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Exam Code: 810-440 Practice test 2022 by team
810-440 Cisco Business Architecture Analyst - DTBAA

Exam Name : Adopting The Cisco Business Architecture Approach
Exam Number : 810-440 DTBAA
Exam Duration : 90 minutes
Questions in test : 55-65
Passing Score : Variable (750-850 / 1000 Approx.)
Recommended Training : Adopting The Cisco Business Architecture Approach (DTBAA)
Exam Registration : PEARSON VUE
Real Questions : Cisco 810-440 Real Questions
VCE practice test : Cisco Business Architecture Analyst Practice Test

Cisco Business Architecture 25%
1. Describe the function of these roles associated with Cisco Business Architecture
Sales leadership
Account team
Technology specialist team
Services team
Business architect
2. Describe these items for a business architect
3. Describe the advantages of Cisco Business Architecture approach
4. Describe the value of Cisco Business Architecture to the customer
5. Describe the value of Cisco Business Architecture to the Business Architect
6. Describe the value of Cisco Business Architecture to the account team
7. Describe the four skill pillars for the Cisco Business Architect
Customer Relevance 20%
1. Describe the different phases of the customer journey
Capabilities and solutions
Implementation and adoption
Outcome measurement
2. Describe the values of the Cisco Business Architecture methodology
3. Describe the value of the business roadmap
4. Describe the four maturity levels
Silo’d or domain specific
Partial business engagement
Business first engagement
5. Describe the relationship between maturity level and Business Architecture engagement
Understanding Business 20%
1. Define and distinguish these terms
Business priority
Business solution
Business outcomes
Business requirements
Business capability
2. Define and distinguish these components of a business strategy
3. Compare and contrast internal influences and external influences that impact a business model
4. Identify the nine components of the business model canvas
5. Describe the value of a BMC
6. Compare and contrast business value and technology value
7. Apply these financial considerations for business decisions
Hurdle rates
Direct and indirect financial benefits
Consumption models and financial considerations
Enterprise Architectures, Practices, and Standards 15%
1. Describe the value of architectural frameworks
2. Describe the value of enterprise architecture practices
3. Describe the value of enterprise architecture standards
4. Describe TOGAF® in the context of business architecture
5. Describe the ITIL® practice in business architecture
Credibility and Rapport 20%
1. Compare and contrast views and viewpoints
2. Describe the five management styles
3. Describe the five decision making style
4. Describe a persona
5. Describe the five target audience categories
6. Describe the four audience types
7. Describe characteristics of effective customer relationship management
8. Describe the five stages of the customer relationship management lifecycle

Cisco Business Architecture Analyst - DTBAA
Cisco Architecture techniques
Killexams : Cisco Architecture techniques - BingNews Search results Killexams : Cisco Architecture techniques - BingNews Killexams : Best practices for modern enterprise data architecture Best practices for modern enterprise data architecture image

Modernisation of data architecture is key to maximising value across the business.

Dietmar Rietsch, CEO of Pimcore, identifies best practices for organisations to consider when managing modern enterprise data architecture

Time and again, data has been touted as the lifeline that businesses need to grow and, more importantly, differentiate and lead. Data powers decisions about their business operations and helps solve problems, understand customers, evaluate performance, Excellerate processes, measure improvement, and much more. However, having data is just a good start. Businesses need to manage this data effectively to put it into the right context and figure out the “what, when, who, where, why and how” of a given situation to achieve a specific set of goals. Evidently, a global, on-demand enterprise survives and thrives on an efficient enterprise data architecture that serves as a source of product and service information to address specific business needs.

A highly functional product and master data architecture is vital to accelerate the time-to-market, Excellerate customer satisfaction, reduce costs, and acquire greater market share. It goes without saying that data architecture modernisation is the true endgame to meet today’s need for speed, flexibility, and innovation. Now living in a data swamp, enterprises must determine whether their legacy data architecture can handle the vast amount of data accumulated and address the current data processing needs. Upgrading their data architecture to Excellerate agility, enhance customer experience, and scale fast is the best way forward. In doing so, they must follow best practices that are critical to maximising the benefits of data architecture modernisation.

Below are the seven best practices that must be followed for enterprise data architecture modernisation.

1. Build flexible, extensible data schemas

Enterprises gain a potent competitive edge by enhancing their ability to explore data and leverage advanced analytics. To achieve this, they are shifting toward denormalised, mutable data schemas with lesser physical tables for data organisation to maximise performance. Using flexible and extensible data models instead of rigid ones allows for more rapid exploration of structured and unstructured data. It also reduces complexity as data managers do not need to insert abstraction layers, such as additional joins between highly normalised tables, to query relational data.

Data models can become extensible with the help of the data vault 2.0 technique, a prescriptive, industry-standard method of transforming raw data into intelligent, actionable insights. Also, graph databases of NoSQL tap into unstructured data and enable applications requiring massive scalability, real-time capabilities, and access to data layers in AI systems. Besides, analytics can help access stored data while standard interfaces are running. Enterprises can store data using JavaScript Object Notation (JSON), permitting database structural change without affecting the business information model.

2. Focus on domain-based architecture aligned with business needs

Data architects are moving away from clusters of centralised enterprise data lakes to domain-based architectures. Herein, data virtualisation techniques are used throughout enterprises to organise and integrate distributed data assets. The domain-driven approach has been instrumental in meeting specific business requirements to speed up the time to market for new data products and services. For each domain, the product owner and product team can maintain a searchable data catalog, along with providing consumers with documentation (definition, API endpoints, schema, and more) and other metadata. As a bounded context, the domain also empowers users with a data roadmap that covers data, integration, storage, and architectural changes.

This approach significantly reduces the time spent on building new data models in the lake, usually from months to days. Instead of creating a centralised data platform, organisations can deploy logical platforms that are managed within various departments across the organisation. For domain-centric architecture, a data infrastructure as a platform approach leverages standardised tools for the maintenance of data assets to speed up implementation.

3. Eliminate data silos across the organisations

Implications of data silos for the data-driven enterprise are diverse. Due to data silos, business operations and data analytics initiatives are hindered since it is not possible to interpret unstructured, disorganised data. Organisational silos make it difficult for businesses to manage processes and make decisions with accurate information. Removing silos allows businesses to make more informed decisions and use data more effectively. Evidently, a solid enterprise architecture must eliminate silos by conducting an audit of internal systems, culture, and goals.

A crucial part of modernising data architecture involves making internal data accessible to the people who need it when they need it. When disparate repositories hold the same data, data duplicates created make it nearly impossible to determine which data is relevant. In a modern data architecture, silos are broken down, and information is cleansed and validated to ensure that it is accurate and complete. In essence, enterprises must adopt a complete and centralised MDM and PIM to automate the management of all information across diverse channels in a single place and enable the long-term dismantling of data silos.

4. Execute real-time data processing

With the advent of real-time product recommendations, personalised offers, and multiple customer communication channels, the business world is moving away from legacy systems. For real-time data processing, modernising data architecture is a necessary component of the much-needed digital transformation. With a real-time architecture, enterprises can process and analyse data with zero or near-zero latency. As such, they can perform product analytics to track behaviour in digital products and obtain insights into feature use, UX changes, usage, and abandonment.

The deployment of such an architecture starts with the shift from a traditional model to one that is data-driven. To build a resilient and nimble data architecture model that is both future-proof and agile, data architects must integrate newer and better data technologies. Besides, streaming models, or a combination of batch and stream processing, can be deployed to solve multiple business requirements and witness availability and low latency.

5. Decouple data access points

Data today is no longer limited to structured data that can be analysed with traditional tools. As a result of big data and cloud computing, the sheer amount of structured and unstructured data holding vital information for businesses is often difficult to access for various reasons. It implies that the data architecture should be able to handle data from both structured and unstructured sources, both in a structured and an unstructured format. Unless enterprises do so, they miss out on essential information needed to make informed business decisions.

Data can be exposed through APIs so that direct access to view and modify data can be limited and protected, while enabling faster and more current access to standard data sets. Data can be reused among teams easily, accelerating access to and enabling seamless collaboration among analytics teams. By doing this, AI use cases can be developed more efficiently.

6. Consider cloud-based data platforms

Cloud computing is probably the most significant driving force behind a revolutionary new data architecture approach for scaling AI capabilities and tools quickly. The declining costs of cloud computing and the rise of in-memory data tools are allowing enterprises to leverage the most sophisticated advanced analytics. Cloud providers are revolutionising how companies of all sizes source, deploy and run data infrastructure, platforms, and applications at scale. With a cloud-based PIM or MDM, enterprises can take advantage of ready-use and configured solutions, wherein they can seamlessly upload their product data, automate catalog creation, and enrich it diverse marketing campaigns.

With a cloud PIM or MDM, enterprises can eliminate the need for hardware maintenance, application hosting, version updates, and security patches. From the cost perspective, the low cost of subscription of cloud platforms is beneficial for small businesses that can scale their customer base cost-effectively. Besides, cloud-based data platforms also bring a higher level of control over product data and security.

7. Integrate modular, best-of-breed platforms

Businesses often have to move beyond legacy data ecosystems offered by prominent solution vendors to scale applications. Many organisations are moving toward modular data architectures that use the best-of-breed and, frequently, open source components that can be swapped for new technologies as needed without affecting the other parts of the architecture. An enterprise using this method can rapidly deliver new, data-heavy digital services to millions of customers and connect to cloud-based applications at scale. Organisations can also set up an independent data layer that includes commercial databases and open source components.

Data is synchronised with the back-end systems through an enterprise service bus, and business logic is handled by microservices that reside in containers. Aside from simplifying integration between disparate tools and platforms, API-based interfaces decrease the risk of introducing new problems into existing applications and speed time to market. They also make the replacement of individual components easier.

Data architecture modernisation = increased business value

Modernising data architecture allows businesses to realise the full value of their unique data assets, create insights faster through AI-based data engineering, and even unlock the value of legacy data. A modern data architecture permits an organisation’s data to become scalable, accessible, manageable, and analysable with the help of cloud-based services. Furthermore, it ensures compliance with data security and privacy guidelines while enabling data access across the enterprise. Using a modern data approach, organisations can deliver better customer experiences, drive top-line growth, reduce costs, and gain a competitive advantage.

Written by Dietmar Rietsch, CEO of Pimcore


How to get ahead of the National Data Strategy to drive business value — Toby Balfre, vice-president, field engineering EMEA at Databricks, discusses how organisations can get ahead of the National Data Strategy to drive business value.

A guide to IT governance, risk and compliance — Information Age presents your complete business guide to IT governance, risk and compliance.

Thu, 28 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 Editor's Choice en text/html
Killexams : ‘SMEs Need Technology Support for Growth’

The General Manager, Cisco Nigeria and West African Countries, Mr. Olakunle Oloruntimehin and Small Business Manager, Cisco West Africa, Lela Omo-Ikirodah, in this interview spoke about the readiness of Cisco to drive small businesses to profitability and sustainability, using the right technology solutions. Emma Okonji presents the excerpts:

What is your view about the change in nomenclature from Ministry of Communications to Ministry of Communications and Digital Economy?

Having the digital economy as part of the Ministry of Communications is a welcome development and Cisco will continue to walk with the ministry, including agencies like the National Information Technology Development Agency (NITDA), to provide skills development and job creation. NITDA is also a networking academy for us and we will continue to work with NITDA and the Ministry of Communications and Digital Economy to provide the right skills, going forward.

As a technology solution company, what kind of policies do you expect from government that will drive digital transformation and sustain technology growth in the country?

In terms of policies, we are working with the likes of the United States (US)government agency to ensure that we have technical workshops, reverse trade missions, whereby people in government go and exchange ideas with their counterparts in the US government. For example, staff of the Nigerian telecoms regulatory body, the Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC), can work with their counterparts and peers in the US and share policies. It is true that not all policies in the US, for example, will be relevant in Nigeria, but there will be enough context that could be localised in Nigeria. These are some of the things that we do to accelerate policy making and policy development. We need policies that will drive and sustain business development in today’s digital era.

What are your views about small business growth and competition in Nigeria?

We are in the digital era and every business around the world is in a position where they have to strategise in order to stay ahead of the competition. At Cisco, we are dedicated to helping these small businesses leverage emerging technologies to accelerate their growth, thereby providing a fair ground where every business no matter their sizes, can access the opportunity to realise the full potential of digitisation in their operations. About 90 per cent of businesses worldwide could be considered small or medium sized businesses. We at Cisco carried out some intense research to see what we can do globally to cater to this market, and I must say that Cisco is increasing the focus on small businesses globally. The Cisco Designed for Business portfolio delivers the right products at the right price for small businesses. It also provides increased investment in partner programs to incentivize partners who are focused in the small business space.

Cisco recently organised a business summit for small businesses in Nigeria. Could that be regarded as a shift from providing technology solutions to enterprise businesses, which Cisco is known for?

The Cisco’s Small Business Summit is not a shift from providing technology solutions to enterprise businesses. We see small businesses as key to national growth of any economy and we are willing to play in that space of providing technology solutions to small and medium size businesses, while we still provide technology solutions to enterprise businesses. The survival and growth of small businesses are very important for us at Cisco. Traditionally, we have been seen as an enterprise business to business focused company. However, we have been relevant to the small business, even since we have been a company, way over 35 years ago. We are increasing the focus on the small business globally, and the summit we had recently in Lagos, was one of the several events that we have had over the last year, focusing on on this important segment. Cisco’s focus on small and medium businesses is to correct the general perception that Cisco is just targeted at enterprise customers and not focused on small businesses. This is because we did a couple of research and realised that we have a lot of startups coming up. We have a lot of businesses starting, and we have a lot of entrepreneurs, and about 90 per cent of businesses worldwide can be considered small and midsize businesses. So we looked internally at Cisco, but from a global perspective, we are looking at what we can do to make sure that we are providing the right solutions to cater to this type of customers. So the summit was focused on our partners who we considered as the extended workforce for Cisco. The idea was to start first with the partners because we need to first of all educate them, since they need to be able to go to the market to present the right solutions from Cisco that can help these small and midsized customers to scale in their businesses. So the event was focused on our new solutions as well as previous solutions that we have had, which the market is not very aware of so to speak. It also focused on educating our partners on how to properly position solutions to small and midsize customers. There were demos and practical hands-on solutions that can cater to small and midsize customers.

In specific terms, how will Cisco support small business growth in Nigeria?
Cisco is passionate about small business growth and sustainability in Nigeria and other African countries where we operate, and we were interested in organising the small business summit in Lagos, which held recently. Current data shows that about 90 per cent of businesses worldwide, are actually categorised as small and midsize, and 65 per cent of businesses in the Middle East and Africa (MEA) are actually categorised as small and midsize . So in Africa, I think that over 85 per cent of our businesses are actually categorised as small and midsize businesses. So, what we have seen is that there is a growth in small businesses and from 2018 to 2019, there has been a 4.2 per cent growth in small size businesses. So even if you look at Nigeria, for example and if you look at the social media, you see a lot of small businesses, with lots of tech startups springing up on a daily basis. So I know a lot of people who are out there with brilliant minds and we have a lot of startups and small enterprises that are coming up with less than 100 employees or less than 100 or 50 users. So Cisco is passionate about supporting these groups of small businesses with the right solutions that can help them scale. We know that information technology (IT) is no longer a cost centre, but a department that drives businesses.

It is good we make it clear that Cisco is not shifting from serving its enterprise customers, even as we are also passionate at growing and supporting small businesses in Nigeria and Africa. We want to make sure that we are here to support small businesses as they grow and scale, even to become large enterprises. We discovered there is a gap in the market and Cisco needs to position itself to also support small and midsize businesses. We are increasing the focus on small and medium business because we know they are relevant for economic growth of a nation. While we focus on small businesses, we will also maintain existing relationship with our enterprise businesses, because today’s small businesses are tomorrow’s enterprise businesses.

Emerging technologies like Artificial Intelligence (AI), Augmented Reality (AR), Virtual Reality (VR), Internet of Things (IoTs), 5G and Big Data among others, are fast evolving. How is Cisco leveraging these new technologies to enhance customer experience in business?

Cisco has always proven to help companies drive their digitisation plan. I will boldly say that we are in a post-digital era, so companies can’t leverage on digital alone as a differentiator, emerging technologies can only provide the foundation of digital transformation. So you did mention AI, 5G, IoT, among others and these are emerging technologies that Cisco is leveraging to enhance small and enterprise businesses. Cisco as a company has the products and the solutions and the technologies we push into the market are part of the fabric of artificial intelligence. These emerging technologies help us and our customers to be much more operationally efficient, and they allow us to use data insights that are based on data analytics from artificial intelligence to make better decisions and proper planning. So we need that foundation of digital and again, emerging technologies can only drive investment protection on what is already digital, which Cisco has already helped its customers over time to put in place. So we are very relevant in helping and supporting businesses in those areas of emerging technologies. We are very relevant in 5G and we are helping customers across the world to build 5G networks out there.

In terms of data as the new digital oil that is driving global economies, how will you advise organisations that are yet to fully adopt the use of data and data analytics?

There are different levels of digitalisation among organisations based on their different levels of maturity. Some companies are faster than some but what is inevitable is that organisations that are fast will push the ladder of the slower ones into action, otherwise the slower ones will be serious trouble that can affect economic growth. So, the slower organisations that I am talking about, also involves public sector customers, and also private sector customers that are slow to adoption of new technologies. Like I said earlier, digital is basic and it is foundational for every organisation, even though it was not so some few years back. Most organisations take it for granted that businesses need to be digital, and Cisco is helping to push the agenda of digitalisation, especially with government, through interventions across governments around the world. We are doing that as a way of preparing governments to focus on skills development, focus on jobs creation, but not just any kind of skill or any kind of jobs. We are talking about future jobs that are focused on digital, because more will be relevant in the future with digital skills. There’s no way any organisation can do augmented reality or virtual reality or artificial intelligence if the organisation does not have the digital skill as the foundation. So, Cisco is helping to build that digital skills as a foundation, while working with governments at various levels to achieve it. Some of the things we are doing around the Cisco Networking Academy, allow us to be able to provide that skill foundation for the public and private sectors.

Downtime in business results in major setback for organisations. How is Cisco addressing this kind of challenge that often befalls small and enterprise businesses?

Cisco had always focused on three key things: Technology, Digital and Processes. On our technology, we are very big and we are leaders in the technology space. The second thing is the people’s side of things, which shows how well Cisco is ensuring that people can consume and leverage emerging technologies in a responsible and ethical way, to maintain business continuity. The third focus, which is about the processes, is where Cisco helps with the people side of things, the technology side of things, and the process side of things to ensure that if a company has a business continuity plan, that plan must capture all three key focus that I have mentioned in a very sustainable way. So, we also face downtime threats, but the way and manner with which we address it, matters a lot for businesses. We teach companies on the enterprise side, and even on the small business side, on how to counter downtime threats. Our solutions prevent downtime from happening and our solutions can also help minimize the loss of revenue for companies or organisations that have suffered downtime.

The federal government sees startups as key drivers to the Nigerian economy. What are the specific solutions from Cisco that will help upscale and sustain small businesses?

We have talked about digitisation and key foundation for growth success and sustainability, but in adding to that, we have seen that data analytics is key, especially when it comes to small businesses. If you look at processes, as one of our key focus for business, in trying to look at how to make business operations more efficient and how to help small businesses scale, then data analytics becomes very key. So with our solutions, we are making sure that data analytics is key in terms of efficiently helping the processes for small businesses.

We have solutions that we call the Small Business Technology Groups (SBTG), which is our own kind of solutions that we provide. We also have the cloud solutions as well. The idea for both of solutions is that both look at that exact features that the customers need, based on the scale of business they’re operating on, in order to help businesses function properly and efficiently. So in our SBTG, we have things such as small business units, switches, routers, cameras and the likes of them, and then even our core solutions as well. Our solutions are growing businesses very fast and last year, our solutions grew businesses by over 200 per cent. So, what it means is that our solution is changing the way businesses are beginning to operate. Again, we have analytics that are in-built in all of these solutions. If it comes to security, we have solutions such as firepower, and the idea for all of the solutions is to have security solution built on the network of businesses. So what Cisco is doing is to make sure that it provides the best solution, using our four major architectures, which are the enterprise network, security, data centre, and collaboration. Our solutions are somehow interwoven, such that every small business can partake in it. So the customer network must be fundamental, which is the foundation. Statistics show that 65 per cent of customers that are attacked by phishing and other security attacks, are actually targeted at small businesses and 64 per cent of these business don’t recover when attacked. So, for us, it’s very important that we have solutions that address the challenges of businesses, both the small and enterprise businesses.

How affordable are your solutions for small businesses?
Our prices are very affordable, especially for small businesses. We won’t talk about small business if we are not considering their limited financial capacities to do business. We are really in the business of making sure that small businesses can function efficiently, while leveraging our technologies.

How demystified are your solutions, considering the fact that most small business owners are not tech savvy, they only have the business idea?

Our solutions are easy and simple to use. For example, our cloud solution called Meraki, is very intent based and very heavily leveraged on data and analytics. The idea with Meraki is that with the phone or other device like laptop, I can actually access something we call the dashboard. That is actually the selling point and the cameras are high definition (HD) camera, but the dashboard is actually what we’re using to sell the Meraki solution and the configuration is easy. It is a plug and play solution. You don’t have to know commands to be able to set up Meraki. We have a very solid ecosystem and there is no other Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) that has the kind of partner ecosystem that we have. We have a very solid ecosystem, and we build our partner ecosystems such that they are extended workforce of Cisco. So what it means is that they support these small businesses. We have extended workforce, we have over 300 authorised partners in Nigeria, and West Africa. Our extended workforce is able to support our customers across the transition processes. So our solutions are easy enough for a non techie person to use. However, we also have that support in terms of our ecosystem for the customers to rely on.

How secured are your solutions in this era of cyberattacks?
Our solutions are very secured, however, one solution doesn’t solve all the security challenges of an organisation. Cisco is literally one of the few OEMs that have solutions that cut across all the different architectures when you look at technology. So, Cisco is a company that is very solid in terms of network or security or collaboration. We understand what the security challenges are and that is also built into our solution that we put out in the market. So in terms of security, we have an architecture that is just focused on security and we have different solutions that address different security challenges.

I will like to make it clear that we are not pushing out boxes to the customers. Our solutions are focused and customer-driven. So what that means is that in our engagement with customers, including partners’ engagement with our customers, we always try to ensure that we are selling a specific solution to the customer. So we offer solutions that can help businesses scale and not just boxes. In terms of security solutions, we have them, be it email security, web security, network security, among others, but the key thing for as a technology solution company, is to first of all try to engage the customer, understanding their environments and then proposing the right solution that can be effective for them. Again we have the secure intelligent platform which is just the concept of showing that every solution we have out there, has security as an inherent part of the solution. So what we try to do from a Cisco point of view is also to pull all the people or companies in our ecosystem to be at the same level of security awareness and readiness, just like we are at Cisco.

Most small businesses come up with good ideas, but along the line, they go into extinction for several reasons. How can Cisco help in addressing such situation?

Startup business is about being very focused on the customer and focusing on the customer in my opinion, is to do what will provide data insights. You don’t want to go to a customer with the wrong perspective or the wrong solution, because it damages your credibility. If you don’t have customers that trust you, then you don’t have a business to rely on into the future. And it is only a matter of time for such organisation to fail as a business. So achievements in Cisco solutions are around data and data analytics, which give useful data insights that someone can use to engage customers in a much better way. Over and beyond listening to the customer through conversation techniques, technology also does the listening for you. This is because customers build digital identities or technology identities that companies like Cisco leverage upon and customers can use the data to Excellerate on the existing practices and ensure that what is put in front of the customer, is an offering that meets the customers’ immediate and future needs.

Sat, 16 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : The role of APIs in controlling energy consumption

In this guest blog, Chris Darvill, solutions engineering vice president for Europe, Middle East and Africa (EMEA) at cloud-native API platform provider Kong, sets out why the humble API should not be overlooked when organisations are looking to make their IT setups more sustainable

Within the next 10 years, it’s predicted that 21% of all the energy consumed in the world will be by IT. Our mandates to digitally transform mean we’re patting ourselves on the back celebrating new ways we delight our customers, fuelled by electricity guzzled from things our planet can’t afford to give.

Addressing this isn’t about the steps we take at home to be a good citizen, such as recycling and turning off appliances when not in use.  This is about the way we architect our systems.

Consider that Cisco estimates that global web traffic in 2021 exceeded 2.8 zettabytes. That equates to 21 trillion MP3 songs, or 2,658 songs for every single person on the planet. It’s almost 3 times the number of stars in the observable universe.

Now consider that 83% of this traffic is through APIs. While better APIs can’t alone Excellerate energy consumption (no one thing can), they do have the potential to make a big difference, which is why we need to be making technical and architectural decisions with this in mind.

Building better APIs isn’t just good for the planet and our consciences; it’s good for our business too. The more we can architect to reduce energy consumption, the more we can reduce our costs as well as our impact.

To reduce the energy consumption of our APIs, we must ensure they are as efficient as possible.

This means eliminating unnecessary processing, minimising their infrastructure footprint, and monitoring and governing their consumption so we aren’t left with API sprawl leaking energy usage all over the place.

Switching up API design

APIs must be well-designed in the first place, not only to ensure they are consumable and therefore reused but also to ensure each API does what it needs to rather than what someone thinks it needs to.

If you’re building a customer API, do consumers need all the data rather than a subset?  Sending 100 fields when most of the time consumers only use the top 10 means you’re wasting resources: You’re sending 90 unused and unhelpful bits of data every time that API is called.

How to build and deploy a sustainable API

Where do your APIs live? What are they written in? What do they do? There are many architectural, design and deployment decisions we make that have an impact on the resources they use.

We need the code itself to be efficient; something fortunately already prioritised as a slow API makes for a bad experience. There are nuances to this though when we think about optimising for energy consumption as well as performance. For example, an efficient service polling for updates every 10 seconds will consume more energy than an efficient service that just pushes updates when there are some.

And when there is an update, we just want the new data to be sent, not the full record. Consider the amount of traffic APIs create, and for anything that isn’t acted upon, is that traffic necessary at that time?

Deployment targets matter. Cloud providers have significant research and development (R&D) budgets to make their energy consumption as low as possible; budgets that no other company would be prepared to invest in their own datacentres.

However, with the annual electricity usage of the big five tech companies — Amazon, Google, Microsoft, Facebook and Apple — more or less the same as the entirety of New Zealand’s, it’s not as simple as moving to the cloud and the job being finished. How renewable are their energy sources? How much of their power comes from fossil fuels? The more cloud vendors see this being a factor in our evaluation of their services, the more we will compel them to prioritise sustainability as well as efficiency.

We must also consider the network traffic of our deployment topology. The more data we send, and the more data we send across networks, the more energy we use. We need to reduce any unnecessary network hops, even if the overall performance is good enough.

We must deploy our APIs near the systems they interact with, and we must deploy our gateways close to our APIs. Think how much traffic you’re generating if every single API request and response has to be routed through a gateway running somewhere entirely different.

Manage API traffic

To understand, and therefore minimise our API traffic, we need to manage it in a gateway. Policies like rate limiting control how many requests a client can make in any given time period; why let someone make 100 requests in one minute when one would do? Why let everyone make as many requests as they like, generating an uncontrolled amount of network traffic, rather than limiting this benefit to your top tier consumers?

Caching API responses prevents the API implementation code from executing anytime there’s a cache hit – an immediate reduction in processing power.

Policies give us visibility and control over every API request, so we know at all times how and if each API is used, where requests are coming from, performance and response times, and we can use this insight to optimize our API architecture.

For example, are there lots of requests for an API coming from a different continent to where it’s hosted?  If so, consider redeploying the API local to the demand to reduce network traffic.

Are there unused APIs, sitting there idle? If so, consider decommissioning them to reduce your footprint. Is there a performance bottleneck? Investigate the cause and, if appropriate, consider refactoring the API implementation to be more efficient.

Having visibility and control over APIs and how they are consumed will greatly impact overall energy consumption.

Time to think again

We all happily switch between Google Drive, iCloud, Software-as-a-Service apps and the umpteen different applications we use day-to-day without thinking about their impact on the planet.

Thanks to privacy concerns, we have a growing awareness of how and where our data is transferred, stored and shared, but most of us do not have the same instinctive thought process when we think about carbon emissions rather than trust.

It’s time to make this a default behaviour. It’s time to accept, brainstorm and challenge each other that, as technologists, there are better ways for us to build applications and connect systems than we’ve previously considered.

Thu, 04 Aug 2022 03:26:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Cisco selects nSys for its PCI Express Interface verification

Newark, Calif., March 24 2005. nSys Design Systems Pvt. Ltd. a rapidly emerging leader for Verification IPs, today announced that Cisco Systems has signed an agreement to license nSys PCI Express nVS verification tools for use in its chip design efforts. Cisco engineers across multiple projects are now using PCI Express nVS product to verify the correct operation of the PCI Express interface in their chip designs. The tool helps Cisco engineers catch potential bugs during pre-silicon verification.

The PCI Express architecture is a fast emerging as the serial interconnect technology of future that provides high-bandwidth, low pin-count implementations for optimized performance.

“The nVS for PCI Express from nSys has rich set of features that are required not only for verifying compliance to standards but also for testing that the PCI Express core is integrated properly with the rest of the SoC. With PCI Express nVS, nSys is providing Cisco with a complete verification solution integrated to work with their verification environments across multiple business units.” said nSys Director Atul Bhatia.

About PCI Express nVS:
The nVS (nSys Verification Suite) from nSys is the most widely accepted and proven Verification IP for PCI Express available in native Verilog and VHDL.

The nVS is a complete verification suite consisting of Bus Function Model (BFM), Monitor/Checker & Test Suites for functional verification of PCI Express components. The nVS allows design and verification engineers to quickly & extensively test the entire functionality of their PCI Express compliant devices. Availability of Test Suites enables the designer to focus on features unique to his design. The nVS leverages advanced verification techniques in creating a versatile testbench environment.

Key features:

  • Ready-to-test in less than an hour
  • Support for: Endpoints, RC/ Switch, Bridges
  • Support for all Link widths from x1 to x32
  • Send completely automated/user configured packets in any of the three layers
  • Inject/detect errors in all the 3 layers
  • Test Suites: Random, Compliance, Error, Directed Tests
  • Consistent interface across the nVS family

About nSys:
nSys provides flexible solutions to reduce time-to-market for its customers by addressing their verification needs for SoC development. By leveraging its vast experience in standards-based product development, the nSys team creates verification solutions that solve the most challenging functional verification problems in the world. The nSys solutions are in the form of Verification IPs backed by services.

For more information, please visit nSys at or contact nSys directly at: 510 217-5917.

*PCI Express is a trademark of PCI-SIG. Other names and brands may be claimed as the property of others.

Mon, 18 Jul 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Fog Networking Market Is Expected to Boom- ARM, Cisco, Dell

New Jersey, N.J., July 24, 2022 The Fog Networking Market research report provides all the information related to the industry. It gives the outlook of the market by giving authentic data to its client which helps to make essential decisions. It gives an overview of the market which includes its definition, applications and developments, and manufacturing technology. This Fog Networking market research report tracks all the recent developments and innovations in the market. It gives the data regarding the obstacles while establishing the business and guides to overcome the upcoming challenges and obstacles.

Fog Computing or Fog Networking, also known as fogging, is an architecture that uses edge devices to perform a substantial amount of computing, storage, and communication locally and routed over the Internet backbone, and definitely has inputs and exits from the physical world. , known as transduction. Many power companies around the world are planning to adopt smart meters to remotely monitor consumers energy consumption and prevent fraudulent energy consumption. In addition, smart metering and energy solutions are becoming more prevalent in businesses and households.

Get the PDF sample Copy (Including FULL TOC, Graphs, and Tables) of this report @:

Competitive landscape:

This Fog Networking research report throws light on the major market players thriving in the market; it tracks their business strategies, financial status, and upcoming products.

Some of the Top companies Influencing this Market include:ARM, Cisco, Dell, Ericsson, HP, IBM, Intel, Linksys, Microsoft, Nokia, Qualcomm

Market Scenario:

Firstly, this Fog Networking research report introduces the market by providing an overview which includes definition, applications, product launches, developments, challenges, and regions. The market is forecasted to reveal strong development by driven consumption in various markets. An analysis of the current market designs and other basic characteristics is provided in the Fog Networking report.

Regional Coverage:

The region-wise coverage of the market is mentioned in the report, mainly focusing on the regions:

Segmentation Analysis of the market

The market is segmented on the basis of the type, product, end users, raw materials, etc. the segmentation helps to deliver a precise explanation of the market

Market Segmentation: By Type


Market Segmentation: By Application

Defense, Government, and Military
Transportation and Logistics

For Any Query or Customization:

An assessment of the market attractiveness with regard to the competition that new players and products are likely to present to older ones has been provided in the publication. The research report also mentions the innovations, new developments, marketing strategies, branding techniques, and products of the key participants present in the global Fog Networking market. To present a clear vision of the market the competitive landscape has been thoroughly analyzed utilizing the value chain analysis. The opportunities and threats present in the future for the key market players have also been emphasized in the publication.

This report aims to provide:

Table of Contents

Global Fog Networking Market Research Report 2022 – 2029

Chapter 1 Fog Networking Market Overview

Chapter 2 Global Economic Impact on Industry

Chapter 3 Global Market Competition by Manufacturers

Chapter 4 Global Production, Revenue (Value) by Region

Chapter 5 Global Supply (Production), Consumption, Export, Import by Regions

Chapter 6 Global Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type

Chapter 7 Global Market Analysis by Application

Chapter 8 Manufacturing Cost Analysis

Chapter 9 Industrial Chain, Sourcing Strategy and Downstream Buyers

Chapter 10 Marketing Strategy Analysis, Distributors/Traders

Chapter 11 Market Effect Factors Analysis

Chapter 12 Global Fog Networking Market Forecast

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Mon, 25 Jul 2022 00:38:00 -0500 A2Z Market Research en-US text/html Killexams : Cyberthreats and hybrid working in the new normal

Last year, the adaptability of organisations was tested by the sudden shift towards remote work caused by the pandemic. Now, in 2021, we know the shift wasn’t temporary. A combination of office-based and remote work – the hybrid work model – is part of the new normal and presents a new host of challenges, not least of all, cybersecurity.

Cisco-Cyberthreats and hybrid working in the new normal - cybersecurity

Businesses today are figuring out how to secure the expanding attack surface and secure the distributed workforce from the network to the cloud, the endpoint and all users. Just like businesses, threat actors have also adapted to the new normal, with a rise in attacks targeting the personal devices and home networks of remote workers – according to Cisco’s Future of Secure Remote Work Report. Moreover, 69 per cent of organisations in Asia Pacific have experienced a 25 per cent or greater increase in cyber threats or alerts since the start of the pandemic. In fact, Asia Pacific is where the largest proportion of organisations have experienced this cyber threat increase globally. Phishing attacks and other scams that take advantage of people’s fears during a crisis also continue to rise as our personal and professional lives converge online. They are also constantly evolving as malicious actors frequently adapt their techniques and campaigns based on what is topical.

What’s causing this trend? For organisations in Singapore, it’s the increased complexity of the cybersecurity perimeter, the combination of tools and interfaces, and, as usual, the human factor.

Future of Secure Remote Work Report : Source 1

This increased complexity brought on by hybrid working is providing new opportunities for attackers, says Cisco’s Managing Director of Cybersecurity in APJC, Kerry Singleton. “There’s a lot of attention paid to ransomware, but there is not a simple ‘never pay the ransom’ or ‘just pay the ransom’ resolution as there are things that need to happen simultaneously after an infection is discovered,” he says. “Paying the ransom does not remove the adversary from your environment, nor fix underlying security issues that the adversary may have leveraged to gain an initial foothold on your network. The consequences can be a lot worse if the cybercriminal steals intellectual property and sells it to your competitors. Or if they sell your customers’ credit card data which in turn damages your reputation.”

Kerry Singleton, Cisco Managing Director of Cybersecurity Sales (APJC)

Kerry Singleton, Cisco Managing Director of Cybersecurity Sales (APJC)

“As every IT professional knows, relying on passwords is suboptimal as they are easily compromised and difficult to manage, costing businesses billions of dollars a year. That’s the case even when there is a traditional security perimeter in place in the form of a corporate office. Once people are using their home networks and possibly their personal devices and getting barraged with phishing attacks, be it in the form of phone calls, texts, emails or even messages on social media platforms, there really is no alternative other than mandating multi-factor authentication (MFA) to prevent credentials being stolen.” 

According to the Future of Secure Remote Work Report, companies in Singapore are responding to the new threat landscape, with 76 per cent of survey respondents planning to increase their spending on cybersecurity as a direct response to Covid-19, and 63 per cent of them are introducing MFA to support remote working.

Future of Secure Remote Work Report : Source 2

While some companies will opt for cybersecurity solutions from a variety of providers, Cisco believes there’s a better way. Cisco has adopted a reference architecture premised on providing

“networking and collaborative solutions that are flexible, simple to use, effective, and secure, whether delivered via on-premises data centres or in the cloud and across all user devices – work or personal”.

Singleton adds: “A Zero Trust approach to security can be simply understood by protecting ‘3 Ws’ – the workforce workplace, and workloads. Our solutions are based on this approach addressing potential weaknesses in the 3Ws, without forcing users to jump through a lot of time-consuming hoops. They aim to ensure a secure network connection to the workplace, whether that is a traditional office or the living room of their apartment. And finally, a Cisco solution should facilitate workers accessing their workload, which will usually involve some combination of entering, accessing, storing and transferring data, without inadvertently providing an attack surface for malicious actors.”

One such solution is Cisco’s SecureX, which serves as a cloud-native security platform that provides visibility across users’ entire security infrastructure, including network, endpoints, cloud and applications, to help accelerate and simplify threat response in today’s fast-changing world. These principles are also exemplified in Cisco’s Secure Access Service Edge (SASE) offering, which combines comprehensive networking and security functionsto support the dynamic secure access needs of organisations in a cloud-centric world

Cisco-Cyberthreats and hybrid working in the new normal -cloud-native platform

“Whether you’re responsible for the cybersecurity of a large, mid-sized or small business, SecureX is a one-stop, cloud-native security platform,” says Singleton. “This is especially useful for businesses, and I’m sure it will be getting plenty of attention in the months to come as businesses seek to bed down hybrid working arrangements, which will in turn require a robust cybersecurity infrastructure.”   

While companies in Asia will each decide their hybrid working policies, the nature of cyber threats have changed to exploit the vulnerabilities of employees working remotely. The constantly changing application environments, coupled with the challenge of working with multiple standards and with a variety of different providers, make network security more complex today. For companies moving to hybrid work, IT departments should leverage the right digital tools and integrated solutions to simplify processes, Excellerate visibility, and address the current skills gap. These help build a future-ready workforce and drive business continuity and resilience in the new normal.  

Mon, 26 Jul 2021 03:18:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Acrisure acquires leading MSPs to expand cyber services offering
By Edlyn Cardoza

July 25, 2022

  • Acrisure
  • Catalyst Technology Group
  • Cyber Risk

Acrisure, FinTech, Managed Service Providers, Cyber Services, Catalyst Technology Group, ITS, SMBs, Cyber Risk, Indiana, USAAcrisure, a fast-growing FinTech leader, recently announced that it has acquired two Managed Service Providers (MSP) within its Cyber Services division: Catalyst Technology Group and ITS Inc.

Catalyst Technology Group, based in Indianapolis, Indiana, offers small-and-medium size businesses enterprise-class IT support with a speciality in streamlining processes for greater customer ease. ITS Inc., based in Bar Mills, Maine, provides IBM system design, integration and consulting services to industries including manufacturing, distribution, healthcare, and education.

Acrisure Cyber Services leverages security products, modern AI techniques and cloud-native architecture to minimise clients’ risk. Through these new MSP partnerships, Acrisure clients gain access to Microsoft products, licenses, and Azure Cloud services; Dell computers and components; Cisco networking equipment and software; 24-hour Microsoft help desk; IBM Hardware and Software products and services, and most importantly, the engineering experience to install and support all the above.

“Catalyst and ITS are entrepreneurial organizations with strong leadership and deep customer relationships. Our clients will greatly benefit from an expanded Cyber Services offering with these capabilities added to our solution,” said Greg Williams, Co-Founder, Chairman and CEO of Acrisure.

Since officially launching earlier this year, Acrisure Cyber Services has rapidly expanded its capabilities to offer complete cybersecurity protection to existing and new Acrisure clients. As part of Acrisure’s “high-tech human” approach of marrying client relationships and advisory with technology, this offering further solidifies Acrisure’s ability to help protect and grow what its clients have worked so hard to build.

“Cyber risk is a threat to organizations of all sizes, but small and mid-size companies are especially vulnerable to increasingly sophisticated attacks. Additionally, cyber insurance carriers are raising the bar for minimum protection needed to secure coverage,” said Bill Meara, President of Acrisure Cyber Services. “We provide a single solution that is customized to their unique risk profile, size, industry and more. Now, with Catalyst and ITS we’ve created a holistic IT solution.”

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Sun, 24 Jul 2022 19:24:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Network Function Virtualization Market Forecasted to Reach USD 42.1 Billion by 2030 with a CAGR of 22.9% - Report by Market Research Future (MRFR)

New York, US, July 04, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- According to a comprehensive research report by Market Research Future (MRFR), "Network Function Virtualization Market Analysis by Application (Switching Elements, Traffic Analysis, Next Generation Signaling), Deployment (Cloud, On-premise), By Infrastructure, By End-User (CSP, BFSI, Cloud Service Provider) - Forecast 2030" valuation is poised to reach USD 42.1 Billion by 2030, registering an 22.9% CAGR throughout the forecast period (2021–2030). 

Network Function Virtualization Market Overview

The global network function virtualization market is progressively growing. Rapid growth in the adoption of IoT, 5G, and Industry 4.0 across industries is a key driving force behind the market growth.

Network Function Virtualization Market Report Scope:

Report Metric Details
  Market Size USD 42.1 Billion (2030)
  CAGR 22.9% (2021-2030)
  Base Year 2020
  Forecast Period 2021-2030
  Historical Data 2019
  Forecast Units Value (USD Billion)
  Report Coverage Revenue Forecast, Competitive Landscape, Growth Factors, and Trends
  Segments Covered Deployment, Application and Region
  Geographies Covered North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Rest of the World (RoW)
  Key Vendors Juniper Networks (US), Accenture PLC (Ireland), Cisco Systems, Inc. (US), Alcatel-Lucent SA (France), Nokia Corporation (Finland), Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. (China), NEC Inc. (Japan), Intel Corporation (US), Connectem Inc. (US), Amdocs Inc. (US), 6WIND (France), Ericsson (Sweden), Open Wave Mobility Inc. (US), Oracle Corporation (US), Allot Communications (Israel)
  Key Market Opportunities The increasing growth of advancement in technology like the internet of things (IoT) and artificial intelligence has given various growth opportunities
  Key Market Drivers The increase in the market share of the network function virtualization market is possible because of the increasing market size and increasingly complex infrastructure network during the forecasted period

Get Free sample PDF Brochure  

Growing needs for expanded telecom network capabilities surge the adoption of NFV on a large scale. Mobile operators are increasingly facing the pressure to offer optimal networks for various business models through NVF capability.

This, as a result, boosts the market demand and allows the market to gain huge momentum. Enterprises are increasingly adopting innovative network infrastructures like NVF, cloud, Software-defined Networking (SDN), IP networks, and fixed & mobile broadband networks to streamline various business operations. NFV allows huge cost savings and specialized components, such as FPGAs, NPUs, and ASICs.

Network Function Virtualization (NFV) allows telecom service providers to manage and expand their network capabilities using virtual, software-based applications instead of physical nodes in the network architecture. With NFV, telecoms can quickly deploy applications at basic costs. NFV is crucial for a 5G network to enable all advanced digital services.

Network Function Virtualization Market Segments

The market is segmented into applications, deployments, infrastructures, end-users, and regions. The application segment is sub-segmented into switching elements, traffic analysis, service assurance, and next-generation signaling. The deployment segment is sub-segmented into cloud-based and on-premise. The infrastructure segment is sub-segmented into hardware resources, virtualized resources, and virtualization layers.

The end-user segment is sub-segmented into communication service providers (CSP), information technologies, cloud service providers, and banking financial services & insurance (BFSI). The region segment is sub-segmented into the MEA, Americas, APAC, Europe, and the Rest-of-the-World.

Browse In-depth Market Research Report (100 Pages) on Network Function Virtualization Market:  

Network Function Virtualization Market Regional Analysis 

North America dominates the global network function virtualization market. The increasing use of proof of concepts in telecom companies is a key driving force. Besides, the presence of key industry players such as Cisco, Intel, Amdocs, and Oracle, impacts the NFV market adoption in this region. Also, the rapid shift to 5G networks drives the market demand.

The region witnesses the increasing adoption of 5G network services in industries such as automotive, media & entertainment, and others. The faster adoption of advanced technologies and increasing initiatives to develop innovative modules & deployment of innovative networks substantiate the market size. Furthermore, the high customer digital engagement fosters the region's market shares.

Industry Trends

Increased digitization and automation across the manufacturing sectors have also fueled IoT deployments and the need for innovative networking solutions. Many organizations are leveraging 5G capabilities with reduced latency as they seek new ways to adopt highly automated deployment and management approaches.

Also, the uptake of remote working (Work-from-home) environments has increased the market demand for network virtualization for high-speed networks and IoT securities. The increasing need for businesses to Excellerate operational efficiencies and reduce time to market and expenses & capital expenditures would boost the market size.

The market is experiencing an uptick in investments in R&D activities to develop network function virtualization solutions. Creating business-specific applications that leverage advantage of the technologies and services that have become primitive to focus on asset monitoring & optimization, field worker productivity & safety, and visual inspection became important.

The rising demand for 5G-compatible network solutions influences NFV market size. Growing needs for mission-critical infrastructures led by the rapid shift to cloud, digitization, and 5G is another key growth driver. Besides, advances in virtualization techniques that can automate network function virtualization push the growth of the market.

Ask To Expert:   

Network function virtualization helps 5G achieve the maximum potential, allowing multiple logical networks as virtually independent business operations. The rapid penetration of 5G is expected to drive market growth, enabling communication with many devices comprising complex IoT implementations.

As 5G technology scales, network function virtualization would become one of the major 5G deployment models. Service providers target high revenue-generating network function virtualization applications such as cloud gaming, smart healthcare, and IoT applications. Augmenting demand for high-speed network coverage across industries integrating SDN & NFV is estimated to impact market growth positively.

NFV makes a network more responsive, flexible, and easily scalable, accelerating market time and significantly reducing equipment costs. However, there are significant security risks & concerns involved in it, especially telecommunications providers, slowing down the NFV adoption among them.

Communication service providers (CSPs) worldwide are transitioning their networks to 5G, a decoupled architecture for cloud-native network functions and platforms. In addition to the spectrum and hardware investments, CSPs embrace cloud-native principles, leaping from hardware-based architectures to nimble software-driven frameworks for better scalability, reliability and agility.

Network Function Virtualization Market Competitive Analysis

Dominant Key Players on Network Function Virtualization Market Covered are:

  •  Juniper Networks (US)
  •  Accenture PLC (Ireland)
  •  Cisco Systems Inc. (US)
  •  Alcatel-Lucent SA (France)
  •  Nokia Corporation (Finland)
  •  Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. (China)
  •  NEC Inc. (Japan)
  •  Intel Corporation (US)
  •  Connectem Inc. (US)
  •  Amdocs Inc. (US)
  •  6WIND (France)
  •  Ericsson (Sweden)
  •  Open Wave Mobility Inc. (US)
  •  Oracle Corporation (US)
  •  Allot Communications (Israel)

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Highly competitive, the network function virtualization market appears fragmented due to the presence of several well-established players. Leading market players invest in research and development activities and drive their expansion plans. These players incorporate approaches such as strategic partnerships, mergers & acquisitions, expansion, collaboration, and product/technology launches to gain a larger competitive share.

For instance, recently, on May 16, 2022, Cisco and Megaport announced their partnership to simplify SD-WAN. Optimal multi-cloud performance requires end-to-end SD-WAN automation, which prompted a partnership between Cisco and Megaport. In 2020, Cisco and Megaport partnered to reduce the time required to bridge enterprise SD-WAN sites to clouds.

These companies later launched an on-demand, vendor-neutral network function virtualization (NFV) service that can enable branch-to-cloud connectivity, integrating capabilities for Cisco Software-Defined Cloud Interconnect (SDCI) with Megaport Virtual Edge (MVE). This partnership allows simplified management of the entire network through one ubiquitous platform.

Related Reports:

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About Market Research Future:

Market Research Future (MRFR) is a global market research company that takes pride in its services, offering a complete and accurate analysis regarding diverse markets and consumers worldwide. Market Research Future has the distinguished objective of providing the optimal quality research and granular research to clients. Our market research studies by products, services, technologies, applications, end users, and market players for global, regional, and country level market segments, enable our clients to see more, know more, and do more, which help answer your most important questions.

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Sun, 03 Jul 2022 22:51:00 -0500 text/html
Killexams : Is It Finally Time for Silicon Photonics to Shine?

GlobalFoundries believes there is a bright future for chips that harvest the potential of photons, the building blocks of light, instead of electrons to propel data faster at a fraction of the power and cost.

To get there, the U.S.-based foundry giant is banking on its second-generation silicon-photonics platform, called GF Fotonix. It has landed design wins with leaders in server networking chips such as Broadcom, Cisco, Marvell, and NVIDIA, as well as startups Ayar Labs, Lightmatter, PsiQuantum, and Ranovus to make chips that move data at the speed of light.

The contract chip maker is doubling down on silicon photonics after falling behind more generally in the chip sector when it stepped out of the race with Intel, Samsung, and TSMC to make the most advanced processors.

GlobalFoundries has pivoted, with a new focus on feature-rich chips for everything from smartphones to cars that are based on mature technology nodes. Business is booming. But it believes silicon photonics is its ticket back to the leading edge.

The executive leading this effort is Anthony Yu, vice president in its Wired and Computing business unit. While it could take years for silicon photonics to make a serious dent in the data center, he said, GF is hoping to get a foot in the door with companies betting on the technology to power up artificial intelligence and even quantum computers. 

GlobalFoundries is hoping to hit it big with GF Fotonix following its IPO last year. It is pointing to early wins with companies that plan to use the platform as a sign that silicon photonics is ready for mass deployment.

Yu said GF Fotonix will open the door to the next generation of silicon photonics called co-packaged optics, which promise power and cost savings when used in switch chips that call the shots in data centers. Even chip-to-chip interconnects will have to use silicon photonics to limit the share of the processor’s power budget wasted on I/O. Yu noted some customers want to use GF Fotonix to create chiplets that fit the bill.

"We wanted to announce that silicon photonics has arrived, and that may sound strange given all the virtues of silicon photonics," said Yu. "But it has been in the lab for a long time, and people have doubted it."

A Long Time Coming

Tech giants have used the power of photons to send data between geographically distant data centers over fiber optics and even undersea cables for decades. But they are also increasingly using light to move data within colossal data centers, hauling it between tens of thousands of server racks. To do so, they are utilizing optical networking modules that can be plugged directly into switches to convert light into electricity and vice versa.

Shorter distances between servers and various chips inside them are still spanned with electrical interconnects that move data via copper wires. “The data center is the foothold for silicon photonics right now,” said Yu.

Today, moving data at the speed of light means using specialty materials. These include indium phosphide (InP), the gold standard in lasers and other technologies that can propel photons over optical fibers, and silicon germanium (SiGe), which is widely used in the high-speed mixed-signal electronics that keep the light under control.

But bringing all of these building blocks into inexpensive slabs of silicon that can be mass-produced is a monumental challenge that presents a unique set of problems compared to cramming more transistors on a CPU, according to Yu.

Thousands of different components must be integrated in a silicon-photonics IC, including the modulator that translates data into photons, the waveguide that shines light around the IC, and the detector that converts photons to electrons to be processed. Packaging is also important for moving data into and out of the package, as lasers and fiber optics have to be attached separately, said Yu.

GlobalFoundries rolled out its first-generation silicon-photonics platform in 2016, tapping into the trove of silicon-photonics technology acquired in its takeover of IBM’s semiconductor manufacturing arm.

Yu said the company had the foresight to create a separate silicon-photonics business the same year, in a bet that the world would have to use the power of light to move enormous amounts of data within and between the data centers popping up around the world. While the industry standard for bandwidth was 40 GB/s at the time, technology giants today are gearing up for data rates of 400 GB/s and 800 GB/s.

“Everyone could see that bandwidth was about to explode, particularly as data centers became more hyperscale,” said Yu. “We thought the current technology to supply that—indium phosphide—would not be able to scale up.”

Data movement is also power-hungry. As data centers move to higher bandwidths, they are expending more power to move data through copper cables, and as a result, modern data centers run exceptionally hot. Silicon photonics promises to solve this problem, according to Yu, as it burns through only a third of the power in terms of picojoules per bit.

“We were able to take silicon and get it to behave like indium phosphide through use of differentiated features and unique materials, so that we could apply scale to this problem of supplying enough bandwidth.”

GlobalFoundries said GF Fotonix delivers cost-, space-, and power savings that will help shore up its position as a manufacturing leader in the market for pluggable optics, which is expected to surge to $4 billion in 2026.

Lighting it Up

In an industry eager to crown winners and losers based on process technology, GlobalFoundries said GF Fotonix will help its customers solve some of the biggest challenges facing the data center in a whole new way.

“I would assert that silicon photonics is probably as leading-edge—or maybe even more so—than single-digit process nodes. The ability to control light, manage the light budget on the chip, and even operate at the frequencies of photons requires solving challenges that are totally separate from what companies at single nodes are contending with,” said Yu. “Leading edge is not only defined by process nodes in the single digits.”

“We’re using materials and processing techniques that no other process out there uses,” he said, adding CEO Tom Caulfield has been willing to invest “very significant” amounts on R&D related to silicon photonics.

GlobalFoundries is not alone in mounting a major offensive. Intel has been investing for years to advance the state-of-the-art in silicon photonics to solve bottlenecks in system bandwidth, power, and heat dissipation.

The company said GF Fotonix stands out as a monolithic platform that unites all of the technology’s building blocks for the first time, including 300-mm photonics features and 300-GHz RF-CMOS on a silicon wafer.

“The principal feature we have that no one else can touch is that we are a completely monolithic process, meaning that we can basically put together a photonics system-on-a-chip (SoC),” Yu told Electronic Design.

All major components, including the passive and active photonics, radio frequency (RF), and CMOS, were previously manufactured onto separate chips that then had to be bundled together in a package, noted Yu.

Moving to a monolithic architecture has many pros. The company said GF Fotonix can deliver data rates of up to half a terabit per second (Tb/s) over a single fiber, the fastest data rate of any foundry offering. That will allow for optical chiplets running at 1.6 to 3.2 Tb/s, offering faster data transmission plus better power efficiency and signal integrity. The platform also supports 2.5D packaging technology to glue chiplets together.

Yu said GF Fotonix is based on 45-nm CMOS technology, a step up from 90 nm in its first-generation node released in 2016. Customers can get access to its Process Design Kit (PDK) to start designing chips for GF Fotonix.

GlobalFoundries also pointed out the high level of integration in GF Fotonix, which opens the door for customers to pack more functions into the same silicon-photonics IC and reduce bill-of-materials (BOM) costs.

Flipping the Switch

According to GlobalFoundries, it collaborated with a long list of “customer-partners” that plan to use GF Fotonix to make sure the platform meets their needs while addressing challenges in packaging, assembly, and test.

Yu said it worked closely with them to build out the platform through “the prism of high-volume manufacturability” to make sure it will scale to mass production. “We have a long list of partners that are allowing us to drive this forward, and so we portend a surge of silicon-photonics-based ICs.”

GlobalFoundries said it has partnered with Cisco on a custom silicon-photonics solution for networking gear and interconnects in data centers. The companies are also co-developing an “interdependent PDK” for GF Fotonix.

"Our heavy investment and leadership in silicon photonics, combined with GF's feature-rich manufacturing technology, allows us to deliver best-in-class products," said Bill Gartner, senior vice president of Optical Systems and Optics at Cisco, in a statement.

GlobalFoundries is also trying to help companies take another step on the road to co-packaged optics, giving them the ability to shift optics out of the pluggable module and into the same package as the switch ASIC.

Reducing the distance between the optics and the switch confers several key advantages, including reducing power dissipation. Heat is also limited, opening the door for higher port density and, as a result, bandwidth.

“The innovation of semiconductor engineers has been able to keep co-packaged optics at bay because they have found ways to increase bandwidth and reduce power using different design and packaging technologies,” said Yu. But they have basically reached a wall.”

Other executives have cautioned that co-packaged optics is unlikely to be competitive in the foreseeable future as the semiconductor industry enters the era of 112-Gb/s SerDes and starts looking ahead to 224-Gb/s SerDes.

There are no guarantees that the world can continue to push the envelope in electrical I/O. As a result, Yu said customers are hedging their bets, with plans to roll out prototypes of switches and processors with in-package optics by the end of the year.

GF Fotonix supports a wide range of chip-packaging technologies, too. GlobalFoundries said that it can chisel “cavities” into the silicon die, giving customers an open slot to bond lasers directly to the die, resulting in cost, power, and space savings. The company also is able to carve out “grooves” in the die to support passive attachment of fiber optics—up to 16 fibers in the case of co-packaged optics—increasing bandwidth density.

AI at Speed of Light

As the decline of Moore’s Law takes a toll on the technology industry, other companies are trying to push silicon photonics even deeper into data centers.

Today, data dashes through optical fiber in data centers before it slows to a crawl at copper interconnects. These bottlenecks occur at copper pins and wires on circuit boards. As a result, major semiconductor firms and startups are setting their sights on using silicon photonics to transfer data over shorter distances, such as between CPUs, GPUs, and other computer chips in a server or even on a circuit board (PCB).

NVIDIA indicated that it’s designing high-bandwidth, low-latency, power-efficient optical interconnects based on GF Fotonix into some of its “leading-edge” data-center systems to handle increasingly heavy AI workloads.

Yu said one advantage of GF Fotonix is that the monolithic architecture reduces the rate that errors occur in data transmission, lowering latency by a factor of 10, which in turn translates to higher throughput for AI workloads.

To make things easier for itself, NVIDIA has partnered with Ayar Labs, a startup designing optical interconnects that can be bundled into various processors and accelerators. The interconnects come in the form of a chiplet that can be packaged into everything from CPUs to GPUs to supply up to 1,000X more bandwidth than electrical I/O—using one tenth of the power.

CEO Charles Wuischpard said it partnered closely with GlobalFoundries to integrate its unique requirements into GF Fotonix. Ayar Labs was also the first company to build a prototype on top of the platform.

GF Fotonix sets the stage for the company, which has also partnered with HPE to design a future generation of its Slingshot interconnect for high-performance computing, to supply thousands of units of its chiplet this year.

If You Build It, They Will Come

Yu said the collaboration with its current roster of customers helped it to create a silicon-photonics platform for everyone else to use, even in areas such as telecom, aerospace, defense, and automotive.

Lightmatter, a startup using silicon photonics to accelerate AI workloads in data centers, as well as Excellerate energy efficiency, also plans to use the GF Fotonix platform for its first accelerator chip due out in 2022. Said Lightmatter CEO Nicholas Harris, “Together we’re changing the way the world thinks about photonics.”

PsiQuantum is building out a quantum computer called Q1 with help from GlobalFoundries. Photons are used to solve problems many millions of times faster, and even carry out computations that are impossible today. But prospects for Q1 and other systems to change the world remains years out.

To lend a helping hand to current and future customers, GlobalFoundries is building out a more vibrant ecosystem of software tools, support, and services around the GF Fotonix platform. Ansys, Cadence Design Systems, and Synopsys are offering suites of electronic design tools that support photonics-based chips and chiplets.

“I don’t want to say it’s one-size-fits all,” said Yu. “It’s not that simple. But with one foundry platform with differentiated features and using unique materials, you can open up photonics to a variety of markets.”

GlobalFoundries plans to complete qualification of GF Fotonix to support a production ramp-up by 2024.

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Killexams : Computing and Information Technologies Bachelor of Science Degree Course Sem. Cr. Hrs. First Year COMM-142

General Education – Elective: Introduction to Technical Communication (WI-GE)

This course introduces students to current best practices in written and visual technical communication including writing effective email, short and long technical reports and presentations, developing instructional material, and learning the principles and practices of ethical technical communication. Course activities focus on engineering and scientific technical documents. Lab (Fall).

3 CSEC-102

Information Assurance and Security

Computer-based information processing is a foundation of contemporary society. As such, the protection of digital information, and the protection of systems that process this information has become a strategic priority for both the public and private sectors. This course provides an overview of information assurance and security concepts, practices, and trends. Topics include computing and networking infrastructures, risk, threats and vulnerabilities, legal and industry requirements for protecting information, access control models, encryption, critical national infrastructure, industrial espionage, enterprise backup, recovery, and business continuity, personal system security, and current trends and futures. Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring).

3 GCIS-123

General Education – Elective: Software Development and Problem Solving I

A first course introducing students to the fundamentals of computational problem solving. Students will learn a systematic approach to problem solving, including how to frame a problem in computational terms, how to decompose larger problems into smaller components, how to implement innovative software solutions using a contemporary programming language, how to critically debug their solutions, and how to assess the adequacy of the software solution. Additional Topics include an introduction to object-oriented programming and data structures such as arrays and stacks. Students will complete both in-class and out-of-class assignments. Lab 6 (Fall, Spring).

4 GCIS-124

General Education – Elective: Software Development and Problem Solving II

A second course that delves further into computational problem solving, now with a focus on an object-oriented perspective. There is a continued emphasis on basic software design, testing & verification, and incremental development. Key Topics include theoretical abstractions such as classes, objects, encapsulation, inheritance, interfaces, polymorphism, software design comprising multiple classes with UML, data structures (e.g. lists, trees, sets, maps, and graphs), exception/error handling, I/O including files and networking, concurrency, and graphical user interfaces. Additional Topics include basic software design principles (coupling, cohesion, information expert, open-closed principle, etc.), test driven development, design patterns, data integrity, and data security. (Prerequisite: C- or better in SWEN-123 or CSEC-123 or GCIS-123 or equivalent course.) Lab 6 (Fall, Spring, Summer).

4 MATH-131

General Education – Mathematical Perspective A: Discrete Mathematics

This course is an introduction to the Topics of discrete mathematics, including number systems, sets and logic, relations, combinatorial methods, graph theory, regular sets, vectors, and matrices. (Prerequisites: MATH-101, MATH-111, NMTH-260, NMTH-272 or NMTH-275 or a Math Placement test score of at least 35.) Lecture 4 (Fall, Spring).

4 MATH-161

General Education – Mathematical Perspective B: Applied Calculus

This course is an introduction to the study of differential and integral calculus, including the study of functions and graphs, limits, continuity, the derivative, derivative formulas, applications of derivatives, the definite integral, the fundamental theorem of calculus, basic techniques of integral approximation, exponential and logarithmic functions, basic techniques of integration, an introduction to differential equations, and geometric series. Applications in business, management sciences, and life sciences will be included with an emphasis on manipulative skills. (Prerequisite: C- or better in MATH-101, MATH-111, MATH-131, NMTH-260, NMTH-272 or NMTH-275 or Math Placement test score greater than or equal to 45.) Lecture 4 (Fall, Spring).

4 NSSA-102

Computer System Concepts

This course teaches the student the essential technologies needed by NSSA majors, focused on PC and mainframe hardware topics. They include how those platforms operate, how they are configured, and the operation of their major internal components. Also covered are the basic operating system interactions with those platforms, physical security of assets, and computing-centric mathematical concepts. Lab 2 (Fall, Spring).

3 YOPS-10

RIT 365: RIT Connections

RIT 365 students participate in experiential learning opportunities designed to launch them into their career at RIT, support them in making multiple and varied connections across the university, and immerse them in processes of competency development. Students will plan for and reflect on their first-year experiences, receive feedback, and develop a personal plan for future action in order to develop foundational self-awareness and recognize broad-based professional competencies. Lecture 1 (Fall, Spring).


General Education – First Year Writing (WI)


General Education – Ethical Perspective


General Education – Global Perspective

3 Second Year ISTE-99

School of Information Second Year Seminar

This course helps students prepare for cooperative employment by developing job search approaches and material. Students will explore current and emerging aspects of IST fields to help focus their skill development strategies. Students are introduced to the Office of Career Services and Cooperative Education, and learn about their professional and ethical responsibilities for their co-op and subsequent professional experiences. Students will work collaboratively to build résumés, cover letters, and prepare for interviewing. (Prerequisites: This class is restricted to HCC-BS or CMIT-BS or WMC-BS or COMPEX-UND Major students with at least 2nd year standing.) Lecture 1 (Fall, Spring).

0 ISTE-140

Web & Mobile I

This course provides students with an introduction to internet and web technologies, and to development on Macintosh/UNIX computer platforms. Topics include HTML and CSS, CSS3 features, digital images, web page design and website publishing. Emphasis is placed on fundamentals, concepts and standards. Additional Topics include the user experience, mobile design issues, and copyright/intellectual property considerations. Exercises and projects are required. Lec/Lab 3 (Fall, Spring).

3 ISTE-230

General Education – Elective: Introduction to Database and Data Modeling

A presentation of the fundamental concepts and theories used in organizing and structuring data. Coverage includes the data modeling process, basic relational model, normalization theory, relational algebra, and mapping a data model into a database schema. Structured Query Language is used to illustrate the translation of a data model to physical data organization. Modeling and programming assignments will be required. Note: students should have one course in object-oriented programming. (Prerequisites: ISTE-120 or ISTE-200 or IGME-101 or IGME-105 or CSCI-140 or CSCI-142 or NACA-161 or NMAD-180 or BIOL-135 or GCIS-123 or equivalent course.) Lec/Lab 3 (Fall, Spring).

3 ISTE-240

Web & Mobile II

This course builds on the basics of web page development that are presented in Web and Mobile I and extends that knowledge to focus on theories, issues, and technologies related to the design and development of web sites. An overview of web design concepts, including usability, accessibility, information architecture, and graphic design in the context of the web will be covered. Introduction to web site technologies, including HTTP, web client and server programming, and dynamic page generation from a database also will be explored. Development exercises are required. (Prerequisites: (ISTE-120 or CSCI-140 or CSCI-141 or NACA-161 or IGME-105 or IGME-101 or NMAD-180 or GCIS-123) and (ISTE-140 or NACA-172 or IGME-230 or IGME-235) or equivalent course.) Lec/Lab 3 (Fall, Spring).

3 ISTE-499

Undergraduate Co-op (summer)

Students perform paid, professional work related to their program of study. Students work full-time during the term they are registered for co-op. Students must complete a student co-op work report for each term they are registered; students also are evaluated each term by their employer. A satisfactory grade is given for co-op when both a completed student co-op report and a corresponding employer report that indicates satisfactory student performance are received. (Enrollment in this course requires permission from the department offering the course.) CO OP (Fall, Spring, Summer).

0 NSSA-220

Task Automation Using Interpretive Languages

An introduction to the Unix operating system and scripting in the Perl and Unix shell languages. The course will cover basic user-level commands to the Unix operating system, followed by basic control structures, and data structures in Perl. Examples will include GUI programming, and interfacing to an underlying operating system. Following Perl, students will be introduced to the basics of shell programming using the Unix bash shell. Students will need one year of programming in an object-oriented language. (Prerequisite: GCIS-124 or ISTE-121 or ISTE -200 or CSCI-142 or CSCI-140 or CSCI-242 or equivalent course.) Lecture 4 (Fall, Spring).

3 NSSA-221

System Administration I

This course is designed to give students an understanding of the role of the system administrator in large organizations. This will be accomplished through a discussion of many of the tasks and tools of system administration. Students will participate in both a lecture section and a separate lab section. The technologies discussed in this class include: operating systems, system security, and service deployment strategies. (Prerequisites: NSSA-241 and (NSSA-220 or CSCI-141 or GCIS-123) or equivalent courses.) Lab 2 (Fall, Spring).

3 NSSA-241

Introduction to Routing and Switching

This course provides an introduction to wired network infrastructures, topologies, technologies, and the protocols required for effective end-to-end communication. Basic security concepts for TCP/IP based technologies are introduced. Networking layers 1, 2, and 3 are examined in-depth using the International Standards Organization’s Open Systems Interconnection and TCP/IP models as reference. Course Topics focus on the TCP/IP protocol suite, the Ethernet LAN protocol, switching technology, and routed and routing protocols common in TCP/IP networks. The lab assignments mirror the lecture content , providing an experiential learning component for each course covered. (Prerequisites: NSSA-102 or CSEC-101 or CSEC-140 or NACT-151 or CSCI-250 or equivalent courses.) Lab 2 (Fall, Spring).

3 STAT-145

General Education – Elective: Introduction to Statistics I

This course introduces statistical methods of extracting meaning from data, and basic inferential statistics. Topics covered include data and data integrity, exploratory data analysis, data visualization, numeric summary measures, the normal distribution, sampling distributions, confidence intervals, and hypothesis testing. The emphasis of the course is on statistical thinking rather than computation. Statistical software is used. (Prerequisite: MATH-101 or MATH-111 or NMTH-260 or NMTH-272 or NMTH-275 or a math placement test score of at least 35.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring, Summer).


General Education – Artistic Perspective


General Education – Natural Science Inquiry Perspective


General Education – Elective

3 Third Year ISTE-260

Designing the User Experience

The user experience is an important design element in the development of interactive systems. This course presents the foundations of user-centered design principles within the context of human-computer interaction (HCI). Students will explore and practice HCI methods that span the development lifecycle from requirements analysis and creating the product/service vision through system prototyping and usability testing. Leading edge interface technologies are examined. Group-based exercises and design projects are required. (Prerequisite: ISTE-140 or IGME-230 or NACA-172 or equivalent course.) Lec/Lab 3 (Fall, Spring).

3 ISTE-430

Information Requirements Modeling

Students will survey and apply contemporary techniques used in analyzing and modeling information requirements. Requirements will be elicited in a variety of domains and abstracted at conceptual, logical, and physical levels of detail. Process, data, and state modeling will be applied in projects that follow a systems development lifecycle. Object-oriented modeling will be explored and contrasted with data and process oriented modeling. Individual and team modeling assignments will be required. (Prerequisites: ISTE-230 or CSCI-320 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring).

3 ISTE-499

Undergraduate Co-op (summer)

Students perform paid, professional work related to their program of study. Students work full-time during the term they are registered for co-op. Students must complete a student co-op work report for each term they are registered; students also are evaluated each term by their employer. A satisfactory grade is given for co-op when both a completed student co-op report and a corresponding employer report that indicates satisfactory student performance are received. (Enrollment in this course requires permission from the department offering the course.) CO OP (Fall, Spring, Summer).


CIT Concentration Courses


General Education – Social Perspective


General Education – Scientific Principles Perspective


General Education – Immersion 1


Open Electives

6 Fourth Year ISTE-500

Senior Development Project I

The first course in a two-course, senior level, system development capstone project. Students form project teams and work with sponsors to define system requirements. Teams then create architectures and designs, and depending on the project, also may begin software development. Requirements elicitation and development practices introduced in prior coursework are reviewed, and additional methods and processes are introduced. Student teams are given considerable latitude in how they organize and conduct project work. (This course is restricted to WMC-BS, HCC-BS, CMIT-BS, and 2 ISTE-499 completed or (1 ISTE-498 completed and 1 ISTE-499 completed).) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring).

3 ISTE-501

Senior Development Project II (WI-PR)

The second course in a two-course, senior level, system development capstone project. Student teams complete development of their system project and package the software and documentation for deployment. Usability testing practices introduced in prior course work are reviewed, and additional methods and processes are introduced. Teams present their developed system and discuss lessons learned at the completion of the course. (Prerequisites: ISTE-500 or equivalent course.) Lecture 3 (Fall, Spring).


CIT Concentration Courses


General Education – Immersion 2, 3


Open Electives

9 Total Semester Credit Hours


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