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Exam Code: 920-328 Practice test 2022 by Killexams.com team
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Killexams : Nortel Engineering study help - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/920-328 Search results Killexams : Nortel Engineering study help - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/920-328 https://killexams.com/exam_list/Nortel Killexams : “Inquisitiveness To Explore Makes A Big Difference…”

There are many who aspire to hold prestigious positions at big corporate houses, but very few are willing to work hard enough for it. Such positions can be achieved by only those who love what they do. Dr Aloknath De is one of them. He calls himself a ‘missionpreneur.’ He refuses to box himself and loves to think out of the box. He does not become comfortable in a setting as he likes to do things outside his comfort zone. He has been Samsung India’s first CTO besides many more achievements to his credit. This is Dr Aloknath De’s story, as told to EFY’s Siddha Dhar.


Born in the spiritual town of Nabadwip Dham in West Bengal, Aloknath had the influence of holy men on him from a very young age. Even though his family migrated to Kolkata soon after he turned a year old, Aloknath credits his birthplace for teaching him the lessons of renunciation, finding fulfillment in life, and cherishing it.

Aloknath’s father picked up his LLB degree out of passion while working as a gazetted officer at the Food Corporation of India. Under his tutelage, Aloknath was home-schooled till the age of six. A rigorous man, it was he who built the strong foundation of science and mathematics for Aloknath.

Aloknath recalls, “He was a very disciplined person, and he influenced my love for science. So, taking up science after 10th standard was a very natural choice.” Aloknath went to a proper school only when he was in the 2nd standard. While home-schooling provided him with the basic skills, he gained ‘interactive intelligence’ only after he went to school.

Aloknath says, “I realised that natural intelligence, or the ability to react in a situation, comes only when you interact and talk with more and more people. The more you converse, the more you grow.”

Aloknath’s mother, a homemaker, has always been soft-natured. She is an epitome of love and affection. This fusion of hard and soft behaviour of parents is what Aloknath tries to maintain in his own life as well, even today. In fact, his leadership mantra is: “Be Hard on Goal, Be Soft on Soul.”

Diligent from childhood, it was quite natural for Aloknath to be a topper in his school. But by the time he was in 6th standard, a sense of restlessness loomed over him. “It gave me a feeling of accomplishment in the beginning, but then it made me feel as if I was not being challenged enough.” This notion of not ever getting too comfortable in something was a lesson that has driven Aloknath all through his life.

Thought Leadership presentation by Dr Aloknath De
Thought Leadership presentation by Dr Aloknath De

On the lookout for more competition to raise his accomplishment bar, Aloknath decided to appear for a Central government merit scholarship programme, which allowed him to study in a residential school of his choice. And he got admission in Ramakrishna Mission (RKM) Residential School in Purulia—a district 250km away from Kolkata.

Though he had the option to choose a school in Kolkata and stay near his family, Aloknath decided not to base his choice on emotions, and rather grab the opportunity to live and operate independently. The pangs of separation from his parents and siblings struck him in the initial phase. But Aloknath knew that he was accountable for the decision that he had taken and that he had to stick to it—a lesson that he would recall again, years later.

A Few Lessons from Dr Aloknath De’s Story

  • ABC of Achievement—Align (your thoughts), Beam (your energy), Collaborate (your ecosystem)
  • Infuse lateral thinking, when needed, before making decisions rationally
  • Keep your mind open to learning new things; continuous learning is of essence
  • Get out of your comfort zone; perturb a bit when too comfortable. Bring stability from comfort zone and growth from outside the comfort zone
  • Building zero-to-one has different challenge than scaling one-to-infinity
  • What is interesting about life is that sometimes taking an apparent step back can help you leap forward by ten steps
  • Your unique way of doing and supporting will always be valued by the community

Although his father was a strong influence in his life, it was his monk headmaster at RKM whom Aloknath regards as his role model. “He was a man of such purity. He had mastery over multiple languages. Once I was writing an essay about the river Ganges. I showed him the first draft and he helped me make it better—his knowledge was profound. I would say it was the best piece in Bengali that I have ever written.”

It is not surprising that science and math were his favourite subjects. But Aloknath was not excellent in academics alone, he also took active part in school debates, elocutions, recitation competitions, and so on. He even appeared on numerous TV debate shows broadcast by Doordarshan.

A rational thinker since childhood, Aloknath quickly figured out that his heart lay in engineering. When he was in the 11th standard, he decided to share this with his father, who was then disappointed with his decision. “My father wanted to be a doctor, but it was not possible due to financial constraints. He was hoping that I would become a physician, but I chose engineering. I remember it was a long-drawn evening discussion with my father and uncle. They tried very hard to change my mind.”

Aloknath did not budge from his goal and readied himself to prepare for the next chapter in his life.

IIT and finding his calling

A large chunk of Aloknath’s future plans began taking shape in his undergraduate years that he spent at IIT Kharagpur. While studying Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE), he remained a high-achiever here too. Having done his secondary education in a Bengali-medium school, the fluency with which some students at IIT spoke English alarmed him. But he did not let it intimidate him. He remained headstrong and mastered the language pretty soon.

At an institute of IIT’s stature—where the brightest minds of the country came to make their dreams come true—Aloknath found there were many who were just as meritorious as him. But he took it as a blessing in disguise, as he was always looking for a more competitive space where his limits could be tested, and his mind could expand.

Aloknath says, “It’s important to accept that some people are better than you at something and it’s absolutely okay to be not as good as them. But what is important is to bring yourself to a minimum threshold level on attributes that matter in life and excel in a few dimensions.”

As his world-view expanded and he met more people, Aloknath found his calling—telecommunications—at IIT Kharagpur a fascinating field indeed! “I saw the power of communications and how it helped people stay connected remotely. I saw how it could compete with transportation and thought it was revolutionary.”

The realisation didn’t occur overnight, though. He spent months and months practicing books and magazines, listening to radio, and talking to people to soak in as much information as possible and then come to this conclusion. “Inquisitiveness to explore makes a big difference. When you keep your queries alive, one fine morning you’ll come across some information that makes you pause. And you take a moment to think about it and ask further questions. It is in this process of asking and answering these questions that you realise what you are drawn to.”

A three-step process Aloknath likes to follow for his goal is ABC of Achievement: Align (your thoughts), Beam (your energy), and Collaborate (your ecosystem). As he began the seeding for his future roles, he realised how telecommunication systems could be built with hardware and then-new software elements. He also started appreciating how engineering deployment could complement technological innovations.

Dream job and memories at IISc

The unpredictability of life is enthralling. It makes you do things you never intended to, and gives you results you never expected. Although Aloknath had planned to pursue his master’s degree after IIT and even got admission to a US university, a financial crisis forced him to start working right after his graduation in 1985. Yet, he did not let this setback derail him from his plans.

Thankfully for Aloknath, he found his way to Bharat Electronics Ltd (BEL). In an era when MNCs did not rule the subcontinent, PSUs were the dream job of many, and Aloknath was no different.

But, while joining BEL, he knew what his ultimate goal was—to learn telecommunication systems as much as he could.

At BEL, he was part of a team that built a low-flying target detection radar, which was the first indigenously built radar system: INDRA 1. Till date, INDRA series of radars are deployed on the borders of India.

His role in BEL, Sahibabad needed him to travel a lot to the headquarters in Bangalore (now Bengaluru). He made it a rule to take a different route during each of his trips. This was his way of having fun and exploring the country while working. As he travelled the length and breadth of India, Aloknath’s mantra to always go out of his comfort zone found more strength. “Even today, whenever I see that I’m getting too comfortable, I try to find new things to do that make me uncomfortable for a while.”

But going out of your comfort zone can be scary besides being uncomfortable. How did he tackle that? He says, “The trick is to keep yourself anchored 50% in comfort and unsettle the rest. Going completely out of your comfort zone makes it probably very risky. Bring stability from the comfort zone, and growth from outside the comfort zone.”

Dr Aloknath De with former IT Minister of Karnataka at Innovate Karnataka Launch
Dr Aloknath De with former IT Minister of Karnataka at Innovate Karnataka Launch

After a two-year stint at BEL, Aloknath went on to pursue his master’s degree from another premier institute of India—IISc Bangalore. A fond memory of IISc that he holds close to his heart, beyond studies, is how he would save some money from his scholarship grant to buy cassettes of classical music. An avid lover of classical music since a young age, Aloknath had even tried learning the stringed musical instrument sitar. Although he could not sing well, his affinity for classical music drove him to find solace in it, irrespective of his prevailing mood.

At IISc, Aloknath further broadened his knowledge about telecommunications and realised how every aspect uniquely complemented each other. It was this fascination that took him from India to Canada, where he pursued his PhD and also started another phase of his life.

Flight to Canada and international exposure

Like many middle-class Indians at that time, Aloknath’s flight to Canada was the first one he had ever taken in his life. While he was working hard to revolutionise telecommunications, calling from a foreign country was a luxury that he could not afford then. And that would also make his parents anxious at times.

“When I first landed there, I sent them a telegram but it took ten days to reach. In the meantime, my father would go to the Air India office every now and then to enquire if my flight had landed. The people there assured him that many flights had gone and come back since my flight, so I was probably already well-settled in Canada,” he laughs.

Aloknath did his PhD in ‘communication with signal processing’ from McGill University on a full scholarship. After ‘communication with control’ in IIT and ‘communication with computing’ in IISc, he wanted to fathom this combination as well. Aloknath knew that it would eventually bring him to a more holistic view of telecommunications.

Surviving in Canada was no easy feat. Aloknath had to adjust to the limited food choices and the cold climate. However, he liked the cosmopolitan culture of Montreal and saw himself living there for a long time, and hence took up learning French language.

Aloknath’s PhD thesis was supported by Canadian Institute for Telecommunication Research; he also bagged the Alexander Graham Bell prize in Canada for his doctoral research. His PhD mentor was a wonderful man who made the whole learning process at McGill very enjoyable for Aloknath. “He was an immigrant himself; so he knew what challenges I was facing and he helped me navigate through them.”

It was through this mentor that Aloknath got his first break in Canada. He bagged an opportunity to work in Nortel Networks, which was then called Bell Northern Research. His first assignment had ample scope for innovation. He just needed to find the meaningful business gap. This, he credits to being curious and looking for means to go above and beyond to find a pain point he ought to fix.

But as he kept getting better at making these discoveries, he missed the excitement of implementing them and seeing them in their realised form. He knew it was time to get out of his comfort zone and soak deeply into practical implementations and field issues to grow in industry. “I told my manager that I wanted to do the dirtiest work. The most mundane things that nobody wanted to do.”

In the summer of 1999, Aloknath made a decision that would change the trajectory of his life—leaving Canada after a decade and coming back to India. “It was one of the toughest decisions I had to make in my life,” Aloknath remarks. He was eligible for a Canadian PR. His son was three years old and had access to better education there; and he himself had a thriving career.

In his true spirit to think through and make a call, Aloknath mulled over the situation for an entire year. He thought rationally yet infused elements of lateral thinking before taking decision. After all, he couldn’t look back and regret his decision. “I decided to come back to India. Although it seems unbelievable now, I did envision something along the lines of how India would look like in 2020, and wanted to see if I could be part of that vision coming true.”

His reasoning to come back was based on two things. First, he had built a broad international perspective that expanded his mind and made him understand what makes a country developed. Second, he understood deeply what was needed to be a subject matter expert on communication with controls, computing, and signal processing elements, and build global innovative products.

He recalls, “With all that knowledge in my bag, I felt complete and thought it was the right time to come back. Many around me felt that I was taking a step backwards. But what is interesting about life is that sometimes taking an apparent step back can help you leap forward by ten steps.”

Return to India and re-building from zero

Back in India, Aloknath had uprooted his life in Canada by taking the risk of applying to only two companies. Fortunately, he received offers from both the companies. “The same postman brought the two offer letters on the same day. I found the phrase so true: God helps those who help themselves. The power of hope and ambition beats everything,” he remembers.

He went with one of these companies—Hughes Software Systems in Gurgaon. His interview with the Director of Hughes India had happened while he was still in Canada. Incidentally, the Director had made it a point to highlight how different his life would be once Aloknath was back in India.

In such a case, one might take a moment to reconsider the decision. But Aloknath knew exactly what he wanted. “I told the executive that I am cognizant of all of that, and I was making the decision while being fully aware. I am ready to face challenges as they come.”

This director who also became his manager and is now a good friend, was a source of inspiration for Aloknath as he made his switch so seamless; he never felt like he had left home. At Hughes too, Aloknath’s vision for joining a company did not alter—he wanted to do something that nobody else was doing or was willing to do.

He recalls, “During that time, digital signal processing in the base layer was effectively not there in Hughes communication stack. Many prospective clients said that they could have a service agreement with Hughes if that solution could be included in service delivery. That was truly a defining statement for me.”

He was entrusted with building a team for the same. Here came a moment to take something from zero to one, an opportunity of intrapreneurship. “Taking something from level one and scaling it to infinity is relatively easy because you have done it once. Building something from zero to one is the real challenge.”

Aloknath had to build a team of twenty people with strong DSP expertise and also start securing the DSP business beyond Hughes. It gave him joy that, due to this twenty-member team, Hughes could garner indirectly about eighty other people in higher-level stack areas. And this continued scaling up.

After a four-year stint at Hughes, he had a new itch. Even though the chip was never his core, he realised that semiconductors and VLSI design were a part of telecommunications and had a tremendous potential. So, he decided to join STMicroelectronics, which was looking to start telecom business ab initio in 2003. He joined them as the head of this division.

In 2008, when a joint venture between STMicroelectronics and Ericsson was signed, Aloknath was appointed as the MD of the group in India. He was handling the teams of both Noida and Bengaluru. He built an enviable team by internal transfer, external hiring as well as company acquisitions. By the time he left, he had 1000 team members.

Dr Aloknath De practising for fitness
Dr Aloknath De practising for fitness

To understand the full stack better, he became a ‘student’ of chip design. Even though he was the MD, he would often join the freshers during their training sessions to learn more about frontend and backend chip design, the processes and nuances. “In order to make decisions as an MD and interact as a global leader, I needed to know the subject to a great extent. I thought it was an integral part of decision making and I had to learn it to do my job well.”

After eight good years at ST-Ericsson, a world giant was waiting for Aloknath to knock on their door.

Samsung and a missed opportunity

Aloknath had the good taste of administrative life for a long time at
ST-Ericsson where he was also a Board Director of the company, and he now craved for a more technical role. He wanted to lead with technology. But before that, he wanted to pause and take time to contemplate—much like he used to do in his childhood days.

He took a sabbatical of about six months and decided to experiment with a few things during the period. He taught at IIT Delhi as an Adjunct Professor, served as a consultant to Accenture, and mentored a location-technology based startup during this phase. While mentoring the startup, he got down to interacting with the ground-level customers to understand things from their perspective. “If you can take a month or even a few days to interact with the people on the ground, there is no better learning than this. I would not trade this for anything else.”

But as they say, you cannot hide exceptional talent anywhere. This time, Aloknath’s talent was found by South Korean electronics giant Samsung. Although the folks at Samsung wanted Aloknath to come over to Korea and work with them from their headquarters, Aloknath’s priority was now sorted out; he could not leave his family in India and the family was not in a position to relocate at that juncture.

So, Aloknath was almost ready to decline the offer but his destiny, however, had other plans. The very next day after this interview, he received a call from Samsung HQ. “They were willing to interview me again to create a position especially for me if I only wanted to work in India.”

This is how Aloknath became the first CTO of the Indian unit of the conglomerate with his base in Bangalore. His mantra, again, was simple—he didn’t want to work on something that was going well. He wanted something that was aspirational, but they couldn’t seem to make it work.

At Samsung, he had to create an innovation layer onto the flagship products by building new intellectual properties (IPs) without jeopardising base engineering deliveries. In the first fifteen years of Samsung’s journey in India, it had about 2000 patents, which increased to 7500+ patents under his leadership by their silver jubilee celebrations time.

He became the Corporate VP for Samsung Electronics, Korea and contributed to the internet of things (IoT) on SmartThings platform. Despite these accomplishments, he felt like something was missing. The earlier-missed opportunity to join the team in Korea kept gnawing at him. He asked them if he could join them in HQ and the team in Korea happily agreed. He got an IoT lab to work in Korea where he spent 7-8 days every month for thirty months or so. This made him a very effective global leader.

The data platform that Aloknath built in Korea is now connecting 200 million home appliances and mobility devices globally. With his global role and expertise in AI and Blockchain, he has built an impactful AIoT Centre-of-Excellence in India. Now, with this background and experience behind him, he has set a personal mission of researching and nurturing activities around Cyber-Physical Systems.

Some Unknown Facts about Dr Aloknath De

  • Favourite cuisine: Hyderabadi Biryani
  • Favourite book(s):Isaac Asimov (Robot Dreams, Fantastic Voyage)
  • Favourite leader: Swami Vivekananda
  • Favourite film:Three Idiots
  • Favourite actor: Nasiruddin Shah
  • Favourite actress: Smita Patil
  • Favourite sports: Volleyball
  • Favourite music genre: Classical
  • Car and bike: Black Car

Finding love, fitness goals, and his mission

While the accomplishments of Aloknath are innumerable, his story of finding his love is like a romantic film. Aloknath and his wife knew each other since long, but never knew that they would be cojoined by destiny in an everlasting bond.

They got married towards the end of Aloknath’s PhD, that is, six months before he would graduate. His wife had to stay back in Kolkata for some time. “She had to go to a neighbour’s place to call me and had to request them to go out,” he laughs. She soon joined him in Canada, where she also pursued a postgraduate degree at Concordia University.

Upon returning to India, she has been working as a Math teacher. She is a big fitness junkie.

“She is also my personal trainer. I was never into fitness that much, but since the pandemic, I started taking care of my physique. And would it not be a waste if I didn’t utilise my opportunity despite having a trainer at home!” he says with a smile.

The couple has a son who was born in Canada, studied in India, and went on to pursue Economics and Physics at the University of Chicago. After his stint at an investment bank, he currently works with a global new-gen ride-sharing company.

Aloknath’s love for music is still intact, thanks to his mother who continues to practice music till date. She is the inspiration behind his love for classical music.

In December 2021, Aloknath took superannuation from Samsung formally. However, he is still associated with them as an Executive Consulting Director and wishes to continue as long as it makes sense for both. He calls it his Corporate Home.

Aloknath has increased his efforts to mentor deep-tech startups and has also become an angel investor. He is now an Adjunct Professor with IISc (ECE) and IIT Jodhpur (CS). Aloknath also has a venture of his own in the works.

Talking of his future plans, Aloknath says, “During India’s 75th Independence Day celebration, it is solemn for me to rededicate to the service of the nation. R&D serves as an impetus for business growth. If we can hone India’s talent for R&D and can excite business to spend greater on R&D and innovation, we can do wonders as a country.”

In fact, he revealed that the unveiling of his singular mission could happen soon; but he is in no hurry. Because if there’s anything he has learnt, it is to make ‘the rest of his life, the best of his life!’


Sun, 07 Aug 2022 23:34:00 -0500 en-GB text/html https://www.electronicsforu.com/special/my-story/inquisitiveness-explore-makes-big-difference
Killexams : Can Nanotechnology Help to Advance Architecture?

In a recently published review in the journal Materials Today, different avenues of nanotechnology in architecture, as well as the challenges in employing these techniques and the relevant opportunities, were explored.

Can Nanotechnology Help to Advance Architecture?

Study: Opportunities and challenges of using nanomaterials and nanotechnology in architecture: An overview. Image Credit: Franck Boston/Shutterstock.com

The architecture and production industry accounts for around half of the world's power consumption and a quarter of the planet's greenhouse gas emissions. Globally approved and extensively used construction practices have direct adverse effects on the environment, excessive resource depletion, antagonizing public health issues, and environmental degradation.

A Brief Review of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology

Any substance having a particle size of less than 100 nm in at least one dimension is considered a nanomaterial.

Nanotechnology, which involves manipulating matter at the atomic and molecular level to produce materials with remarkably varied and novel properties, is a quickly developing field of study with enormous potential in a wide range of industries, including construction, electronics, healthcare, and building materials. It has the potential to completely transform several fields of research, development, and industrial applications.

Beyond nanoscience, nanotechnology attempts to use the properties of innovative nanomaterials to enhance a wide range of applications.

Construction – An Industry in Need of Nanotechnology

The authors reviewed relevant papers to determine some of the most likely applications of nanotechnology in architecture, such as utilizing carbon nanotubes, nanoparticles, and nanofibers. Often, these nanomaterials are used to enhance the durability and quality of construction materials while lowering any associated pollution.

Incorporating hybrids such as carbon nanotubes and titanium dioxide as nanoparticles can effectively Excellerate the mechanical properties of many construction materials. Glass, concrete, and steel are just a few of the materials that may be improved with the help of nanotechnology.

Nanotechnology in Architectural Projects

Concrete is the most commonly used building material in the construction industry. As concrete is utilized in the structure of buildings, much interest is placed in refining its qualities. By incorporating substances like carbon nanotubes and nano-silica, physical properties of structures such as strength, conductive properties, and durability can be improved.

Nanotechnology can provide a clever remedy for concrete product corrosion by creating coatings that respond to external factors in a way that can either be corrected or avoided. accurate studies on the application of versatile materials, such as carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles, demonstrate that these elements increase the compressive strength and flexibility of cement mortar samples.

Virtues in Nanotechnological Architecture

The potential of nanostructures to repair damaged structural surfaces on their own is extremely advantageous to the construction sector. Nanosensors are used in constructions to aid in the prediction of current problems.

Microcapsules rupture releases a healing ingredient that gradually repairs the damaged concrete mix. The healing ingredient fills the fracture by capillary action. Consequent polymerization helps fill the cracks.

Applications in Energy Conservation

The ability to absorb carbon pollution into the environment has been developed using nanotechnology. Energy may be produced and stored using nanotechnology both in and out of these structures, making it possible to produce new power sources and enhance the amount of currently available energy.

Nanotechnology can also be used to create extremely thin layers with cleaning and color-changing capabilities to cut down on pollution and energy use.

Challenges and Implications of the Research

The biggest problem with using nanotechnology in architecture and building is how they are currently being developed and adapted owing to economic factors. With increased commercial use, exposure to these nanomaterials also increases, which could have negative consequences.

Further progress can be made in scientific endeavors by governments, research and development organizations, manufacturers, and other businesses by collaborating on several levels to implement the new nanotechnological applications, especially in architecture.

Reference

Kuda, A., & Yadav, M. (2022). Opportunities and challenges of using nanomaterials and nanotechnology in architecture: An overview. Materials Today. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2022.07.052

Disclaimer: The views expressed here are those of the author expressed in their private capacity and do not necessarily represent the views of AZoM.com Limited T/A AZoNetwork the owner and operator of this website. This disclaimer forms part of the Terms and conditions of use of this website.

Wed, 27 Jul 2022 00:49:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.azonano.com/news.aspx?newsID=39469
Killexams : Market Focus: Workhorse products

One of the product categories that can be considered to make up the industrial market is those infrastructure products that support the booming electronic and telecommunications industry. This year's SPI Structural Plastics Conference and Design Competition focused on some of these interesting applications.

An eye-catching example from the industrial telecommunications perspective was the award-winning Alcoa Fujikura splice box, molded and submitted by Mack Molding (see opposite page). The part represents a metal-replacement trend in this market that's been under way for several years and is now reaching critical mass.

Outdoors
Unless you've been in a coma for the last five years, you know that the digital revolution is well underway. Baby Bells, AT&T, MCI Worldcom, Sprint, British Telecom, and a host of other mega-companies are positioning themselves to build and cash in on new and improved telephone, cable, and mobile communications networks. These networks have an infrastructure being built by the likes of Lucent, Nortel, and Motorola.

Joel Fouquart, technical manager at GE Plastics, says the Alcoa/Mack splice box is the best example of the trend occurring in the outdoor infrastructure arena. The Alcoa box replaces a diecast aluminum predecessor that weighed 65 lb and was a beast to install. But with a switch to GE's Valox PBT and structural foam molding, Alcoa suddenly had a lighter, equally durable, less expensive box that could be produced in volumes. That, says Fouquart, is the key-producing in high volumes to accommodate the new and improved networks under construction.

Indoors
Indoors, Fouquart says the central office is the scene of the most changes. Not happy producing simple computer and electronics cabinets and housings, many manufacturers are looking to plastics and injection molding to create a more striking identity, similar to the job Silicon Graphics has done with its standout colors and contours. Fouquart says many OEMs struggle to determine the break-even point between plastic and metal.

The economic advantages of plastics increase with part complexity. Plastics allow designers to incorporate unique features that are often difficult to impossible to produce in sheet metal. GE and Fouquart conducted a study using a standard 6-ft cabinet panel with moderate contours and complexity, and compared the cost of producing it via structural foam vs. metal. The sheet metal, he says, has an initial tooling cost ranging from $10,000 to $90,000, where an injection mold ranges from $100,000 to $275,000.

However, downstream welding and shaping of the metal ballooned the per part cost to $550 for metal compared to $350 for plastic. Not only that, but the break-even volume for the plastic part is 1000 units annually.

For Example
The Best Paper winner at the Structural Plastics Conference was written and presented by Michael Caropreso, who, with Hewlett-Packard, devised a system for molding plastic panels to replace a large metal door on a peripheral computer rack system. The metal door H-P was looking to replace cost $40 to make and $150 to ship because of its size, and was often damaged in transit.

The series of smaller plastic panels would prove less expensive to make, and ship, and easier to use for service personnel who need to access cabinets. But what made the project particularly interesting was the rare combination of gas-assist molding and sequential gating.

The panels are 35 inches long and 16 inches wide, with a nominal wall thickness of .140 inch, unpainted and with no visible sink marks or weld lines allowed. Two gates were used in the mold, both fed by a hot manifold system with hydraulic valves.

To establish production parameters, the mold was filled through one gate in a series of short shots that were used to determine the ram position at which the flow front reached the second gate. This position was used to trigger the second valve, which finished filling the part. This overlap in flow fronts rendered weld lines invisible.

Gas filling begins after both gates close. A series of carefully guided gas bubbles help pack out different sections of the panel, provide strength, and eliminate sinks. The entire cycle runs in just over a minute, with no secondary operations. The molder produces the parts at facilities in California and Dublin, Ireland.

Metal-to-plastic conversion takes the weigh off

Replacing its eight-part diecast aluminum predecessor, this structural foam molded splice box weighs less than half as much and greatly reduced the total part count. The splice box, manufactured for Alcoa Fujikura Ltd. by Mack Molding (Arlington, VT), is mounted on utility poles and buildings and is used to house and protect spliced fiber optic connections.

"An excellent metal replacement application, this splice box previously weighed 65 lb," says Brian Sumpter, new business development director at Mack's southern division. "We've reduced that to 29 lb, which is a tremendous relief to field service personnel who are hoisting these units up telephone poles to install them." The 10-by-30-inch box consists of two primary parts: one is a drawer in which lines are spliced; the other is the enclosure into which the drawer slides (see photo). The drawer accommodates up to 360 fiber splices and up to six individual cables of various types and sizes. The gasketed drawer can be easily opened for periodic maintenance.

Called the Opti-Guard splice box, it's high-pressure structural foam molded of Valox PBT from GE Plastics at Mack Molding's Inman, SC facility. The material was chosen to meet requirements of UV exposure, ballistic resistance, impact resistance of 100 ft-lb or more at -40F, and temperature resistance ranging from -40F to 176F. Also, Alcoa's internal tieoff system resists more than 100 lb of tension per cable.

The part was an award winner at the Structural Plastics '99 Conference and Design Competition, an annual event hosted by the Society of the Plastics Industry.

For more information:
GE Plastics, Pittsfield, MA
Phone: (800) 845-0600; Fax: (800) 433-2925
Web: www.geplastics.com

Rare-earth compound, plastic unite for speedometer part

All the plastic parts you see in this Bitorque speedometer, designed for some models of Harley Davidson motorcycles, are molded by Thomas G. Faria Corp. But the two parts below the speedometer required a special material. Called bobbins, the parts hold a pin that connects to a magnetic source on the back side of the speedometer. That magnetic source emits a varying electrical charge based on how fast the engine is running. The bobbin, connected to the pin and a meter, rotates according to that charge, thus telling the driver the vehicle's speed.

Faria needed a moldable, highly filled, high-temperature polymer that could be insert molded and then magnetized as part of the inner electrical workings of the speedometer. It hired custom compounder Foster Corp. (Dayville, CT), which developed a compound from a nylon and a rare-earth material called ferrite (an iron-based material). Specifics of the material were not released, but according to the molder, the plastic version is equal in quality to the chrome-plated, hand-finished instrument made for other Harley motorcycles.

Faria runs 40 or so injection molding machines ranging from 15 to 200 tons at its Uncasville, CT plant.

For more information:
Foster Corp., Dayville, CT
Phone: (860) 848-9271
Fax: (860) 848-2704
Web: www.fostercomp.com

Regenerative pump housing benefits from PPS

Designed to house regenerative pumps for use in soft drink dispensing systems in the U.S. and the U.K., this part is required to withstand up to 30 bar of pressure and must operate in temperatures ranging from -4F to 212F. Chemical resistance is required to withstand periodic purging with cleaners. Good surface hardness and dimensional stability are also required. Chosen to mold the part: 40 percent glass-filled Fortron PPS from Ticona.

The critical component in the housing design is the back plate. Stress analysis conducted during the design phase indicated that unacceptably high stress levels in key areas around the connecting points could cause the part to fail. A new design was submitted in which the overall wall section was increased, ensuring greater strength and dimensional stability, with cored-out sections to minimize material use.

Tests on the new design showed a reduction in strain levels around the connecting points by a factor of three. Tests also predicted that the design would be able to meet the stress requirements as well as maintain the .05 mm flatness required for the pump's impeller. The housings are made in the U.K. by Electromag-Neil, which insert molds the stainless steel threads for connecting pipes.

For more information:
Ticona, Summit, NJ
Phone: (800) 235-2637
Fax: (908) 598-4165
Web: www.ticona.com

Polypropylene wheel unit endures heavy weight

This four-caster wheel unit, called the Universal Gondola Skate, is designed to facilitate safe and easy movement of heavy, fully loaded shelves during renovation of retail stores. The wheels are placed under the shelves so that during a store's off hours, the shelves can be moved out of the way to make room for renovation and construction. Then, they can be easily rolled back to their place during regular store hours. They are designed to hold up to 2000 lb and reportedly cost up to 50 percent less than comparable products.

The idea was co-developed by Cozza Harris Design (San Diego) and Co-Mack Technology (Vista, CA). Co-Mack molds the part in a structural foam molding process on a 385-ton Battenfeld. Up to 700 wheel units can be produced in a day on the single-cavity mold. The part is made from a 10 percent glass-filled polypropylene from RheTech Inc. that doesn't have to meet tight tolerances, but must offer strength. The casters are purchased out of house and assembled at Co-Mack.

For more information:
RheTech Inc.
Whitmore Lake, MI
Phone: (734) 769-0585
Fax: (734) 769-3565

Tension knob gets lubed with switch to acetal

The knob on the Ovation 2 thermal transfer printer is used to adjust ribbon tension each time a different width label is used. The printer produces labels up to 4 inches wide and is used to make bar codes, tags, and other products. The tension knob is used intermittently, but not continuously. For Orlando-based manufacturer Datamax, this was a problem with the material used previously, which tended to bind up if the knob was not frequently used.

"The binding," says Ken Colonel, director of mechanical engineering at Datamax, "was due to the fact that the knob is a part that is not in constant operation. The lubricated material we previously used would have worked fine had this been the case. Frequent use would have brought the internal lubricants to the surface and allowed for better performance."

For help, Datamax switched to Fulton 441D, a silicone lubricated acetal composite produced by LNP Engineering Plastics. Because of the silicone's limited compatibility with the base acetal material, it migrates to the surface of the tension adjustment knob. The result is a continuous generation of silicone film, which serves as a boundary or lubricant.

For more information:
LNP Engineering Plastics
Exton, PA
Phone: (610) 363-4500;
Fax: (610) 363-4749
Web: www.lnp.com

Encapsulated solenoids endure with PET

Solenoids manufactured by Caterpillar Inc. are designed to operate hydraulic valves on heavy-duty equipment used in construction, mining, and agriculture. The key to the solenoid's durability is the encapsulation, which blocks moisture and insulates the unit from sudden temperature changes.

Previously overmolded with a thermoset or other thermoplastic, the solenoid is now encapsulated with 30 percent glass-filled Rynite PET from DuPont. More durable than previous designs, the encapsulated product meets Caterpillar's standards for resistance to heat, thermal shock, vibration, moisture penetration, fuel, and lubricants. The company rates solenoids for service at ambient temperatures from -40F to 250F. The PET is also used to mold a coil bobbin that is part of the assembly.

John Hoffman, an engineer for Caterpillar, says the new design and the switch to Rynite PET makes the new units less expensive to produce than the ones they replace. Also, the addition of an integrated electrical receptacle into the encapsulation shell saves the cost of an additional part. The solenoids are installed on bulldozers, wheel loaders, motor graders, agricultural tractors, and off-highway mining trucks.

For more information:
DuPont Engineering Polymers
Wilmington, DE
Phone: (800) 441-0575
Fax: (302) 999-2311
Web: www.dupont.com/enggpolymers

TPE rubber used in electrica plugs, connectors

Electrical products maker Leviton Mfg. in Little Neck, NY makes this watertight locking plug and connector assembly for indoor and outdoor industrial electrical applications. Called the Wetguard, the unit is used to connect two flexible cords in order to supply power to electrical appliances, tools, and machines in a safe and simple installation procedure. The guard shields the connection from threatening environmental elements, providing protection from moisture and dust.

Leviton molds the Wetguard with a Capron nylon 6 from AlliedSignal Plastics and overmolds it with a Santoprene thermoplastic elastomer from Advanced Elastomer Systems. Santoprene not only gives a tactile feel, it also provides resistance to harsh environments, insulation, and good part uniformity and sealability. Levitron specified nylon-bondable grades of Santoprene because they chemically bond well with Capron, thus eliminating any possibility for leakage in the area where the two parts meet. The combination also reportedly resists crushing, impact, and abrasion.

The plugs and connectors, which are available in 15A, 20A, and 30A Nema ratings, feature a tongue-and-groove design, meaning when the male and female parts of the plug and connector are put together, it seals itself. It also has a locking indicator that gives the user visual confirmation that a seal has been obtained.

The Wetguard enclosure consists of two parts that are insert injection molded on a 150-ton press in a two-cavity mold. Previously, enclosures for the 15A devices were designed as a two-part assembly, which, according to Leviton, was a slow operation that often provided an unsatisfactory seal.

For more information:
Advanced Elastomer Systems
Akron, OH
Phone: (330) 849-5000
Fax: (330) 849-5599
Web: www.aestpe.com

AlliedSignal Plastics
Morristown, NJ
Phone: (201) 455-5010
Fax: (201) 455-3506
Web: www.asresin.com

Multimeter features one-shot overmolding of TPU resin

Tektronix Inc. wanted to Excellerate the durability of its TX-DMM family of true RMS digital multimeters, and ease the manufacturing process at the same time. Handheld DMMs are the most common of all electrical and electronic test instruments. Tektronix used film insert molding to Excellerate the bezel and display window of the DMM but the back cover presented some design molding challenges.

The back cover, which is injection molded with Bayer's Bayblend FR110 PC/ABS resin, requires three additional parts molded with an elastomer resin: a water-resistant gasket that seals the DMM's electronics from moisture, dust and other elements; a mechanical connection that holds a metal electromagnetic interference shield inside the back cover; and four no-skid pads on the outside of the back cover. Poly-Cast (Tigard, OR), which molds the front and back covers, wanted the three parts to be molded from the same material in just one shot. It chose Bayer's Desmopan KU2-8651 TPU resin, with a 75 Shore A hardness, because it offers good flexibility, resilience, and compression-set properties.

After the Bayblend PC/ABS back covers are molded, Poly-Cast inserts them and an EMI shield into the press. The Desmopan resin is shot onto the back cover through two gates. The resin flows around the lip of the back cover to form a watertight gasket. It then continues through an opening on each side of the part's interior and flows into separate lines over the EMI shield. Finally, the resin flows through openings in the EMI shield and back cover to form four capsule-shaped feet on the outside diameter of the DMM's back cover.

According to Steve Lyford, mechanical engineer for Tektronix, it was less expensive to overmold the parts using this process than to perform a secondary operation by hand. Tektronix had previously used a custom-made gasket, but preferred the overmolding operation even though the mold was tougher to build because the resin has to run a long flow path. The complex mold was built by Bestco of Hillsboro, OR.

For more information:
Bayer Corp., Polymers Div.
Pittsburgh, PA
Phone: (800) 622-6004
Fax: (412) 777-5585
Web: www.bayer.com/polymers-usa

Wed, 06 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.plasticstoday.com/market-focus-workhorse-products
Killexams : CVR College of Engineering - Hyderabad CVR College of Engineering was established in 2001, and its sixth batch of students just graduated from the College. CVR College of Engineering salutes fellow self-financing engineering colleges in AP for successful completion of 3 decades of service to the society.

CVR College of Engineering was ranked as the #1 college among more than 550+ colleges in AP that started in the last decade* and was also rated as the #1 co-educational college in Pass percentage among ~300 colleges under JNTU, Hyderabad for exams held in May 2009, November 2009 and May 2010. It is the expectation of the academic community that CVR is on the successful path to be in the TOP-5 amongst all colleges in AP in the next couple of years.

The College was the first college in Osmania University (Telangana) area that was promoted by NRI technology professionals resident in the US. The NRI promoters are associated with cutting-edge technologies of the computer and electronics industry. They also have strong associations with other leading NRI professionals working for world-renowned companies like IBM, Intel, Cisco, Motorola, AT&T, Lucent and Nortel who have agreed to associate with CVR College with a vision and passion to make the College a state-of-the-art engineering institution.

Courses offered By CVR College of Engineering

B.Tech : Computer Science & Engineering
B.Tech : Electronics and Communication Engineering
B.Tech : Electrical and Electronics Engineering
B.Tech : Information Technology
B.Tech : Electronics and Instrumention Engineering
M.Tech : Computer Science and Engineering
M.Tech : VLSI Design
M.Tech : Embedded Systems

Wed, 18 May 2022 17:53:00 -0500 text/html https://www.siliconindia.com/engineering/cvr-college-of-engineering-hyderabad-nid-16802.html
Killexams : Conexant and Cisco sign deal to swap IP for chip sets

Conexant and Cisco sign deal to swap IP for chip sets
By Loring Wirbel, EE Times
October 18, 2000 (7:51 p.m. EST)
URL: http://www.eetimes.com/story/OEG20001018S0044

NEWPORT BEACH, Calif. — Conexant Systems Inc. signed a pact with Cisco Systems Inc. this week that will provide Conexant access to intellectual property related to Cisco's Dynamic Packet Transport (DPT) technology, while Cisco receives a supply of chip sets that support DPT.

The work leading to the pact was critical in allowing Conexant to demo the CX29950 ring processor unit, a controller that supports the new Resilient Packet Ring architecture.

Cisco's DPT technology is one proposal in front of a new IEEE study group on resilient rings. The study group is slated to become Working Group 802.17 at IEEE's 802 plenary meeting in November. Conexant is following Cisco's general model of providing protection switching at the routing layer but is calling its implementation the Spatial Reuse Protocol, since DPT refers to Cisco's specific implementation.

The RPR study group entails many pr oposals for building counter-rotating fiber rings for metropolitan-area networks, borrowing concepts from Sonet, Gigabit Ethernet and the Fiber Distributed Data Interface. Cisco's DPT uses Layer 3 restoration, Nortel Networks is proposing a combined Layer 1/Layer 3 concept called InterWAN Packet Transport, Luminous Networks Inc. is including protection switching in a modified medium access control chip at Layer 2, and Lantern Communications Inc. is using Sonet Digital Wrapper technology.

"We saw a lot of merit in the proposals from the smaller companies," said Lauren Schlicht, product line manager for broadband internetworking solutions at Conexant's Boulder, Colo., group. "But at the end of the day, we took the attitude that whatever Cisco implements will probably get adopted by the industry.

"Still, the RPU architecture is flexible enough to follow where the IEEE study group goes."

The concepts embodied in resilient packet rings are so new themselves that only a handful of equipment companies t hus far have taken up the RPR banner. Conexant is the first semiconductor company to make public its intent to provide RPR controllers.

Conexant used a design for a ring-based packet controller, developed in the Boulder WAN operations and originally called the RAC-24. But in designing the CX29550, Conexant not only listened to Cisco's overall DPT strategy but consulted with other, new Conexant groups for an optimal design. Consulting operations included the Maker Communications unit, in Massachusetts, which will produce network coprocessors to be used with the RPU, and Israel-based Novanet Inc., which has sampled OC-48 CMOS Sonet framers that can operate in a Sonet-less fiber ring alongside the CX29550.

Conexant program manager Vince Eberhard said RPRs allow nodes to be added to or deleted from a metro fiber ring without requiring that the ring be brought down or reconfigured. The RPR proposals share the philosophy that rings should not require a master controller, nor should they require a token, li ke token ring or FDDI. Any node on the network should help recover from fiber cuts or single-node failures by automatically initiating a ring wrap around the failure.

The ring described its conditions to member nodes through the dynamic combination of control packets and data packets being sent. When a packet arrives at a node, it can be received, forwarded, received and forwarded for multicast traffic, stripped to check for error conditions, or examined for special cases such as ring wraps and pass-through modes. Every packet must be examined, so the ring operates totally in store-and-forward modes, with no cut-through operations.

Some of the trickiest elements in getting such rings to operate efficiently are the need to implement fairness so that one node cannot hog all the bandwidth; the need to have guaranteed protection switching that can operate within Sonet's 50-ms constraints; and the need to perform automated topology discovery to recognize new nodes on the ring.

Fairness is implemented through a series of transit buffers, which help carry out the Spatial Reuse Protocol at the heart of the Cisco approach. Ordinarily, Eberhard said, nodes must automatically set traffic-engineering constraints based on four traffic types: high-priority transit packets moving through a node, high-priority transmit packets being originated by a node, and low-priority versions of both transit and transmit packets. When a ring nears congestion, the nodes must perform both a global fairness check, to make sure the ring is operating optimally and fairly as a whole, and local optimization, to make sure that local subgroups are sharing bandwidth among themselves equitably. That is performed by having the low-priority transit buffer send congestion messages to other nodes on the ring.

Intelligent Protection Switching (IPS) operates with constraints identical to those of Sonet's Automatic Protection Switching, but without reserving extra bandwidth, as Sonet requires. Auto-notification of rings is sent out as a Laye r 3 message from any RPR node.

Finally, topology discovery messages are sent out on both fiber rings, and nodes respond by appending medium access control address information, using a 6-byte MAC field.

The first generation of RPU from Conexant has dual OC-48 (2.5-Gbit/second) MACs, and Conexant is designing an OC-192 (10-Gbit) follow-on for release in 2001. The controller supports packet address lookup, multicasting, priority processing, fairness implementation, topology discovery, protection switching and rate limitation. The chip interfaces to external SRAM to implement an external transit buffer of either 500-kbyte or 1-Mbyte density. There are also packet-over-Sonet Physical Layer 3 interfaces to both external Sonet framers and network processors.

"We have to continue to look at the partitioning of the controller over time," Schlicht said. "Do you throw the framer on-chip, or does that reduce flexibility? Are two MACs optimal? What's the best transit buffer size? We may want to offer differe nt devices over time, as packet rings are used more widely."

Conexant also is leaving bets open as to what kinds of network equipment OEMs will leap on the RPR bandwagon. Some may be opportunistic companies that develop specialized nodes for existing Cisco networks, she said. Others will develop a range of dedicated RPR nodes, RPR/10-Gbit Ethernet nodes, RPR/Sonet nodes, or some other hybrid that has yet to be defined. Even a server could turn into an RPR node.

And if Cisco's early success in cable TV hybrid fiber/coax networks is any indication, Schlicht said, the cable headend or wireless basestation could become a node for an RPR network, perhaps even earlier than traditional telco switches or routers.

Sun, 26 Jun 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.design-reuse.com/news/1152/conexant-cisco-sign-deal-swap-ip-chip-sets.html
Killexams : SaaS DR/BC: If You Think Cloud Data is Forever, Think Again

Key Takeaways

  • SaaS is quickly becoming the default tool for how we build and scale businesses. It’s cheaper and faster than ever before. However, this reliance on SaaS comes with one glaring risk that’s rarely discussed.
  • The “Shared Responsibility Model” doesn’t just govern your relationship with AWS, it actually impacts all of cloud computing. Even for SaaS, users are on the hook for protecting their own data.
  • Human error, cyber threats and integrations that have gone wrong are the main causes of data loss in SaaS. And it’s not uncommon, in one study, about 40% of users have said they have lost data in SaaS applications.
  • It’s possible to create your own in-house solution to help automate some of the manual work around backing-up SaaS data. However, there are limitations to this approach and none of them will help you restore data back to its original state.
  • A data continuity strategy is essential in SaaS, otherwise you may be scambling to restore all information you rely on each and every day. 
     

The Cloud is Not Forever and Neither is Your Data 

When I began my career in technical operations (mostly what we call DevOps today) the world was dramatically different. This was before the dawn of the new millennium. When the world’s biggest and most well-known SaaS company, Salesforce, was operating out of an apartment in San Francisco. 

Back then, on-premise ruled the roost. Rows of towers filled countless rooms. These systems were expensive to set up and maintain, from both a labour and parts perspective. Building a business using only SaaS applications was technically possible back then but logistically a nightmare. On-prem would continue to be the default way for running software for years to come. 

But technology always progresses at lightspeed. So just three years after Salesforce began preaching the “end of software”, Amazon Web Services came online and changed the game completely.

Today a new SaaS tool can be built and deployed across the world in mere days. Businesses are now embracing SaaS solutions at a record pace. The average small to medium-sized business can easily have over 100 SaaS applications in their technology stack. Twenty years ago, having this many applications to run a business was unthinkable and would have cost millions of dollars in operational resources. However, at Rewind, where I oversee technical operations, I looked after our software needs with a modem and a laptop. 

SaaS has created a completely different reality for modern businesses. We can build and grow businesses cheaper and faster than ever before. Like most “too good to be true” things, there’s a catch. All this convenience comes with one inherent risk. It’s a risk that people rarely discussed in my early days as a DevOps and is still rarely talked about. Yet this risk is important to understand, otherwise, all the vital SaaS data you rely on each and every day could disappear in the blink of an eye.

And it could be gone for good. 

The Shared Responsibility of SaaS

This likely goes without saying but you rent SaaS applications, you don’t own them. Those giant on-prem server rooms companies housed years ago, now rest with the SaaS provider. You simply access their servers (and your data) through an operating system or API. Now you are probably thinking, “Dave, I know all this. So what?” 

Well, this is where the conundrum lies. 

If you look at the terms of service for SaaS companies, they do their best to ensure their applications are up and running at all times. It doesn’t matter if servers are compromised by fire, meteor strike, or just human error, SaaS companies strive to ensure that every time a user logs in, the software is available. The bad news is this is where their responsibility ends. 

You, the user, are on the hook for backing up and restoring whatever data you’ve entered and stored in their services. Hence the term “Shared Responsibility Model”. This term is most associated with AWS but this model actually governs all of cloud computing.

The above chart breaks down the various scenarios for protecting elements of the cloud computing relationship. You can see that with the SaaS model, the largest onus is on the software provider. Yet there are still things a user is responsible for; User Access and Data.  

I’ve talked to other folks in DevOps, site reliability, or IT roles in accurate years and I can tell you that the level of skepticism is high. They often don’t believe their data isn’t backed up by the SaaS provider in real time. I empathize with them, though, because I was once in their shoes. So when I meet this resistance, I  just point people to the various terms of service laid out by each SaaS provider. Here is GitHub’s, here is Shopify’s and the one for Office 365. It’s all there in black and white.

The reason the Shared Responsibility Model exists in the first place essentially comes down to the architecture of each application. A SaaS provider has built its software to maximize the use of its operating system, not continually snapshot and store the millions or billions of data points created by users. Now, this is not a “one-size fits all scenario”. Some SaaS providers may be able to restore lost data. However, if they do, in my experience, it’s often an old snapshot, it’s incomplete, and the process to get everything back can take days, if not weeks. 

Again, it’s simply because SaaS providers are lumping all user data together, in a way that makes sense for the provider. Trying to find it again, once it’s deleted or compromised, is like looking for a needle in a haystack, within a field of haystacks.    

How Data Loss Happens in SaaS

The likelihood of losing data from a SaaS tool is the next question that inevitably comes up. One study conducted by Oracle and KPMG found that 49% of SaaS users have previously lost data. Our own research found that 40% of users have previously lost data. There are really three ways that this happens; risks that you may already be very aware of. They are human error, cyberthreats, and 3rd party app integrations. 

Humans and technology have always had co-dependent challenges. Let’s face it, it’s one of the main reasons my career exists! So it stands to reason that human inference, whether deliberate or not, is a common reason for losing information. This can be as innocuous as uploading a CSV file that corrupts data sets, accidentally deleting product listings, or overwriting code repositories with a forced push.

There’s also intentional human interference. This means someone who has authorized access, nuking a bunch of stuff. It may sound far-fetched but we have seen terminated employees or third-party contractors cause major issues. It’s not very common, but it happens.       

Cyberthreats are next on the list, which are all issues that most technical operations teams are used to. Most of my peers are aware that the level of attacks increased during the global pandemic, but the rate of attacks had already been increasing prior to COVID-19. Ransomware, phishing, DDoS, and more are all being used to target and disrupt business operations. If this happens, data can be compromised or completely wiped out. 

Finally, 3rd party app integrations can be a source of frustration when it comes to data loss. Go back and read the terms of service for apps connected to your favourite SaaS tool. They may save a ton of time but they may have a lot of control over all the data you create and store in these tools. We’ve seen apps override and permanently delete reams of data. By the time teams catch it, the damage is already done.

There are some other ways data can be lost but these are the most common. The good news is that you can take steps to mitigate downtime. I’ll outline a common one, which is writing your own backup script for a Git.

One approach to writing a GitHub backup script

There are a lot of ways to approach this. Simply Google “git backup script” and lots of options pop up. All of them have their quirks and limitations. Here is a quick rundown of some of them.

Creating a local backup in Cron Scripts

Essentially you are writing a script to clone a repo, at various intervals, using cron jobs. (Note the cron job tool you used will depend on the OS you use). This method essentially takes snapshots over time. To restore a lost repo, you just pick the snapshot you want to bring back.  For a complete copy use git clone --mirror to mirror your repositories. This ensures all remote and local branches, tags, and refs get included. 

The pros of using this method are a lack of reliance on external tools for backups and the only cost is your time. 

The cons are a few. You actually won’t have a full backup. This clone won’t have hooks, reflogs, configuration, description files, and other metadata. It’s also a lot of manual work and becomes more complex if trying to add error monitoring, logging, and error notification. And finally, as the snapshots pile up, you’ll need to consider accounts for cleanups and archiving.

Using Syncthing

Syncthing is a GUI/CLI application that allows for file syncing across many devices. All the devices need to have Syncthing installed on them and be configured to connect with one another. Keep in mind that syncing and backing up are different, as you are not creating a copy, but rather ensuring a file is identical across multiple devices.  

The pros are that it is free and one of the more intuitive methods for a DIY “backup” since it provides a GUI.  Cons: Syncthing only works between individual devices, so you can’t directly back up your repository from a code hosting provider. Manual fixes are needed when errors occur. Also, syncing a git repo could lead to corruption and conflicts of a repository, especially if people work on different branches. Syncthing also sucks up a lot of resources with its continuous scanning, hashing, and encryption. Lastly, it only maintains one version, not multiple snapshots. 

Using SCM Backup

SCM Backup creates an offline clone of a GitHub or BitBucket repository. It makes a significant difference if you are trying to back up many repos at once. After the initial configuration, it grabs a list of all the repositories through an API. You can also exclude certain repos if need be. 

SCM lets you specify backup folder location, authentication credentials, email settings, and more. 

Here’s the drawback though, the copied repositories do not contain hooks, reflogs, or configuration files, or metadata such as issues, pull requests, or releases.  And configuration settings can change across different code hosting providers. Finally, in order to run it, you need to have .NET Core installed on your machine.

Now that’s just three ways to backup a git repository. As I mentioned before, just type a few words into Google and a litany of options comes up. But before you get the dev team to build a homegrown solution, keep these two things in mind.

First, any DIY solution will still require a significant amount of manual work because they only clone and/or backup; they can’t restore data. In fact, that’s actually the case with most SaaS tools, not just in-house backup solutions. So although you may have some snapshots or cloned files, it will likely be in a format that needs to be reuploaded into a SaaS tool. One way around this is to build a backup as a service program, but that will likely eat up a ton of developer time. 

That brings us to the second thing to keep in mind, the constantly changing states of APIs. Let’s say you build a rigorous in-house tool: you’ll need a team to be constantly checking for API updates, and then making the necessary changes to this in-house tool so it’s always working. I can only speak for myself, but I’m constantly trying to help dev teams avoid repetitive menial tasks. So although creating a DIY backup script can work, you need to decide where you want development teams to spend their time.

Data Continuity Strategies for SaaS

So what’s the way forward in all of this? There are a few things to consider. And these steps won’t be uncommon to most technical operations teams. First, figure out whether you want to DIY or outsource your backup needs. We already covered the in-house options and the challenges it presents. So if you decide to look for a backup and recovery service, just remember to do your homework. There are a lot of choices, so as you go through due diligence, look at reviews, talk to peers, read technical documentation and honestly, figure out if company X seems trustworthy. They will have access to your data after all.  

Next, audit all your third-party applications. I won’t sugarcoat it, this can be a lot of work. But remember the “terms of service” agreements? There are always a few surprises to be found. And you may not like what you see. I recommend you do this about once a year and make a pro/cons list. Is the value you get from this app worth the trade-off of access the app has? If it’s not, you may want to look for another tool. Fun fact: Compliance standards like SOC2 require a “vendor assessment” for a reason. External vendors or apps are a common culprit when it comes to accidental data loss.

And finally, limit who has access to each and every SaaS application. Most people acknowledge the benefits of using the least privileged approach, but it isn’t always put into practice. So make sure the right people have the right access, ensure all users have unique login credentials (use a password manager to manage the multiple login hellscape) and get MFA installed.

It’s not a laundry list of things nor is it incredibly complex. I truly believe that SaaS is the best way to build and run organizations. But I hope now it’s glaringly obvious to any DevOps, SRE or IT professional that you need to safeguard all the information that you are entrusting to these tools. There is an old saying I learned in those early days of my career, “There are two types of people in this world – those who have lost data and those who are about to lose data”. 

You don’t want to be the person who has to inform your CIO that you are now one of those people. Of course, if that happens, feel free to send them my way. I’m certain I’ll be explaining the Shared Responsibility Model of SaaS until my career is over!  

About the Author

Dave North has been a versatile member of the Ottawa technology sector for more than 25 years. Dave is currently working at Rewind leading 3 teams (devops, trust, IT) as the director of technical operations. Prior to Rewind, Dave was a long time member of Signiant, holding many roles in the organization including sales engineer, pro services, technical support manager, product owner and devops director. A proven leader and innovator, Dave holds 5 US patents and helped drive Signiant’s move to a cloud SAAS business model with the award winning Media Shuttle product. Prior to Signiant, Dave held several roles at Nortel, Bay Networks and ISOTRO Network Management working on the NetID product suite. Dave is fanatical about cloud computing, automation, gadgets and Formula 1 racing.

Thu, 09 Dec 2021 14:12:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.infoq.com/articles/saas-drbc-data-backup/
Killexams : The Life Scientific: Chi Onwurah

When Chi arrived at Imperial College, London to study electrical engineering, it was the mid-Eighties and the height of the anti-apartheid struggle in South Africa. Chi went on anti-apartheid marches and was a member of the movement’s national executive committee in the UK, an early milestone on her political journey. The context was also significant because Imperial had a School of Mines, and its intake was dominated by white South African men. “It was very, very racist and it was very, very sexist as well,” Chi says.

Engineering is the most caring profession because they are making life work better for so many people.

Chi Onwurah

What shocked Chi most about the racism she experienced at university was that it would come from “people I was supposed to look up to” such as her lecturers. “In Newcastle no one in authority was racist,” she said.

Describing it as “the worst experience of my life”, Chi did consider leaving Imperial. She stuck at it – and is pleased she did – but she also fought back. “I wrote an article about the racism I was experiencing – particularly the rag mag, which had some horrendous jokes in it – for The Guardian newspaper. After that, things improved and there was more visibility of the issue of racism, though the lecturers and the professors felt that I was betraying them by going to the media about it.”

Acknowledging the academic kudos of getting a Bachelor of Engineering degree from Imperial, Chi went on to work for the telecommunications company Nortel, at a time when the sector was on the cusp of the move from analogue to digital. Chi was working on ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network), the first digital network. Her work took her to France, Denmark and the US.

After returning from the US, a former colleague contacted Chi and told her about Nigeria’s deregulated telecoms market and its capacity to roll out a mobile phone network. It was an exciting and massive challenge. Nigeria’s electricity network didn’t work constantly so, when Chi got involved, her job encompassed designing and building the network’s own power supply.

On a personal level, Chi’s achievement finally convinced her father that his daughter’s chosen career path was worthwhile!

“When I went to Awka, which is where we're from in Nigeria, I was able to hand him a mobile phone and say to him that, because I was managing the network rollout plan, I knew that in two months this mobile phone would work, and it was the first mobile phone in his village and he could call me on it. He was incredibly proud, and I was also incredibly proud. He actually said to me, ‘perhaps this engineering thing isn't so bad after all.’”

Mon, 23 May 2022 22:24:00 -0500 en-GB text/html https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/articles/4s5p4R8btpN6VvSdf4tM7Qk/the-life-scientific-chi-onwurah
Killexams : Finance Board OKs architectural, engineering studies

SOMERS — Despite some initial concerns about the cost and detailed nature of studies for a proposed new community center and updated HVAC systems for the three public schools, the Board of Finance this week approved spending $718,235 on architectural and engineering studies for the projects.

The board voted unanimously in two separate motions to allocate $138,235 for architectural firm GWWO of West Hartford to study the community center and $580,000 for Consulting Engineering Services of Middletown to study HVAC systems at the elementary, middle, and high schools.

Chairman Michael Parker said the board didn’t have to identify the source of money at its Tuesday meeting when the vote took place, but that the funds will either come from the general fund or American Rescue Plan Act funds.

The Board of Selectmen voted 2-1 last week to allocate the funds, and hope to have separate questions on the November ballot to determine if residents are in favor of the projects.

Finance Board members asked on Tuesday if it was necessary to have such extensive studies at this time, particularly for the community center that would replace and update the 30-year-old senior center with a brand-new facility of wider use to the town and various age groups. They also asked if the money would be wasted should voters decide against the projects.

Public Works Director Todd Roland attended the meeting to answer questions. Should voters decide against approving the projects at referendum, he said, the architectural and engineering studies would still be useful for the future.

Part of the study for the community center is outreach to residents and current users of the senior center, Rolland said, and they will be able to see at public meetings what the proposed facility would look like.

Chief Financial Officer Michael Marinaccio said staff thinks it’s more efficient to have specific information for the community “rather than to just hypothesize.”

Rolland also said he thinks the study costs seem fair for the work involved.

Parker said HVAC systems for the schools are what concern him the most of the two proposed projects because air quality is a “mission critical” issue. “I’d hate to put out kids at risk because we couldn’t move fast enough,” he said.

Marinaccio agreed HVAC is a crucial issue right now and said the town will soon be under a state mandate for air quality in the schools. “There will be financing or grant reimbursement as the law is written,” he said. “Let’s push forward with this.”

The two sites the town is considering for the community center are 600 Main St., behind Town Hall, and 19 Battle St., behind the existing senior center.

Some of the spaces staff members have suggested be part of the new facility include a gym, community gathering spaces and classrooms, fitness room, indoor walking track, offices, catering kitchen, and an outdoor gathering space.

GWWO submitted a proposal for its services that outlines steps the firm will be taking in the study, which are space assessment and program development, site evaluation, site investigation, and total project cost estimate and schedule.

After work on those steps is completed, GWWO plans to issue a conceptual design report.

The senior center would remain open during construction of the new building.

For more coverage of Somers and Enfield, follow Susan Danseyar on Twitter: @susandanseyar, Facebook: Susan Danseyar, reporter.

Thu, 28 Jul 2022 02:07:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.journalinquirer.com/news/finance-board-oks-architectural-engineering-studies/article_cc0ec5ca-0e7e-11ed-bce1-e3322414f929.html
Killexams : Latest Tennessee Lottery News

Here is the latest update from the Tennessee Lottery:

Starting up a billion-dollar business from scratch is a colossal task. For the Tennessee Lottery, the stakes are high: The Lottery must generate at least $88 million in profits by July 1 in order to fund scholarships for 65,000 Tennessee students attending college next fall.

With that in mind, the Lottery today is issuing the first of several "Startup Updates" to help Tennesseans track our progress over the next few months. Updates will be regularly posted to our Web site at www.tnlottery.gov and distributed via email as we move rapidly toward first-ticket sales on February 10 ... 96 days from now.

Short-term, the Tennessee Lottery is committed to achieving a strong startup and generating player excitement. Long-term, the goal is making sure that Tennessee has a profitable and stable lottery to support education for years to come. Take a look at the latest accomplishments:

RETAILERS GET IN GAME:More than 800 retail outlets are a step closer to selling lottery tickets after submitting their Lottery retailer applications during the past week. Thousands more are expected to "get in the game" within the next few weeks as the countdown to ticket sales begins.

On October 21, the Lottery mailed out nearly 3,600 application packets to independent and corporate retailers who expressed interest in selling lottery tickets following a statewide recruitment campaign. Another 300 application packets are being mailed this week. Retailers who didn't register during the recruitment campaign can get the packet online at www.tnlottery.gov/retailer.htm.

HEADQUARTERS MOVE:The Lottery moved to Nashville's MetroCenter this week. The move follows an October 30 vote by a committee of the Lottery Board to set up permanent headquarters in the Plaza Tower, formerly the Nortel Networks building. The property, located at 200 Athens Way, represented the lowest price among a group of finalist properties considered in a competitive process. Within a few weeks, the Lottery plans to select sites for district offices in Chattanooga, Knoxville, Memphis and Northeast Tennessee.

VENDOR EVALUATIONS:A six-member panel is working day and night reviewing thousands of pages of technical proposals submitted by a handful of global corporations vying to provide the Lottery with vital computerized and instant-ticket products and services.

Proposals for computerized games were submitted by GTECH Corp., West Greenwich, R.I., and Scientific Games International, Alpharetta, Ga. Proposals for instant-ticket or scratch-off games were submitted by three bidders: Pollard Banknote Limited, Winnipeg, Canada; Scientific Games International; and a partnership comprised of GTECH and Oberthur Gaming Technologies, Montreal, Canada. Evaluations are expected to be complete by November 24, with final contracts in place by December 2.

LOGO UNVEILED: The Tennessee Lottery unveiled its permanent identity on October 27. The logo (see above) is a streamlined, compact brand that will be easily identifiable on everything from outdoor billboards to the face of lottery tickets. Lottery President and CEO Rebecca Paul says the festive color combination of purple, green and yellow will effectively "cut through the clutter of the retail environment" in order to attract consumers.

WHAT'S NEXT:The Lottery is preparing to procure a wide range of goods and services necessary for the operation of our expanding business. Goods and services will include items such as office furniture, office supplies, computer equipment, business printing, advertising services, travel agency services and janitorial services.

Businesses wishing to offer the Lottery goods and services should monitor the "Procurement Opportunities" section of our home page in order to respond to requests for proposals (RFPs), qualifications and bids. In the interest of time, RFPs, qualifications and bids will be posted only to our Web site at www.tnlottery.gov.

November RFPs include:
Financial Services
Network/PC
Advertising Agency
Telecommunications

DID YOU KNOW...an estimated 50 colleges, including Harvard, Princeton and Yale, were built using lottery proceeds, beginning in the late 1700s? For more information on the history of lotteries, visit the North American Association of State and Provincial Lotteries' web site at www.naspl.org/history.html.

JOBS POSTED: The Lottery, in cooperation with the Middle Tennessee Career Center, is posting employment opportunities online. Positions will be posted on a rolling basis between now and February, so jobseekers should check back often. To view the current list of positions, go to www.midtncareercenters.org/tnlottery.

Fri, 29 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.chattanoogan.com/2003/11/6/43060/Latest-Tennessee-Lottery-News.aspx
Killexams : June 2022 Quarter Report

Perseus Mining Limited

Perseus Mining delivers another strong performance FY2022 ASIC of US$952 per ounce

Figure 1

Notional Operating Cashflow

Figure 2

Quarterly Cash and Bullion Movements

Figure 1.1

Yaouré Gold Project – Tenements and Prospects

Figure 1.2

Edikan Gold Mine – Regional Geology, Tenements and Prospects

PERTH, Western Australia, July 26, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Perseus Mining Limited (“Perseus” or the “Company”) (TSX & ASX: PRU) reports on its activities for the three months’ period ended June 30, 2022 (the “Quarter”).

PERFORMANCE INDICATOR

UNIT

DECEMBER 2021 HALF YEAR

MARCH 2022 QUARTER

JUNE 2022 QUARTER

JUNE 2022 HALF YEAR

2022 FINANCIAL YEAR

Gold recovered

Ounces

241,164

130,523

122,327

252,850

494,014

Gold poured

Ounces

237,483

132,644

120,409

253,053

490,536

Production Cost

US$/ounce

839

789

881

834

836

All-In Site Cost (AISC)

US$/ounce

949

908

1,004

955

952

Gold sales

Ounces

238,135

131,044

111,897

242,941

481,075

Average sales price

US$/ounce

1,663

1,701

1,705

1,703

1,683

Notional Cashflow

US$ million

172

104

85

189

361

  • Key Operating highlights include:

    • Weighted average AISCs of US$952 per ounce for the financial year to 30 June 2022 (FY2022), in the bottom quartile of the market guidance range. AISC for the June 2022 half year and quarter of US$955 and US$1,004 per ounce respectively, both within market expectations.

    • Annual gold production of 494,014 ounces was in upper half of market guidance range, notwithstanding a 19-day preventative maintenance shut at Edikan in the June 2022 quarter. Half Year production of 252,850 ounces included 122,327 ounces of gold produced during the June quarter.

    • Average cash margin of US$731 per ounce of gold for FY2022, and US$748 and US$701 per ounce respectively for the half and quarterly year periods.

    • Annual gold sales of 481,075 ounces at a weighted average sales price of US$1,683 per ounce including 111,897 ounces of gold sold during the quarter at US$1,705 per ounce.

    • Notional cashflow from operations of US$361 million during FY2022 included June 2022 Half year and quarterly notional cashflows of US$189 million, and US$85 million respectively.

  • The death of a Yaouré contractor’s employee following an accident on site late in the June quarter, overshadowed Perseus’s otherwise strong ESG performance and improvements made during the quarter.

  • Perseus’s strong operating performance is forecast to continue with market guidance for the December 2022 Half Year of 240,000 to 265,000 ounces produced at an AISC of US$1,000 to US$1,100 per ounce.

  • Business growth activities delivered excellent results, with a material increase in Perseus’s Ore Reserves inventory and mine lives at Edikan and potentially, Yaouré.

    • Indicated Mineral Resources at Nkosuo near Edikan containing 422,000 ounces and Inferred Mineral Resources containing a further 27,000 ounces giving rise to Probable Ore Reserves totalling 10 million tonnes of ore grading 1.04g/t gold and containing 332,000 ounces of gold.

    • The Prefeasibility Study for the CMA Underground Project progressed. Drilling was completed, resource modelling well advanced and preliminary mining, geotechnical and metallurgical study work completed. An updated Mineral Resource and Maiden Ore Reserve will be released during the September 2022 quarter.

  • Perseus’s financial position continues to strengthen with available cash and bullion of US$328 million, debt of US$50 million, and net cash of US$278 million at 30 June 2022, US$50 million more than last quarter.

OPERATIONS

QUARTERLY PRODUCTION, COSTS AND NOTIONAL CASHFLOW

Perseus’s three operating gold mines, Yaouré and Sissingué in Côte d’Ivoire, and Edikan in Ghana have combined to produce a total of 122,327 ounces of gold in the June 2022 quarter, bringing total annual gold production to 494,014 ounces for the first time.

The weighted average production cost of the Perseus group during the quarter was US$881 per ounce, while the weighted average AISC was US$1,004 per ounce of gold produced. On an annual basis, Perseus’s AISC of US$952 per ounce placed the Company near the middle of the global gold cost curve, as reported in JP Morgan’s June 2022 Gold Sector Review.

Table 1: Cost and Production Summary by Mine

MINE

TOTAL GOLD PRODUCED (OUNCES)

ALL-IN SITE COST (US$/OUNCE)

DECEMBER 2021 QUARTER

MARCH 2022 QUARTER

JUNE 2022 QUARTER

DECEMBER 2021 QUARTER

MARCH 2022 QUARTER

JUNE 2022 QUARTER

Yaouré

75,189

76,921

81,150

700

662

641

Edikan

35,124

38,590

28,668

1,450

1,336

1,859

Sissingué

18,065

15,012

12,509

905

1,067

1,398

Perseus Group

128,378

130,523

122,327

934

908

1,004

Combined gold sales from all three operations totalled 111,897 ounces this quarter at a weighted average gold price realised of US$1,705 per ounce. For the full financial year, sales amounted to 481,075 ounces, at a weighted average realised gold price of US$1,683 per ounce. Perseus’s average cash margin for the June 2022 quarter was US$701 per ounce, or US$731 per ounce for the full financial year.

Notional operating cashflow from operations for the quarter was US$85 million, bringing the total amount of notional cashflow generated by Perseus during the financial year to 30 June 2022 to US$361 million, the majority of which was generated by our Yaouré Gold Mine.

Table 2: Realised Gold Price and Notional Cash Flow by Mine

MINE

REALISED GOLD PRICE
(US$ PER OUNCE)

NOTIONAL CASH FLOW FROM OPERATIONS (US$ MILLION)

DECEMBER 2021 QUARTER

MARCH 2022 QUARTER

JUNE 2022 QUARTER

DECEMBER 2021 QUARTER

MARCH 2022 QUARTER

JUNE 2022 QUARTER

Yaouré

1,699

1,720

1,673

75

81

84

Edikan

1,613

1,673

1,802

6

13

-2

Sissingué

1,638

1,683

1,673

13

9

3

Perseus Group

1,669

1,701

1,705

94

104

85

Both of Perseus’s gold production and AISCs for the June 2022 half and full financial year as reported above, were strong relative to market guidance (refer to Table 3), confirming that Perseus’s plan to transform into a reliable, diversified mid-tier gold producer is on track.

Table 3: Cost and Production Relative to Market Guidance

PERFORMANCE INDICATOR

HALF YEAR TO 30 JUNE 2022

FULL 2022 FINANCIAL YEAR

GUIDANCE

ACTUAL

GUIDANCE

ACTUAL

Gold Production (ounces)

230,00 to 265,000

252,820

471,164 to 506,164

494,014

AISC (US$ per ounce)

915 to 1,085

955

932 to 1,020

952

YAOURÉ GOLD MINE, CÔTE D’IVOIRE

Yaouré has once again outperformed expectations this quarter, producing above the guided gold production range and below the bottom end of the market cost guidance range for both the June Half Year and the full financial year to 30 June 2022. In the process, Yaouré has produced approximately 66% of the Perseus Group’s quarterly gold production at an AISC that positions the mine towards the bottom end of the global gold cost curve referred to above. Taking the reasonably strong market for gold that has prevailed this financial year into account, in the 12 months to 30 June 2022, Yaouré has generated US$306 million of notional cashflow, US$41 million more than the development cost of the mine.

During the quarter, Yaouré increased its gold production by a further 6% compared to the prior quarter to 81,150 ounces of gold at a production cost of US$543 per ounce and an AISC of US$641 per ounce. The weighted average sales price of the 70,761 ounces of gold sold during the quarter was US$1,673 per ounce, giving rise to a cash margin of US$1,032 per ounce. Notional operating cashflow generated by Yaouré was US$84 million during the quarter, US$2.3 million more than in the March 2022 quarter.

The improving gold production at Yaouré reflected higher mill throughput rates (512 tph compared to 507 tph). Mill run time of 93% compared to 94% during the prior quarter, gold recovery rates (93.8% compared to 93.5%) and head grade of processed ore (2.60 g/t to 2.50 g/t) were all reasonably steady and in line with expectations.

The 3% reduction in quarter-on-quarter AISCs, largely reflected the increase in gold production. A slight decrease in royalties due to the timing of sales was offset by a US$5 per ounce increase in sustaining capital costs related to costs associated with the tailings’ storage facility and other site building works. On a unit cost basis, mining costs and G&A were reasonably steady although processing costs per tonne increased as a result of slightly more maintenance activities at the front end of the circuit. Refer to Table 4 below for details of key operating and financial parameters.

Table 4: Yaouré Quarterly Performance

PARAMETER

UNIT

DECEMBER 2021 HALF YEAR

MARCH 2022 QUARTER

JUNE 2022 QUARTER

JUNE 2022 HALF YEAR

2022 FINANCIAL YEAR

Gold Production & Sales

Total material mined

Tonnes

16,210,761

9,295,689

8,881,028

18,176,717

34,387,478

Total ore mined

Tonnes

2,448,820

1,463,248

1,899,069

3,362,317

5,811,137

Average ore grade

g/t gold

2.02

1.93

1.88

1.90

1.95

Strip ratio

t:t

5.6

5.4

3.7

4.4

4.9

Ore milled

Tonnes

1,859,582

1,025,345

1,036,331

2,061,676

3,921,258

Milled head grade

g/t gold

2.51

2.5

2.6

2.55

2.53

Gold recovery

%

93.2

93.5

93.8

93.6

93.4

Gold produced

ounces

139,747

76,921

81,150

158,071

297,818

Gold sales1

ounces

139,724

74,947

70,761

145,708

285,432

Average sales price

US$/ounce

1,695

1,720

1,673

1,697

1,696

Unit Production Costs

Mining cost

US$/t mined

2.71

2.66

2.74

2.70

2.70

Processing cost

US$/t milled

13.63

12.38

13.96

13.17

13.39

G & A cost

US$M/month

1.99

1.62

1.76

1.69

1.84

All-In Site Cost

Production cost

US$/ounce

581

549

543

546

562

Royalties

US$/ounce

87

86

67

76

81

Sub-total

US$/ounce

669

635

610

622

644

Sustaining capital

US$/ounce

18

26

31

29

24

Total All-In Site Cost2

US$/ounce

687

662

641

651

668

Notional Cashflow from Operations

Cash Margin

US$/ounce

1,008

1,058

1,032

1,046

1,028

Notional Cash Flow

US$M

140.9

81.4

83.7

165.3

306.2

Notes:

1. Gold sales are recognised in Perseus’s accounts when gold is delivered to the customer from Perseus’s metal account

2. Included in the AISC for the quarter is US$2.98 million of costs relating to excess waste stripping. When reporting cost of sales, in line with accepted practice under IFRS, this cost will be capitalised and the costs amortised over the remainder of the relevant pit life.

MINERAL RESOURCE TO MILL RECONCILIATION

The reconciliation of processed ore tonnes, grade and contained gold relative to the Yaouré Mineral Resource block model are shown in Table 5. During the last quarter, 35% more ore tonnes at 12% lower grade for 19% more ounces have been produced compared to the Mineral Resource model. Over the last six months and project to-date, Yaouré continues to produce more metal than predicted by the Mineral Resource model. The performance of the Yaouré Mineral Resource model to date is considered satisfactory, however work will continue to optimise the grade and reduce dilution.

Table 5: Yaouré Block Model to Mill Reconciliation

PARAMETER

BLOCK MODEL TO MILL CORRELATION FACTOR

3 MONTHS

6 MONTHS

1 YEAR

Tonnes of Ore

1.35

1.32

1.24

Head Grade

0.88

0.89

0.91

Contained Gold

1.19

1.17

1.13

FATAL ACCIDENT AT YAOURÉ

On Friday 24 June 2022, an employee of our mining contractor at Yaouré, EPSA Group, was fatally injured following an accident while working in EPSA’s heavy vehicle workshop. Perseus undertook an investigation into the incident and has consulted with the relevant Ivorian regulatory authorities.

Following the accident, a thorough review of all health and safety critical risks and controls has been initiated for all activities undertaken by Perseus’s employees and contractors across our three operating sites. This review will be followed by an improvement program where needed. This work will be conducted throughout FY2023, first prioritising the most significant risks at each site. The cultural Safety Transformation Program that has been underway since February 2022 has also been re-focused to ensure that all employees and contractors understand their personal and a collective role in creating a safe workplace, including coaching managers and supervisors on how they can lead the way.

Both Perseus and EPSA are providing support to help the victim’s family following this tragic accident, as well as offering support to our entire team at Yaouré and our other operations as they come to terms with the tragic loss of a colleague.

SISSINGUÉ GOLD MINE, CÔTE D’IVOIRE

Since pouring first gold in January 2018, Sissingué has continued to comfortably perform in line with market production and cost guidance, generating solid cashflow for Perseus and consistently achieving the targets that were originally set for the mine.

During the quarter, 12,509 ounces of gold were produced at Sissingué at a production cost of US$1,227 per ounce and an AISC of US$1,398 per ounce, an increase relative to prior periods. The weighted average sales price of the 13,445 ounces of gold sold during the quarter was reasonably steady at US$1,673 per ounce, giving rise to a reduced cash margin of US$275 per ounce. Notional cashflow generated by the Sissingué operation totalled US$3.4 million, US$5.9 million less than in the prior quarter. Refer to Table 6 below for details of operating and financial parameters.

The 2,503-ounce decrease in quarterly gold production largely resulted from an 11% decrease in the quantity of ore processed. This was caused by a change in the composition of mill feed as more sedimentary ore was processed compared to prior periods, and a reduction in mill run time due to maintenance activities early in the quarter. The head grade of processed ore also decreased from 1.32g/t to 1.24g/t, due to the composition of the mill feed but gold recovery rates remained stable at 89.6%.

The 31% or US$331 per ounce increase in quarter-on-quarter AISCs, was primarily a function of the 28% increase in production costs, attributable to the 17% decrease in the number of ounces of gold produced during the quarter, as explained above, and an increase in consumable and maintenance costs. Royalties per ounce also increased due to the timing of gold sales (i.e. royalties from the prior quarter were paid this quarter), while sustaining capital costs also increased reflecting an increase in expenditure on expanding the capacity of the TSF and upgrading security infrastructure at the mine.

Table 6: Sissingué Quarterly Performance

PARAMETER

UNIT

DECEMBER 2021 HALF YEAR

MARCH 2022 QUARTER

JUNE 2022 QUARTER

JUNE 2022 HALF YEAR

2022 FINANCIAL YEAR

Gold Production & Sales

Total material mined

Tonnes

1,102,186

1,242,344

1,205,035

2,447,379

3,549,565

Total ore mined

Tonnes

348,975

228,130

325,609

553,739

902,714

Average ore grade

g/t gold

1.17

0.72

1.03

0.9

1.0

Strip ratio

t:t

2.2

4.5

2.7

3.4

2.9

Ore milled

Tonnes

675,372

395,131

350,919

746,050

1,421,422

Milled head grade

g/t gold

1.78

1.32

1.24

1.28

1.52

Gold recovery

%

88.5

89.8

89.6

89.7

89.0

Gold produced

ounces

34,132

15,012

12,509

27,521

61,653

Gold sales1

ounces

34,870

16,264

13,445

29,709

64,579

Average sales price

US$/ounce

1,630

1,683

1,673

1,680

1,653

Unit Production Costs

 

 

Mining cost

US$/t mined

7.81

4.52

4.65

4.58

5.58

Processing cost

US$/t milled

18.01

14.09

18.10

15.97

16.94

G & A cost

US$M/month

1.22

1.07

1.13

1.10

1.16

All-In Site Cost1

 

 

Production cost

US$/ounce

823

958

1,227

1,080

938

Royalties

US$/ounce

89

97

124

110

98

Sub-total

US$/ounce

912

1,055

1,351

1,190

1,036

Sustaining capital

US$/ounce

5

13

47

28

15

Total All-In Site Cost

US$/ounce

917

1,067

1,398

1,218

1,051

Notional Cashflow from Operations1

 

Cash Margin

US$/ounce

713

616

275

460

601

Notional Cash Flow

US$M

24.3

9.3

3.4

12.6

37.0

Notes:

  1. Gold sales are recognised in Perseus’s accounts when gold is delivered to the customer from Perseus’s metal account.

  2. Included in the AISC for the quarter is US$0.45 million of costs relating to excess waste stripping. When reporting cost of sales, in line with accepted practice under IFRS, this cost will be capitalised and the costs amortised over the remainder of the relevant pit life.

MINERAL RESOURCE TO MILL RECONCILIATION

The reconciliation of processed ore tonnes, grade and contained ounces relative to the Sissingué Mineral Resource block model is in Table 7 below. During the last three months, grade control has predicted materially increased tonnes (25%) increased grade (4%) and ounces (29%) when compared to the Mineral Resource Estimate. Over the last six- and 12-month periods of operation, Sissingué has also produced more metal than predicted by the Mineral Resource model. Perseus regards the overall outperformance as an acceptable variance, and a significant amount of work has been invested to more closely align the Resource Model with the over-delivery of ore experienced in the grade control.

Table 7: Sissingué Block Model to Mill Reconciliation

PARAMETER

BLOCK MODEL TO MILL CORRELATION FACTOR

3 MONTHS

6 MONTHS

1 YEAR

Tonnes of Ore

1.25

1.32

1.18

Head Grade

1.04

1.06

1.01

Contained Gold

1.29

1.39

1.19

UPDATE ON THE LIFE OF MINE PLAN EXTENSION FOR THE SISSINGUÉ OPERATION

Work is ongoing to obtain an Exploitation Permit (EP) covering the Bagoé exploration permit area. Community consultation processes required as part of the environmental permitting process were completed, and the ESIA (Environment and Social Impact Assessment), a prerequisite to the granting of the EP was completed, lodged with authorities and validated by the government’s inter-departmental review. Evaluation of the EP application is currently in process.

A further review of compensation entitlements for farmers who will be impacted by the development of the Fimbiasso pit, has been undertaken and payments are pending.

EDIKAN GOLD MINE, GHANA

In summary, and in contrast to Perseus’s other two gold mines, Edikan’s operating performance during the June 2022 quarter was disappointing, falling short of Perseus’s required standards. This was partially due to the availability of Edikan’s processing facility being reduced by 21% during the quarter while the 19-day preventative maintenance shut-down, foreshadowed in the March 2022 Quarter Report, was undertaken. It also resulted from a combination of inadequate management of previous maintenance activities on the CIL tanks that impacted gold recovery rates, and poor block model to mill reconciliation recorded while mining in the AG Pit cutback area was completed.

On a positive note, the maintenance shutdown was successfully completed and since Edikan’s processing operations recommenced in mid-June 2022, almost all processing KPIs have been achieved or exceeded, helping to partially reduce the deficit caused by the shutdown of operations, but more importantly, providing confidence that with appropriate management, forecasts for the FY2023 years are achievable.

During the quarter, a total of 28,668 ounces of gold were produced at Edikan (26% less than in the March quarter) at a production cost of US$1,685 per ounce and an AISC of US$1,859 per ounce, 39% higher than in the prior quarter. Gold sales of 27,691 ounces were 30% less than in the prior quarter, at a weighted average realised gold price of US$1,802 per ounce, US$129 per ounce more than in the prior quarter. This generated a cash margin of -US$56 per ounce, approximately $400 per ounce less than the prior quarter. Negative notional cashflow of US$1.7 million resulted which was US$14.6 million worse than in the prior period. Table 8 summarises the key operating and financial parameters.

While an allowance was built into the Edikan market production and cost guidance for the June half year and the full financial year to allow for events such as those referred to above, this allowance was insufficient and both production and AISCs for both periods fell short of guidance. For the June half year, Edikan produced 67,258 ounces of gold at an AISC of US$ 1,559 per ounce compared to market guidance of 75,000 to 90,000 ounces at US$1,210 to US$1,430 per ounce, while for the full financial year, 134,543 ounces of gold were produced at an AISC of US$1,534 per ounce compared to market guidance of 142,284 to 157,284 ounces at US$1,350 to US$1,465 per ounce.

Table 8: Edikan Quarterly Performance

PARAMETER

UNIT

DECEMBER 2021 HALF YEAR

MARCH 2022 QUARTER

JUNE 2022 QUARTER

JUNE 2022 HALF YEAR

2022 FINANCIAL YEAR

Gold Production & Sales

Total material mined

Tonnes

15,413,395

6,829,223

6,577,009

13,406,232

28,819,627

Total ore mined

Tonnes

1,624,878

1,242,630

1,289,580

2,532,210

4,157,088

Average ore grade

g/t gold

0.91

1.03

1.08

1.06

1.00

Strip ratio

t:t

8.5

4.50

4.10

4.29

5.93

Ore milled

Tonnes

3,487,218

1,633,717

1,250,300

2,884,017

6,371,235

Milled head grade

g/t gold

0.73

0.86

0.86

0.86

0.78

Gold recovery

%

83.0

85.8

83.1

84.6

83.8

Gold produced

ounces

67,285

38,590

28,668

67,258

134,543

Gold sales1

ounces

63,541

39,833

27,691

67,524

131,064

Average sales price

US$/ounce

1,608

1,673

1,802

1,726

1,669

Unit Production Costs

Mining cost

US$/t mined

3.41

3.82

4.17

3.99

3.68

Processing cost

US$/t milled

8.39

9.97

12.95

11.26

9.69

G & A cost

US$M/month

1.89

1.33

1.56

1.45

1.67

All-In Site Cost2

Production cost

US$/ounce

1,383

1,202

1,685

1,408

1,396

Royalties

US$/ounce

102

116

117

116

109

Sub-total

US$/ounce

1,485

1,318

1,802

1,524

1,505

Sustaining capital

US$/ounce

24

18

57

34

29

Total All-In Site Cost2

US$/ounce

1,509

1,336

1,859

1,559

1,534

Notional Cashflow from Operations1

Cash Margin

US$/ounce

98

337

-56

168

135

Notional Cash Flow

US$M

6.6

13.0

-1.6

11.3

18.2

Notes:

1. Gold sales are recognised in Perseus’s accounts when gold is delivered to the customer from Perseus’s metal account.

2. Included in the AISC for the quarter is US$5.15 million of costs relating to excess waste stripping. When reporting cost of sales, in line with accepted practice under IFRS, this cost will be capitalised and the costs amortised over the remainder of the relevant pit life.

MINERAL RESOURCE TO MILL RECONCILIATION

The reconciliation of processed ore tonnes, grade and contained ounces relative to the Edikan Mineral Resource block model are shown in Table 9 below.

Table 9: Edikan Block Model to Mill Reconciliation

PARAMETER

BLOCK MODEL TO MILL CORRELATION FACTOR

3 MONTHS

6 MONTHS

1 YEAR

Tonnes of Ore

1.07

0.99

0.91

Head Grade

0.74

0.81

0.82

Contained Gold

0.79

0.80

0.75

Block model to mill reconciliation improved during the last part of the quarter relative to the prior periods in FY22. Mining has moved below the existing Stage 2 cutback void in the AG Pit which is the principal source of ore. During the quarter, ongoing work to reduce mining dilution continued to deliver solid results. Geological mapping has been successfully integrated into the daily ore prediction modelling and reflects the improving performance at Edikan.

Based on reconciliation results achieved in Q4 and the completion of the drilling for the next 30m of mining in the AG pit, the reconciliation has reverted to expected performance for the AG pit.

GROUP GOLD PRODUCTION AND COST MARKET GUIDANCE

Production and cost guidance for the Perseus Group and each of its individual mines for the six months and calendar year ending 31 December 2022, is as set out below in Table 10 below.

Table 10: Production and Cost Guidance

PARAMETER

UNITS

JUNE 2022 HALF YEAR (ACTUAL)

DECEMBER 2022 HALF YEAR
(FORECAST)

2022 CALENDAR YEAR
(FORECAST)

Yaouré Gold Mine

Production

Ounces

158,071

130,000 to 140,000

288,071 to 298,071

All-in Site Cost

USD per ounce

651

810 to 875

725 to 750

Sissingué Gold Mine

Production

Ounces

27,521

20,000 to 25,000

47,521 to 52, 521

All-in Site Cost

USD per ounce

1,218

1,600 to 1,950

1,400 to 1,525

Edikan Gold Mine

Production

Ounces

67,258

90,000 to 100,000

157,258 to 167,258

All-in Site Cost

USD per ounce

1,559

1,190 to 1,320

1,340 to 1,420

PERSEUS GROUP

Production

Ounces

252,850

240,000 to 265,000

492,850 to 517,850

All-in Site Cost

USD per ounce

954

1,000 to 1,100

980 to 1,025

SUSTAINABILITY

SUSTAINABILITY GOVERNANCE

During the quarter, Perseus continued to strengthen its sustainability governance as follows:

  • Following an accident at Yaouré on 24 June 2022, that resulted in the death of an employee of one of Perseus’s contractors, Perseus has:

    • Re-focussed Phase 2 of our global project to transform Perseus’s health and safety culture across the operations on ensuring that all employees and contractors understand their personal and collective role in creating a safe workplace, including coaching managers and supervisors on how they can lead the way. Phase 1 of the program was completed in May 2022 and Phase 2 of the program will commence at the sites in early August 2022.

    • Initiated a deep review and improvement program of health and safety critical risks and controls across all activities of Perseus and our contractors across our three operating sites. This work will be conducted over FY2023, first prioritising the most significant risks at each site.

  • Completed gap analysis of our Yaouré and Sissingué Tailings Storage Facilities against the Global Industry Standard on Tailings Management, with results to be reported in our FY2022 Sustainability Report.

  • Created our social performance policy and standard and conducted external expert review of our social performance framework, with implementation to commence in FY23. We also commenced update of our Sissingué Community Development Plan.

  • Completed the renewal of the Fimbiasso Environmental and Social Impact Statement (ESIA) with the Côte d’Ivoire government and commenced the land and crop compensation process. We also completed the Bagoé ESIA public consultation sessions and achieved validation of the ESIA.

  • Reviewed our Human Rights Policy in line with best practice (to be published in FY23) and conducted a human rights risk assessment across our operations.

  • Developed a draft provider Code of Conduct, summarising Perseus’s provider standards in relation to anti-corruption and bribery, legal compliance, business continuity, human and labour rights, health and safety, community engagement, security, biodiversity and air emissions. The provider Code of Conduct will be implemented throughout FY23.

  • Commenced external assurance on our FY22 sustainability data. The scope included limited assurance over the same data as FY21 (safety data and our alignment with the World Gold Council Responsible Gold Mining Principles). The scope was also expanded for FY22 to include limited assurance over our World Gold Council Conflict Free Gold Statement and value of community investment. Pre-assurance has been initiated over our Scope 1, 2 and 3 greenhouse gas emissions, energy data and water balance, with limited assurance to be conducted over this data in FY23.

  • Completed updates to our closure cost models and rehabilitation provisions for the end of FY22.

  • Participated in round table industry and government initiatives to reduce the risk of artisanal and illegal mining in and around our operations.

SUSTAINABILITY PERFORMANCE

This quarter, Perseus continued its strong sustainability performance relative to objectives and targets, as shown below in Table 11 and summarised as follows:

  • Safety: Despite the tragic incident at Yaouré, safety performance across the rest of the portfolio was strong, with Total Recordable Injury Frequency Rates (TRIFR) reducing from 1.45 at the end of the March quarter to 1.21 at the end of June 2022, lower than the FY22 target of 1.3. Lost Time Injury Frequency (LTIFR) across the Group reduced from 0.36 to 0.17. Sissingué achieved another safety milestone, celebrating 6 million hours without a Lost Time Incident. Additional focus on safety performance at Edikan led to significant improvement over the financial year (from TRIFR of 1.49 and LTIFR of 0.37 in FY21 to a TRIFR of 0.98 and LTIFR of 0.20 for FY22). TRIFR and LTIFR also improved across the Group year on year, from 1.76 and 0.45 respectively in FY21 to 1.21 and 0.17 in FY22.

  • Social:

    • Total economic contribution to Perseus’s host countries of Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire for the financial year of around US$495 million (around 61% of revenue), including approximately US$394 million paid to local suppliers representing 81% of procurement, US$33 million paid as salaries and wages to local employees, US$67 million in payments to government as taxes, royalties and other payments, and around US$3.6 million in social investment (includes accrual for Yaouré).

    • Local and national employment has been maintained at 95% for the quarter, and across the Perseus Group, our gender diversity was stable with the proportion of female employees ~13%, reflecting the industry in which we are involved but more particularly, the cultural orientation of our host countries.

    • Zero significant community events occurred.

  • Environment:

    • Emissions intensity per ounce of gold produced and water intensity remained steady for the quarter and by comparison to FY21. Total Scope 1 and 2 greenhouse gas emissions increased by 33% from FY21, reflecting the increase in Group gold production.

    • Following interest from additional vendors and completion of the new Yaouré LOM plan, Perseus updated the evaluation of the potential use of solar power at the operation.  Further detailed studies will be carried out once options to extend the life of Yaouré have been confirmed.

    • Zero significant environmental or tailings dam integrity issues occurred during the period.

In achieving the above, the following sustainability challenges were encountered by Perseus during the quarter:

  • Death of an employee of Yaouré’s mining contractor, EPSA Group, following an accident on 24 June 2022 while working in EPSA’s heavy vehicle workshop as reported above.

  • Government administrative delays continue to prevent the establishment of the Yaouré Community Development Fund and commencement of related community projects. Perseus continues to work with Government to establish the fund as soon as possible, escalating the issue on several occasions. Community funding has been accrued each month since commencing commercial production, with approximately US$2.9M accrued to-date.

  • Illegal mining activities on Perseus’s mining and exploration licence areas continues to present challenges for the Company in both Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire. The Company continues to work closely with relevant government authorities to manage these activities that have proven to negatively impact both the environmental and social fabric of local communities.

  • Ongoing tensions with the communities around Yaouré and Sissingué regarding employment, business opportunities, and crop and land compensation.

  • Security risks at Sissingué and satellite development areas (Fimbiasso and Bagoé) continue to be closely monitored due to ongoing political and social unrest which has given rise to terrorist activities in Mali which lies immediately to the north of the Sissingué mine. Increased security threats of banditry were also closely monitored around Yaouré.

  • Perseus received a US$5,000 regulatory fine at Edikan in Ghana associated with a Lost Time Injury that occurred in February 2022.

Table 11: Sustainability Performance

PERFORMANCE DRIVER

SUB-AREA

METRIC

UNIT

SEP 2021 QUARTER

DEC 2021 QUARTER

MAR 2022 QUARTER

JUN 2022 QUARTER

FY2022

Governance

Compliance

Material legal non-compliance

Number

0

0

0

111

1

 

Social

Worker Health, Safety and Wellbeing

Workplace fatalities

Number

0

0

0

1

1

Total Recordable Injury Frequency (TRIF)

Total Recordable Injuries per million hours worked, rolling 12 months

Edikan - 1.89
Sissingué - 0.50
Yaouré - 3.24
Exploration - 2.80
Group - 1.85

Edikan - 1.36
Sissingué - 0.00
Yaouré - 3.49
Exploration - 2.01
Group - 1.49

Edikan - 1.38
Sissingué - 0.00
Yaouré - 2.78
Exploration - 0.82
Group - 1.45

Edikan – 0.98
Sissingué - 0.00
Yaouré - 2.59
Exploration - 0.66
Group – 1.21

Edikan – 0.98
Sissingué - 0.00
Yaouré - 2.59
Exploration - 0.66
Group – 1.21

Lost Time Injury Frequency (LTIFR)

Lost Time Injuries (LTIFR) per million hours worked, rolling 12 months

Edikan - 0.38
Sissingué - 0.00
Yaouré - 0.991
Exploration - 1.40
Group - 0.46

Edikan - 0.39
Sissingué - 0.00
Yaouré - 0.76
Exploration - 1.00
Group - 0.46

Edikan - 0.39
Sissingué - 0.00
Yaouré - 0.35
Exploration - 0.82
Group - 0.36

Edikan - 0.20
Sissingué - 0.00
Yaouré - 0.00
Exploration - 0.66
Group - 0.17

Edikan - 0.20
Sissingué - 0.00
Yaouré - 0.00
Exploration - 0.66
Group - 0.17

COVID-19 Cases

Number

66

60

17

0

143

Community

Number of significant2 community events

Number

0

0

0

0

0

Community investment

US$

US$818,459 1,4

US$956,4784

US$985,0914

US$877,5464

US$3,637,5744

Economic Benefit

Proportion local and national employment

% of total employees

95

%

96

%

96

%

95

%

96

%

Proportion local and national procurement

% of total procurement

74

%

81%1

86

%

84

%

81

%

Gender Diversity

Board gender diversity

%

33

%

33

%

33

%

33

%

33

%

Executive gender diversity

%

40

%

40

%

40

%

40

%

40

%

Proportion of women employees

%

13.8%3

12.0%3

13.1%3

14.0%3

13.0%3

Responsible Operations

Environment

Number of significant2 environmental events

Number

0

0

0

0

0

Tailings

Number of significant2 tailings dam integrity failures

Number

0

0

0

0

0

Water stewardship

Water used per ounce of gold produced

M3/oz

6.91

8.05

7.85

7.87

7.87

Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Scope 1 and 2 Greenhouse Gas Emissions per ounce of gold produced

Tonnes of CO2-e/oz

0.57

0.57

0.53

0.55

0.55

Notes:

  1. Corrected/re-stated figure from the September and December 2021 Quarter report

  2. A significant event is one with an genuine severity rating of four and above, based on Perseus's internal severity rating scale (tired from one to five by increasing severity) as defined in our Risk Management Framework

  3. Permanent employees only.

  4. Includes accruals for the CDLM at Yaouré.

BUSINESS GROWTH

PROJECT DEVELOPMENT  

During the quarter, the proposed Plan of Arrangement between Perseus and Orca Gold Inc. under which Perseus would acquire all the outstanding common shares of Orca not already owned by Perseus, was approved by Orca’s shareholders in a general meeting and subsequently approved by the Canadian court.

Following completion of the acquisition, Perseus became the owner of a:

  • 70% interest in the Block 14 Gold Project in Sudan; and a

  • 31.4% interest in Montage Gold Corp., the holder of tenements hosting the Kone Project in Cote d’Ivoire.

BLOCK 14 GOLD PROJECT

During the quarter, Perseus engaged in activities directed at advancing the Project towards a possible development decision in relation to the Block 14 Gold Project located in the north of Sudan, approximately 75 kilometres south of the border with Egypt. These pre-development activities have included:

  • Integration of members of Orca’s team who wished to remain involved in the project, into Perseus’s team and recruiting additional team members as required;

  • Expanding critical relationships within Sudan including with the key government ministries and Sudanese businesses leaders who may be able to supply goods and services to the project when it enters the development and or operating phases;

  • Calling for tenders from qualified drilling companies to undertake approximately 100,000 metres drilling program at Block 14 aimed at infill drilling the Gulat Sufur South (GSS) deposit as well as sterilising adjacent land currently targeted to site key pieces of mine infrastructure including the tailings dam and waste dumps;

  • Preparing for the mobilisation of the preferred drilling contractor, specifically clearing the way for the importation of drilling rigs and associated equipment and consumables needed to support and manage the program and upgrading site accommodation and support infrastructure;

  • Prepare for large scale pump testing of the Area 5 aquifer to test recharge rates.

Work on the planned drilling program is expected to commence late in the September 2022 quarter along with confirmatory work on the Area 5 aquifer and preliminary activities for the Front-End Engineering Design (FEED) Study.

MONTAGE GOLD CORP.

During the quarter, Montage announced that they had entered a transaction with Barrick Gold Corporation and Endeavour Mining plc, to acquire 100% of their Mankono-Sissédougou Joint Venture Project which consists of three properties contiguous to Montage’s Koné Gold Project in Côte d’Ivoire. Two of the joint venture’s properties are currently the subject of Exploration Licence applications being considered by the Ivorian government. Completion of the transaction is subject to these licences being granted. On completion, Montage will acquire 100% of the issued and outstanding shares of Mankono Exploration Limited which holds the Mankono licences, for total consideration of C$30 million including C$14.5 million in cash, 22.1 million common shares of Montage, and a 2% NSR royalty allocated 70% to Barrick and 30% to Endeavour.

To fund the acquisition and ongoing working capital, Montage entered an underwriting agreement with Stifel GMP on behalf of a syndicate of underwriters, pursuant to which the Underwriters have agreed to purchase, on a bought deal private placement basis, approximately 28.6 million Subscription Receipts priced at C$0.70 per Subscription Receipt, which will convert into common Montage shares for gross proceeds of approximately C$20.0 million.

Perseus elected not to participate in the financing and as a result, if the transaction is completed, Perseus’s interest in Montage will decrease from its current level of 31.4% to 21.1% of issued capital.

CÔTE D’IVOIRE EXPLORATION

YAOURÉ EXPLORATION & EXPLOITATION PERMITS

Exploration activities on the Yaouré exploitation permit during the quarter continued to focus on drilling at the CMA Underground prospect, located within two kilometres of the Yaouré mill. Other programs included auger drilling on the Yaouré and Yaouré West permits and ground magnetics on the Yaouré permit (Appendix 1 Figure 1.1).

At the CMA Underground prospect, infill drilling to firm up previously defined underground resources extending below the currently planned CMA pit, was completed. Perseus has previously defined an Inferred Mineral Resource of 1.8 million tonnes grading 6.1 g/t gold, extending to a maximum 275 metres down dip beneath the open pit resource (refer Resources and Reserves News Release dated 24 August 2021), with potential to extend mineralisation further down dip beyond this. Perseus has also completed a Scoping Study that identified the potential to mine the CMA structure using underground mining methods (refer to News Release ‘Perseus Mining Completes Scoping Study for Potential Underground Mine at Yaouré’ dated 5 November 2018).

Drilling during the quarter comprised 8,817 metres in 37 Reverse Circulation (RC) pre-collared diamond (DD) holes, continuing the infill of the existing 50 x 50 metre coverage to a nominal 25 x 25 metre pattern to allow conversion of the Inferred resource to Indicated. Results to date from the infill drilling program continue to provide strong encouragement, with intercepts generally consistent with those previously encountered in both thickness and grade.

Further drilling was completed to investigate the next 300 metres down-dip from the current CMA Underground resource, with 4,284 metres drilled in 10 RC pre-collared diamond holes. The step-out program was guided by the 2020 3D seismic survey that clearly identified the CMA structure extending to depth beyond the current drill coverage. Drilling on the step out program was undertaken on an initial 100 x 200 metre pattern to better define the position of the CMA structure and the intensity of mineralisation.

The results from both the CMA Underground infill and extension drilling continue to demonstrate the potential for Perseus to materially grow its gold inventory at Yaouré by organic means. Results from both the Underground infill program and the step out program will be used to support an updated Mineral Resource estimate and a maiden Ore Reserve estimate, which are expected to be completed in the September 2022 quarter. The results from the additional drilling referred to above will also be reported at the same time.

On the Yaouré West exploration permit, auger geochemical drilling continued on a property-wide 800 x 800 metre grid, with 267 metres drilled in 33 holes. The augering program is designed to map geology and define potential targets through the delineation of alteration patterns using a combination of multi-element XRF and mineral spectro-radiometry (ASD) analyses. This program will be combined with a ground magnetics survey designed to better define suspected Govisou-like granites to the immediate west of the Yaouré deposit.

BAGOÉ EXPLORATION PERMIT

A 3,197-metre auger program was conducted over the Ludivine zone that lies along the sheared western margin of the Bagoé Granite. Final assay results from this work are pending.

GHANA EXPLORATION

AGYAKUSU EXPLORATION LICENCE

Exploration drilling was completed at the Nkosuo prospect on the Agyakusu Exploration Licence area to the north of Perseus’s Edikan Gold Mine (Appendix 1 – Figure 1.2). One remaining diamond hole was completed during the quarter (115 metres) bringing the reconciled total for the drilling which commenced on 1 July 2021 to 36,982 metres in 222 holes, including five geotechnical holes.

Results from the completed drilling informed the Mineral Resource and Ore Reserve estimate that was contained in the News Release dated 19 July 2022, “Perseus Increases Edikan’s Inventories of Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves”. Indicated Mineral Resources at Nkosuo containing 422,000 ounces and Inferred Mineral Resources containing a further 27,000 ounces have been identified along with a Probable Ore Reserve totalling 10 million tonnes of ore grading 1.04g/t gold and containing 332,000 ounces of gold. Metallurgical test work, hydrological studies and geotechnical drilling and analysis were all completed as part of the feasibility. The final Nkosuo Feasibility Study will be submitted to the Ghanaian Minerals Commission (Mincom) to convert the current Exploration Licence to a Mining Lease.

Perseus had previously exercised its option to purchase the Agyakusu Exploration Licence and following Ministerial approval, the Licence was transferred to Perseus during the quarter.

Baseline environmental studies have been completed and community engagement will commence shortly as part of the Ghanaian Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approvals process.

The Nkosuo granite is open to the south-west. Drilling is planned for the September 2022 quarter to determine if economic mineralisation continues.

AGYAKUSU-DML OPTION

A planned AC drilling program to test gold-in-soil anomalism along the main structural/intrusive corridor extending SW from the Nkosuo prospect into the adjoining Agyakusu DML permit has been deferred in favour of an initial lower impact auger program (Appendix 1 - Figure 1.3).

Good progress was made on the augering program towards the end of the June 2022 quarter, with results expected in the September quarter.

DOMENASE OPTION

The Domenase Exploration Licence that is held by a Ghanaian company, Union Minerals Prospecting, was renewed by the Mincom during the quarter. After the end of the quarter, the option agreement between Union Minerals and Perseus, that sets out the terms under which Perseus may acquire the licence, was also approved by Mincom. Work programs including augering and RC drilling are expected to commence during the next quarter.

SUDAN EXPLORATION

Planning commenced for an approximately 85,000 metre program of infill and step-out resource drilling at the Galat Sufur South (“GSS”) deposit on the Block 14 project. An additional 18,750 metres of air core (“AC”) drilling is also planned to sterilise areas for planned mine infrastructure, along with geotechnical holes and water bores.

A contract for the drilling is expected to be awarded in July 2022. Preparation for the commencement of drilling will commence shortly, with mobilisation of drills to site expected before the end of the September quarter.

EXPLORATION EXPENDITURE

Expenditure on exploration activities in West Africa by members of the Perseus group up to 30 June 2022 is summarised in Table 12 below.

Table 12: Group Exploration Expenditure March Quarter

REGION

UNITS

DECEMBER 2021 HALF YEAR

MARCH 2022 QUARTER

JUNE 2022 QUARTER

JUNE 2022 HALF-YEAR

FINANCIAL YEAR 2022

Ghana

US$ million

6.27

4.13

1.97

6.1

12.38

Côte d’Ivoire

Sissingué

US$ million

1.63

0.77

0.54

1.31

2.94

Yaouré

US$ million

10.25

9.19

4.34

13.53

23.78

Regional

US$ million

0.26

0.01

0.00

0.01

0.27

Sub-total

US$ million

12.14

9.97

4.88

14.85

26.99

Total

US$ million

18.42

14.10

6.85

20.95

39.37

GROUP FINANCIAL POSITION

CASHFLOW AND BALANCE SHEET (UNAUDITED)

Perseus achieved yet another strong quarter of cash generation, with a US$49.8 million increase in its overall net cash position (or cash plus bullion less interest-bearing debt) relative to the prior quarter. The Yaouré Gold Mine continued to be the primary driver of the Group’s strong cash generation performance.

Based on the spot gold price of US$1,817.00 per ounce and an A$:US$ exchange rate of 0.689273 at 30 June 2022, the total value of cash and bullion on hand at the end of the quarter was A$475.8 million, (US$328.0 million) including cash of A$426.8 million (US$294.2 million) and 18,589 ounces of bullion on hand, valued at A$49.0 million (US$33.8 million). No debt repayments were made during the quarter, leaving the principal amount owing on the Corporate Facility at US$50.0 million.

The graph below (Figure 1) shows the notional operating cash flows from the three mines, the largest single driver of cash movement, and compares this to historical data derived over the past 2 years.

Figure 1: Notional Operating Cashflow

https://www.globenewswire.com/NewsRoom/AttachmentNg/3508c91c-ad8d-463a-ac24-d6311b9e5132

Note:

“Notional Operating Cash Flow” is obtained by multiplying average sales price less AISC (the “notional margin”) by the ounces of gold recovered.

The overall movement in cash and bullion during the quarter is shown below in Figure 2. Aside from the operating margin (A$106m), other relevant movements related to organic growth expenditure (A$11.2 million), capital expenditure (A$11.7 million), administrative costs (A$6.2 million), corporate dividend payment (A$10m), debt service and other finance costs (A$3.0 million), Orca transaction costs offset by cash acquired. The cash flows as reported in Australian dollars were also positively impacted by the strengthening of both the US Dollar and Euro.

Figure 2: Quarterly Cash and Bullion Movements

https://www.globenewswire.com/NewsRoom/AttachmentNg/ed9b8ded-e572-4fce-b145-04cb2e95adc7

Note:

“Operating Margin” is obtained by taking from the gold sales revenue the genuine cash costs incurred for the quarter (excluding Sustaining Capital).

GOLD PRICE HEDGING

At the end of the quarter, Perseus held gold forward sales contracts for 290,000 ounces of gold at a weighted average sales price of US$1,897 per ounce. These price hedges are designated for delivery progressively over the period up to 29 December 2023. Perseus also held spot deferred sales contracts for a further 71,300 ounces of gold at a weighted average sales price of US$1,740 per ounce. Combining both sets of sales contracts, Perseus’s total hedged position at the end of the quarter was 361,300 ounces at a weighted average sales price of US$1,866 per ounce.

Perseus’s hedge position has decreased by 23,829 ounces since the end of the March 2022 quarter. As a result of our policy of replacing lower priced hedges with higher priced hedge contracts when possible, the weighted average sales price of the hedge book increased by US$60 per ounce or 3.4% during the quarter.

Hedging contracts currently provide downside price protection to approximately 24% of Perseus’s currently forecast gold production for the next three years, leaving 76% of forecast production potentially exposed to movements (both up and down) in the gold price.

SEPTEMBER 2022 QUARTER ANNOUNCEMENTS

  • 19 July – Increase of Edikan’s Resource and Reserves Inventory

  • 26 July – June 2022 Quarter Report

  • August – Group Resource and Reserve Statement

  • 31 August – Annual Financial Statement

  • September - Updated Mineral Resource estimate and a maiden Ore Reserve estimate for CMA Underground

This market announcement was authorised for release by the board of Perseus Mining Limited.

COMPETENT PERSON STATEMENT

All production targets referred to in this report are underpinned by estimated Ore Reserves which have been prepared by competent persons in accordance with the requirements of the JORC Code.

Edikan. The information in this report that relates to AF Gap Mineral Resources and Ore Reserve estimate was first reported by the Company in a market announcement “Perseus Mining Updates Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves” released on 26 August 2020.  The information in this report that relates to the Mineral Resource and Ore Reserve estimates for the Fetish deposit and the Heap Leach was first reported by the Company in a market announcement “Perseus Mining Updates Edikan Gold Mine’s Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves” released on 20 February 2020. The Mineral Reserve and Ore Reserve estimates for the abovementioned deposits were updated for depletion as at 30 June 2021 in a market announcement. “Perseus Mining Updates Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves” released on 24 August 2021. The information in this report that relates to Esuajah North Mineral Resources estimate was first reported by the Company in a market announcement “Perseus Mining Updates Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves” released on 29 August 2018. The information in this report that relates to the Mineral Resource and Ore Reserve estimates for Esuajah South Underground deposit was first reported by the Company in a market announcement “Perseus Mining Updates Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves” released on 24 August 2021. The information in this report that relates to the Nkosuo Mineral Resources and Ore Reserve estimates was first reported by the Company in a market announcement “Perseus Increases Edikan’s Inventories of Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves” released on 19 July 2022. The Company confirms that it is not aware of any new information or data that materially affect the information in those market releases and that all material assumptions underpinning those estimates and the production targets, or the forecast financial information derived therefrom, continue to apply and have not materially changed. The Company further confirms that material assumptions underpinning the estimates of Ore Reserves described in “Technical Report — Edikan Gold Mine, Ghana” dated 7 April 2022 continue to apply.

Sissingué, Fimbiasso, Bagoé. The information in this report that relates to Mineral Resource and Ore Reserve estimates for the Fimbiasso deposits was first reported by the Company in a market announcement “Perseus Mining Updates Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves” released on 26 August 2020.  The information in this report that relates to Mineral Resource and Ore Reserve estimates for the Sissingué and Bagoé deposits was first reported by the Company in a market announcement “Perseus Mining Updates Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves” released on 24 August 2021.  The Company confirms that it is not aware of any new information or data that materially affect the information in these market releases and that all material assumptions underpinning those estimates and the production targets, or the forecast financial information derived therefrom, continue to apply and have not materially changed. The Company further confirms that material assumptions underpinning the estimates of Ore Reserves described in “Technical Report — Sissingué Gold Project, Côte d’Ivoire” dated 29 May 2015 continue to apply.

Yaouré. The information in this report that relates to Open Pit and Heap Leach Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves at Yaouré was first reported by the Company in a market announcement “Perseus Mining Updates Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves” released on 28 August 2019 and updated for mining depletion as at 30 June 2021 in a market announcement released on 24 August 2021. The information in this report that relates to Underground Mineral Resources at Yaouré was first reported by the Company in a market announcement “Perseus Mining Completes Scoping Study for Potential Underground Mine at Yaouré” released on 5 November 2018 and adjusted to exclude material lying within the US$1,800/oz pit shell that constrains the Open Pit Mineral Resources in a market announcement “Perseus Mining Updates Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves” released on 28 August 2019. The information in this report that relates to the Yaouré near mine satellite deposit Mineral Resource and Ore Reserve estimates was first reported by the Company in a market announcement “Perseus Mining Updates Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves” released on 24 August 2021. The Company confirms that all material assumptions underpinning those estimates and the production targets, or the forecast financial information derived therefrom, in that market release continue to apply and have not materially changed. The Company further confirms that material assumptions underpinning the estimates of Ore Reserves described in “Technical Report — Yaouré Gold Project, Côte d’Ivoire” dated 18 December 2017 continue to apply.

The information in this report relating to Yaouré exploration results was first reported by the Company in compliance with the JORC Code 2012 and NI43-101 in market update “Perseus Discovers More High-grade Gold at Yaouré Mine” released on 13 April 2022. The Company confirms that it is not aware of any new information or data that materially affect the information in these market releases.

CAUTION REGARDING FORWARD LOOKING INFORMATION:

This report contains forward-looking information which is based on the assumptions, estimates, analysis and opinions of management made in light of its experience and its perception of trends, current conditions and expected developments, as well as other factors that management of the Company believes to be relevant and reasonable in the circumstances at the date that such statements are made, but which may prove to be incorrect. Assumptions have been made by the Company regarding, among other things: the price of gold, continuing commercial production at the Yaouré Gold Mine, the Edikan Gold Mine and the Sissingué Gold Mine without any major disruption due to the COVID-19 pandemic or otherwise, , the receipt of required governmental approvals, the accuracy of capital and operating cost estimates, the ability of the Company to operate in a safe, efficient and effective manner and the ability of the Company to obtain financing as and when required and on reasonable terms. Readers are cautioned that the foregoing list is not exhaustive of all factors and assumptions which may have been used by the Company. Although management believes that the assumptions made by the Company and the expectations represented by such information are reasonable, there can be no assurance that the forward-looking information will prove to be accurate. Forward-looking information involves known and unknown risks, uncertainties, and other factors which may cause the genuine results, performance or achievements of the Company to be materially different from any anticipated future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking information. Such factors include, among others, the genuine market price of gold, the genuine results of current exploration, the genuine results of future exploration, changes in project parameters as plans continue to be evaluated, as well as those factors disclosed in the Company's publicly filed documents. The Company believes that the assumptions and expectations reflected in the forward-looking information are reasonable. Assumptions have been made regarding, among other things, the Company’s ability to carry on its exploration and development activities, the timely receipt of required approvals, the price of gold, the ability of the Company to operate in a safe, efficient and effective manner and the ability of the Company to obtain financing as and when required and on reasonable terms. Readers should not place undue reliance on forward-looking information. Perseus does not undertake to update any forward-looking information, except in accordance with applicable securities laws.

ASX/TSX CODE: PRU

CAPITAL STRUCTURE:
Ordinary shares: 1,364,655,141
Performance rights: 13,080,399

REGISTERED OFFICE:

Level 2
437 Roberts Road
Subiaco WA 6008

Telephone: +61 8 6144 1700
Email: IR@perseusmining.com

WWW.PERSEUSMINING.COM

DIRECTORS:

Mr Sean Harvey
Non-Executive Chairman

Mr Jeff Quartermaine
Managing Director & CEO

Ms Elissa Cornelius
Non-Executive Director

Mr Dan Lougher
Non-Executive Director

Mr John McGloin
Non-Executive Director

Mr David Ransom
Non-Executive Director

Ms Amber Banfield
Non-Executive Director

CONTACTS:

Jeff Quartermaine
Managing Director & CEO
jeff.quartermaine@perseusmining.com

Claire Hall
Corporate Communications
+61 414 558 202
claire.hall@perseusmining.com

Nathan Ryan
Media Relations
+61 4 20 582 887
nathan.ryan@nwrcommunications.com.au

APPENDIX 1 – MAPS AND DIAGRAMS

Figure 1.1: Yaouré Gold Project – Tenements and Prospects

https://www.globenewswire.com/NewsRoom/AttachmentNg/c7d42e9b-fa59-49b2-8577-ff999a124eb7

Figure 1.2: Edikan Gold Mine – Regional Geology, Tenements and Prospects

https://www.globenewswire.com/NewsRoom/AttachmentNg/cc1d99cc-7acf-47f8-91f1-0dcdc92cbe71

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