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Administration of Symantec Endpoint Protection 12.1
Symantec Administration exam Questions
Killexams : Symantec Administration exam Questions - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/250-315 Search results Killexams : Symantec Administration exam Questions - BingNews https://killexams.com/pass4sure/exam-detail/250-315 https://killexams.com/exam_list/Symantec Killexams : Best Linux Certifications

More than 20 years after Linus Torvalds developed Linux, the operating system remains a force in the computing industry. While Linux is not widely used on desktops (making up just over 2.4% of the overall desktop operating system market share in January 2019, according to NetMarketShare), it is extraordinarily strong on the web server side, where it enjoys a market share of almost 54%.

IT professionals invest considerable time learning about server computing for everything from installation, configuration, maintenance and virtualization to application support and security. This also means that many IT professionals are working with and around Linux operating systems daily, often alongside Windows and various UNIX OS brands as well.

The best of the Linux certifications vie for considerable mindshare among IT professionals and present an interesting mix of distribution- or brand-agnostic credentials alongside some pretty formidable vendor-specific credentials. There are multiple well-elaborated certification ladders available to those interested in learning, using, and mastering the Linux operating system environment and all the many bells and whistles it supports.

The results of a job search we conducted on several popular job posting sites show which Linux certifications employers are looking for when hiring new employees. While results vary from day to day (and job board to job board), this table reflects those Linux-related certifications that employers were seeking in the U.S.

Job Board Survey Results (in alphabetical order, by certification)

Certification

SimplyHired

Indeed

LinkedIn Jobs

Linkup

Total

GCUX (SANS GIAC) 30 30 55 12 127
Linux+ (CompTIA) 1,045 1,339 779 547 3,710
LPIC (LPI) 38 41 247 44 370
Oracle Linux OCA 27 31 33 12 103
Oracle Linux OCP 61 69 69 25 224
RHCA (Red Hat) 89 102 190 38 419
RHCE (Red Hat) 467 553 754 267 2,041
RHCSA (Red Hat) 417 504 667 241 1,829

We found that for nearly every certification category listed above, the number of national jobs postings mentioning that certification has increased, in some cases substantially, since we surveyed the same job sites a year ago. Linux system administrators and engineers can expect average earnings in the low $70s and upward, depending on the job role. PayScale lists $70,194 as the average salary for Linux system administrators ($52,000/low and $101,000/high). Glassdoor reports earnings for Linux system administrators averaging $68,884, Linux system engineers at $99,348 and senior Linux system engineers at $122,071.

GCUX: GIAC Certified Unix Security Administrator

The Global Information Assurance Certification (GIAC) program is part of SANS, a highly regarded source of instruction and research in the information security field. SANS also provides breaking news, operates a security alert service and serves on all kinds of government, research and academic information security task forces, working groups and industry organizations.

The SANS GIAC program encompasses 37 information security certifications across several categories, such as cyber defense, penetration testing, incident response and forensics, management, audit, legal, developer and industrial control systems. The GIAC Certified UNIX Security Administrator (GCUX) falls under its Cyber Defense category, and aims at professionals who install, configure, monitor, secure and audit both Unix and Linux systems.

GIAC certifications must be renewed every four years by earning 36 continuing professional experience (CPE) credits. Also, credential holders must pay a certification maintenance fee of $429 every four years.

GCUX Facts & Figures

Certification Name

GIAC Certified Unix Security Administrator (GCUX)

Prerequisites & Required Courses

None; SEC506: Securing Linux/Unix training recommended (classroom, on demand, self-study or private; $6,610)

Number of Exams

One exam (75 questions, two hours, minimum passing score 68%)

Cost per Exam

$1,899 without training (called a GIAC certification attempt; includes two free practice exams) $769 as part of a training course $769 retake fee $429 certification renewal

Exams administered by Pearson VUE.

URL

https://www.giac.org/certification/certified-unix-security-administrator-gcux

Self-Study Materials

Practice tests available on the GIAC exam preparation page (two tests included in exam fee; additional practice tests are $159 each). No GCUX-specific study guides found; GIAC recommends searching for self-study materials based on the GCUX objectives’ knowledge areas and getting practical experience.

Linux+ (CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI)

CompTIA exercises extraordinary certification clout at the entry level in many IT niches. This nonprofit has shown itself as willing to team up with more focused IT organizations, associations and consortia to combine their own market reach and visibility with niche smarts and subject matter expertise on loan from various partners.

One great example is the organization’s partnership with the Linux Professional Institute (LPI), which resulted in the CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI credential. This unique certification replaced the original CompTIA Linux+ certification in 2010 and uses the same two exams required for LPIC-1 certification.

As a result of this partnership, IT professionals who are serious about Linux can earn both the Linux+ credential and the LPIC-1 at the same time. Candidates must first earn the Linux+ credential and then submit a request to CompTIA asking that their results be sent to LPI to obtain the LPIC-1 certification. CompTIA exam records are confidential, so candidates must request that their records be forwarded to LPI when taking the CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI exams.

Earning the CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI requires candidates to pass two exams. The first covers system architecture, installation and package management, GNU and Unix commands, devices, file systems and standard file system hierarchies. The second exam digs into command shells, scripting and data management, user interfaces and desktops, administrative tasks and activities, basic system services, networking fundamentals and security topics. The CompTIA Linux+ Beta exam (XK1-004) closed as of October 22, 2018, though candidates who took the exam prior to the end date can still access those scores and apply a passing grade to their Linux+ certification. The replacement Linux+ 104 exam based on this beta exam will become publicly available in April of 2019.

Note that the Linux+ credential is valid for life.

CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI Facts & Figures

Certification Name

CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI

Prerequisites & Required Courses

None required

Recommended: CompTIA A+, CompTIA Network+ and 12 months of Linux administration experience

Number of Exams

Two exams: LX0-103 and LX0-104 (60 multiple-choice questions each, 90 minutes, 500 required out of 200 to 800 scale to pass). Note that the LX0-104 Beta exam is no longer offered as of October 22, 2018; the replacement 104 exam becomes publicly available in April of 2019.

Cost per Exam

$200 per exam; prices vary by geography

URL

https://certification.comptia.org/certifications/linux

Self-Study Materials

CompTIA maintains a list of training materials and additional study options, including links to study guides, exam crams, practice tests, online and classroom training, CertMaster, and more. Additional third-party reference and review materials can be found on Amazon.

LPI (Linux Professional Institute) Certifications

The Linux Professional Institute (LPI) started up in October of 1999, almost one decade after Linus Torvalds began his pioneering efforts on the Linux kernel. Since then, LPI has become one of the leading certification providers on Linux syllabus and technologies. Given the organization’s distribution-agnostic approach to Linux, it offers excellent coverage of a platform that’s available in many forms and flavors in today’s marketplace.

The LPI Certification (LPIC) program is available in three distinct levels:

  • LPIC-1Linux Administrator: A  junior-level Linux certification with no prerequisites. Candidates must pass two exams that cover basic Linux skills, including installing and configuring Linux on a workstation, working at the command line, performing basic maintenance tasks, and making LAN or internet connections. While you can obtain the LPIC-1 credential directly from LPI, candidates should consider obtaining the CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI credential first, which qualifies you for both the Linux+ and LPIC-1 credentials.
  • LPIC-2Linux Engineer: An advanced-level Linux certification that requires an active LPIC-1 certification. Candidates must pass two exams that cover significant Linux skills and topics. The first exam covers the kernel, system startup, file system and devices, advanced storage administration, network configuration, system maintenance and capacity planning. The second exam covers web services, file sharing, network client management, email services, system security and troubleshooting, and domain name servers.
  • LPIC-3Linux Enterprise Professional Certification: A senior-level Linux certification that requires an active LPIC-2 and passing any single exam in the 300 series. Valid exam IDs currently include 300: Mixed Environment303: Security, and 304: Virtualization and High Availability. The Mixed Environment exam covers Samba (domain integration, user and group management, name services, share configuration and so forth), plus OpenLDAP, and working with Linux and Windows clients. The Security exam covers network, operations and application security, as well as cryptography and access controls. High availability cluster storage and management, along with virtualization, are covered in the Virtualization and High Availability exam.

In addition to the LPIC-1, 2 and 3 credentials, LPI also offers an entry-level credential, the Linux Essentials Professional Development Certificate (PDC). Linux Essentials focuses on foundational skills, such as creating and running simple scripts, restoring compressed backups and archives, working with the command line, Linux operating system basics, FOSS, and users/groups and file permissions for public and private directories. Linux Essentials is a great way to get started while gaining the skills and knowledge needed for the more challenging LPIC credentials.

LPI’s existing certification is the LPIC-OT DevOps Tools Engineer, which recognizes the effective use of tools for collaboration during system and software development. There are no prerequisites, and the single exam lasts for 90 minutes and has 60 questions.

LPIC credentials are worthwhile for IT pros whose chosen Linux distributions do not warrant their own certification programs, and for those seeking broad, vendor- and distribution-neutral coverage of Linux topics, tools and technologies. They are popular among IT pros and in demand among IT employers.

LPIC-1, LPIC-2 and LPIC-3 Facts & Figures

Certification Name

LPIC-1: Linux Administrator

LPIC-2: Linux Engineer

LPIC-3: Linux Enterprise Professional

Prerequisites & Required Courses

LPIC-1: None, Linux Essentials recommended

LPIC-2: Active LPIC-1 certification

LPIC-3: Active LPIC-2 certification plus completion of one of the 300 series specialty exams

Training is recommended but not required

Number of Exams

LPIC-1: Exam 101-500 and Exam 102-500

LPIC-2: Exam 201-450 and Exam 202-450

LPIC-3: One of the 300 series exams: Mixed Environment (Exam 300-100)

Security (Exam 303-200)

Virtualization and High Availability (Exam 304-200)

Cost per Exam

$200 per exam. Exams administered by Pearson VUE. Linux ID required to register.

URL

http://www.lpi.org/our-certifications/summary-of-certifications

Self-Study Materials

Study guides, courseware knowledge packs, eLearning courses, exam crams, practice tests, online and classroom training, Linux Academy subscriptions and more are available at LPI exam Preparation, LPI Marketplace and Amazon.

Oracle Linux OCA & OCP

When Oracle bought Sun Microsystems in 2010, it acquired a rich and deep UNIX tradition. Oracle started phasing out Solaris almost immediately after finalizing the Sun acquisition.

Today, Oracle offers associate- and professional-level certifications based on Linux rather than harking back to any kind of UNIX roots. These certifications retain enough of their Sun roots, however, so that courses are not mandatory prerequisites to taking the exams for the two Oracle Linux certifications currently available.

As with other vendor-specific Linux certifications, Oracle’s are most appealing to those who work with or around that distribution, or who wish to work for employers who use those distributions.

OCA and OCP Facts & Figures

Certification Name

Oracle Certified Associate (OCA), Oracle Linux 5 and 6 System Administrator

Oracle Certified Professional (OCP), Oracle Linux 6 System Administrator

Prerequisites & Required Courses

OCA: No prerequisites. Recommended training: Oracle Linux S­­ystem Administration OCP: OCA Linux 5 and 6 System Administrator or Linux Administrator Certified Associate (now retired). Recommended training: Oracle Linux System Administration

Number of Exams

OCA: One exam, 1Z0-100 Oracle Linux 5 and 6 System Administration (150 minutes, 80 questions, 61% to pass) OCP: One exam, 1Z0-105 Oracle Linux 6 Advanced System Administrator (150 minutes, 97 questions, 61% to pass)

Cost per Exam

OCA: $245

OCP: $245

URL

https://education.oracle.com/oracle-linux/oracle-linux-administration/product_295?certPage=true

Self-Study Materials

Oracle offers online and in-class training for its credentials, with hit-or-miss coverage for them on the aftermarket. Start with Amazon searches — check exam IDs 1Z0-100 and 1Z0-105 to get a sense for what’s available.

Note: Though there is now an OCA and OCP exam available for Oracle Linux 7 System Administrator, Oracle has yet to announce this new certification or release the details of new Linux 7-based certification tests for OCA and OCP candidates.

Oracle Linux 6 Certified Implementation Specialist Certification

The Oracle Linux 6 Certified Implementation Specialist Certification is a certification available for those who sell, design, configure and implement Oracle Linux 6 solutions. Though any candidate can complete this certification, it is most typically achieved by Oracle partner implementation personnel with strong foundational experience in Linux and previous field experience implementing Linux 6.

Red Hat RHCSA, RHCE & RHCA

If there’s one major star in the vendor-specific Linux certification firmament, it’s got to be Red Hat. The company has major market presence and serious duration as a commercial provider of Linux platforms and technologies.

Red Hat offers a typical administrator, engineer, architect certification ladder. Unlike many other such programs, however, it offers highly regarded and valued credentials at each rung, along with demanding and hands-on oriented exams and an excellent training curriculum to match. All exams for the following Red Hat certifications are performance based and last two hours or longer.

The giveaway for Red Hat certifications is that all come with acronyms that start with RH, as follows:

  • Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA): This foundation certification vets essential skills in handling files, working at the command line and using system documentation, along with managing systems (boot up, identifying processes, start/stop virtual machines, controlling services), configuring storage partitions and logical volumes, and more.
  • Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE): This cornerstone certification is designed to test and validate the skills and knowledge necessary to work as a senior-level Linux system administrator. syllabus covered include advanced IP routing and services, managing runtime kernel behavior, working with iSCSI, automating maintenance tasks with shell scripts and working with networking services for Web, FTP, NFS, SMB, SMTP, SSH and more. An RHSCA is a prerequisite for the RHCE.
  • Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA): Red Hat’s pinnacle certification offers two paths to certification, depending on which prerequisite advanced Red Hat certification credentials you have already completed: Red Hat Certified Enterprise Microservices Developers (RHCEMDs) and Red Hat Certified JBoss Developers (RHCJDs) can earn an RHCA in Enterprise Applications, and Red Hat Certified Engineers (RHCEs) can earn an RHCA in Infrastructure. In general, the five additional exams that must be passed to achieve the RCHA in either Infrastructure or in Enterprise Applications are specific to each area of specialization, though a few of the tests can be used to satisfy the five exam requirement in both RHCA tracks. A number of previously available certification exams have been discontinued for new RHCA candidates and renewals, though those exams can still be applied to the RHCA certification if you’ve already passed them. Find out more about discontinued exams that can be counted towards the RHCA credential on the RHCA page under the Candidate Guidance tab.

Because Red Hat Linux is widely used in the business world, the RHCA certification is an excellent choice for those interested in a more platform-focused path into the Linux world. Of course, for those who already work with or around Red Hat, it is a natural certification choice as well.

RHCSA, RHCE and RHCA Facts & Figures

Certification Name:

Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA)

Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE)

Red Hat Certified Architect (RHCA)

Prerequisites & Required Courses

RHCSA: No prerequisites Recommended training:

Windows system administrators: Red Hat System Administration I (RH124) (5 days, $3,400) and II (RH134) (4 days, $3,400)Linux/Unix Administrators, RHCSA Rapid Track Course (RH199) (4 days, $3,700)

RHCE: RHCSA credential Recommended training:

Same as for RHCSA, plus

Red Hat System Administration III (RH254) ($3,400)

RHCA:

RHCE-certified (Infrastructure track) – Candidates currently holding an RHCE certification must pass five additional exams from the Infrastructure track below.

RHCJD/RHCEMD-certified (Enterprise Applications track) – Candidates currently holding an RHCJD or an RHCEMD certification must pass five additional exams from the Enterprise Applications track below.

Number of Exams

RHCSA: One exam, EX200 Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA) exam (2.5 hours) RHCE: One exam, EX300 Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) exam (3.5 hours) RHCA: Five exams total depending on whether you have already completed an RHCE certification (for the RHCA Infrastructure track), or an RHCEMD/RHCJD (for the RHCA Enterprise Applications track): An RHCE must pass five exams from the following list to achieve the RHCA in Infrastructure:

EX125 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Ceph Storage Administration exam

EX210 – Red Hat Certified System Administrator in Red Hat OpenStack exam

EX220 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Hybrid Cloud Management exam

EX236 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Gluster Storage Administration exam

EX248 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Enterprise Application Server Administration exam

EX270 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Container Management (Retired)

EX276 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Containerized Application Development (Retired)

EX280 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in OpenShift Administration exam

EX310 – Red Hat Certified Engineer in Red Hat OpenStack

EX318 – Red Hat Certified Virtualization Administrator exam

EX333 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Security: Network Services exam (Retired)

EX342 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Linux Diagnostics and Troubleshooting

EX401 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Deployment and Systems Management exam (Retired)

EX403 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Deployment and Systems Management exam

EX405 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Configuration Management

EX407 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Ansible Automation exam

EX413 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Server Security and Hardening exam

EX415 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Security: Linux exam

EX423 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Directory Services and Authentication exam (Retired)

EX429 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in SELinux Policy Administration exam (Retired)

EX436 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in High Availability Clustering exam

EX440 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Messaging Administration exam

EX442 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Linux Performance Tuning exam

RHCSA: One exam, EX200 Red Hat Certified System Administrator (RHCSA) exam (2.5 hours) RHCE: One exam, EX300 Red Hat Certified Engineer (RHCE) exam (3.5 hours) RHCA: Five exams total depending on whether you have already completed an RHCE certification (for the RHCA Infrastructure track), or an RHCEMD/RHCJD (for the RHCA Enterprise Applications track): An RHCE must pass five exams from the following list to achieve the RHCA in Infrastructure:

EX125 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Ceph Storage Administration exam

EX210 – Red Hat Certified System Administrator in Red Hat OpenStack exam

EX220 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Hybrid Cloud Management exam

EX236 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Gluster Storage Administration exam

EX248 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Enterprise Application Server Administration exam

EX270 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Container Management (Retired)

EX276 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Containerized Application Development (Retired)

EX280 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in OpenShift Administration exam

EX310 – Red Hat Certified Engineer in Red Hat OpenStack

EX318 – Red Hat Certified Virtualization Administrator exam

EX333 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Security: Network Services exam (Retired)

EX342 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Linux Diagnostics and Troubleshooting

EX401 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Deployment and Systems Management exam (Retired)

EX403 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Deployment and Systems Management exam

EX405 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Configuration Management

EX407 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Ansible Automation exam

EX413 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Server Security and Hardening exam

EX415 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Security: Linux exam

EX423 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Directory Services and Authentication exam (Retired)

EX429 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in SELinux Policy Administration exam (Retired)

EX436 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in High Availability Clustering exam

EX440 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Messaging Administration exam

EX442 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Linux Performance Tuning exam

EX450 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Data Virtualization exam

RHCEMDs and RHCJD must pass five exams from the following list to achieve the RHCA certification in Enterprise Applications:

EX288 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in OpenShift Application Development exam

EX248 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Enterprise Application Server Administration exam

EX276 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Containerized Application Development exam (Retired)

EX280 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in OpenShift Administration exam

EX405 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Configuration Management

EX407 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Ansible Automation exam

EX421 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Camel Development exam

EX427 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Business Process Design exam

EX440 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Messaging Administration exam

EX450 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Data Virtualization exam

EX453 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Fast-Cache Application Development exam

EX465 – Red Hat Certified Specialist in Business Rules exam

Cost per Exam

$400 each ($2,000 total RHCA exam costs)

URL

www.redhat.com/training/certifications/#certifications

Self-Study Materials

Red Hat skills assessments and other materials can be located on the training page. Red Hat Training includes multiple training options (online, classroom, self-paced, virtual, video and more). Red Hat Learning Subscription includes all online courses in one package; prices vary by geography, candidates can expect to pay $5,500 for a Basic Subscription and $7,000 for a Standard Subscription. Study guides are on Amazon.

Beyond the Top 5: More Linux certifications

Outside the top five Linux credentials and programs covered in this article, other Linux certifications may be worthy of your time and attention.

The Linux Foundation, a membership-based organization, promotes the development of the Linux kernel through collaboration, conferences and education. The organization’s small but respected certification program includes the Linux Foundation Certified System Administrator (LFCS) and the Linux Foundation Certified Engineer (LFCE).

IBM continues to offer a handful of Linux-related certifications. One certification of interest is the Certified Database Administrator, which continues to be in demand for those running DB2 on Linux, Unix and Windows systems.

Many industry experts, including Steven J. Vaughn-Nichols, a long-time user and expert on Linux and Unix operating systems, say that certifications can be an important ingredient in a job candidate’s qualifications. But interviewers should also pay close attention to how many Linux systems candidates have set up, managed or used to get a sense of the scale and scope of their experience.

In other words, when you see a web hosting service advertising for Linux jobs, they’re not looking for people who’ve installed and used Linux at home or in a small business setting; they’re looking for professionals who’ve set up and managed Linux in a highly distributed and virtualized data center environment, with lots of complex networking and services coming into the mix.

Tue, 11 Oct 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.businessnewsdaily.com/10750-best-linux-certifications.html
Killexams : Could you answer last year's NCEA exam questions?

RNZ

A new mandatory NCEA literacy and numeracy test could be too tough for some pupils. Secondary school students will have to pass the new requirement to get any level of NCEA from 2023. (Video first published in December 2020)

NCEA examinations are just weeks away, with thousands of secondary school students expected to sit the tests when they kick off on November 7.

Recent changes to our national qualification framework have sparked controversy. New literacy and numeracy standards set to be introduced in 2024 have been criticised for being too difficult, and moves to digitise exams and assessments have received mixed reviews from students and educators.

Mathematics exams have proven particularly curly in the past – tricky questions have been the subject of a string of complaints since 2017.

Would you be able to ace last year’s exams? Test your knowledge on these 2021 NCEA exam questions.

READ MORE:
* 14 NCEA subjects to offer digital exams in 2019
* How hard was that NCEA Level 1 Maths exam?
* NZQA to discuss maths exam that left students in tears after teachers' open letter
* Parents 'frustrated as hell' after tough NCEA maths exam jolts kids' confidence

Level 1 Mathematics and Statistics – Apply algebraic procedures in solving problems

Ben has been painting some straight lines on the field for his rugby team to do some training exercises.

The total length of all the painted lines shown in the diagram below is 20 metres.

If the shaded area is 14m², find the possible values of x.

Level 1 Physics – Demonstrate understanding of aspects of wave behaviour

Water is poured into a cup, and a coin appears, as shown below.

NZQA/Supplied

An image from a Level 1 physics exam.

Explain why you cannot see the coin in the cup with no water, but when water is poured into the cup, the coin suddenly appears.

Use a ray diagram to help explain your answer.

Level 2 Biology – Demonstrate understanding of life processes at the cellular level

A) Photosynthesis occurs in the leaves of plants. Describe the process of photosynthesis.

B) Water is an important requirement for the process of photosynthesis. Explain how water enters a plant AND how it is used in the light-dependent reaction.

Level 2 Economics – Analyse inflation using economic concepts and models

In 2020, New Zealand’s inflation rate was 1.4%. Despite this relatively low inflation rate, the price of some goods and services increased significantly. For example, the overall price of fresh fruit and vegetables increased by 8.9%.

A) Explain why not all households will be equally affected by an 8.9% increase in the overall price of fresh fruit and vegetables.

B) Explain one reason why the 2020 inflation rate of 1.4% was less than the 8.9% increase in the overall price of fresh fruit and vegetables.

Level 3 Chemistry – Demonstrate understanding of thermochemical principles and the properties of particles and substances

Explain the difference in the atomic radii of calcium and selenium.

Level 3 Calculus – Apply integration methods in solving problems

A water tank developed a leak.

6 hours after the tank started to leak, the volume of water in the tank was 400 litres.

10 hours after the tank started to leak, the volume of water in the tank was 256 litres.

The rate at which the water leaks out of the tank at any instant is proportional to the square root of the volume of the water in the tank at that instant.

How much water was in the tank at the instant it started to leak?

You must use calculus and show the results of any integration needed to solve the problem.

Tue, 11 Oct 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.stuff.co.nz/national/300709031/could-you-answer-last-years-ncea-exam-questions
Killexams : Are you smarter than a Year 12 student? Try these HSC exam questions </head> <body id="readabilityBody" readability="27.954545454545"> <h3>Newscorp Australia are trialling new security software on our mastheads. If you receive "Potential automated action detected!" please try these steps first:</h3> <ol type="1"> <li>Temporarily disable any AdBlockers / pop-up blockers / script blockers you have enabled</li> <li>Add this site in to the allowed list for any AdBlockers / pop-up blockers / script blockers you have enabled</li> <li>Ensure your browser supports JavaScript (this can be done via accessing <a href="https://www.whatismybrowser.com/detect/is-javascript-enabled" target="_blank">https://www.whatismybrowser.com/detect/is-javascript-enabled</a> in your browser)</li> <li>Ensure you are using the latest version of your web browser</li> </ol> <p>If you need to be unblocked please e-mail us at accessissues@news.com.au and provide the IP address and reference number shown here along with why you require access. News Corp Australia.</p><p>Your IP address is: 108.167.164.204 | Your reference number is: 0.87382f17.1666009153.2f94b7</p> </body> </description> <pubDate>Mon, 10 Oct 2022 15:44:00 -0500</pubDate> <dc:format>text/html</dc:format> <dc:identifier>https://www.news.com.au/lifestyle/parenting/school-life/are-you-smarter-than-a-year-12-student-try-these-hsc-exam-questions/news-story/165c426d4278f5e2abce91389fdec082</dc:identifier> </item> <item> <title>Killexams : 5 questions hospital CEOs want answered — and why

Hospital and health system CEOs have a lot of issues dominating their thoughts, including questions about workforce challenges in today's economic environment.  

To gain more insight into executives' top concerns, Becker's asked hospital and health system CEOs to share the questions they need answered right now. Below are their responses, in listed alphabetical order of the respondents.

John Hennelly. President and CEO of Sonoma (Calif.) Valley Hospital

Question: How will hospitals keep up with rising costs while reimbursement constantly lags far behind?  

Why this question is important:
2022 has exasperated an already fragile financial system. For over 20 years I have watched reimbursement fail to keep pace with rising costs. 2022 has seen oversized increases on the expense side with modest advances in reimbursement. Stop gap measures, while helpful, do not address the fundamental disequilibrium. Hospitals are now dependent upon philanthropy for much of our investment in growth. We need change....

Question: When will healthcare entities be competitively reimbursed for much less costly and less invasive preventative care? 

Why this question is important: Caregivers got into healthcare to heal and promote health. And yet we are directed, through reimbursement, to focus on the fire and ignore the smoke. Fires certainly must be put out (heart attacks, strokes, etc.), but if we oriented more toward the smoke, obesity, diet, smoking(!), lack of exercise, how many fires could be avoided? The infrastructure to provide acute care can't go away, but the volume (and cost) could change dramatically if reimbursement supported more preventative activities.

Question: Where will I find staff as my workforce ages?   

Why this question is important: Labor shortages are only getting worse. Our population is aging. The proportion of the population who consumes the most healthcare, seniors, has grown from 13 percent to 17 percent over the past 20 years. That's a 30 percent increase. How do we find staff for nursing and technical areas as demand grows and the labor pool remains constantly deficient?  

Arthur Sampson. Interim President and CEO of Lifespan (Providence, R.I.)

Question: In light of the persistent labor shortage across many industries, what are some alternative models for providing quality care that can be operationalized with existing staff?

Why this question is important: Traditional recruitment and retention incentives have not been enough to fill the staff vacancies that grew exponentially during the COVID pandemic. Substantial hiring and referral bonuses, free on-the-job training programs, tuition remission, loan forgiveness have helped, but many healthcare human resource leaders will tell you that attrition is outpacing hiring. The solution that many hospitals implemented during the pandemic — to pause elective surgeries — is not a long-term sustainable model, nor is keeping hospital beds closed. There is an urgent need for immediate viable alternatives while we rebuild our workforce.

Mark Wallace. President and CEO of Texas Children's Hospital (Houston)  

Question: In the midst of the U.S. and global economies teetering on recession, combined with the highest inflation in decades, highly restrictive U.S. monetary policy, ongoing disruption from supply chain challenges, exceptionally low unemployment and a healthcare labor force that is exhausted from the pandemic, how do we further support our incredible workforce, while continuing to provide exceptional, platinum-level patient care to our patients and families with greater operational efficiency than ever before? 

Why this question is important: It is clear from our research that 2022 is turning out to be one of the most challenging operating environments for healthcare institutions in years. Margins for healthcare systems across the country are under pressure from rising costs resulting from persistently high inflation, ongoing supply chain disruptions, and a challenging labor market. We expect the macro environment will remain challenging, volatile and uncertain for the foreseeable future. As a result, it is imperative that we swiftly adapt to the current environment. We must continue to invest in our people, while constantly seeking opportunities to enhance operational efficiency as we deliver best in class, high quality care that our patients and their families expect from us. We must think differently and lead differently. 

Tue, 11 Oct 2022 07:28:00 -0500 en-gb text/html https://www.beckershospitalreview.com/hospital-management-administration/5-questions-hospital-ceos-want-answered-and-whyoctober5.html
Killexams : Uproar over exam administration as more cases of cheating reported

Education Cabinet Secretary George Magoha inspecting the ongoing examinations at Alliance Boys school in Kikuyu. [GeorgeNjunge, Standard]

Questions have emerged over the administration of this year’s national examinations as reports reveal more candidates are accessing the questions before time.

More arrests, including of teachers, are being made as the number of mobile phones confiscated during the administration of the tests continue to rise.

The latest is the arrest and detention of 42 students of Dibuoro Secondary School in Usonga ward in Alego, Siaya County, for engaging in exam malpractices.

The students were found with four cell phones, which had the contents of Friday’s chemistry practical paper and Thursday’s Swahili paper.

Siaya County police commander, Michael Muchiri, said the phones had a WhatsApp group where each of the students were members. Upon scrutiny of the phones, contents of the Swahili paper done on Thursday were discovered.

Mr Muchiri said the school principal, one supervisor, five invigilators, a chemistry teacher and two laboratory assistants were among those summoned for questioning alongside the students.

“The matter is being handled by the County Investigation Officer. We are tracing the originators of the content. The key suspect is at large and is being sought,” said Mr Muchiri.

Cases of impersonation have also been reported even as sector players quietly question whether the Kenya National Examination Council (KNEC) and the Ministry of Education have dropped their guard.

The glaring absence of senior government officials such as cabinet secretaries, chief administrative secretaries, and principal secretaries from the daily monitoring rolls has also raised eyebrows.

In previous years, more senior government officials were deeply involved in the administration of the tests, a move many said reduced early exposure of the examination questions.

Meanwhile, the Kenya Union of Post Primary Education Teachers (Kuppet) has placed the blame on the leadership at the Ministry.

Kuppet Secretary General Akello Misori claimed that Education Cabinet Secretary, George Magoha, is being sabotaged from within because he is not a team player.

“We strongly believe that examination reforms are being watered down because Magoha wants to do everything. He wants to design policy and implement it himself and he is being sabotaged,” said Mr Misori.

Kenya National Union of Teachers (KNUT) secretary general Collins Oyuu termed as worrying the trend where candidates are increasingly accessing examination papers before time.

“It is a bit worrying that we are seeing some level of laxity from officials and examination officers.

“The support we extended to Magoha and Fred Matiang’i when reforms were instituted have borne fruits and we cannot afford to drop guard,” said Mr Oyuu.

He wondered why more exposures are reported, especially during KCSE examinations.

“As a union we call upon all teachers to safeguard national examinations because a leaked examination is harmful to the learners and the country at large. We also want to see effort being made by all stakeholders to contain the bad habit,” he said.

Mr Oyuu spoke as secondary school heads said the merger of centres with less than 30 candidates may have given way to cheating.

At the close of the registration exercise for the 2021 examinations, KNEC had registered 608 and 91 new KCPE and KCSE examination centres respectively, with less than 30 candidates. It had also registered 27 new centres with less than 15 candidates.

Kenya Secondary School Heads Association national chairman Kahi Indimuli said some of the bad habits may have been transferred from merged centers.

“Most schools have also improved on internet access with WiFi connections and this may also contribute to the attempts to cheat,” said Mr Indimuli.

Speaking in confidence, some of the examination officials reported creeping laxity from some government officials.

“It seems like the administration of the whole examinations has been left to Magoha and a few of his team. What happened to the multi-agency approach that was witnessed after the 2016 reforms,” said a government officer familiar with administration logistics.

“Previously we saw Cabinet Secretaries of other ministries, CASs, PSs, and top officials and at one time even the head of state visited a school. Today we only see Magoha and a few PSs, where are the others?” the official posed.

The multi-agency team included staff from the Ministry of Interior, ICT, Teachers Service Commission (TSC), Kenya National Examination Council (KNEC) and the Ministry of Education.

[Additional reporting by Olivia Odhiambo]

Sat, 19 Mar 2022 09:22:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.standardmedia.co.ke/education/article/2001440818/uproar-over-exam-administration-as-more-cases-of-cheating-reported
Killexams : What the GRE Test Is and How to Prepare No result found, try new keyword!It focuses on three aspects of biology, each of which provides the basis for roughly a third of the questions on the ... to avoid being noisy during the test administration. Pierre Huguet, CEO ... Mon, 25 Jun 2018 03:17:00 -0500 text/html https://www.usnews.com/education/best-graduate-schools/articles/what-the-gre-test-is-and-how-to-prepare Killexams : NTA UGC NET 2022 exam Important Topics: Questions have come from these Subjects!

NTA UGC NET 2022 exam Important Topics: Get an idea of the questions and topic-wise weightage of the UGC NET phase 2 exam. Know about the subject-wise good attempts and questions asked in UGC NET paper 1.

UGC NET 2022 exam Important Topics

NTA UGC NET 2022 exam Important Topics: The National Testing Agency has concluded the UGC NET 2022 paper 1 examination today. The paper 1 exam was conducted in the first shift from 9 am to 12 pm. The UGC NET paper 1 exam was compulsory for all the candidates who have filled the application form.

Whereas, paper 2 is going to be an optional paper and shall be held in the second shift from 3 pm to 6 pm. Paper 2 is going to be having around 12 subjects and candidates have the right to choose the same at the time of filling out the application form. 

Talking about the UGC NET examination held today, the level of the examination was easy to moderate. The written test had 100 questions from different subjects. The questions asked were objective in nature. Candidates have to simply mark the correct answer among the available option. As per the student’s review, the overall good attempt for today’s exam can lie anywhere between 60 to 65 questions. 

The NTA shall be conducting the third phase of the UGC NET 2022 examination from 29-Sep-2022 to 14-Oct-2022. Candidates going to appear in phase 3 can check out this article till the end for more insights. 

UGC NET Important Dates

The candidates can check out the UGC NET 2022 important dates for the different events in the table below. 

UGC NET Events

Exam Dates

Notification

30-Apr-2022

Application process

30-Apr-2022 to 30-May-2022 (

UGC NET Application correction window

21-May-2022 to 01-Jun-2022 

UGC NET Phase 1 Admit card

07-Jul-2022 - 08-Jul-2022

UGC NET Phase 2 Admit card

16-Sep-2022

Phase 3 Admit card

To be Announced soon

UGC NET exam date for Phase 1

09-Jul-2022

11-Jul-2022

12-Jul-2022

UGC NET exam date for Phase 2

12-Aug-2022 to 14-Aug-2022

20-Sep-2022 to 23-Sep-2022

UGC NET exam date for Phase 3

29-Sep-2022 to 14-Oct-2022

UGC NET Provisional answer key

To be announced

UGC NET Submission of challenges against answer key

To be announced

UGC NET Final answer key and cut off

To be announced

UGC NET Result

To be announced

UGC NET 2022 exam Pattern 

  • The examination is being conducted in CBT mode. 
  • The questions asked in the examination are objective in nature.
  • The maximum marks for paper 1 are going to be 100 marks and the second paper will account for 200 marks. 
  • Each question asked in today’s examination is going to account for 2 marks. There is no mention of negative marking for questions that are marked wrongly. 
  • Paper 1 was compulsory for all the students whereas paper 2 is going to be based on the subject chosen by the candidates. 

Sections

Maximum questions

Maximum marks

Duration

Teaching Aptitude

5

10

1 hour

Research Aptitude

5

10

Reading Comprehension

5

10

Communication

5

10

Reasoning (including Maths)

5

10

Logical Reasoning

5

10

Data Interpretation

5

10

Information &amp; Communication Technology (ICT)

5

10

People &amp; Environment

5

10

Higher Education System: Governance, Polity &amp; Administration

5

10

Total

50

100

Paper II

100

200

2 hours

UGC NET 2022 Phase-2 Important Topics

As per the experts, the UGC NET examination held today was of easy to moderate level. The subject-wise syllabus and questions asked in today’s exam were at par with the ones asked in all the shifts asked earlier. Go through the table below to know about the subject-wise difficulty level and good attempts; 

Subject Name

Difficulty Level

Good Attempts

Teaching Aptitude

Moderate to Difficult

6-7

-Environment

Moderate

6-7

Higher Education

Moderate to Difficult

2-3

Research Aptitude

Easy to Moderate

4-5

Data Interpretation

Moderate

3-4

Maths/Reasoning

Moderate

2-3

Communication

Moderate

3-4

Information Technology

Moderate

1-2

Comprehension

Easy to Moderate

1-2

Logical Reasoning

Moderate

2-3

UGC NET 2022 Questions Asked

UGC NET paper 1 examination today was conducted in the first shift from 9 am to 12 am. The following section consists of the basic highlights related to the same. The UGC NET exam was conducted in the computer-based test format. The questions asked were from the syllabus prescribed by the UGC earlier. All of the questions asked in the paper were compulsory in nature. Candidates have to attempt the same on their own likings. 

Subject Name

UGC NET Question Asked

Teaching Aptitude

MOOC

Swayam

CBCS

Bloom

Taxanomy

Learner Characteristics

Environment

Protocols

SDGs and MDGs

Niti Aayog

Protocols

CITES

Earthquake

Solar Energy

Higher Education

Swayam

Credits

NEP 2020

Establishment Years

E-governance

Ranking

Research Aptitude

Collective Communication

Barriers of Communication

Mass media

Data Interpretation

Easy Ratio

Ratio &amp; Average Related

Maths/Reasoning

Percentage 

Profit and Loss

Communication

Scales

Sampling

Information Technology

Search Engine

Odd one out on

Conceptual 

Memory related questions

ROM

EPROM

Full forms

Types of Extension

Comprehension

Question based on studying Comprehension

Passages

Precise Writing

Logical Reasoning

Pramana

Structure

Logic

Sushrut

Samhita

Astra

Creative Knowledge

Fallacies

Square of Opposition

The UGC NET (National Eligibility Test) is conducted annually for those who wish to work as a JRF (Junior Research Fellow) and Assistant Professors in different universities. Based on the marks secured in the examination, the candidates get an appointment as an Assistant Professor in any of the public or private universities of India.

Thu, 22 Sep 2022 08:00:00 -0500 text/html https://www.jagranjosh.com/articles/nta-ugc-net-2022-exam-important-topics-questions-have-come-from-these-subjects-1663852363-1
Killexams : North Korea's Crypto Hackers Are Paving the Road to Nuclear Armageddon

It was an astonishing interview for recruiter Elliott Garlock. While screening candidate engineers for a crypto firm in February, Garlock encountered one applicant who raised almost every conceivable red flag. 

The interviewee joined the Zoom interview with his camera off and had to be cajoled into turning it on. There was constant chatter in the background, like he was jammed in a small, crowded room. He claimed to be from San Francisco but, when pressed, wasn't able to pinpoint his location more precisely than "Bay Area." 

It was a strange and unproductive interview. Worst of all, it was the first of many. Garlock, the founder of the Stella Talent Partners recruitment firm, soon encountered another, nearly identical candidate. Then another, and another and another.

"I got annoyed after a while, because it was a total waste of time," Garlock said. "I originally thought the scam was that they  were offshore, trying to take advantage of remote work to just get a salary for not working."

Now there's a new hypothesis: The people interviewing for jobs were North Koreans trying to siphon money to the reclusive nation. That's in accord with warnings from both the FBI and the Treasury Department, which have cautioned about North Korea's escalating risk to the cryptocurrency industry

The danger is more than theoretical, as one catastrophic hack in March showed. The Lazarus Group, a hacking outfit associated with  North Korea's government, managed to drain over $600 million in crypto from a blockchain used by NFT game Axie Infinity. North Korean hackers stole $840 million in the first five months of 2022, according to Chainalysis data, over $200 million more than they'd plundered in 2020 and 2021 combined. 

That is of extraordinary consequence. About a third of the crypto North Korea loots goes into its weapons program, including nuclear weapons, estimates Anne Neuberger, a deputy national security adviser in the Biden administration. It's also funneled to the country's espionage operations. When two South Koreans earlier this year were revealed to have been stealing military information for a North Korean spy, it turned out they'd been paid in bitcoin.

"Crypto is arguably now essential to North Korea," said Nick Carlsen, a former North Korea analyst at the FBI who now works for crypto security firm TRM Labs. "By any standard, they are a crypto superpower."

A crypto superpower with nuclear weapons, that is. A country whose crypto prowess, North Korea watchers say, is directly funding the development of those nukes, with the odds of a new nuclear weapons test growing. The rogue nation has been ratcheting up ballistic missile tests in the past 10 days: Over 5 million residents of Japan were told to seek immediate shelter on Wednesday after North Korea launched a missile over the island of Hokkaido. It's highly likely this, too, was funded at least in part by stolen cryptocurrency. 

The Democratic People's Republic of Korea, as North Korea is formally known, has come to depend more on crypto since the pandemic began. It historically relied on black market trade, exporting coal, meth, cigarettes and labor to Southeast Asia, Russia and especially China. But the zero COVID strategy of leader Kim Jong Un has closed borders, thinning the country's already slight revenues. Trade with China, by far North Korea's biggest economic partner, fell 80% in 2020, and reports of food shortages abound. At the same time, cryptocurrency values have skyrocketed. 

Despite the recent crypto crash, bitcoin is trading 250% higher than before the pandemic. Ether, the second biggest cryptocurrency, is up over 700%. 

Garlock estimates he encountered a dozen candidates he now considers North Korean operatives between February and April. None of them got referred to one of his client companies, which is lucky. North Korean hackers have shown they can cause immense damage if they manage to dupe just one person.

One bad click

A single corrupted file can leave disaster in its wake. The Axie Infinity hack that netted North Korea over $600 million in crypto started with just that: a tainted PDF.

Axie Infinity is a web browser game similar to Pokemon, except that the Axie creatures you battle are owned as NFTs and can be traded for crypto. To support this digital economy, developer Sky Mavis created its own blockchain called Ronin, whose sole purpose is to process Axie Infinity transactions. At its peak in August 2021, the game was generating over $15 million a day. A senior engineer who worked on Ronin was approached by North Korean operatives on LinkedIn earlier this year, according to a report from The Block. After several rounds of interviews, the engineer received a formal job offer via PDF.

The Ronin blockchain runs on a proof-of-authority model, wherein validation control is given to nine handpicked accounts. To gain control of the blockchain, bad actors needed to control five of these nine validator accounts. When the senior engineer clicked the infected link, he unwittingly gave North Korean hackers keys to four of those validators. Once they were inside Axie Infinity's computer system, hackers were able to get keys for a fifth. The $600 million was drained shortly after.

Sky Mavis didn't respond to a request for comment. But in a post-mortem published in April, the company said: "Sky Mavis employees are under constant advanced spear-phishing attacks on various social channels and one employee was compromised. … The attacker managed to leverage that access to penetrate Sky Mavis IT infrastructure and gain access to the validator nodes." 

It's possible the North Korean operatives hired a middleman company to orchestrate the faux employer phishing scheme. That's what they did in 2019, paying an actor to play an executive in fake job interviews with the goal of infiltrating the computer systems of Chile's Redbanc. (North Korea never got to steal from the bank, thanks to an eagle-eyed IT guy, who saw suspicious activity on the network.) 

It's tempting to write off the Ronin hack as a disorganized crypto company being exploited. But the same tactics have worked against world-renowned targets. The infamous Sony hack of 2014, a response to the studio's distribution of Seth Rogan's The Interview, a comedy about an assassination attempt on Kim, was achieved in much the same way. Hackers gained access to Sony's computer network by pretending to be a businessman, former assistant US attorney Tony Lewis told the BBC

Axie Infinity, a once popular NFT-based web game, used its own blockchain, called Ronin. It was hacked by North Korean operatives, according to the FBI. Sky Mavis © Provided by CNET Axie Infinity, a once popular NFT-based web game, used its own blockchain, called Ronin. It was hacked by North Korean operatives, according to the FBI. Sky Mavis

Emails from the businessman, ostensibly about his wish to work with Sony, contained a link infected with malware, a link that at least one employee clicked. Two months later, computers at Sony headquarters went black, and the Lazarus Group, North Korea's most notorious hacking outfit, made its presence known. (At the time, the culprits called themselves Guardians of Peace.)

Months later, North Korean operatives pretended to be a job applicant and sent resumes to employees of Bangladesh's central bank. This time at least three employees clicked the link, according to Symantec cybersecurity expert Eric Chien, giving them access to the bank's computer network. The attackers waited a full year to make their move and, in February 2016, attempted to send $951 million from Bangladesh Bank's account with the Federal Reserve to accounts in the Philippines and Sri Lanka. 

It was a carefully orchestrated heist. Hackers spent a year learning about the bank's IT system, and planned the robbery on a Thursday that coincided with both Bangladesh's Friday-Saturday weekend and a Philippine public holiday on the Monday, delaying alerts on both ends. Yet it was hamstrung by a stroke of bad luck. After several transactions went through, the Federal Reserve blocked the next $851 million. The attackers sent money to a Philippine bank located on a Jupiter Street. That triggered an alert because, by sheer coincidence, an unrelated Greek company called Jupiter Seaways Shipping was already on the Fed's sanctions watch list for helping Iran bypass oil sanctions

Though it didn't go to plan, North Korean operatives still managed to steal $64 million from Bangladesh Bank. 

"All of the skills they've learned, they're basically now applying it to crypto," said Soo Kim, a former CIA analyst who's now at the Rand Corporation, a think tank.

North Korea's considerable cyber capabilities are a paradox. In a rare 2017 survey the UN was allowed to conduct, only 1% of North Korean households were found to have internet access. Despite this, the DPRK has developed a formidable army of computer hackers.

"They basically do a talent search when kids from elite families are sent to elementary schools," Rand's Kim explained. "They send these kids abroad to Russia to get the [hacking] skills, and that's how they patriotically serve the country. They find ways to infiltrate networks."

It's estimated that around 7,000 North Koreans work in North Korea's cyber program. Kim Jong Un in the past has called his elite cyberattackers "warriors" that can "penetrate any sanctions for the construction of a strong and prosperous nation."

The US government has charged North Korea with the Sony Pictures hack and the Bangladesh Bank heist. Mario Tama / Staff © Provided by CNET The US government has charged North Korea with the Sony Pictures hack and the Bangladesh Bank heist. Mario Tama / Staff

Crypto is an obvious target for these cyber soldiers. The very point of cryptocurrency is decentralization, meaning there's no Federal Reserve to block $851 million. The Ronin hack was a boon for North Korea. Naturally, it didn't stop there. 

Harmony Bridge is a protocol that allows traders to send crypto between blockchains. It was exploited in June, and drained of $100 million. The FBI has named North Korea as the culprit. The hack started like all the others, with one person making an honest mistake. 

"We believe the hackers … employed phishing schemes to trick at least one software developer to install malicious software on their laptop," Harmony core team member Jack Chan wrote in August

In just two moves, North Korea stole $700 million worth of crypto, over 10 times the amount it burgled from Bangladesh Bank. It's also more than the $650 million the Korea Institute for Defense Analyses estimates North Korea spent on missile tests between January and June

Hard interviews

William Burleson describes speaking to a suspected North Korean operative as "one of the most awkward things I've done in my life." Burleson is head of growth at crypto recruitment firm Up Top Search, and was building the company's Discord channel so recruitment could be done within the popular messaging platform.

In his first week on the job, Burleson encountered three suspicious candidates he now believes were North Korean operatives. 

Just as in Garlock's cases, the candidates were apprehensive about turning their cameras on. In some cases Burleson could hear whispering, as though someone offscreen was trying to tell the candidate how to answer Burleson's questions in real time. 

"Just very weird, delayed responses, hearing the same words or phrases consistently," Burleson said, describing the interviews. "I know they weren't based in the States [as they claimed] due to the time zone difference. I only saw them appearing online on Discord during the Eastern Asia hours."

These candidates typically have poor English skills, but a language barrier isn't what makes these interviews so stilted. Encountering ESL engineers and developers isn't unusual in crypto recruitment — there was something different, something intangibly amiss with these particular candidates. 

"This group of people have these very flat affects," Garlock recalls. "They don't have positive or negative emotions that flash on their face."

Burleson called talking to them eerie. "You could just tell, human to human, something is off." 

He noted that several sketchy candidates, instead of leaving a resume, would leave links on Discord to protocols they had allegedly worked on. When Burleson ran these links through a safety checker, they always failed the test.

Kim Jong Un's strict zero COVID strategy has seen borders tightly shut, weakening the country's already weak exports. The regime has come to rely more on stolen crypto as a result. Kim Won Jin/Getty © Provided by CNET Kim Jong Un's strict zero COVID strategy has seen borders tightly shut, weakening the country's already weak exports. The regime has come to rely more on stolen crypto as a result. Kim Won Jin/Getty

Infected links are a dead giveaway of suspicious activity, but it's not always so obvious. Dan Eskow, founder of Up Top Search, thinks he has a way of identifying these North Korean operatives. 

"Instead of going through your pitch, you ask him, 'How's the weather in Kansas? How's your day going?'" Eskow explained. "They explode. They panic because their instructor, whoever's telling them what to say, hasn't prepared them to answer questions like 'How's the weather?'" 

One time, Burleson said, a candidate left the call after being asked an off-topic query. Most times, a tangential question is just met with an uncomfortable blank stare. 

Operations attributed to North Korea vary in their sophistication. Mandiant, a cybersecurity firm that in July warned of increased North Korean activity in crypto, says there are likely several groups within North Korea working to funnel money from crypto to the regime. The Lazarus Group is the best known cell of hackers, but only one of many. 

Some groups are more skilled than others. Much of what Mandiant detects is sloppy work. Bad actors have presented screenshots of code they claim to have written, only for these pictures to be discovered stolen from freelance job boards. Often these operatives steal resumes but don't even bother changing the names and references.

"There are most likely thousands of these operators attempting to gain employment all over the world, and each individual can run multiple personas all at the same time," said Joe Dobson, senior principal analyst at Mandiant.  

There are several reasons crypto firms are particularly vulnerable to North Korea infiltration. Normalized remote work allows bad actors operating out of North Korea or China to feign US or Canadian origin. Crypto culture also relishes anonymity. Personal details are often rejected at a philosophical level as being irrelevant — the very creator of bitcoin, Satoshi Nakamoto, remains pseudonymous to this day. And while tech companies often hire people to build the company around, Garlock says, crypto companies approach hiring more experimentally: hire liberally, keep them if they're good, cut them if they're not.

Many crypto companies are run by young, first-time CEO entrepreneurs, Garlock explained. People who tend to know a lot about crypto but have little or no experience running a company. "At the same time, they're super capitalized," he said. "You have, like, a 25-year-old crypto CEO, who, between his crypto assets and cash assets, has between $25 [million] and $500 million in capital."

The reasons North Korea targets the crypto industry are easy to understand. What happens after the money is stolen, however, is less obvious.

After the steal

Authorities and researchers are slowly piecing together the details of North Korea's crypto activities, but a few crucial pieces are missing. We know North Korea doesn't liquidate stolen crypto in one big sale. Instead, it sells batches of bitcoin and ether over a period of months or years, trickle feeding the regime millions of dollars at a time. The crypto stolen from the Ronin blockchain in March, for instance, is still being offloaded. 

That's according to Nick Carlsen, the former FBI researcher now at TRM Labs, who tracks North Korea's blockchain activities. Selling all the crypto at once, or at more regular intervals, would make it much easier to trace. 

"What they're doing with this Ronin hack, they're up against the limit of how much money you can launder in the crypto ecosystem," Carlsen said. 

Laundering cryptocurrency is easier than laundering US bills, but it still requires work. Bad guys make use of several tools. First are bridges, like the Harmony Bridge that North Korea hacked, which allow traders to send crypto between different blockchains. Then there are mixers, which mask where crypto comes from. You could, for instance, send 5 bitcoin from Wallet A to a mixer, where it's tumbled around with crypto sent by other people. Five bitcoin are then taken from that pool and sent to Wallet B, making it harder to track its precise provenance. 

Just as money launderers shift money between different banks and institutions, crypto launderers send money between bridges and mixers in order to hide blemished tokens within bags of clean ones. To disguise funds stolen from Ronin, tokens have been sent between 12,000 different crypto addresses, according to Chainalysis.

The US Treasury in August banned Tornado Cash, a cryptocurrency &quot;mixer&quot; that masks the origin of cryptocurrency sent between wallets. Bloomberg/Getty © Provided by CNET The US Treasury in August banned Tornado Cash, a cryptocurrency "mixer" that masks the origin of cryptocurrency sent between wallets. Bloomberg/Getty

The US is trying to make this process harder for crypto launderers in general and North Korea in particular. Citing the threat from the Kim regime, the US Treasury banned bitcoin mixer Blender in May, followed by the Tornado Cash mixer in August. 

"We are taking action against illicit financial activity by the DPRK and will not allow state-sponsored thievery and its money-laundering enablers to go unanswered," Brian Nelson, the US Treasury's undersecretary for terrorism and financial intelligence, said in May. 

Perhaps the biggest obstacle is the crypto exchanges you or your friends might use. Exchanges like Binance and Coinbase are dead ends for blockchain tracers. It's easy to see that money is sent to an exchange like Binance, but tracking those tokens within the exchange — between different user accounts, for instance — is impossible without subpoena power, said Convex Labs head of research Nick Bax. 

It would be too strong to call exchanges like Binance safe havens. They have anti-money laundering protocols, some with real teeth: Binance in April recovered $5.8 million in crypto stolen from Ronin, for instance. Still, to researchers like Bax, the barriers that exchanges throw up are far harder to penetrate than mixers like Tornado Cash.

"Roughly 25% of the funds deposited in Tornado over a certain timespan originated in the Ronin hack," Bax said. "You can't hide that amount of money in that size anonymity pool, it just doesn't work."

"We can trace the funds in and out of Tornado," he added, "but the centralized exchanges, Coinbase, Binance, Houbi, are a mixer unless you have subpoena powers."

Bax sees both sides of the issue. The same wall that obstructs his investigations, he points out, has also stopped Russian President Vladimir Putin's regime from tracing crypto sent to imprisoned political opponent Alexei Navalny.

The downside to North Korea's modus operandi is that it takes time and patience, which has proven costly. In the months since the Ronin heist, for instance, the $600 million haul has been devalued to about $250 million. But the advantage for the regime is that it can obscure some of its movements. While FBI and crypto researchers are often able to confidently say North Korea is behind a certain hack, it's less clear who's buying North Korea's crypto, and for how much.

It's thought that much of North Korea's stolen crypto is offloaded to Chinese buyers, but few particulars are known. The Department of Justice in 2020 found two Chinese nationals guilty of laundering some of the $100 million North Korea stole from a Hong Kong-based exchange in 2018, but that charge was an exception. What happens after dirty crypto is laundered remains largely opaque.

North Korea is "not going to get 99 cents on the dollar for its crypto," Carlsen explained. "What the real rate is, I don't think anyone has a really solid answer on that. But the kind of guy who's going to buy $20 million worth of stolen bitcoin is not going to pay $20 million."

Footage in a South Korean TV station of a North Korea missile test in January. The Kim regime has restarted aggressions against its southern neighbor after a few quiet COVID years. Jung Yeon-Je/Getty © Provided by CNET Footage in a South Korean TV station of a North Korea missile test in January. The Kim regime has restarted aggressions against its southern neighbor after a few quiet COVID years. Jung Yeon-Je/Getty

Mass destruction

Though precise details about buyers are unclear, there's little doubt about where the profits from North Korea's stolen crypto are funneled. "It's going to illegal weapons programs," Rand's Soo Kim said. "It's going to funding Kim's luxurious lifestyle." That ill-gotten crypto gains are funding North Korea's weapons program has also been flagged by the Treasury

The risks entailed by Kim's weapons program were simultaneously highlighted and overshadowed by the political spectacle of Donald Trump's presidency. But over 5 million Japanese residents were reminded of those risks on Wednesday when North Korea launched a ballistic missile over the island of Hokkaido. The launch triggered Hokkaido's air-raid alerts, and any resident watching TV was urged to take shelter immediately.

It was the fifth launch from North Korea in a week, with other missiles landing in Korean and Japanese seas. After staying relatively quiet during the pandemic, the Kim regime has resumed an aggressive stance against the US and South Korea, its perennial rival. In September, North Korea's parliament rubber-stamped a new law stating nuclear missiles would be launched if South Korea or the US tried to assassinate Kim. 

When South Korea's new president, Yoon Suk-yeol, offered Kim economic incentives for denuclearization, the DPRK regime balked. Kim's sister, Yo Jong, said Yoon was "still childish" and "should shut his mouth." 

"No one barters their destiny for corn cake," she added. 

North Korea is recognized by the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists as one of the potential flashpoints for a nuclear war. Formed by Albert Einstein after atomic weapons flattened Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Bulletin maintains the Doomsday Clock. As unwelcome as your 6 a.m. alarm may be, this alarm clock is far worse: The closer the Doomsday Clock is set to midnight, the closer Bulletin scientists estimate we are to our end. 

In January, it was set as late as it's ever been in its 75-year history: 100 seconds to midnight. For comparison, in 1949 after the Soviet Union exploded its first atomic bomb, the Doomsday Clock was set at 3 minutes to midnight. When the Soviet Union dissolved in the early 1990s, the clock was wound back to 17 minutes to midnight. 

Recent worries about nuclear war have understandably been concentrated in Ukraine. Facing embarrassing battlefield failures in its war there, Putin has made increasingly explicit nuclear threats. Another problem country is Iran, which is slowly building its nuclear capacity. Like North Korea, Iran has been besieged by economic sanctions. But the Khamenei administration is buoyed by flowing oil reserves. North Korea is unique in its utilization of cryptocurrency to avoid the sanctions tied to its nuclear program. 

Vladimir Putin's invasion of Ukraine has raised questions about nuclear escalation, but that's not the world's only nuclear threat. Bloomberg/Getty © Provided by CNET Vladimir Putin's invasion of Ukraine has raised questions about nuclear escalation, but that's not the world's only nuclear threat. Bloomberg/Getty

North Korea's recent missile tests are thought to be partially in response to US Vice President Kamala Harris' visit to South Korea in September. Experts like Rand's Soo Kim think they presage a nuclear weapons test, which would be the first since September 2017. 

"Some people think it's bluffing and, to an extent, there is going to be a little bit of that," Kim said. "But if Kim [Jong Un] was not serious about using the weapons, he would not be displaying them, he would not be flaunting them, and he would not be doing it so diligently."

Nuclear weapons act as an invaluable set of cards for North Korea, Rand's Kim explained. Even if it has no intention of dismantling its weapon program, the regime can play that hand when it needs to. The stakes are so high that officials in Washington and Seoul are forced to take note. Meanwhile, the most effective way to confront North Korea would be with the help of China, North Korea's biggest unofficial trade partner. The trouble is, Soo Kim said, North Korea is itself a bargaining chip for China. It could help rein its raucous neighbor in, but what is Washington willing to do in return?

While this game is being played, the Doomsday Clock ticks on. 

Teach a man to phish

The US government is limited in what it can do to stop North Korea's crypto heists. The Treasury Department is actively trying to dull laundering tools used by the regime, leading to its bans on Tornado Cash and Blender. Perhaps more significantly, the FBI has been working to recover stolen funds. Collaborating with blockchain analytics firm Chainalysis, the FBI in September froze $30 million in crypto stolen from Ronin.

"It's like we're in a catchup game," Soo Kim said, "where you're not fast enough to actually meet North Korea at the destination, but you're always just following after them." 

A more effective route, according to Convex Labs' Bax, is to stop the hacks from happening in the first place. "We always take the reactive approach, chasing the money after it's been stolen," he said. "That money is being reinvested into criminal enterprises. We have to prevent it before it happens. That's the only way." 

Bax points out that North Korea specializes in phishing scams — estimating that around half of all crypto phishing scams come out of North Korea — and so helping people detect phishing attacks should be a priority. He also advocates government-subsidized security audits. It took only one engineer to be phished for Ronin's funds to be drained, while attackers needed only two signatures to steal $100 million from Harmony Bridge. 

Major hacks attributed to North Korea have died down in recent months. The crypto winter, when bitcoin and ether plunged in value amid recession fears, has led to a hiring freeze. The regime is also still busy laundering the funds it stole during the first half of the year. But the industry has proven too lucrative for North Korea to cease operations. 

"It's going to take a really critical moment, some major incident that really shocks people, and then there's going to be a lot of pressure to do something," said Carlsen. "It's a constant waiting game. 

"There's going to be another one coming." 

Sun, 09 Oct 2022 08:18:34 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/technology/north-koreas-crypto-hackers-are-paving-the-road-to-nuclear-armageddon/ar-AA12L9wS
Killexams : Law students association questions credibility of exam body following leakage

The National Association of Law Students has called for a full-scale investigation into the reported leakage of the Ghana School of Law (GSL) entrance examination paper scheduled for the morning of Friday, September 23, 2022.

The Association said the alleged leakage, which it said had been confirmed by some candidates of the examination, raised questions about the credibility of the Independent Examination Committee of the General Legal Council – the body supervising the examination.

In an interview with the Ghana News Agency, Mr Asare Hassan, President of the Association, said the situation would disorganise the students and affect output.

“It has been confirmed by some of the candidates that the exam has been cancelled. Our sources say the exam has been rescheduled to 1330 hours, but we are not sure because there has not been an official confirmation,” he told the GNA.

The 2022 entrance examination for admission to the Professional Law Course was scheduled to take place on Friday, from 1000 hours to 1130 hours.

However, hours before the examination, copies of the said paper were circulated on social media.

The General Legal Council is yet to officially respond to the reported leakage.

But unconfirmed reports indicate that the said paper had been cancelled, pending further direction from the Council.

The development, the Association said, was a vindication of its position that there was the need for reforms in the conduct and management of the entrance exam to make the process more transparent and credible.

“We think that this exam is even not an exam, it is a selection. Because it is a human institution, they should allow for students to seek for remarking and all that. Even when they make a mistake, they will stick to what they have,” Mr Hassan said.

“We need to put systems in place to resolve some of these issues that come up now and then. If we need to fire where necessary, if we think people are incompetent, fire them. We need to investigate and get to the bottom of some of these issues,” he added.

This is not the first time an exam at the Ghana School of Law has been cancelled.

Two months ago, the Independent Examinations Body cancelled the Civil Procedure paper, which was expected to be written on, July 15, 2022.

The examination was cancelled after a copy of the paper was widely shared on social media.

Source: GNA

Fri, 23 Sep 2022 06:44:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.ghanabusinessnews.com/2022/09/23/law-students-association-questions-credibility-of-exam-body-following-leakage/
Killexams : An INK-redible way to cheat! Spanish law student etched answers to exam questions onto his pens

An INK-redible way to cheat! Spanish law student etched answers to exam questions onto his pens

  • University of Malaga revealed the pens confiscated during a law exam
  • The student had etched answers to the Criminal Procedural Law exam on biros 
  • The ruse was exposed and the pens were seized but many praised the audacity 

A mischievous Spanish law student went to extreme lengths to cheat on his exams by etching answers on to his pens, his teacher has revealed.

Yolanda de Lucchi, a professor at the University of Malaga, showed the pens she and her colleagues confiscated during the test.

She displayed the 11 pens, each with tiny writing etched across the plastic body of the blue biros, in a post on Twitter.

A mischievous Spanish law student went to extreme lengths to cheat on his exams by etching answers on to his pens, his teacher has revealed

Ms De Lucchi said the pens were confiscated during an exam on Criminal Procedural Law.

The crafty student was exposed a number of years back but the teacher rediscovered the offending items while cleaning out her drawer.

She posted on Twitter: 'The criminal procedural law in BIC pens. What art!

'Cheat sheets aren't like they used to be.' 

A close-up of the pens shows the incredible detail of the ruse, with tiny letters filling every available space.

One Twitter user who replied to the teacher claimed to be a friend of the cheating student.

The crafty student was exposed a number of years back but the teacher rediscovered the offending items while cleaning out her drawer

Gonzo said: 'Hello Yolanda. I know the author of that wonderful work perfectly. In fact, he has authorized me, ignoring his name, logically, to show you some more that he still keeps at home. 

'The technique used by the artist, as he himself tells me, was to replace the graphite lead of a mechanical pencil with a needle, which made it super easy for him to etch the pen.'

Gonzo then showed off a number of photos of the biros modified over the years.

De Lucchi said: 'That could not happen today.

'Now students would not make an effort to have such a detailed cheat sheet for an exam. 

'They live at the click of a button, by what happens instantly; that is impossible to see today.'

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Thu, 13 Oct 2022 00:05:00 -0500 text/html https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-11310991/Cheating-Spanish-law-student-etched-answers-exam-questions-pens.html
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