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312-49v9 ECCouncil Computer Hacking Forensic Investigator (V9)

Computer hacking forensic investigation is the process of detecting hacking attacks and properly extracting evidence to report the crime and conduct audits to prevent future attacks.

Computer crime in todays cyber world is on the rise. Computer Investigation techniques are being used by police, government and corporate entities globally and many of them turn to EC-Council for our Computer Hacking Forensic Investigator CHFI Certification Program.

Number of Questions: 150
Test Duration: 4 Hours
Test Format: Multiple Choice
Test Delivery: ECC EXAM
Exam Prefix: 312-49 (ECC EXAM)

- Perform incident response and forensics
- Perform electronic evidence collections
- Perform digital forensic acquisitions
- Perform bit-stream Imaging/acquiring of the digital media seized during the process of investigation.
- Examine and analyze text, graphics, multimedia, and digital images
- Conduct thorough examinations of computer hard disk drives, and other electronic data storage media
- Recover information and electronic data from computer hard drives and other data storage devices
- Follow strict data and evidence handling procedures
- Maintain audit trail (i.e., chain of custody) and evidence integrity
- Work on technical examination, analysis and reporting of computer-based evidence
- Prepare and maintain case files
- Utilize forensic tools and investigative methods to find electronic data, including Internet use history, word processing documents, images and other files
- Gather volatile and non-volatile information from Windows, MAC and Linux
- Recover deleted files and partitions in Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux
- Perform keyword searches including using target words or phrases
- Investigate events for evidence of insider threats or attacks
- Support the generation of incident reports and other collateral
- Investigate and analyze all response activities related to cyber incidents
- Plan, coordinate and direct recovery activities and incident analysis tasks
- Examine all available information and supporting evidence or artefacts related to an incident or event
- Collect data using forensic technology methods in accordance with evidence handling procedures, including collection of hard copy and electronic documents
- Conduct reverse engineering for known and suspected malware files
- Perform detailed evaluation of the data and any evidence of activity in order to analyze the full circumstances and implications of the event
- Identify data, images and/or activity which may be the target of an internal investigation
- Establish threat intelligence and key learning points to support pro-active profiling and scenario modelling
- Search file slack space where PC type technologies are employed
- File MAC times (Modified, Accessed, and Create dates and times) as evidence of access and event sequences
- Examine file type and file header information
- Review e-mail communications including web mail and Internet Instant Messaging programs
- Examine the Internet browsing history
- Generate reports which detail the approach, and an audit trail which documents actions taken to support the integrity of the internal investigation process
- Recover active, system and hidden files with date/time stamp information
- Crack (or attempt to crack) password protected files
- Perform anti-forensics detection
- Maintain awareness and follow laboratory evidence handling, evidence examination, laboratory safety, and laboratory security policy and procedures
- Play a role of first responder by securing and evaluating a cybercrime scene, conducting preliminary interviews, documenting crime scene, collecting and preserving electronic evidence, packaging and transporting electronic evidence, reporting of the crime scene
- Perform post-intrusion analysis of electronic and digital media to determine the who, where, what, when, and how the intrusion occurred
- Apply advanced forensic tools and techniques for attack reconstruction
- Perform fundamental forensic activities and form a base for advanced forensics
- Identify and check the possible source/incident origin
- Perform event co-relation
- Extract and analyze logs from various devices such as proxies, firewalls, IPSes, IDSes, Desktops, laptops, servers, SIM tools, routers, switches, AD servers, DHCP servers, Access Control Systems, etc.
- Ensure that reported incident or suspected weaknesses, malfunctions and deviations are handled with confidentiality
- Assist in the preparation of search and seizure warrants, court orders, and subpoenas
- Provide expert witness testimony in support of forensic examinations conducted by the examiner

ECCouncil Computer Hacking Forensic Investigator (V9)
EC-Council Investigator study
Killexams : EC-Council Investigator study - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/312-49v9 Search results Killexams : EC-Council Investigator study - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/312-49v9 https://killexams.com/exam_list/EC-Council Killexams : New study examines the effectiveness of colonoscopies

Colonoscopies are a dreaded rite of passage for many middle-age adults. The promise has been that if you endure the awkwardness and invasiveness of having a camera travel the length of your large intestine once every decade after age 45, you have the best chance of catching -- and perhaps preventing -- colorectal cancer. It's the second most common cause of cancer death in the United States. Some 15 million colonoscopies are performed in the US each year.

Now, a landmark study suggests the benefits of colonoscopies for cancer screening may be overestimated.

The study marks the first time colonoscopies have been compared head-to-head to no cancer screening in a randomized trial. The study found only meager benefits for the group of people invited to get the procedure: an 18% lower risk of getting colorectal cancer, and no significant reduction in the risk of cancer death. It was published Sunday in The New England Journal of Medicine.

Study researcher Dr. Michael Bretthauer, a gastroenterologist who leads the clinical effectiveness group at the University of Oslo in Norway, said he found the results disappointing.

But as a researcher, he has to follow the science, "so I think we have to embrace it," he said. "And we may have oversold the message for the last 10 years or so, and we have to wind it back a little."

Other experts say that as good as this study was, it has important limitations, and these results shouldn't deter people from getting colonoscopies.

"I think it's just hard to know the value of a screening test when the majority of people in the screening didn't get it done," said Dr. William Dahut, chief scientific officer at the American Cancer Society, who was not involved in the study.

Less than half of people invited to get a colonoscopy in the study -- just 42% -- actually got one.

When the study authors restricted the results to the people who actually received colonoscopies -- about 12,000 out of the more than 28,000 who were invited to do so -- the procedure was found to be more effective. It reduced the risk of colorectal cancer by 31% and cut the risk of dying of that cancer by 50%.

Bretthauer said the true benefits of colonoscopy probably lie somewhere in the middle. He said he thinks of the results of the full study -- including people who did and didn't get colonoscopies after they were invited -- as the minimum amount of benefit colonoscopies provide to a screened population. He thinks of the results from the subset of people who actually got the test as the maximum benefit people could expect from the procedure.

Based on his results, then, he expects that screening colonoscopy probably reduces a person's chances of colorectal cancer by 18% to 31%, and their risk of death from 0% to as much as 50%.

But, he said, even 50% is "on the low end of what I think everybody thought it would be."

Other studies have estimated larger benefits for colonoscopies, reporting that these procedures could reduce the risk of dying of colorectal cancer by as much as 68%.

The first randomized trial of colonoscopy

The NordICC study, which stands for Northern-European Initiative on Colon Cancer, included more 84,000 men and women ages 55 to 64 from Poland, Norway and Sweden. None had gotten a colonoscopy before. The participants were randomly invited to have a screening colonoscopy between June 2009 and June 2014, or they were followed for the study without getting screened.

In the 10 years after enrollment, the group invited to get colonoscopies had an 18% lower risk of colorectal cancers than the group that wasn't screened. Overall, the group invited to screening also had a small reduction in their risk of death from colorectal cancer, but that difference was not statistically significant -- meaning it could simply be due to chance.

Before the NordiCC trial, the benefits of colonoscopies had been measured by observational studies that looked back in time to compare how often colorectal cancer is diagnosed in people who received colonoscopies versus those who did not.

These studies can be subject to bias, however, so scientists look to randomized trials that blindly sort people into two groups: those who are assigned to get an intervention and those who are not. These studies then follow both groups forward in time to see if there are differences. Those studies have been difficult to do for colon cancer, which can be slow-growing and may take years to be diagnosed.

The researchers say they're going to continue to follow participants for another five years. It could be that because colon cancers can be slow-growing, more time will help refine their results and may show bigger benefits for colonoscopy screening.

Results need careful interpretation

Normally, those kinds of disappointing results from such a large, strong study would be considered definitive enough to change medical practice.

But this study has some limitations that experts say need to be sorted out before doctors and patients supply up on colonoscopies for cancer screening.

"I don't think anyone should be canceling their colonoscopy," said Dr. Jason Dominitz, the national director of gastroenterology for the Veterans Health Administration.

"We know that colon cancer screening works," said Dominitiz, who also co-authored an editorial that ran alongside the study.

There are several options for colorectal cancer screening. Those include stool tests that check for blood or cancer cells and a test called sigmoidoscopy, which looks only at the lower part of the colon. Both have been shown to reduce both cancer incidence and colorectal cancer deaths.

"Those other tests work through colonoscopy," Dominitz said. "They identify people at high risk who would benefit from colonoscopy, then the colonoscopy is done and removes polyps, for example, that prevents the individual from getting colon cancer in the first place, or it identifies colon cancer at a treatable stage."

Polyps are benign growths that can turn into cancers. They are typically removed when identified during a screening colonoscopy, which can lower a person's risk of colorectal cancer in the future.

Studies are underway in Spain and the US testing colonoscopy head-to-head against stool tests to see which is most effective.

The best way to screen for colorectal cancer

Dominitz said this randomized controlled trial was a test of advice as much as it was a test of the value of colonoscopy.

"If you ask the population to do something, how much of an impact will it have?" he said.

Overall, the study found that just inviting people to get a colonoscopy didn't have a large beneficial impact across these countries, partly because so many people didn't do it.

Dominitz thinks the low participation can be partly explained by the study's setting. Colonoscopies are not as common in the countries involved in the study as they are in the United States. In Norway, he said, official colorectal cancer screening recommendations didn't come until this past year.

"They don't see the public service announcements. They don't hear Katie Couric talking about getting screened for colon cancer. They don't see the billboards in the airport and whatnot," he said. "So an invitation to be screened in Europe is, I think, likely to be somewhat different than an invitation to be screened in the US."

In the US, according to data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 1 in 5 adults between the ages of 50 and 75 have never been screened for colorectal cancer.

If you feel squeamish about getting a colonoscopy, the US Preventive Services Task Force says a variety of methods and regimens work to detect colorectal cancer. It recommends screening with tests that check for blood and/or cancer cells in stool every one to three years, a CT scan of the colon every five years, a flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years, a flexible sigmoidoscopy every 10 years paired with stool tests to check for blood annually, or a colonoscopy every 10 years.

In 2021, the task force lowered the recommended age to start routine screening for colorectal cancer from 50 to 45 because the cancer is becoming more common in younger adults.

When it comes to colorectal cancer, Dominitz said, tests can only be effective if people are willing to do them.

As proof, he points to early results from a large randomized trial from Sweden that's testing colonoscopy, FIT testing and no screening at all.

Results collected from more than 278,000 people enrolled between March 2014 and the end of 2020 found that 35% of the group assigned to get a colonoscopy actually got one, compared with 55% who were assigned to the stool test group.

To date, slightly more cancers have been detected in the group assigned to stool testing than in the group assigned to get a colonoscopy -- "so participation with screening really is key!" Dominitz said.

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Sun, 09 Oct 2022 10:47:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.gwinnettdailypost.com/features/health/new-study-examines-the-effectiveness-of-colonoscopies/article_42794f08-c222-561a-9ec9-0a611db4318e.html
Killexams : NetCom Learning Announces EC-Council Certified Ethical Hacker Version 12

"NetCom Learning launches C|EH v12 training program for organizations looking to train their employees on essential ethical hacking skills"

EC-Council recently announced the launch of the latest version of the world’s no. 1 credential in ethical hacking – C|EH v12. NetCom Learning, a leading IT and business training organization, being an official partner of EC-Council is offering C|EH v12 training program.

C|EH needs no introduction when it comes to ethical hacking. It is well recognized in the cybersecurity industry among the top enterprises. In its 12th version, C|EH not only provides comprehensive training but also in-depth hands-on lab, practice range experience, certification assessments, and global hacking competitions. The C|EH v12 program is curated through a new learning framework: 1. Learn 2. Certify 3. Engage 4. Compete.

The C|EH v12 course and more details about the program can be accessed on NetCom Learning’s website.

The key features of the C|EH v12 training program:

  • Unique learn, certify, engage and compete methodology
  • Structured professional course covering 20 modules
  • Over 220 hands-on labs
  • 500+ unique attack techniques with over 3,500 hacking tools
  • Real-world ethical hacking assignment
  • New challenges every month 


NetCom Learning CEO Russell Sarder commented, "As an Accredited Training Partner of EC-Council, we're thrilled to announce the all-new Certified Ethical Hacker version 12. We emphasize the importance of having skilled cybersecurity professionals in every organization to maintain and enhance its security posture owing to the ever-increasing cyber threats and breaches. Upskilling IT teams regularly helps them tremendously as it bridges the cybersecurity skills gap. We stay true to our commitment to instill lifelong learning, and all our initiatives are carefully planned and executed with this goal in mind.”

About NetCom Learning

NetCom Learning supports the development of innovative learning organizations in the workplace by structuring a more knowledgeable workforce, enabling changes, and stimulating growth. Since 1998 we have been empowering organizations to reach optimal performance results and address challenges by managing all aspects of organizational learning.

NetCom Learning helps build innovative learning organizations in the workplace by structuring a smarter workforce, supporting changes, and driving growth. With more than 23 years of experience, NetCom Learning has been empowering innovative learning organizations to adapt and drive growth in this fast-paced world by closing critical skills gaps and ensuring smooth deployment, implementation, and consumption through authorized training delivered by Certified Trainers.

Like us on Facebook. Follow us on LinkedIn. Tweet us on Twitter.

Media Contact
Company Name: NetCom Learning
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Website: https://www.netcomlearning.com/

 

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To view the original version on ABNewswire visit: NetCom Learning Announces EC-Council Certified Ethical Hacker Version 12

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Mon, 10 Oct 2022 19:07:00 -0500 text/html https://www.benzinga.com/pressreleases/22/10/ab29209996/netcom-learning-announces-ec-council-certified-ethical-hacker-version-12
Killexams : How Many EU States Are on Track for Air Pollution Targets?

Researchers at the University of Birmingham and University of Oxford have secured £207,000 funding from the Natural Environment Research Council to investigate the impacts of COVID-19 related public health measures upon air and noise quality in Oxford.

The new ‘OxAria’ study started on 1st July, extending an existing collaboration which has enabled five low-cost air pollution sensors to be installed at city centre locations, generating real-time information on key air pollutants, including Nitrogen Oxides (NO, NO2), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Ozone (O3) and Particulate Matter (PM1, PM2.5, PM10); known to be a risk to human health.

Over the next 18-months joint lead researchers Dr Suzanne Bartington (Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham) and Dr Felix Leach (Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford)  will work in partnership with Oxfordshire County Council and Oxford City Council to extend the existing air quality sensor network to 16 city locations, taking a measurement every ten seconds. Acoustic monitoring devices will be deployed alongside the air quality sensor network to capture audio frequency (noise levels).  The air and noise pollution data alongside traffic information obtained from roadside detection sensors will be used to better understand the relative contribution of traffic to overall pollution and to identify distribution of localised environmental pollution hotspots.

Oxford City Council has recognised challenges of poor air quality and the authorities are currently working to reduce harmful NO2- which is currently breaching the annual mean legal limit in some areas of the city. A exact report commissioned by Oxford City Council and undertaken by Ricardo Energy & Environment identified the transport sector to be the largest contributor of NO2 emissions in the city, accounting for 68% emissions. Reduction in traffic levels of up to 60% in Oxford during the COVID-19 lockdown period led to a decrease in NOx concentrations as measured at the regulatory air quality monitoring stations; although changes in Particulate Matter concentrations were less marked and even increased at times; a pattern also observed in other UK cities. By using data obtained from before, during and after the COVID-19 restrictions at multiple sites, the study team will be able to better understand the impact of public health measures upon specific pollutant levels, and therefore develop the evidence base for future policy actions.

The data will help inform Oxford City Council’s new Air Quality Action Plan (AQAP) to be published later this year, outlining the air quality targets and measures to be achieved between 2021-2025. The information will also be used to predict the future positive and negative health benefits of air quality control scenarios, such as the Connecting Oxford proposals (comprising three bus gates, a Workplace Parking Levy and sustainable travel improvements) and Zero Emission and Low Emission Zone restrictions, now planned for introduction from late 2021. 

Principal Investigator Dr Suzanne Bartington from the Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham said: “poor air quality is the greatest environmental risk to human health in the UK responsible with approximately 5.6% of all mortality attributable to long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The COVID-19 pandemic provides a unique natural experimental opportunity to understand the positive and negative impacts arising from exact changes in the way people move around the city, thereby redefining local air quality policy and climate strategy”

Co-Principal Investigator Dr Felix Leach Associate Professor of Engineering Science at the Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford said: “Air pollution is a complex mixture of substances, and understanding the effect of interventions on all of these together on a local level is important. Oxford will become probably the most-monitored city for air quality in the UK. In this collaboration between emissions, public health, and local authority experts, we will provide an evidence based approach for air quality improvement into the future.”

Councillor Tom Hayes, Deputy Leader and Cabinet Member for Green Transport and Zero Carbon Oxford, Oxford City Council, said: “We welcome this new research by the Universities of Oxford and Birmingham into air quality. This study will help us to learn more about the impacts of air pollution before, during, and after lockdown, so that we can continue to develop an evidence-led plan for our Zero Emission Zone and Connecting Oxford proposals, as well as the city’s own Air Quality Action Plan. I am looking forward to seeing the results of this research, so that we can continue to learn as we tackle toxic air pollution in our city” 

Councillor Yvonne Constance, Oxfordshire County Council Cabinet member for Environment said: “This a very good example of the wider ambition and a series of projects Oxfordshire County Council is committed to support in transport management, energy efficiency and connectivity to achieve zero emissions by 2030 in our own estate and succeed ahead of the Government target of net zero by 2050. The sensors will play an important part in helping us to understand pollution hotspots in Oxford and will help inform our approach as we plan for steps to address this including in our Zero EmisThe European Commission has published its first report on how member states are progressing towards achieving their objectives as laid out in the National Emissions reduction Commitments (NEC) Directive – and the results don’t make for encouraging reading. Over half of the 27 countries are unlikely to meet their 2020 goals, while more than 80% will miss out on their 2030 aims if they do not Improve their practices soon.

The report is based upon projections made by each individual country over the amount of emissions they expect to produce in 2020. The authors of the report concede that their analysis is far from conclusive – especially given that several countries missed the deadline for submitting their projections, while others have only submitted a draft document or, in two cases, no documents at all. However, it still points to the long road ahead for EU states to clean up their act and achieve the lofty ambitions laid out in the Clean Air Programme.

What is the NEC Directive?
First launched on December 31st 2016, the NEC Directive is the EC’s main legislative tool in enforcing the objectives defined by the Clean Air Programme. Among other goals, the EC has targeted a 50% decrease in the negative health impacts of poor air quality by 2030 across all member states, with concurrent benefits for the environment.

In particular, the NEC Directive governs emissions for five different pollutants. These are ammonia (NH3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen oxides (NOx), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). The targets delineated for the years 2020 to 2029 are already clearly defined, with even more ambitious targets set to follow from 2030 onwards.

Disappointing results
Frequent monitoring of the air quality found in cities and further afield is crucial to assessing how well EU member states are progressing towards the Clean Air Programme goals – and the first report does not make for encouraging reading. A mere 10 (37%) of the 27 nations are on track to achieve their 2020 goals according to current practices, sparking concern that not enough is being done in over half of the bloc.

Meanwhile, the 2030 targets now appear to be even more unattainable. According to the EC’s report, just four EU states are in line to achieve their goals. Croatia, Cyprus, the Netherlands and Finland have put in place a blueprint for success that other nations should be encouraged to follow, but the fact that the other 23 are not close to adhering to their targets should set alarm bells ringing.

Instigating change
The current upheaval caused by coronavirus – and the environmental impact of the pandemic – have brought the subject of air quality into sharp focus. With much of the continent having experienced some form of quarantine over the last three months, air pollution had fallen dramatically in many EU countries. However, levels of NO2 and other pollutants are beginning to creep up now that restrictions are being relaxed.

With the world at something of a crossroads, it’s high time that governments across Europe and beyond used the present predicament to instigate real change. First on the list for EU countries should be curbing the widespread use of ammonia in fertilisers and pesticides, which continued unabated during the COVID-19 crisis and which is one of the most common and most damaging contributors to air pollution and climate change, according to the EC.sion Zone planned to start in 2021 which will be expanded across the city in stages.”

Wed, 05 Oct 2022 16:06:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.envirotech-online.com/news/air-monitoring/6/aqe/how-many-eu-states-are-on-track-for-air-pollution-targets/58746
Killexams : Los Angeles leader in racism scandal resigns Council seat

LOS ANGELES (AP) — The former president of the Los Angeles City Council resigned from public office Wednesday, three days after a recording surfaced of her making racist remarks in a meeting that is now the subject of a state investigation.

Nury Martinez, the first Latina to hold the top post on the council, announced her decision in a press release following a groundswell of outrage and calls for the resignations of her and two other council members involved in the conversation recorded last year.

Martinez made racist remarks about the Black son of a white councilman and other crude comments.

Her resignation statement did not address those comments, though in words directed at her daughter she said she had fallen short of expectations recently and added: "I vow to you that I will strive to be a better woman to make you proud.”

The announcement was made several hours after Attorney General Rob Bonta said he would investigate Los Angeles’ redistricting process that the three council members discussed with a labor leader in which they schemed to protect Latino political strength in council districts.

Martinez had stepped down as president Monday while still holding onto her council seat. Her decision to supply up her seat came as President Joe Biden was due to arrive in Los Angeles a day after he condemned the remarks and called on all three council members — Martinez, Kevin de Leon and Gil Cedillo — to resign.

Bonta, a Democrat like the three council members, said his investigation could lead to civil liability or criminal charges, depending on what is found.

“It’s clear an investigation is sorely needed to help restore confidence in the redistricting process for the people of LA,” he said.

Bonta spoke in Los Angeles while the council tried unsuccessfully to conduct business nearby amid the uproar that exposed City Hall’s racial rivalries. Those involved in the leaked conversation were all Latinos, while Bonta is the first Filipino American to hold the top law enforcement job in the nation’s most populous state.

The council reconvened Wednesday, possibly to censure the three members, but it was unable to do business because a crowd of about 50 protesters drowned out the acting president chanting slogans such as, “No meeting without resignation.”

A minimum of 10 out of 15 members necessary for a quorum had assembled, but the meeting was adjourned when one left. None of the three embattled council members showed up.

“Who shut you down? We shut you down!” the raucous crowd cheered as the lights were being turned down.

Acting Council President Mitch O’Farrell said that with no sign of anger subsiding, he didn't think the council could resume its work until all three are gone, which he said is inevitable.

“For Los Angeles to heal, and for its City Council to govern, there must be accountability," he said in a statement. "I repeat my call on Councilmembers de Leon and Cedillo to also resign. There is no other way forward.”

The council cannot expel members — it can only suspend a member when criminal charges are pending. A censure does not result in suspension or removal from office.

In the recorded conversation, Martinez called council member Mike Bonin a “little bitch.” She described the behavior of his Black son on a parade float when he was 2 as “parece changuito,” or “like a monkey,” the Los Angeles Times reported Sunday.

At another point on the hourlong recording, Martinez called indigenous immigrants from the Mexican state of Oaxaca ugly, and made crass remarks about Jews and Armenians.

Martinez made history in 2019 when she became the first Latina elected to the council presidency and described herself as “a glass-ceiling shattering leader who brings profound life experience as the proud daughter of working-class immigrants” on her website. She is the daughter of Mexican immigrants and was born and raised in the San Fernando Valley.

The discussion with a powerful Latino labor leader, who has since resigned, centered on protecting Latino political power while redrawing council district boundaries. The once-a-decade redistricting process can pit one group against another to gain political advantage in elections.

Jessica Levinson, a Loyola Law School professor who previously was a member of the Los Angeles City Ethics Commission, said she did not see evidence in the recordings that would prompt criminal charges, although Bonta left open that possibility.

However, she said a probe could force redrawing council districts even though the current maps are being used to choose new council members next month.

“It is so rare to have audio where … it gives the impression that they’re explicitly drawing lines on the basis of race,” Levinson said. “If in the end we determine these lines were illegally drawn, there needs to be a remedy for that, even though practically ... it’s a disaster.”

Los Angeles City Attorney Mike Feuer has called for creating an independent commission to draw redistricting maps.

“It should be clear to everyone by now that if you leave in the hands of elected officials the power to determine their own political districts, this is a recipe for conflict of interest and it is an invitation to backroom deals,” Feuer said.

The Los Angeles Times reported that the recording was posted on the social medial site Reddit by a now-suspended user. It is unclear who recorded the audio, who uploaded it to Reddit and whether anyone else was present at the meeting.


Thompson reported from Sacramento. Associated Press writers John Antczak and Amancai Biraben in Los Angeles, Sophie Austin in Sacramento and Julie Watson in San Diego contributed to this report.

Copyright 2022 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed without permission.

Wed, 12 Oct 2022 11:36:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.news-gazette.com/news/nation-world/los-angeles-leader-in-racism-scandal-resigns-council-seat/article_7a1751e2-a545-55cf-9efe-afe524e0ec51.html
Killexams : Scientists grow human brain cells in rats to study diseases

Wed, 12 Oct 2022 03:14:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.gjsentinel.com/news/us/scientists-grow-human-brain-cells-in-rats-to-study-diseases/article_65c86bf5-116c-501e-903f-8e8f61ec466b.html Killexams : Unease in a town as investigators link five fatal shootings

STOCKTON, Calif. – Five homicides in three months, all in similar circumstances, have left some residents unsettled in Stockton after investigators said the killings might be related.

The five victims, all men between the ages of 21 and 54, were fatally shot while alone in dimly lit areas at night or in the early morning between July 8 and Sept. 27, police said Friday. Four of the men were Hispanic. One was white.

None of the men were robbed; their keys and wallets were not taken, Stanley McFadden, chief of the Stockton Police Department, told reporters last week. The attacks happened in different neighborhoods.

Police said Friday that investigators had reviewed hours of surveillance video and were seeking a "person of interest" whom they asked the public to help identify. Police published a photo of that person walking, though the photo offered few identifiable clues.

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Investigators do not know if that person was responsible for all five killings or if others were involved, Officer Joe Silva, a Stockton police spokesperson, said Monday.

"There could be one person; there could be multiple people," he said. "We just don't know."

While the investigation continues, police have asked residents to remain vigilant, to avoid isolated and dimly lit areas and not to travel alone, if possible.

Police also asked residents to call a tip line with possible leads and to share video that could help in the investigation.

Rewards totaling $85,000 have been offered for information leading to an arrest in the fatal shootings.

The killings have spread anxiety among some residents and prompted some to wonder whether other unsolved homicides in the city might be connected, said Nuri Muhammad, a program strategy manager at Advance Peace Stockton, a community-based organization dedicated to eliminating gun violence.

"Something is going on in the city of Stockton, and it's not gang violence," Muhammad said. "People are clearly shaken by it," he added, and some are concerned that because four of the victims were Hispanic, "there's an undertone of some kind of racism."

Residents are feeling unprotected and sense that "things are very, very unsafe – more than usual," he said.

Silva said that investigators do not believe that the victims were targeted because they were Hispanic.

Stockton, located about 80 miles east of San Francisco, has recorded 43 homicides this year, compared with 39 last year, Silva said. About 12 of this year's homicides are believed to be gang-related, he said.

Police were examining other unsolved killings to determine if they might be related to the five exact ones that have been linked but have not found others that are connected, Silva said.

"I know there's been talk in the media and on social media that there's a serial killer in the city of Stockton," McFadden said last week. "I'm here to tell you that we do not have that information that we have a serial killer in Stockton."

Wed, 05 Oct 2022 01:57:00 -0500 en text/html https://buffalonews.com/unease-in-a-town-as-investigators-link-five-fatal-shootings/article_924ad587-bb94-5039-8f97-ec18a3732aa3.html
Killexams : Study: Most Maine schools fall short on Wabanaki history

PORTLAND, Maine (AP) — The Maine Department of Education is not doing enough to enforce a decades-old law requiring students to be taught about Native American history, leading most schools to fall short, according to a study.

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Mon, 10 Oct 2022 05:45:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.timesdaily.com/news/nation/study-most-maine-schools-fall-short-on-wabanaki-history/article_c4dd82ec-d826-5c92-8166-8c86b8904a6d.html
Killexams : New study questions the effectiveness of colonoscopies

Colonoscopies are a dreaded rite of passage for many middle-age adults. The promise has been that if you endure the awkwardness and invasiveness of having a camera travel the length of your large intestine once every decade after age 45, you have the best chance of catching -- and perhaps preventing -- colorectal cancer. It's the second most common cause of cancer death in the United States. Some 15 million colonoscopies are performed in the US each year.

Now, a landmark study suggests the benefits of colonoscopies for cancer screening may be overestimated.

The study marks the first time colonoscopies have been compared head-to-head to no cancer screening in a randomized trial. The study found only meager benefits for the group of people invited to get the procedure: an 18% lower risk of getting colorectal cancer, and no significant reduction in the risk of cancer death. It was published Sunday in The New England Journal of Medicine.

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Study researcher Dr. Michael Bretthauer, a gastroenterologist who leads the clinical effectiveness group at the University of Oslo in Norway, said he found the results disappointing.

But as a researcher, he has to follow the science, "so I think we have to embrace it," he said. "And we may have oversold the message for the last 10 years or so, and we have to wind it back a little."

Actors Ryan Reynolds and Rob McElhenney teamed up to raise awareness of colon cancer by filming their first colonoscopies and posting them on social media.

Other experts say that as good as this study was, it has important limitations, and these results shouldn't deter people from getting colonoscopies.

"I think it's just hard to know the value of a screening test when the majority of people in the screening didn't get it done," said Dr. William Dahut, chief scientific officer at the American Cancer Society, who was not involved in the study.

Less than half of people invited to get a colonoscopy in the study -- just 42% -- actually got one.

When the study authors restricted the results to the people who actually received colonoscopies -- about 12,000 out of the more than 28,000 who were invited to do so -- the procedure was found to be more effective. It reduced the risk of colorectal cancer by 31% and cut the risk of dying of that cancer by 50%.

Bretthauer said the true benefits of colonoscopy probably lie somewhere in the middle. He said he thinks of the results of the full study -- including people who did and didn't get colonoscopies after they were invited -- as the minimum amount of benefit colonoscopies provide to a screened population. He thinks of the results from the subset of people who actually got the test as the maximum benefit people could expect from the procedure.

Based on his results, then, he expects that screening colonoscopy probably reduces a person's chances of colorectal cancer by 18% to 31%, and their risk of death from 0% to as much as 50%.

But, he said, even 50% is "on the low end what what I think everybody thought it would be."

Other studies have estimated larger benefits for colonoscopies, reporting that these procedures could reduce the risk of dying of colorectal cancer by as much as 68%.

The first randomized trial of colonoscopy

The NordICC study, which stands for Northern-European Initiative on Colon Cancer, included more 84,000 men and women ages 55 to 64 from Poland, Norway and Sweden. None had gotten a colonoscopy before. The participants were randomly invited to have a screening colonoscopy between June 2009 and June 2014, or they were followed for the study without getting screened.

In the 10 years after enrollment, the group invited to get colonoscopies had an 18% lower risk of colorectal cancers than the group that wasn't screened. Overall, the group invited to screening also had a small reduction in their risk of death from colorectal cancer, but that difference was not statistically significant -- meaning it could simply be due to chance.

Before the NordiCC trial, the benefits of colonoscopies had been measured by observational studies that looked back in time to compare how often colorectal cancer is diagnosed in people who received colonoscopies versus those who did not.

These studies can be subject to bias, however, so scientists look to randomized trials that blindly sort people into two groups: those who are assigned to get an intervention, and those who are not. These studies then follow both groups forward in time to see if there are differences. Those studies have been difficult to do for colon cancer, which can be slow growing and may take years to be diagnosed.

The researchers say they're going to continue to follow participants for another five years. It could be that because colon cancers can be slow-growing, more time will help refine their results and may show bigger benefits for colonoscopy screening.

Results need careful interpretation

Normally, those kinds of disappointing results from such a large, strong study would be considered definitive enough to change medical practice.

But this study has some limitations that experts say need to be sorted out before doctors and patients supply up on colonoscopies for cancer screening.

"I don't think anyone should be canceling their colonoscopy," said Dr. Jason Dominitz is the national director of gastroenterology for the Veterans Health Administration.

"We know that colon cancer screening works," he said in an interview with CNN. Dominitiz co-authored an editorial which ran alongside the study.

There are several options for colorectal cancer screening. Those include stool tests which check for the presence of blood or cancer cells, and a test called sigmoidoscopy, which looks only at the lower part of the colon. Both have been shown to reduce both cancer incidence and colorectal cancer deaths.

"Those other tests work through colonoscopy," Dominitz said. "They identify people at high risk who would benefit from colonoscopy, then the colonoscopy is done and removes polyps, for example, that prevents the individual from getting colon cancer in the first place, or it identifies colon cancer at a treatable stage."

Polyps are benign growths that can turn into cancers. They are typically removed when identified during a screening colonoscopy, which can lower a person's risk of colorectal cancer in the future.

Studies are underway in Spain and the US testing colonoscopy head-to-head against stool tests to see which is most effective.

The best way to screen for colorectal cancer

Dominitz said this randomized controlled trial was a test of advice as much as it was a test of the value of colonoscopy.

"If you ask the population to do something, how much of an impact will it have?" he said.

Overall, the study found that just inviting people to get a colonoscopy didn't have a large beneficial impact across these countries, partly because so many people didn't do it.

Dominitz thinks the low participation can be partly explained by the study's setting. Colonoscopies are not as common in the countries involved in the study as they are in the United States. In Norway, he said, official colorectal cancer screening recommendations didn't come until this past year.

"They don't see the public service announcements. They don't hear Katie Couric talking about getting screened for colon cancer. They don't see the billboards in the airport and whatnot," he said. "So an invitation to be screened in Europe is, I think, likely to be somewhat different than an invitation to be screened in the US."

In the US, according to data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 1 in 5 adults between the ages of 50 and 75 have never been screened for colorectal cancer.

If you feel squeamish about getting a colonoscopy, the US Preventive Services Task Force says a variety of methods and regimens work to detect colorectal cancer. It recommends screening with tests that check for blood and/or cancer cells in stool every one to three years, a CT scan of the colon every five years, a flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years, a flexible sigmoidoscopy every 10 years paired with stool tests to check for blood annually, or a colonoscopy every 10 years.

In 2021, the task force lowered the recommended age to start routine screening for colorectal cancer from 50 to 45 because the cancer is becoming more common in younger adults.

When it comes to colorectal cancer, he said, tests can only be effective if people are willing to do them.

As proof, he points to early results from a large randomized trial from Sweden that's testing colonoscopy, FIT testing and no screening at all.

Results collected from more than 278,000 people enrolled between March 2014 and the end of 2020 found that 35% of the group assigned to get a colonoscopy actually got one, compared with 55% who were assigned to the stool test group.

To date, slightly more cancers have been detected in the group assigned to stool testing than in the group assigned to get a colonoscopy -- "so participation with screening really is key!" Dominitz said.

The-CNN-Wire

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Mon, 10 Oct 2022 01:34:00 -0500 en text/html https://dothaneagle.com/lifestyles/health-med-fit/new-study-questions-the-effectiveness-of-colonoscopies/article_42ecd3bf-5c46-5c58-912c-4c201ec732cf.html
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