other cyber risks that have been identified, such as distributed denial-of-service (DDOS) attacks, portable electronic device data leakage, desktop utility application attacks, mashup threats, radio frequency identification (RFID) attacks, mobile and wireless device endpoint attacks, application security threats, botnets and dynamic random access memory (DRAM) attacks, among a host of others, according to Gartner. Hackers deploy diverse tools in perpetrating the attacks, such as viruses, worms and Trojans, exploiting corporate security weaknesses in their firewalls, routers, servers and other systems that allow for unauthorized penetration of networks. Fortunately, an entire industry is on tap to provide services and tools to stay one step ahead of the next scourge.

Evaluating Threats

The wide range of cyber threats across the globe today requires companies to implement a holistic risk management process, in which technology security is achieved through systematic risk identification, assessment, quantification and mitigation. Threats must be evaluated for their potential likelihood and financial severity, and then prioritized for corporate resource allocation purposes. While it is impossible for any organization to fully protect itself from cyber risks — the cost would be overwhelming — companies must put their dollars where they will most benefit. As Steven Bandrowczak, chief information officer at Toronto-based communications provider Nortel, puts it, “I can make this place 100 percent bunkerproof and safe, but then we wouldn’t have money left over.”

Given the perilous risk of a security breach adversely affecting corporate reputation, technology security is a strategic concern these days. It is common now for CIOs to report on a scheduled basis to their companies’ boards of directors about technology risks and respective mitigation tactics. When a cyber threat rears, such reports are immediate, in terms of the necessary action steps. “Boards have become educated about information security because of the many rules, from Sarbanes-Oxley to Gramm-Leach- Bliley to HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act) that have heightened their responsibility for security failures,” explains Pamella Easley, lead practice director in enterprise risk services at consultancy RSM McGladrey. “Directors want to be sure that any and all vulnerabilities compromising company data have been identified and the controls tested.”

“Customers trust us with their vital information, as do government agencies,” Bandrowczak says. “We have to demonstrate that we can secure this data.” Hence, the latest interest in an enterprise risk management approach to technology security. The process begins with risk identification—a basic understanding of current and emerging threats. “You have to assume that company data will be stolen,” says Avivah Litan, vice president and security analyst at Gartner, a technology risk management consultancy.

“Consequently, your job is twofold —protecting data from being stolen and then preventing stolen data from being used.”

Once inside, hackers have access not only to sensitive employee and customer data, but also proprietary corporate and competitive information, all of it now for sale in the underground market. What makes getting one’s arms around corporate information so difficult from a security standpoint is its ephemeral nature and movement. “You need to think in terms of your vital data and where it resides — not just on the computer in an office but how it flows throughout your organization,” says Vincent Weafer, vice president of Symantec Security Response, a provider of technology security tools and services. “You have to ask, ‘Is the data in transit, at rest, on a USB key or in a laptop?’ Once you understand where the data is and its importance, you can assess the risks and develop strategies to protect it.”

Identity Threats

According to SunGard Availability Services, technology risks can be broken down into three categories: natural threats like a hurricane that shut down systems or prevent access to data to continue business; accidental threats, in which an employee unintentionally obtains improper access to verboten data; and intentional threats, the wide array of illegal scans, probes and attempted accesses via malicious code. The latter is the most threatening. “We live in a digital world via the Internet, and its access channels have also evolved to where the Web is a platform for services like social networking and sophisticated information sharing. This drives a higher degree of interaction,” explains Deepak Batheja, chief technology officer and SVP-Products at SunGard Availability Services, which ensures that 10,000 customers in North America and Europe have access to their business-critical information systems. “More applications are being deployed on laptops and more silent communication is going on between applications on the laptop and data center. That, in turn, means increased opportunities for interception. So, while the majority of incidents today are accidental threats, enterprises must be vigilant against all risks and SunGard solutions can help ensure end-to-end information availability and protection.”

After threats are identified, they must be assessed and measured for their potential frequency and financial impact. “Once we know a threat exists we look at its likelihood to affect us,” says Anne Wilms, executive vice president and CIO of Rohm and Haas, a Philadelphia-based manufacturer of specialty chemical materials. “Something may be highly unlikely, but the cost could be devastating. Conversely, something may be more likely, but the cost more manageable. With these in mind, we examine our vulnerabilities and current mitigation practices, and then, based on our resources, make determinations where people, processes and tools must be deployed.”

After assessing and quantifying cyber risks insofar as their likelihood and financial impact, companies must trigger corporate resources to do battle against them. With security spending rising within most corporate information technology (IT) departments, war is, indeed, being waged.

New Weapons

Among newer strategies is so-called security-as-a-service, which comprises a wide range of cyber security software that is owned, delivered and managed remotely by one or more providers. Instead of deploying all the security troops at the corporate gate to battle cyber criminals, they’re assembled outside the organization at the vendor’s site. “Enterprises have a wide range of options today when procuring and implementing information security technology, from the more traditional approach of buying, installing and managing security software to newly emerging security-as-a-service offerings,” says John Pescatore, vice president, Internet security, at technology consultancy Gartner. “In this one-to-many model, customers subscribe and pay for some or all of the services provided.”

A similar approach is cloud-based security — also provided by third-party security specialist organizations to customers as an on-demand service (as opposed to a more traditional software product). Cloud-computing security, a term that did not exist two years ago (the word “cloud” refers to the ephemeral world of the Internet), is tightly coupled to the external bandwidth services sold by Internet service providers. “Many mobile users are accessing business data and business services like SalesForce.com or various Google applications that don’t traverse the corporate network, thereby creating new cyber risks,” Pescatore explains.

Cloud-based computing security tools are essentially placed between mobile users of technology and cyber criminals, although enterprises still must maintain adequate perimeter security controls to protect risks to non-mobile assets like the data center and desktop PCs.

Optimizing Technology

Other less new twists include external hosting, in which the enterprise owns and manages the security function, but instead of it being located physically at the enterprise, it is located at an external hosting provider site; and insourcing, in which the security controls are owned and managed by the enterprise, but external service personnel are hired on a contract basis to monitor, operate and manage the security controls. Companies also are buying more cost-effective, unified threat management security products from vendors, as opposed to myriad point solutions, giving them financial recourse to deploy the remainder of their budgets toward emerging threats or those risks perceived to have the most adverse impact on the enterprise. “It frees up money and personnel to deploy against more contemporary challenges like highly targeted attacks, social engineering and identity theft, not to mention tomorrow’s threats,” says Pescatore. “The goal is to constantly optimize the technology security budget to address the biggest threats — the ones that can affect your brand reputation.”

Many companies are collapsing the number of security tools fromvendors into more single-point solutions. “The tools we use are best of breed across the board, rather than many point solutions,” says Baljit Dail, global CIO at Aon Corporation. “We’ve prioritized our risks, and have identified as among our greater concerns the stealthy, highly targeted attacks that are becoming more common, as opposed to the DDOS attacks of the past that went after thousands of computers. Consequently, we’re standardizing and centralizing our IT platform, looking at the right tools to deploy our resources more effectively. We’re also implementing global solutions and standards, whether it is data encryption services, e-mail encryption or even our hard drives. What we’re trying to do, first and foremost, is protect our reputation.”

Craig Shumard, chief information security officer at the Philadelphiabased health and employee services provider, CIGNA Corp., agrees that unified threat management and other new security products have great appeal in the cost-strapped economy. “Unified threat management, in which many products are coming together in one solution, complements other new practices like in-the-cloud security, where spam and virus filtering, for example, is provided by third parties outside the perimeter of a company’s IT infrastructure,” he says. CIGNA subscribes to services provided by Symantec for this purpose.

Other CIOs like David Vordick at USEC Inc., a Bethesda, Marylandbased provider of enriched uranium to the nuclear power industry, use tools from multiple vendors and maintain an internal infrastructure of systems and services to mitigate cyber risks.

“Occasionally we’ll engage a third party to help us do a targeted risk assessment to get an independent view of our security, but for the most part we handle things in-house, doing, for example, ongoing vulnerability assessments and system scans to determine if we need new patches or new products installed from vendors,” Vordick explains. “We’re also using more tools these days, in terms of defense and strategy, and our security budget has increased. We certainly have more people here now whose specific job title is information security.”

Dimension Data, a global IT solutions provider with $3.8 billion in 2007 revenues, takes a different tack altogether. “We leverage outside vendors on a subscription basis to provide the most accurate signatures for our e-mail and virus filtering,” explains Mark Slaga, CIO and chief technology officer of Dimension Data Americas. “For me, it’s a no-brainer — they have teams of experts to create the rules and signatures, but we do keep the equipment on our premises and manage the equipment ourselves. As for our firewalls and security policy work, they’re part of our core competency so they’re handled internally, as are data encryption and management of the hard drives.”

People Are Key

While hardware and software tools can be wielded to combat many cyber threats, the most uncertain element in the chain of management is people. Employees have been known to leave laptops on airplanes and trains. Laid-off workers have taken vital corporate data with them out the door. Others have sold sensitive data for personal gain. Education and training are the best line of defense in these cases, provided either by third-party specialists or internally by the chief security officer and staff. “We’re trying to create a risk-aware culture here, which is not the easiest thing when you have tens of thousands of employees,” acknowledges Aon’s Dail. “We’re constantly sending out communication from our executive team about security and the need to protect confidential information. We have instituted an Awareness Program that provides security training online, and have made taking this training compulsory in the U.S. We will soon require it elsewhere in the enterprise.”

Security training and education also are de rigueur at TCS, a provider of information technology services and outsourcing solutions. “We offer a range of online education courses, including a 20-question quiz that every employee must complete on security awareness,” says Ananth Krishnan, the firm’s chief technology officer. Vordick says USEC is doing the same — “raising awareness in our end user community about what they are permitted to do and not do, and when to let us know when something doesn’t look right.” CIGNA, notes Shumard, “focuses a lot of energy around training and education. We have several people on staff right now directly focused on training, education and information protection.”

All these efforts are making cyber crimes more difficult to perpetrate. But, as Shumard concedes, “At the end of the day there will always be a percentage of security risks, as much as 20 percent, that not only our company but no company has a solution for,” he says. “That’s why training and awareness are so important.”

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Held that right to file the application u/s 8(1) of A&C Act, after the statutory period to file the written statement, is closed

Facts-

The appellant has filed the present appeal impugning an order dated 28.03.2022 passed by the learned Commercial Court rejecting the appellant’s application filed u/s. 8 of the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996. The learned Commercial Court had declined to refer the parties to arbitration on the ground that the appellant had filed the said application after the statutory period to file the written statement had expired and the appellant’s right to do so was closed. In addition, the learned Commercial Court also observed that the proceedings indicated the appellant’s intention to participate in the same.

It is the appellant’s case that it had no intention to participate in the proceedings before the learned Commercial Court or to waive its right to refer the subject disputes to arbitration.

The principal question that is required to be addressed is whether a party forfeits its right to file an application under Section 8 of the A&C Act on expiry of time to file the written statement of its defence.

Conclusion-

Resultantly, if a party fails to file an application under Section8(1) of the A&C Act for referring the parties to arbitration within the time available or granted for filing the first statement on the substance of the dispute (which would include a written statement in the context of a suit), the party would forfeit its right to apply under Section 8(1) of the A&C Act.

FULL TEXT OF THE JUDGMENT/ORDER OF DELHI HIGH COURT

1. The appellant has filed the present appeal impugning an order dated 28.03.2022 (hereinafter ‘the impugned order’) passed by the learned Commercial Court rejecting the appellant’s application filed under Section 8 of the Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996 (hereinafter ‘the A&C Act’). The learned Commercial Court had declined to refer the parties to arbitration on the ground that the appellant had filed the said application after the statutory period to file the written statement had expired and the appellant’s right to do so was closed. In addition, the learned Commercial Court also observed that the proceedings indicated the appellant’s intention to participate in the same.

2. It is the appellant’s case that it had no intention to participate in the proceedings before the learned Commercial Court or to waive its right to refer the subject disputes to arbitration.

3. The principal question that is required to be addressed is whether a party forfeits its right to file an application under Section 8 of the A&C Act on expiry of time to file the written statement of its defence.

4. Briefly stated, the relevant facts necessary to address the controversy in the present appeal are as under: –

4.1 The respondent (plaintiff) has filed the suit for recovery and claiming a decree against the appellant (defendant) for a sum of ₹15,60,000/- along with pendente lite and future interest at the rate of 18% per annum as well as costs. The plaintiff claims that it had supplied goods and raised invoices for a value of ₹1,06,32,953/-. Against the aforesaid amount, it had received an aggregate amount of ₹97,17,481/- till 31.03.2015. It had received a further payment of ₹1,146/- on 18.04.2015. Thus, a balance amount of ₹10,20,477/-remains outstanding and payable.

4.2 In its plaint, the plaintiff claims that it is entitled to the said amount along with interest at the rate of 18% per annum from 18.04.2015 till filing of the plaint on 26.03.2018 computed at ₹5,39,700/-. Thus, in aggregate, the plaintiff claims that it was entitled to a sum of ₹15,60,177/- inclusive of interest till the date of filing of the suit, which is rounded off to ₹15,60,000/-.

4.3 The said suit was listed before the learned Commercial Court on 11.04.2018 and a copy of the plaint and other documents were provided to the learned counsel for the defendant (the appellant herein). The learned Commercial Court granted one month’s time to file the Written Statement and listed the suit for further proceedings on 29.07.2018. The appellant failed to file the Written Statement within the specified period and the matter was adjourned. It was again listed on 03.11.2018. On that date, the learned Commercial Court noted that the appellant had not filed the Written Statement and the time for doing so had expired. Accordingly, the learned Commercial Court closed the right of the appellant to file the Written Statement and re-listed the matter for the plaintiff’s evidence on 29.01.2019.

4.4 The plaintiff (the respondent) filed an affidavit of its witness and a copy of the same was also provided to the appellant. However, since the representative of the plaintiff (the respondent) had not brought the original documents to court on 29.01.2019, the learned Commercial Court adjourned the matter to 18.04.2019.

4.5 At this stage, the appellant has filed an application under Section 8 of the A&C Act. The appellant relied upon the dispute resolution clause as included in the Purchase Order dated 01.04.2018 and sought reference of the subject disputes to arbitration.

5. Mr Khurana, learned counsel appearing for the appellant, submitted that the learned Commercial Court had relied upon the decision of a Single Bench of this Court in Anil Mahindra & Anr. v. Surender Kumar Makkar & Anr.1 and on the strength of the said decision, rejected the appellant’s application under Section 8 of the A&C Act. He submitted that the said decision was rendered in a petition filed under Article 227 of the Constitution of India and the Court had declined to interfere with the orders passed by the learned Trial Court without examining the language of Section 8 of the A&C Act. He further referred to another decision of the Single Bench of this Court in Hughes Communication India Ltd. & Ors. v. Union of India2 and drew the attention of this Court to paragraph 27 of the said judgment, wherein the Court had noted that the decision in Anil Mahindra’s3 case was rendered without noting that Section 8 of the A&C Act did not permit any such interpretation and therefore, the same was not a binding precedent. He submitted that the learned Commercial Court had erred in following the said decision.

6. In fairness, the learned counsel also referred to the decisions of a Single Bench of this Court in SSIPL Lifestyle Private Limited v. Vama Apparels (India) Private Limited & Anr.4 and the decision in the case of Krishan Radhu v. The Emmar MGF Construction Pvt. Ltd.5, wherein the Court had taken different view in the context of Section 8 of the A&C Act as amended by virtue of the Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Act, 2015. Further, he also referred to the decision of a Single Judge of this Court in Shri Chand Construction and Apartments Private Limited &Anr. v. Tata Capital Housing Finance Ltd.6.

7. Prior to enactment of the A&C Act (Arbitration and Conciliation Act, 1996), the law relating to arbitration was embodied in the Arbitration Act, 1940. Section 34 of the said Act empowered the court “to stay legal proceedings where there is an arbitration agreement”. Section 34 of the said Act is relevant and reproduced below:

“34. Power to stay legal proceedings where there is an arbitration agreement.— Where any party to an arbitration agreement or any person claiming under him commences any legal proceedings against any other party to the agreement or any person claiming under him in respect of any matter agreed to be referred, any party to such legal proceedings may, at any time before filing a written statement or taking any other steps in the proceedings, apply to the judicial authority before which the proceedings are pending to stay the proceedings; and if satisfied that there is no sufficient reason why the matter should not be referred in accordance with the arbitration agreement and that the applicant was, at the time when the proceedings were commenced, and still remains, ready and willing to do all things necessary to the proper conduct of the arbitration, such authority may make an order staying the proceedings.”

8. In terms of Section 34 of the Arbitration Act, 1940, a party was entitled to apply to the court/judicial authority before which the legal proceedings were pending to stay the proceedings “at any time before filing a written statement or taking any other steps in proceedings”. The courts had interpreted the expression “other steps in the proceedings” to mean “such steps as would manifestly display an unequivocal intention to proceed with the suit and to supply up the right to have the matter disposed of by arbitration7.

9. The Supreme Court had also explained the expression “taking any ‘other steps in the proceedings’ does not mean that every step in the proceedings would come in the way of enforcement of the arbitration agreement. The step must be such as would clearly and unambiguously manifest the intention to waive the benefit of arbitration agreement”8.

10. The A&C Act replaced the Arbitration Act, 1940. The A&C Act is based on the UNCITRAL Model Law. Article 8 of the UNCITRAL Model Law reads as under: –

“Article 8. Arbitration agreement and substantive claim before court (1) A court before which an action is brought in a matter which is the subject of an arbitration agreement shall, if a party so requests not later than when submitting his first statement on the substance of the dispute, refer the parties to arbitration unless it finds that the agreement is null and void, inoperative or incapable of being performed.

(2) Where an action referred to in paragraph (1) of this article has been brought, arbitral proceedings may nevertheless be commenced or continued, and an award may be made, while the issue is pending before the court.”

11. Section 8 of the A&C Act, as enacted, was somewhat similar to Article 8 of the UNCITRAL Model Law and reads as under:

8. Power to refer parties to arbitration where there is an arbitration agreement.–

(1) A judicial authority before which an action is brought in a matter which is the subject of an arbitration agreement shall, if a party so applies not later than when submitting his first statement on the substance of the dispute, refer the parties to arbitration.

(2) The application referred to in sub-section (1) shall not be entertained unless it is accompanied by the original arbitration agreement or a duly certified copy thereof.

(3) Notwithstanding that an application has been made under sub-section (1) and that the issue is pending before the judicial authority, an arbitration may be commenced or continued and an arbitral award made.”

12. It is clear from the above that Section 8 of the A&C Act did not prescribe any specific time for filing an application under Section 8 of the A&C Act for referring the parties to arbitration. It merely provided that such application ought to be moved not later than submission of the first statement on the substance of the dispute.

13. In Booz Allen and Hamilton Inc. v. SBI Home Finance Ltd. & Ors.9, one of the questions that fell for consideration before the Supreme Court was whether an application under Section 8 of the A&C Act was liable to be rejected on the ground that it was filed almost twenty months after the defendant had entered appearance in the suit. The Court answered the question as under: –

“19. Though Section 8 does not prescribe any time limit for filing an application under that section, and only states that the application under Section 8 of the Act should be filed before submission of the first statement on the substance of the dispute, the scheme of the Act and the provisions of the section clearly indicate that the application thereunder should be made at the earliest. Obviously, a party who willingly participates in the proceedings in the suit and subjects himself to the jurisdiction of the court cannot subsequently turn round and say that the parties should be referred to arbitration in view of the existence of an arbitration agreement. Whether a party has waived his right to seek arbitration and subjected himself to the jurisdiction of the court, depends upon the conduct of such party in the suit.

When plaintiffs file applications for interim relief like appointment of a receiver or grant of a temporary injunction, the defendants have to contest the application. Such contest may even lead to appeals and revisions where there may be even stay of further proceedings in the suit. If supplemental proceedings like applications for temporary injunction on appointment of Receiver, have been pending for a considerable time and a defendant has been contesting such supplemental proceedings, it cannot be said that the defendant has lost the right to seek reference to arbitration. At the relevant time, the unamended Rule 1 of Order VIII of the Code was governing the filing of written statements and the said rule did not prescribe any time limit for filing written statement. In such a situation, mere passage of time between the date of entering appearance and date of filing the application under Section 8 of the Act, can not lead to an inference that a Defendant subjected himself to the jurisdiction of the court for adjudication of the main dispute. The facts in this case show that the plaintiff in the suit had filed an application for temporary injunction and appointment of Receiver and that was pending for some time. Thereafter, talks were in progress for arriving at a settlement out of court. When such talks failed, the appellant filed an application under Section 8 of the Act before filing the written statement or filing any other statement which could be considered to be a submission of a statement on the substance of the dispute. The High Court was not therefore justified in rejecting the application on the ground of delay.”

Arbitration application us 8(1) is to be filed within statutory period to file written statement

14. The expression “first statement on the substance of the dispute” is of wide import. It would take within its sweep any statement filed to join or raise issues regarding the substratum of the matter in dispute. In the context of the civil suit, it would include the written statement as required to be presented under Order VIII Rule 1 of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (CPC).

15. In Rashtriya Ispat Nigam Ltd. v. Verma Transport Co.10, the Supreme Court had interpreted the expression “first statement on the substance of the dispute” and observed as under: –

36. The expression ‘first statement on the substance of the dispute’ contained in Section 8(1) of the 1996 Act must be contradistinguished with the expression “written statement”. It employs submission of the party to the jurisdiction of the judicial authority. What is, therefore, needed is a finding on the part of the judicial authority that the party has waived its right to invoke the arbitration clause. If an application is filed before actually filing the first statement on the substance of the dispute, in our opinion, the party cannot be said to have waived its right or acquiesced itself to the jurisdiction of the court. What is, therefore, material is as to whether the petitioner has filed his first statement on the substance of the dispute or not, if not, his application under Section 8 of the 1996 Act, may not be held wholly unmaintainable.”

16. The expression “not later than” as used in Section 8(1) of the A&C Act also makes it amply clear that a party would not be precluded from applying under Section 8 of the A&C Act simultaneously along with filing of a written statement or include such relief in the written statement. However, the party would forfeit its right to apply under Section 8 of the A&C Act once it has filed the written statement. The expression “first statement on the substance of the dispute” would also take within its sweep any other filing, whereby a party evinces his intention to contest the proceedings and subject himself to the jurisdiction of court/judicial authority. Filing of any such statement, would indicate the party’s intention to abandon the arbitration agreement. It would preclude the said party to thereafter seek that the parties be referred to arbitration under Section 8 of the A&C Act.

17. Although Section 8 of the A&C Act (as in force prior to 23.10.2015) did not prescribe any time period within which a party must apply under Section 8 of the A&C Act as explained in Booz Allen and Hamilton Inc. v. SBI Home Finance Ltd. & Ors.11, the scheme of the A&C Act and the provisions of Section 8 of the A&C Act clearly indicate that the application under that section “should be made at the earliest”.

18. It is clear from the scheme of the Act that once the proceedings before the court or judicial authority progress beyond the initial stage, it would no longer be permissible for a party to then turn around and seek recourse to arbitration. A mere delay in making an application under Section 8 of the A&C Act may not be fatal to a party’s right; but once the proceedings have progressed beyond the stage of completion of pleadings, such an application would not lie. This is because at that stage, the parties are sufficiently invested in the said proceedings, and it would not be permissible for any party to turn around and apply under Section 8 of the A&C Act.

19. If a party’s right to file a statement of defence is closed, the same would also result in its rights accruing in favour of the other party. Clearly, at this stage, it would not be permissible for a party to apply under Section 8 of the A&C Act even though he has not expressly evinced any intention to contest the proceedings. It is implicit in the expression “not later than submitting the first statement of substance of the dispute” that the application under Section 8 of the A&C Act can be made at the stage when it is open for a party to submit such a statement. It, obviously, follows that once such a stage is crossed, the right of the party to apply under Section 8(1) of the A&C Act would also stand closed. The scheme of Section 8 of the A&C Act does not contemplate unraveling concluded proceedings. Once the right of a party to file the written statement of defence is closed, the proceedings in a suit progress beyond the stage of completion of pleadings. It is not open for the defendant to now seek a reference to arbitration. Although Section 8 of the A&C Act (as in force prior to 23.10.2015) did not specify any time limit, it did indicate the stage of the proceedings at which a party could apply, that is, before filing of the first statement on the substance of the dispute. This clearly implies a stage at which such a statement could be filed and not thereafter.

20. If the contention advanced by the appellant is accepted, it would imply an application under Section 8 of the A&C Act can be allowed to be filed at any stage of the proceedings; even after the evidence is tendered and witnesses have been cross-examined or for that matter just before the matter is fixed for pronouncement of the decision. Clearly, this is not in conformity with the scheme of Section 8 of the A&C Act.

21. The Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Act, 2015 [Act 3 of 2016] amended the A&C Act significantly. By virtue of the said Act, Sub-section (1) of Section 8 of the A&C Act was substituted and a proviso was introduced to Sub-section (2) of Section 8 with retrospective effect from 23.10.2015. Section 8 of the A&C Act, as in force with effect from 23.10.2015, reads as under:

8. Power to refer parties to arbitration where there is an arbitration agreement-[(1) A judicial authority, before which an action is brought in a matter which is the subject of an arbitration agreement shall, if a party to the arbitration agreement or any person claiming through or under him, so applies not later than the date of submitting his first statement on the substance of the dispute, then notwithstanding any judgment, decree or order of the Supreme Court or any Court, refer the parties to arbitration unless it finds that prima facie no valid arbitration agreement exists]

(2) The application referred to in sub section (1) shall not be entertained unless it is accompanied by the original arbitration agreement or a duly certified copy thereof:

[Provided that where the original arbitration agreement or a certified copy thereof is not available with the party applying for reference to arbitration under sub­section (1), and the said agreement or certified copy is retained by the other party to that agreement, then, the party so applying shall file such application along with a copy of the arbitration agreement and a petition praying the Court to call upon the other party to produce the original arbitration agreement or its duly certified copy before that Court.] …”

22. The change in the language of Section 8(1) of the A&C Act is Whereas prior to the 2015 Amendment, Sub-section (1) of Section 8 of the A&C Act used the expression “not later than when submitting his first statement on the substance of the dispute”. Sub­section (1) of Section 8, as substituted, uses the expression “not later than the date of submitting his first statement on the substance of the dispute”. The legislative intent to introduce the words “not later than the date of” clearly stipulates a framework of time within which an application under Section 8(1) of the A&C Act can be made.

23. This amendment to Section 8 of the A&C Act, cannot be considered in isolation. It is material to note that the Parliament had also enacted the Commercial Courts Act, 2015 (Act 4 of 2016), which came into force on the same date as the Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Act, 2015, that is, with effect from 23.10.2015. By virtue of Section 16 of the said Act, certain provisions of the CPC were amended in their application to any suit in respect of a commercial dispute of the specified value. The said provisions, inter alia, also included amendment to Order VIII Rule 1 and Order VIII Rule 10 of the CPC. The proviso to Order VIII Rule 1 of the CPC was substituted, which expressly provided that if the defendant failed to file a written statement within the prescribed period of thirty days, the court could, for reasons to be recorded in writing, extend further time to file the written statement. However, such extended time could not be later than 120 days from the date of service of summons. Further, the proviso to Order VIII Rule 10 of the CPC was introduced, which expressly provided that no court would make an order to extend the time provided under Order VIII Rule 1 of the CPC for filing of the written statement. Thus, the Parliament has curtailed the outer time limit of filing of a written statement in a commercial suit to 120 days after receipt of summons. The said amendment is obviously to ensure expeditious adjudication of commercial disputes.

24. Arbitration is an alternate dispute resolution mechanism to provide for an expeditious adjudication of disputes. By virtue of the Arbitration and Conciliation (Amendment) Act, 2015, certain other provisions were also introduced in the A&C Act to provide for time limits for making the arbitral award. Section 29A of the A&C Act was introduced, which specifically provide that an arbitral award would be made within a period of twelve months from the date the arbitral tribunal enters upon reference. One of the objects of the A&C Act is to provide for an expeditious resolution of disputes in a time bound manner. In Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited and Anr. v. M/s Nortel Networks India Private Limited12, the Supreme Court had observed that the A&C Act “has been amended twice over in 2015 and 2019, to provide for further time limits to ensure that the arbitration proceedings are conducted and concluded expeditiously”.

25. As stated above, a written statement would also fall within the sweep of expression “statement on the substance of the dispute” as used in Section 8(1) of the A&C Act. The introduction of the expression “the date of‘ in the context of the suit would necessarily have to be co-related with the time available or granted for filing of a written statement. The legislative intent of introducing the expression “the date of‘, when read with the contemporaneous amendments to Order VIII Rule 1 of the CPC by virtue of the Commercial Courts Act, 2015, is quite clear; it is to introduce the precise time frame within which an application under Section 8(1) of the A&C Act could be filed.

26. Resultantly, if a party fails to file an application under Section8(1) of the A&C Act for referring the parties to arbitration within the time available or granted for filing the first statement on the substance of the dispute (which would include a written statement in the context of a suit), the party would forfeit its right to apply under Section 8(1) of the A&C Act.

27. This Court is unable to accept that there is any infirmity in thedecision of the learned Commercial Court. This Court is unable to concur with the decision of the Single Judge of this Court in Hughes Communications India Ltd. and Ors. v. Union of India13 that Section 8 of the A&C Act cannot be read to mean that an application under Section 8(1) of the A&C Act would not lie after the right to file the written statement has been closed. We, accordingly, over-rule the said decision.

28. The decision of the learned Commercial Court to follow the decision of Single Bench of this Court in Anil Mahindra’s14 case (supra) cannot be faulted. We concur with the decision of the learned Commercial Court that the right of the appellant to file an application under Section 8(1) of the A&C Act stood closed. We find no infirmity with the impugned decision to reject the appellant’s application under Section 8(1) of the A&C Act.

29. The appeal is, accordingly, dismissed. The pending application is disposed of.

Notes:

1 2017 SCC OnLine Del 11532

2 2018 SCC OnLine Del 10879

3 Supra Note 1

4 2020 SCC OnLine Del 1667

5 2016 SCC OnLine Del 6499

6 2020 SCC OnLine Del 472

7 Food Corpn. of India v. Yadav Engineer & Contractor: (1982) 2 SCC 499

8 RachappaGurudappaBijapur v. GurudiddappaNurandappa: (1989) 3 SCC 245

9 (2011) 5 SCC 532

10 (2006) 7 SCC 275

11 Supra Note 9

12 (2021) 5 SCC 738

13 Supra Note 2

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Killexams : ROADM WSS Component Market Trends In 2022 : Growth, Size, Segmentation, Future Demands, Latest Innovation, Sales Revenue by Regional Forecast 2026

The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.

The "ROADM WSS Component Market" Research Report gives an inside and out outline and experiences into the market's size, incomes, different sections and drivers of improvement, as well as restricting elements and provincial modern presence. The objective of the statistical surveying study is to totally assess the 'ROADM WSS Component Sector' and get a survey makes sense of the business and its business possibilities. The concentrate likewise inspects the effect of COVID-19 on the business and income examinations when the pestilence. As per this, the client gets broad information on the business and firm from an earlier time, present, and future points of view, permitting them to put away cash and convey assets admirably.

To Know How Covid-19 Pandemic and Russia Ukraine War Will Impact This Market

ROADMÂnetworks inability to maintain a typical noise shape result in inaccurate optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) measurements.ÂROADM WSS componentsÂare widely classified into Blocker-based, Edge, PLC-based, and Wavelength Selective Switches (WSS).
The key factor contributing to growth of ROADM WSS component market is the growing demand for dynamic ROADMs. Global market is also experiencing an upsurge in the demand for adoption of wavelength selective switches (WSS) enabled ROADMs. However, product cost and quality are some of the major challenges faced by this industry that can hinder its growth rate. Growth of WSS market slowed down during past few months as a result of excessive supply chain inventory; however, this market is expected to resume growth in the near future as a result of surging demand for technologically improved components.Â

Market Analysis and Insights: Global ROADM WSS Component Market
The research report studies the ROADM WSS Component market using different methodologies and analyzes to provide accurate and in-depth information about the market. For a clearer understanding, it is divided into several parts to cover different aspects of the market. Each area is then elaborated to help the reader comprehend the growth potential of each region and its contribution to the global market. The researchers have used primary and secondary methodologies to collate the information in the report. They have also used the same data to generate the current market scenario. This report is aimed at guiding people towards an apprehensive, better, and clearer knowledge of the market.
The global ROADM WSS Component market size is projected to reach USD 1447.8 million by 2026, from USD 831.6 million in 2020, at a CAGR of 9.7% during 2021-2026.

Global ROADM WSS Component Scope and Segment
The global ROADM WSS Component market is segmented by company, region (country), by Type, and by Application. Players, stakeholders, and other participants in the global ROADM WSS Component market will be able to gain the upper hand as they use the report as a powerful resource. The segmental analysis focuses on revenue and forecast by region (country), by Type, and by Application for the period 2015-2026.

This ROADM WSS Component Market Report offers analysis and insights based on original consultations with important players such as CEOs, Managers, and Department heads of suppliers, manufacturers, and distributors.

How much is the ROADM WSS Component market worth?

As a result of the Ukraine-Russia War and COVID-19 epidemic, the ROADM WSS Component market is estimated to be worth USD million in 2022 and is forecast to be worth USD million by 2026, with a CAGR estimated to generate a lot of revenue till 2026.

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The investigation report has solidified the examination of different factors that increment the market's turn of events. It lays out examples, limitations, and drivers that change the market in either a positive or negative manner. This part also gives the degree of different sections and applications that could influence the market from now into the foreseeable future. The point by point information relies upon most latest things and essential accomplishments. This portion moreover gives an exploration of the volume of creation about the overall market and about each sort from 2017 to 2026.

What are the key companies covered in the ROADM WSS Component Market?

The Major Players covered in the ROADM WSS Component Market report are:

● Cisco Systems Inc(US) ● Fujitsu(Japan) ● Tellabs(US) ● Alcatel Lucent(France) ● Movaz Networks Inc(US) ● Nortel Networks(Canada) ● OpVista Inc(US) ● Tropic Networks Inc(Canada) ● AC Photonics Inc(US) ● Alliance Fiber Optic Products(US) ● AOC Technologies(US) ● Shenzhen Hi-Optel Technology Co(China) ● Auxora Inc(US) ● Ciena Corporation(US)

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A thorough evaluation of the controls associated with the report portrays the separation to drivers and gives space for essential arrangement. Factors that obscure the market advancement are critical as they can be seen to devise different bends for getting hold of the advantageous entryways that are accessible in the reliably creating business area. Besides, pieces of information into market capable's viewpoints have been taken to appreciate the market better.

ROADM WSS Component Market - Size, Shares, Scope, Competitive Landscape and Segmentation Analysis:

The report focuses on the ROADM WSS Component market size, segment size (mainly covering product type, application, and geography), competitor landscape, latest status, and development trends. Furthermore, the report provides strategies for companies to overcome threats posed by COVID-19. Technological innovation and advancement will further optimize the performance of the product, enabling it to acquire a wider range of applications in the downstream market. Moreover, customer preference analysis, market dynamics (drivers, restraints, opportunities), new product release, impact of COVID-19, regional conflicts and carbon neutrality provide crucial information for us to take a deep dive into the ROADM WSS Component market.

The major players in the global ROADM WSS Component Market are summarized in a report to understand their role in the market and future strategies. Numerous marketing channels and strategies are likely to thrive during the forecast period and were also identified in reports that help readers develop a winning approach.

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What segments are covered in ROADM WSS Component Market report?

ROADM WSS Component Market is segmented on the basis of type, end-use industry and application. The growth amongst the different segments helps you in attaining the knowledge related to the different growth factors expected to be prevalent throughout the market and formulate different strategies to help identify core application areas and the difference in your target markets.

On the basis of Product Type, ROADM WSS Component Market is segmented into:
● Blocker-Based
● PLC-Based
● Wavelength Selective Switches (WSS)
● Edge

The report studies end-user applications in various product segments and the global ROADM WSS Component Market. By collecting important data from relevant sources, the report assesses the growth of individual market segments. In addition, the market size and growth rate of each segment is explained in the report. The report considers key geographic segments and describes all the favourable conditions driving market growth.

On the basis of the End Users / Applications, ROADM WSS Component Market is segmented into:
● Fiber-Optic Networks
● Communication
● Industrial
● Others

The country section of the report also includes individual market influences affecting current and future market trends and changes in market regulation at the country level.

Get a sample Copy of the ROADM WSS Component Market Report 2022

On the basis of the Geography, ROADM WSS Component Market is segmented into:
- North America [US, Canada, Mexico]
- Europe [Germany, UK, France, Russia, Italy, Rest of Europe]
- Asia-Pacific [China, India, Japan, South Korea, Southeast Asia, Australia, Rest of Asia Pacific]
- South America [Brazil, Argentina, Rest of South America]
- Middle East and Africa [GCC, North Africa, South Africa, Rest of Middle East and Africa]

Through a comparative examination of the past and present scenarios, the ROADM WSS Component research offers a complete blueprint of the industry scenario across the assessment timeframe; assisting stakeholders in establishing action plans that guarantee maximum growth while managing market risks. Furthermore, the study document provides a complete review of the major industry segments to discover the best investment opportunities. It also examines all of the major market participants in terms of their financials, growth plans, and product and service offerings to provide a comprehensive picture of the competitive environment.

ROADM WSS Component Market - Impact of Covid-19 and Recovery Analysis:

We have been tracking the direct impact of COVID-19 on this market, as well as the indirect impact from other industries. This report analyses the impact of the pandemic on the ROADM WSS Component market from a Global and Regional perspective. The report outlines the market size, market characteristics, and market growth for ROADM WSS Component industry, categorized by type, application, and consumer sector. In addition, it provides a comprehensive analysis of aspects involved in market development before and after the Covid-19 pandemic. Report also conducted a PESTEL analysis in the industry to study key influencers and barriers to entry.

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ROADM WSS Component Market Drivers and Restrains:

The ROADM WSS Component industry research report provides an analysis of the various factors driving the markets growth. It creates trends, constraints and impulses that change the market in a positive or negative direction. This section also discusses the various segments and applications that could affect the future ROADM WSS Component market. Details are based on current trends and past achievements. The report includes a comprehensive boundary condition assessment that compares drivers and provides strategic planning. The factors that impede market growth are fundamental because they create different curves to seize opportunities in emerging markets. We also gather information from the opinions of market experts to better understand the market.

Years considered for this report:
- Historical Years:2017-2021
- Base Year:2021
- Estimated Year:2022
- Forecast Period:2022-2026

What the Report has to Offer?
- Market Size Estimates:The report offers accurate and reliable estimation of the market size in terms of value and volume. Aspects such as production, distribution and supply chain, and revenue for the ROADM WSS Component market are also highlighted in the report
- Analysis on Market Trends:In this part, upcoming market trends and development have been scrutinized
- Growth Opportunities:The report here provides clients with the detailed information on the lucrative opportunities in the ROADM WSS Component market
- Regional Analysis:In this section, the clients will find comprehensive analysis of the potential regions and countries in the ROADM WSS Component market
- Analysis on the Key Market Segments:The report focuses on the segments: end user, application, and product type and the key factors fuelling their growth.
- Vendor Landscape:Competitive landscape provided in the report will help the companies to become better equipped to be able to make effective business decisions.

Reasons to buy this report:
- To gain insightful analyses of the market and have comprehensive understanding of the global market and its commercial landscape.
- Assess the production processes, major issues, and solutions to mitigate the development risk.
- To understand the most affecting driving and restraining forces in the market and its impact in the global market.
- Learn about the market strategies that are being adopted by leading respective organizations.
- To understand the future outlook and prospects for the market.
- Besides the standard structure reports, we also provide custom research according to specific requirements.

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ROADM WSS Component Market - Table of Content (TOC):

1 ROADM WSS Component Market Overview
1.1 Product Overview and Scope of ROADM WSS Component Market
1.2 ROADM WSS Component Market Segment by Type
1.2.1 Global ROADM WSS Component Market Sales and CAGR Comparison by Type (2017-2026)
1.3 Global ROADM WSS Component Market Segment by Application
1.3.1 ROADM WSS Component Market Consumption (Sales) Comparison by Application (2017-2026)
1.4 Global ROADM WSS Component Market, Region Wise (2017-2026)
1.4.1 Global ROADM WSS Component Market Size (Revenue) and CAGR Comparison by Region (2017-2026)
1.4.2 United States ROADM WSS Component Market Status and Prospect (2017-2026)
1.4.3 Europe ROADM WSS Component Market Status and Prospect (2017-2026)
1.4.4 China ROADM WSS Component Market Status and Prospect (2017-2026)
1.4.5 Japan ROADM WSS Component Market Status and Prospect (2017-2026)
1.4.6 India ROADM WSS Component Market Status and Prospect (2017-2026)
1.4.7 Southeast Asia ROADM WSS Component Market Status and Prospect (2017-2026)
1.4.8 Latin America ROADM WSS Component Market Status and Prospect (2017-2026)
1.4.9 Middle East and Africa ROADM WSS Component Market Status and Prospect (2017-2026)
1.5 Global Market Size (Revenue) of ROADM WSS Component (2017-2026)
1.5.1 Global ROADM WSS Component Market Revenue Status and Outlook (2017-2026)
1.5.2 Global ROADM WSS Component Market Sales Status and Outlook (2017-2026)
1.6 Influence of Regional Conflicts on the ROADM WSS Component Industry
1.7 Impact of Carbon Neutrality on the ROADM WSS Component Industry

2 ROADM WSS Component Market Upstream and Downstream Analysis
2.1 ROADM WSS Component Industrial Chain Analysis
2.2 Key Raw Materials Suppliers and Price Analysis
2.3 Key Raw Materials Supply and Demand Analysis
2.4 Market Concentration Rate of Raw Materials
2.5 Manufacturing Process Analysis
2.6 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis
2.7 Major Downstream Buyers of ROADM WSS Component Analysis
2.8 Impact of COVID-19 on the Industry Upstream and Downstream

3 Players Profiles

4 Global ROADM WSS Component Market Landscape by Player
4.1 Global ROADM WSS Component Sales and Share by Player (2017-2022)
4.2 Global ROADM WSS Component Revenue and Market Share by Player (2017-2022)
4.3 Global ROADM WSS Component Average Price by Player (2017-2022)
4.4 Global ROADM WSS Component Gross Margin by Player (2017-2022)
4.5 ROADM WSS Component Market Competitive Situation and Trends
4.5.1 ROADM WSS Component Market Concentration Rate
4.5.2 ROADM WSS Component Market Share of Top 3 and Top 6 Players
4.5.3 Mergers and Acquisitions, Expansion

5 Global ROADM WSS Component Sales, Revenue, Price Trend by Type
5.1 Global ROADM WSS Component Sales and Market Share by Type (2017-2022)
5.2 Global ROADM WSS Component Revenue and Market Share by Type (2017-2022)
5.3 Global ROADM WSS Component Price by Type (2017-2022)
5.4 Global ROADM WSS Component Sales, Revenue and Growth Rate by Type (2017-2022)

6 Global ROADM WSS Component Market Analysis by Application
6.1 Global ROADM WSS Component Consumption and Market Share by Application (2017-2022)
6.2 Global ROADM WSS Component Consumption Revenue and Market Share by Application (2017-2022)
6.3 Global ROADM WSS Component Consumption and Growth Rate by Application (2017-2022)

7 Global ROADM WSS Component Sales and Revenue Region Wise (2017-2022)
7.1 Global ROADM WSS Component Sales and Market Share, Region Wise (2017-2022)
7.2 Global ROADM WSS Component Revenue and Market Share, Region Wise (2017-2022)
7.3 Global ROADM WSS Component Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.4 United States ROADM WSS Component Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.4.1 United States ROADM WSS Component Market Under COVID-19
7.5 Europe ROADM WSS Component Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.5.1 Europe ROADM WSS Component Market Under COVID-19
7.6 China ROADM WSS Component Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.6.1 China ROADM WSS Component Market Under COVID-19
7.7 Japan ROADM WSS Component Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.7.1 Japan ROADM WSS Component Market Under COVID-19
7.8 India ROADM WSS Component Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.8.1 India ROADM WSS Component Market Under COVID-19
7.9 Southeast Asia ROADM WSS Component Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.9.1 Southeast Asia ROADM WSS Component Market Under COVID-19
7.10 Latin America ROADM WSS Component Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.10.1 Latin America ROADM WSS Component Market Under COVID-19
7.11 Middle East and Africa ROADM WSS Component Sales, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)
7.11.1 Middle East and Africa ROADM WSS Component Market Under COVID-19

8 Global ROADM WSS Component Market Forecast (2022-2026)
8.1 Global ROADM WSS Component Sales, Revenue Forecast (2022-2026)
8.1.1 Global ROADM WSS Component Sales and Growth Rate Forecast (2022-2026)
8.1.2 Global ROADM WSS Component Revenue and Growth Rate Forecast (2022-2026)
8.1.3 Global ROADM WSS Component Price and Trend Forecast (2022-2026)
8.2 Global ROADM WSS Component Sales and Revenue Forecast, Region Wise (2022-2026)
8.3 Global ROADM WSS Component Sales, Revenue and Price Forecast by Type (2022-2026)
8.4 Global ROADM WSS Component Consumption Forecast by Application (2022-2026)
8.5 ROADM WSS Component Market Forecast Under COVID-19

9 Industry Outlook
9.1 ROADM WSS Component Market Drivers Analysis
9.2 ROADM WSS Component Market Restraints and Challenges
9.3 ROADM WSS Component Market Opportunities Analysis
9.4 Emerging Market Trends
9.5 ROADM WSS Component Industry Technology Status and Trends
9.6 News of Product Release
9.7 Consumer Preference Analysis
9.8 ROADM WSS Component Industry Development Trends under COVID-19 Outbreak
9.8.1 Global COVID-19 Status Overview
9.8.2 Influence of COVID-19 Outbreak on ROADM WSS Component Industry Development

10 Research Findings and Conclusion

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ROADM WSS Component Market - Research Methodology:

The key research methodology is data triangulation which involves data processing, analysis of the impact of knowledge variables on the market, and first (industry expert) validation. Data collection and base year analysis is completed using data collection modules with large sample sizes. The market data is analyzed and forecasted using market statistical and coherent models. Also market share analysis and key analysis are the main success factors within the market report.

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Killexams : 4G Equipment Market Size 2022, Market Share, Industry Analysis By Future Demand, Top Key-Players, Opportunities, Revenue and Growth Rate Through 2025

4G Equipment Market Business Growth 2022-2025 Global Industry Research report covers a detailed study of the 4G Equipment Market size, growth, and share, trends, consumption, segments, application and Forecast 2025. 4G Equipment Market Report will add the analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on this industry.

Global “4G Equipment Market” (2022-2025) Industry Research Report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Global 4G Equipment industry. Moreover, research report categorizes the global 4G Equipment market by top players/brands, region, type and end user. This report also studies the global 4G Equipment market status, competition landscape, market share, growth rate, future trends, market drivers, opportunities and challenges, sales channels and distributors. Regionally, this report categorizes the production, apparent consumption, export and import of 4G Equipment in North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia and India.

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The global 4G Equipment market is anticipated to rise at a considerable rate during the forecast period, between 2021 and 2025. In 2022, the market was growing at a steady rate and with the rising adoption of strategies by key players, the market is expected to rise over the projected horizon.

The report also tracks the latest market dynamics, such as driving factors, restraining factors, and industry news like mergers, acquisitions, and investments. Global 4G Equipment Market Size (value and volume), market share, growth rate by types, applications, and combines both qualitative and quantitative methods to make micro and macro forecasts in different regions or countries.

“Final Report will add the analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on this industry.”

  • In Chapter 3.4 of the report, the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on the industry was fully assessed. Fully risk assessment and industry recommendations were made for 4G Equipment in a special period. This chapter also compares the markets of Pre COVID-19 and Post COVID-19.
  • In addition, chapters 8-12 consider the impact of COVID-19 on the regional economy.

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List Of TOP KEY PLAYERS in 4G Equipment Market Report Covered in Chapter 13 –

  • Airspan Networks
  • NEC
  • Redline Communications
  • Cisco
  • Datan Mobile Communications
  • Huawei
  • Fujitsu
  • Nokia Siemens Networks
  • Nortel Networks
  • HP
  • Alvarion
  • Samsung
  • ZTE
  • Genband

The report also focuses on global major leading industry players of Global 4G Equipment Market Share providing information such as company profiles, product picture and specification, capacity, production, price, cost, revenue and contact information. Upstream raw materials and equipment and downstream demand analysis is also carried out. With tables and figures helping analyse worldwide Global 4G Equipment Market Forecast this research provides key statistics on the state of the industry and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the market.

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The Global 4G Equipment Market Trends,development and marketing channels are analysed. Finally, the feasibility of new investment projects is assessed and overall research conclusions offered.

In Chapter 6, on the basis of types, the 4G Equipment Market from 2015 to 2025 is primarily split into:

In Chapter 7, on the basis of applications, the 4G Equipment Market from 2015 to 2025 covers:

  • Virtual Presence
  • Crisis Management
  • Virtual Navigation
  • Multi-media and Video
  • Logistics
  • E-Commerce
  • Tele Medicine and Geo Processing

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Some of the key questions answered in this report:

  • What will the 4G Equipment market growth rate, growth momentum or acceleration market carries during the forecast period?
  • Which are the key factors driving the 4G Equipment market?
  • What was the size of the emerging 4G Equipment market by value in latest years?
  • What will be the size of the emerging 4G Equipment market in 2025?
  • Which region is expected to hold the highest market share in the 4G Equipment market?
  • What trends, challenges and barriers will impact the development and sizing of the Global 4G Equipment market?
  • What are sales volume, revenue, and price analysis of top manufacturers of 4G Equipment market?
  • What are the 4G Equipment market opportunities and threats faced by the vendors in the global 4G Equipment Industry?

Major regions covered in the report:

  • North America
  • Europe
  • Asia-Pacific
  • Latin America
  • Middle East Africa

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Major Points from Table of Contents:

1 4G Equipment Market – Research Scope
1.1 Study Goals
1.2 Market Definition and Scope
1.3 Key Market Segments
1.4 Study and Forecasting Years

2 4G Equipment Market – Research Methodology
2.1 Methodology
2.2 Research Data Source
2.2.1 Secondary Data
2.2.2 Primary Data
2.2.3 Market Size Estimation
2.2.4 Legal Disclaimer

3 4G Equipment Market Forces
3.1 Global 4G Equipment Market Size
3.2 Top Impacting Factors (PESTEL Analysis)
3.2.1 Political Factors
3.2.2 Economic Factors
3.2.3 Social Factors
3.2.4 Technological Factors
3.2.5 Environmental Factors
3.2.6 Legal Factors
3.3 Industry Trend Analysis
3.4 Industry Trends Under COVID-19
3.4.1 Risk Assessment on COVID-19
3.4.2 Assessment of the Overall Impact of COVID-19 on the Industry
3.4.3 Pre COVID-19 and Post COVID-19 Market Scenario
3.5 Industry Risk Assessment

4 4G Equipment Market – By Geography
4.1 Global 4G Equipment Market Value and Market Share by Regions
4.1.1 Global 4G Equipment Value ($) by Region (2015-2020)
4.1.2 Global 4G Equipment Value Market Share by Regions (2015-2020)
4.2 Global 4G Equipment Market Production and Market Share by Major Countries
4.2.1 Global 4G Equipment Production by Major Countries (2015-2020)
4.2.2 Global 4G Equipment Production Market Share by Major Countries (2015-2020)
4.3 Global 4G Equipment Market Consumption and Market Share by Regions
4.3.1 Global 4G Equipment Consumption by Regions (2015-2020)
4.3.2 Global 4G Equipment Consumption Market Share by Regions (2015-2020)

5 4G Equipment Market – By Trade Statistics
5.1 Global 4G Equipment Export and Import
5.2 United States 4G Equipment Export and Import (2015-2020)
5.3 Europe 4G Equipment Export and Import (2015-2020)
5.4 China 4G Equipment Export and Import (2015-2020)
5.5 Japan 4G Equipment Export and Import (2015-2020)
5.6 India 4G Equipment Export and Import (2015-2020)
5.7 …

6 4G Equipment Market – By Type
6.1 Global 4G Equipment Production and Market Share by Types (2015-2020)
6.1.1 Global 4G Equipment Production by Types (2015-2020)
6.1.2 Global 4G Equipment Production Market Share by Types (2015-2020)
6.2 Global 4G Equipment Value and Market Share by Types (2015-2020)
6.2.1 Global 4G Equipment Value by Types (2015-2020)
6.2.2 Global 4G Equipment Value Market Share by Types (2015-2020)
6.3 Global 4G Equipment Production, Price and Growth Rate of TD-LTE (2015-2020)
6.4 Global 4G Equipment Production, Price and Growth Rate of FDD-LTE (2015-2020)

7 4G Equipment Market – By Application
7.1 Global 4G Equipment Consumption and Market Share by Applications (2015-2020)
7.1.1 Global 4G Equipment Consumption by Applications (2015-2020)
7.1.2 Global 4G Equipment Consumption Market Share by Applications (2015-2020)
7.2 Global 4G Equipment Consumption and Growth Rate of Virtual Presence (2015-2020)
7.3 Global 4G Equipment Consumption and Growth Rate of Crisis Management (2015-2020)
7.4 Global 4G Equipment Consumption and Growth Rate of Virtual Navigation (2015-2020)
7.5 Global 4G Equipment Consumption and Growth Rate of Multi-media and Video (2015-2020)
7.6 Global 4G Equipment Consumption and Growth Rate of Logistics (2015-2020)
7.7 Global 4G Equipment Consumption and Growth Rate of E-Commerce (2015-2020)
7.8 Global 4G Equipment Consumption and Growth Rate of Tele Medicine and Geo Processing (2015-2020)

8 North America 4G Equipment Market
8.1 North America 4G Equipment Market Size
8.2 United States 4G Equipment Market Size
8.3 Canada 4G Equipment Market Size
8.4 Mexico 4G Equipment Market Size
8.5 The Influence of COVID-19 on North America Market

…………Continued

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