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Exam Code: 1Z0-520 Practice exam 2022 by team
Oracle EBS R12.1 Purchasing Essentials
Oracle Purchasing basics
Killexams : Oracle Purchasing basics - BingNews Search results Killexams : Oracle Purchasing basics - BingNews Killexams : Procurement Basics No result found, try new keyword!This Course includes basic information on procurement, Importance of the procurement organization and its' role in the organization, cost vs. value, processes such as the use of RFQ, RFP ... Wed, 15 Dec 2021 00:42:00 -0600 text/html Killexams : 8 Companies Owned by Oracle

The acquisitions of Cerner, FarApp, Federos, and GloriaFood in 2021 by Oracle Corporation (ORCL) are just a few examples of Oracle’s reach in the technology market. Acquisitions like this have helped develop Oracle in a multitude of ways, including application development, industry solutions, middleware, server expansion, storage capabilities, and network development.

Oracle has spent a significant amount of money on its acquisitions but its most expensive has been its purchase of PeopleSoft for $10.3 billion in 2005; however, Oracle's announcement in late 2021 of its acquisition of Cerner, if it goes through, will be its most expensive at $28.3 billion.

Due to the numerous products, services, and industries Oracle caters to, it is no surprise that there are a substantial number of important subsidiaries and integrated companies that result in Oracle having the second-highest gross revenue across all software companies.

Key Takeaways

  • Oracle is known as a global leader in enterprise software and IT solutions; it is the second-largest software company in the world by revenue.
  • Oracle's cloud computing and database packages are well-known throughout the industry, but the company also has relied on an aggressive acquisition strategy to bolster its portfolio.
  • Included under the Oracle banner are BEA Systems, Hyperion, Siebel Systems, and Sun Microsystems, among several others.
  • Oracle's largest acquisition was of PeopleSoft in 2005 for $10.3 billion but will be eclipsed by its acquisition of Cerner for $28.3 billion in 2021 if the deal goes through.

1. Acme Packet

Acme Packet produced session border controllers, security gateways, and session-routing proxies. It allowed secure and reliable communications across devices, regardless of network. Oracle entered into an agreement to acquire Acme Packet in 2013 for $2.1 billion. At the time of the acquisition, Acme Packet’s solutions were utilized by almost 90% of the world’s top 100 communications companies. Acme Packet was founded in 2000 and was headquartered out of Bedford, Massachusetts.

2. BEA Systems

Oracle acquired BEA Systems in 2008 for $8.5 billion. The acquisition was made to bolster Oracle’s Fusion middleware software suite. Founded in 1995, the three founders of BEA were all former employees of Sun Microsystems. BEA Systems’ three major product lines were a transaction-oriented middleware platform called Tuxedo, an enterprise infrastructure platform, and a service-oriented architecture platform. All three products are utilized today, including the development of the Oracle Weblogic Server and Oracle Service Bus.

3. Hyperion Corporation

Hyperion Corporation, a provider of performance management software, was acquired by Oracle in 2007 for $3.3 billion. It offered enterprise resource planning solutions, financial modules, and reporting products. The combination of the two companies resulted in the creation of the Oracle Business Intelligence Enterprise Edition.

4. MICROS Systems

In September 2014, Oracle completed the acquisition of MICROS Systems Inc. Previously headquartered in Maryland, MICROS provided enterprise applications to restaurants, hotels, casinos, and other entertainment businesses. The $5.3 billion deal to acquire MICROS enabled Oracle to expand its Retail and Hospitality Hardware and Software division. At the time of acquisition, MICROS technologies were used by over 330,000 customers in 180 countries.

5. NetSuite

Oracle’s 2016 acquisition of NetSuite expanded Oracle’s operations in cloud services. NetSuite was the first cloud company and was founded in 1998. NetSuite provided customers with a suite of software services to manage business operations and customer relationships. NetSuite provided products to over 40,000 companies in 100 countries. NetSuite was one of the biggest acquisitions ever made by Oracle, costing the company $9.3 billion, and giving their library of software a huge boost. 

One of Oracle's most important and successful products is Java, which it acquired through its purchase of Sun Microsystems.

6. PeopleSoft

PeopleSoft provided numerous financial and business applications to address a range of business requirements. Oracle’s hostile takeover of PeopleSoft in 2005 cost $10.3 billion. Modules created by PeopleSoft included Human Capital Management, Financial Management, supplier Relationship Management, Enterprise Service Automation, Supply Chain Management, and PeopleTools.

7. Siebel Systems

Siebel Systems specialized in customer relationship management solutions. After paying $5.85 billion in 2005, Oracle acquired its main competitor in the sales automation program industry. Siebel’s customer relationship manager provided solutions to more than 20 industries and was integrated into Oracle’s Customer Experience portfolio. Founder Thomas Siebel was an Oracle executive from 1984 to 1990 before founding Siebel Systems in 1993. Siebel itself now operates as a product under the Oracle branding.

8. Sun Microsystems

Founded in 1982, Sun Microsystems was acquired by Oracle in 2010 for $7.4 billion and was utilized in the production of Oracle Optimized Systems. Sun Microsystems helped develop a high-performance infrastructure for the Oracle Database, as well as the first Oracle Exalogic Elastic Cloud. Sun Microsystems’ personal portfolio of software developments has expanded under Oracle with the releases of Oracle Solaris, MySQL, and Java.

How Many Acquisitions Has Oracle Made?

In its lifetime, Oracle has made 144 acquisitions, as of March 2022. The acquisitions have been both large and small and have allowed Oracle to expand its presence in a variety of fields.

Who Did Oracle Recently Buy?

Oracle's most accurate acquisition, which is still pending, is that of Cerner in December 2021, for $28.3 billion ($95 a share). This acquisition will put Oracle in the IT healthcare space; a new frontier for the company.

Does Oracle Make Hardware?

Yes, Oracle makes hardware. Its hardware products include servers, storage, and engineered systems, with the goal of optimizing database performance at lower costs.

Thu, 18 Sep 2014 11:15:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : The channel: Four decades of change

The past four decades have seen changes on all fronts, with economic highs and lows, different political parties moving in and out of Downing Street, and even a historic pandemic. Throughout that time, the channel has also been evolving not only to deal with the challenges of the time, but to ensure it has a position in the future.

Before we look forward, let’s look back over the past 40 years to get a sense of what the channel has gone through and what that evolution has felt like for those working in the industry. Some of the big shifts include the emergence of software as a primary revenue driver and – of course – the cloud. 

Tom Hermann, vice-president of channels and alliances at Synopsys Software Integrity Group

Forty years ago, channel partners were selling predominantly hardware and devices. Software solutions were just starting to be introduced by brand new companies such as Microsoft, Oracle and SAP that had only been founded a few years prior to address the emerging PC and server market outside of mainframes.

Fast-forward to today, not only are channel partners selling much more software than hardware (if any at all), but even that has changed to include cloud solutions now rather than infrastructure.

In addition, channel partners had to differentiate themselves years ago to provide much more “value add” in terms of services to go along with the solutions that they were selling. This led to the emergence of the value add reseller (VAR), which is essentially the de-facto model today, where most channel partners cannot survive on selling lower-margin products alone and have to be skilled at delivering services.

Dale Smith, director of UK&I channel at Juniper Networks

A lot has changed, but the core values of the channel remain the same. People have always bought from people, and partners sell what is easy to consume, consistent and profitable. However, the channel has evolved a great deal in how partners and resellers sell and who they target.

The way the channel uses data has also evolved over the past 40 years. Data has become the core advantage for partners and resellers to be able to target customers with the right messages at the right time. The use of such business intelligence tools – which includes known customer buying trends, key search terms and algorithmic analysis of predicted needs – means the channel is laser-focused on prospecting versus the old-fashioned cold calling method to generate leads.

Trust, commitment and investment together is what has always made the channel such a successful sector
Dale Smith, Juniper Networks

While innovation has evolved the methods and ways that the channel operates, channel partnerships and the core values will never change. Trust, commitment and investment together is what has always made the channel such a successful sector. May it continue for another 40-plus years.

Marc Monday, global vice-president of strategic partnerships at Sage

In 1982, the disk operating system (DOS) was the emerging dominate operating system, with Microsoft having licensed 86-DOS from IBM and released PC-DOS 1.0 in August 1981. Windows was not yet invented and wouldn’t be commercially available until 1985. There was no public internet like we know it today, no commercially available cell phones, and software was mostly delivered via floppy disks. It would be another 16 years before Google would be founded, and  the iPhone wouldn’t be launched until 2007 – wow, a lot has changed in 40 years!

Over the years the channel has evolved and transformed with technology, always with the customer needs at the centre of all we do. In the early days, that was driving around to offices and doing a lot of onsite installs, fixes and management – connecting cables seemed to be an ever-present job. The channel continued to drive innovation forward from PC towers with 186K of memory, then doubling every couple of years – my first laptop weighed nearly 7KG.

The channel has evolved with each new technology shift, embracing technologies and helping customers to transform. Throughout it all, regardless of the common naming of channel partners (resellers, VARs, MSPs, CSPs and so on), they have focused on delivering high-value services, support and advice for customers to use technology to most effectively manage and transform their businesses.

Technologies have evolved, tech companies have risen and fallen, and with each new tech wave, the business models have changed and evolved, and – throughout it all – with partners providing trusted advice and services to customers.

James Rigby, CEO at SCC

Clearly the biggest thing to change in the channel over the past 40 years is the technology itself. At its most basic level, the role of the channel has remained the same: we take the latest technology and apply it in the most innovative ways to deliver continuous improvement and sustainable success for our customers.

What started with the PC revolution and memory chips has turned into advanced artificial intelligence (AI), robotics, and masses of data we could never have imagined. But it’s always been up to the channel to see what’s coming next and how these advancements in technology can be applied to complex infrastructure to keep resellers and our customers ahead of the competition.

This isn’t without its challenges in such a fast-paced and cyclical environment. But it’s the reason why the IT channel is still thriving and plays such a crucial role in the technology we all use every single day.

Charles Damerell, senior director of UK&I at SolarWinds

Having been in the industry for 20 years, there’s been a huge amount of change I have seen in two decades. Many reseller companies have been acquired, some disappeared, and a few managed to stick around and are doing well today. Some 20 years ago, distributors held a strong commercial role and were making much better margins. Customers relied on those distributors offering a one-stop-shop for everything from laptops to networking devices to software.

It was also a time when we were seeing the beginnings of the internet, with companies such as Cisco and 3COM acting as trailblazers. While there were a whole range of local networking companies, the past two decades saw the beginning of more global networking. American or Israeli companies were coming to the UK to work with key organisations that they could resell to or partner with in order to resell through.

Having a deep knowledge of both the technology and organisation has won the day.
Charles Damerell, SolarWinds

It’s also worth reflecting on the fact that Cisco created the direct touch model, with salespeople promoting solutions to customers and help them understand the technology. Cisco’s main B2B partners were given “gold status”, and a lot of business was coming through those elite partners.

The key to all of this is that 20 years ago, the real value add was coming from the distributors or partners having not just salesmanship, but technical competency. Having a deep knowledge of both the technology and organisation has won the day. Well-run companies in the channel space have both stayed in business and grown in the past 20 years.

David Weeks, senior director of partner experience at N-Able

Some 15 years ago, when I started in the channel, the managed services opportunity was still a new conversation for many partners. Over the years, they have had to deal with various things: changing internet speeds, the arrival of remote access, evolving from the break/fix model, recessions, security threats, labour scarcity, the move to the cloud, and the rapid shift to remote work during the accurate global pandemic to name but a few. Many MSPs in the channel are thriving and have shown the true value of the managed services model.

One word I would use to sum up the channel over the past 40 years is dynamic; it is constantly evolving and those involved do a fantastic job of adapting to support teams and customers as market changes emerge. I believe the future of the channel is extremely strong and will continue to evolve, with increased peer-to-peer engagement driving opportunity, as well as the channel and those within it making the move from regional to global players.

Andrew Forsyth, sales and marketing director at Brother UK

When Microscope launched there were obviously no online sales, before created a digital route to market that transformed how resellers could present products and solutions to businesses. The sector’s biggest players, from Computacenter to SCH Group, moved away from distribution to focus on developing their system integrator skills while investing in international growth. Many other resellers diverged into specific technologies, verticals and geographies.

The shift towards the as-a-service model has transformed the landscape too. It was always an aspiration, but it has taken time for much of the sector to get annuity models in place for the products and solutions they specialise in.

An evolution in customer-buying behaviours and the introduction of cloud technology has driven the change, and models such as managed print services (MPS) are now very advanced and proving to be strategically important for the sector as it offers customers greater scalability and cost flexibility – and, importantly, it’s giving partners the opportunity to strengthen their customer relationships, lock in revenues and forecast better.

Clare Loveridge, general manager of Europe, the Middle East and Africa (EMEA) at Arctic Wolf

It’s no secret the channel has undergone a substantial transformation, even in the time I have been working in it. Previously, sectors have been the domain of specialist resellers. However, a broader trend has formed with resellers creating one-stop shops for their customers.

“Channel partners...have realised there is now space for them to offer security solutions, which has arguably made resellers more attractive to end-users and more resilient to changing needs in their markets”

Clare Loveridge, Arctic Wolf

For example, channel partners, who have previously focused on sectors such as retail or finance have realised there is now space for them to offer security solutions. This has arguably made resellers more attractive to end-users (who now don’t need to negotiate with a host of different providers for solutions), and more resilient to changing needs in their markets.

Robin van Stroe, European partner sales director at Canon EMEA

The channel has gone through massive amounts of change over the past 40 years, and large numbers of mergers and acquisitions (M&A) have led to an ongoing state of flux. This surge in M&A activity and big changes in ownership should not mean a shift in levels of service for the end user. For channel businesses, it marks a time of uncertainty, which means vendors must continuously support partners and help guide them as best they can. 

Another way the channel has changed is in its capacity to meet a wider range of needs. Today, customers are looking for end-to-end solutions and services able to meet their hybrid working, security and sustainability demands. In response to this, channel partners have looked to diversify their portfolio in a number of ways – for example, many have moved from hardware-only offers to software and cloud solutions, and adopted new models such as as a service. Partners have demonstrated their adaptability to end customer needs, and are looking to future-proof their businesses for the long term.

Nick Bannister, UK&I vice-president of sales for enterprise computing solutions business at Arrow

As technology has changed, so have the types of business and business models that operate in the channel. The biggest catalyst for change has been the adoption of cloud and digital transformation, and with that the shift to subscription models and recurring revenues.

James Hudson-Dale, senior partner business development manager at IDnow

The channel has evolved significantly in the past four decades. In the 1980s, it was all about computers and hardware, accelerated by the likes of IBM and Apple. A pivotal moment which would kick-start the channel business was powered by Lotus 1-2-3 in 1982, which would see businesses beginning to rely on technology on a wider scale. This evolved even further when Microsoft partnered with IBM and MS Windows launched in 1985.

Over the following decade, computers would become a much more common sight in the workplace, along with other hardware such as printers and networking equipment. IT providers would become experts in their own field, later evolving into resellers as well as being there to provide external IT support.

Distribution and channel sales continued to drive adaptation and growth of new technologies including telephony, computers and networking. Software was often packaged with hardware up until the introduction of the CD-ROM in 1987, which subsequently made software more of a commodity.

“Today, there are circa 175,000 software companies, compared with 10,000 only a decade ago”

James Hudson-Dale, IDnow

In 1995, the World Wide Web would begin to influence commerce, culture and technology development. Software became a product in its own right, with the channel forming a major factor in software sales owing to the training, expertise and support that came with purchasing the product through VARs.

As wireless internet access was introduced and became the standard, distributors and resellers started to offer more diverse products and software, rather than just computers and networking.

Less than a decade later, software as a service (SaaS) would be widely adopted. Following this, in 2006, Google introduced the concept of cloud computing, further evolving the channel away from “box shifting”, i.e. having to adapt to a new era of accessibility and availability of emerging tech at scale.

Businesses began to operate in agile and innovative ways, exploiting new technology and the ability to grow fast and at scale. The continuing record number of tech startups from 2018 onwards have flooded the industry with unprecedented choice, allowing partners and resellers to begin forming direct relationships with vendors, therefore bypassing distribution channels.

Very accurate history has also changed the landscape, with the pandemic changing the way we do business over the past two years. As a result of the truly global event, digitisation and technology adaptation has increased significantly.

Last, the software ecosystem has increased exponentially as the channel has developed. Today, there are circa 175,000 software companies, compared with 10,000 only a decade ago.

Hayley Mooney, general manager at Crayon UK

In my 20 years of experience with software, so much has changed, and yet so much has remained. I think back to the millions of physical boxes of the likes of Microsoft, McAfee, Veritas and Crystal Decisions that we sent out to resellers, who then had to handle logistics and shift them on to their customers. It’s astounding when you think about how much that must have cost all links in the chain.

In the early stages of my career, I sat on the licence desk, processing thousands of Microsoft OLP licences, and sent every single one out via email confirmation. Each person on the sales floor had a physical phone handset, a PC under the desk and a huge monitor. Nobody worked from home. We worked from 8am until 6pm every day and had product or sales training for one hour every morning. 

Most of the partners I looked after are still here today, though some have merged with other businesses or have been acquired. While some businesses weren’t able to keep up with the pace of change, the people have remained pretty static. Even today, it’s great to be able to say that I still work with many of my colleagues from 20 years ago in many different roles across the channel. We’ve all built long-lasting relationships that move with the people, so our networks are broader and richer than ever.

Celine Cazali, chief partner officer at SAP UK&I

Over the past 40 years, the market has become increasingly consolidated, with larger partners acquiring boutique and specialist partners to break into different verticals and sectors. No partner can do it all – we are constantly looking to build our own ecosystems, which means attracting and onboarding the next generation of partners. This has really shifted the dynamic within the industry and made it much more collaborative.

At SAP, we’ve witnessed this shift first-hand. Primarily driven by the launch of RISE with SAP and the cloud, we’re collaborating with a wider pool of partners that we previously wouldn’t have. Building true partnerships and innovating together in this way has not only helped to build a thriving ecosystem, but has been key to driving better results for our customers.

Thu, 29 Sep 2022 16:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : SEC fines Oracle $23 million, says the company bribed foreign officials for business

A sign is posted in front of Oracle headquarters on December 09, 2021 in Redwood Shores, California.

Justin Sullivan | Getty Images

Oracle has settled with the Securities and Exchange Commission after it was charged with violating the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act for a second time, the SEC announced Tuesday.

The SEC said Oracle violated provisions of the act between 2016 and 2019 when its subsidiaries in India, Turkey and the United Arab Emirates created slush funds used to bribe foreign officials. Oracle's subsidiaries also used the funds to pay foreign officials to attend technology conferences, according to the SEC.

The company did not admit to or deny the SEC's findings, and it will pay more than $23 million to settle the charges.

"The conduct outlined by the SEC is contrary to our core values and clear policies, and if we identify such behavior, we will take appropriate action," said Oracle corporate communications vice president Michael Egbert.

The company also settled charges in 2012 after Oracle India created millions of dollars of side funds, the SEC said.

Charles Cain, the SEC's FCPA unit chief, said in the release that the charges highlight a need for "effective internal accounting controls" at Oracle.

"The creation of off-book slush funds inherently gives rise to the risk those funds will be used improperly, which is exactly what happened here at Oracle's Turkey, UAE, and India subsidiaries," he said.

Tue, 27 Sep 2022 02:13:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Purchasing Basics: Resin dryers

Many, many cosmetic defects in molded parts can be traced back to improper drying of materials as the root cause. Does every material need to be dried? No. Can most plastics materials benefit from a trip through a desiccant bed dryer? Absolutely. But if you are molding nylon, or PET, or polysulfone, or cellulosics, adequate drying temperature and thorough drying are a necessity. Also, the clearer the material, the more likely cosmetic defects caused by underdrying will show up.

Not all resins are hygroscopic, meaning that the pellet itself absorbs moisture from the ambient air. But they may still attract moisture that stays on the surface. In such materials as polyethylene or polypropylene, this surface moisture is easier to remove, but it still requires drying. So let's start with the basics.

Resin Influence
The type of resin you are drying is the foundation of what drives the selection of a dryer. The chart on p. 24 lists many of the individual resins that benefit from drying, along with recommended drying temperature and drying time, compiled from a variety of sources and cross checked against the resin suppliers' recommendation.

Rules of thumb

  • The volume of air required to dry resin is 1 cu ft/min/lb of material/hour.
  • Power consumption for cooling return air from the dryer before it goes to the hopper (a chilled heat exchanger is used) is 1 kW to remove 4 kW of heat.
  • Regeneration air temperature in properly designed drying systems is approximately 50 deg F higher than that desired for the desiccant.

But there's more to it than just resin type. What shape or size are your pellets? Large pellets don't get as dry as small pellets at the same exposure. When drying ABS, for example, five hours of drying will take a batch of small pellets down to .025 percent residual moisture, while the same period and temperature will take large pellets down to only .075 percent.

The chart with this article also shows a nominal starting moisture level and the desired residual moisture level at molding. The greater the difference in these two numbers, the more residence time is required in the hopper, thus the size of the hopper (and its location) are affected.

What about additives that might be present in your material, volatiles that might be released on drying? If such volatiles are released, they may damage the desiccant. So they must be trapped before they enter the desiccant carousel. Your dryer supplier will want to identify these.

How clean is your resin? Is it all virgin material, or is there regrind, with its attendant dust that can foul the desiccant bed of the dryer? This will determine the degree to which the air will be filtered for contaminants; with a high level of dust or fines, a standalone return air dust collector may be required.

Process Considerations
How much resin will you need to dry in what period of time? Dryers come in two parts, basically; the dryer, where desiccant is used to create low-moisture air, and the hopper, which contains the resin to be dried in a configuration that allows the dry air produced by the dryer to pass over the moist resin to remove moisture.

First, will you need a dryer that mounts on a molding machine? Sits next to a molding machine? Or performs a higher volume drying function in a central location, feeding multiple molding machines?

If it's to be at the machine, what model of molding machine do you have? What's the cycle time of the product? Where should the hopper be placed, on the machine or on the floor? Is there adequate floor space or ceiling height to accommodate the equipment at its preferred location? Is there adequate air pressure available at the machine? Is compressed air available?

Your dryer supplier will need a drawing of the flange on the barrel of the molding machine where the hopper is attached, and will want to know how high that flange is off the floor and what the ceiling limit is over that machine.

What's your preferred power source? Gas-fired dryers have become popular because of their much lower energy consumption per lb of resin dried. The more often the desiccant bed needs regeneration, the higher the power consumption. Different dryer designs require different power consumption, and it's wise to evaluate potential suppliers on energy consumption data.

If you are in an area of high energy costs, special dryer features, such as a power regulator, may be available. Ask your dryer supplier if he will provide an energy audit of your situation to help you evaluate your options.

What's the ambient air like in your plant on a year-round basis? What are temperature extremes in the plant and variation in relative humidity from summer to winter? Drying efficiency is not independent of the weather outside. Prepare yourself to answer these questions, and you'll be off to a good start in your purchasing plans.

Recommendations for resin drying time and conditions
Drying times and temperatures for key hygroscopic materials. Note: Research for this chart turned up quite a range of recommendations from dryer manufacturers. This data is taken from material supplier data sheets; specific grades may have different specifications. These represent the most common recommendations. Be sure to check with your supplier.
Resin Drying
deg F
moisture, %
moisture, %

ABS 180 2-3 .45 .02-.10
Acetal 210 3 .25 .05-.20
Acrylic 160-180 3-4 .4 .10
Cellulose acetate 160 2-3 .7 .10
Cellulose acetate butyrate 170 2-3 .7 .10
Cellulose propionate 170 2-3 1.0 .10
Ionomer 170 8 .32 .05
LCP 300 8-24 na .01
Nylon 6 180 4-5 .5 .10-.20
Nylon 6/6 180 4-5 na .10-.20
Nylon 6/10 185 4-5 na .15-.20
Nylon 4/6 250 2-4 na .05
Nylon 11 170-200 4-5 .7 .02
Nylon 12 150-230 5 na .10
Polyaryletherketone 300 3 na .10
PBT 284 3 .25 .02
PC 250 3-4 .16 .02
PET 250 2-3 .25 .02
PETG 160 4-6 na .08
Polyester elastomer 175-220 2-4 na .03
Polyethersulfone 300 3-6 .43 .02
Polyethylene 185 2 .2 .05
Polyethylene (40% black) 195 3 na .05
Polyethylene (30% glass) 185 2.5-3.5 na .05
Polyimide 360 5-10 .32 .05
Polypropylene 195 2 .2 .02-.20
Polystyrene 180 2 .1 .02
Polysulfone 250 2-4 .1 .02
Polyurethane 180 3 .9 .01
PPE 190-230 2-4 na .02
PPS 300 3-4 .2 .04
PVC 160 2 .4 .10
SAN 180 2 .3 .10
Styrene butadiene 140 2 .6 .02

With our thanks... the drying experts at Comet Automation, Conair, Fasti, and Novatec for supplying material for this article.

Go to the IMM Almanac Online home page.

Wed, 12 Oct 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Oracle Releases Java 19

New release delivers seven JDK Enhancement Proposals to increase developer productivity, Excellerate the Java language, and enhance the platform's performance, stability, and security

Java 19's key capabilities to be showcased at JavaOne 2022 in Las Vegas on October 17-20

AUSTIN, Texas, Sept. 20, 2022 /PRNewswire/ -- Oracle today announced the availability of Java 19, the latest version of the world's number one programming language and development platform. Java 19 (Oracle JDK 19) delivers thousands of performance, stability, and security improvements, including enhancements to the platform that will help developers Excellerate productivity and drive business-wide innovation. Oracle will showcase the latest capabilities in Java 19 at JavaOne 2022, taking place October 17-20 in Las Vegas, and via a keynote broadcast airing on at 9:00 a.m. PT on Tuesday, September 20.


"Our ongoing collaboration with the developer community is the lifeblood of Java. As the steward of Java, Oracle is steadfastly committed to providing developers and enterprises with the latest tools to help them create innovative apps and services," said Georges Saab, senior vice president of development, Java Platform and Chair, OpenJDK Governing Board, Oracle. "The powerful new enhancements in Java 19 are a testament to the monumental work across the global Java community."

The latest Java Development Kit (JDK) provides updates and improvements with seven JDK Enhancement Proposals (JEPs). Most of these updates are to be delivered as follow-up preview features improving on functionality introduced in earlier releases.

JDK 19 delivers language Improvements from OpenJDK project Amber (Record Patterns and Pattern Matching for Switch); library enhancements to interoperate with non-Java Code (Foreign Function and Memory API) and to leverage vector instructions (Vector API) from OpenJDK project Panama; and the first previews for Project Loom (Virtual Threads and Structured Concurrency), which will drastically reduce the effort required to write and maintain high-throughput, concurrent applications in Java.

"Java developers are increasingly seeking tools to help them efficiently build highly functional applications for deployment in the cloud, on-premises, and in hybrid environments," said Arnal Dayaratna, research vice president, software development, IDC. "The enhancements in Java 19 deliver on these requirements and illustrate how the Java ecosystem is well-positioned to meet the current and future needs of developers and enterprises."

Oracle delivers new Java Feature releases every six months via a predictable release schedule. This cadence provides a steady stream of innovations while delivering continuous improvements to the platform's performance, stability, and security, helping increase Java's pervasiveness across organizations and industries of all sizes.

The most significant updates delivered in Java 19 are:

Updates and Improvements to the Language

  • JEP 405: Record Patterns (Preview): Enables users to nest record patterns and type patterns to create a powerful, declarative, and composable form of data navigation and processing. This extends pattern matching to allow for more sophisticated and composable data queries.

  • JEP 427: Pattern Matching for Switch (Third Preview): Enables pattern matching for switch expressions and statements by permitting an expression to be tested against a number of patterns. This allows users to express complex data-oriented queries concisely and safely.

Library Tools

  • JEP 424: Foreign Function and Memory API (Preview): Enables Java programs to more easily interoperate with code and data outside of the Java runtime. By efficiently invoking foreign functions (i.e., code outside the Java Virtual Machine [JVM]), and by safely accessing foreign memory (i.e., memory not managed by the JVM), this API enables Java programs to call native libraries and process native data via a pure Java development model. This results in increased ease-of-use, performance, flexibility, and safety.

  • JEP 426: Vector API (Fourth Incubator): Enables superior performance compared to equivalent scalar computations by expressing vector computations that reliably compile at runtime to vector instructions on supported CPU architectures.


Project Loom Preview/Incubator Features

  • JEP 425: Virtual Threads (Preview): Dramatically reduces the effort of writing, maintaining, and observing high-throughput concurrent applications by introducing lightweight virtual threads to the Java Platform. Using virtual threads allows developers to easily troubleshoot, debug, and profile concurrent applications with existing JDK tools and techniques.

  • JEP 428: Structured Concurrency (Incubator): Streamlines error handling and cancellation, improves reliability, and enhances observability by simplifying multithreaded programming and treating multiple tasks running in different threads as a single unit of work.

Driving Java Innovation in the Cloud

The Java 19 release is the result of extensive collaboration between Oracle engineers and other members of the worldwide Java developer community via the OpenJDK Project and the Java Community Process (JCP). In addition to new enhancements, Java 19 is supported by Java Management Service – an Oracle Cloud Infrastructure (OCI) native service – that provides a single pane of glass to help organizations manage Java runtimes and applications on-premises or on any cloud.

Supporting Java Customers

The Oracle Java SE Subscription is a pay-as-you-go offering that provides customers with best-in-class support, entitlement to GraalVM Enterprise, access to the Java Management Service, and the flexibility to upgrade at the pace of their businesses. This helps IT organizations manage complexity, contain costs, and mitigate security risks. In addition, Java SE and GraalVM Enterprise are offered free of charge on OCI, enabling developers to build and deploy applications that run faster, better, and with unbeatable cost-performance on Oracle Cloud. 

Underscoring Java's popularity with the global developer community, Oracle is proud to recognize the one millionth completed Java certification. Java certifications help developers stand out as Java experts and raise their profiles with enterprises seeking to attract highly skilled Java professionals.

Additional Resources

About Oracle

Oracle offers integrated suites of applications plus secure, autonomous infrastructure in the Oracle Cloud. For more information about Oracle (NYSE: ORCL), please visit us at


Oracle, Java, and MySQL are registered trademarks of Oracle Corporation.


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Tue, 20 Sep 2022 04:04:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Oracle Announces General Availability of MySQL Heatwave on AWS

Oracle recently announced the general availability (GA) of MySQL Heatwave, a service that combines OLTP, analytics, machine learning, and machine learning-based automation within a single instance on AWS.

The company first released the cloud database service on Oracle Cloud Infrastructure (OCI) in 2020 to provide customers with a managed offering that integrates both online analytics and transaction processing capabilities. Later in 2022, autoML was added to the service. Now, it is available for the first time outside the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure – allowing users to run their transaction processing, analytics, and machine learning workloads in one service on AWS without needing ETL duplication between separate OLTP and OLAP databases.


Peter Zaitsev, founder & CEO at Percona, tweeted:

Oracle finally admits nobody cares about Oracle Cloud and takes Heatwave to AWS, where previously it was one of unique "completing" features of OCI.

In a press release, Oracle announced several new capabilities for MySQL HeatWave on AWS. The service offers a native experience on AWS, the ability to monitor performance and the utilization of provisioned resources, and integration with MySQL Autopilot, which provides workload-aware, machine learning-based automation of the application lifecycle, including data management and query execution. In addition, it also offers comprehensive security features such as server-side data masking and de-identification, asymmetric data encryption, and a database firewall.

Sanjeev Mohan, a principal at Sanjmo, explains in a LinkedIn blog post:

The data plane, control plane, and console all run natively on AWS. The code base used for AWS is the same as the one used on OCI. However, Oracle has added several enhancements and integrated with AWS services, such as CloudWatch for monitoring resources and operational logs and metrics.

In the same press release, Oracle claims that MySQL HeatWave compared to other systems on AWS, provides better price performance. For instance, MySQL HeatWave on AWS delivers a price-performance seven times better than Amazon Redshift, ten times better than Snowflake, 12 times better than Google BigQuery, and four times better than Azure Synapse when running queries derived from the 4TB TPC-H benchmark.

Holger Mueller, VP and principal analyst, Constellation Research, said in one of the industry analyst statements on MySQL on AWS: 

The fact that the MySQL Engineering team can not only deliver the MySQL Heatwave offering on AWS but also provide architectural adaptations for better performance and TCO is another proof of the brilliance of the underlying software architecture.

In addition, Mueller told InfoQ:

Oracle is moving its software to the data on AWS, which will make potential adoption of customers on AWS with their data there - managed on competitive platforms - easier to migrate.

Lastly, MySQL HeatWave is now available in multiple clouds, OCI and AWS, with Microsoft Azure following soon. 

Wed, 21 Sep 2022 06:06:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Trade Management Market Size 2022 Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis by Market Restraints, Challenges, Regions and Forecast to 2028

The MarketWatch News Department was not involved in the creation of this content.

Oct 14, 2022 (The Expresswire) -- "Final Report will add the analysis of the impact of COVID-19 on this industry."

The global research report on “Trade Management Market” 2022 provides overall insights on market size, latest trends, key companies profiled, and production capacity by region, growth revenue and accurate developments/updates. The Trade Management market report covers major significant strategies, business developments, and competitive landscape analysis production capacity, revenue, price, gross margin and business challenges over the forecast period. The report also contains up-to-date research on current Global Trade Management Market development strategies, status on Covid19, current trends and drivers, and types and usage. The Global Trade Management Market Report provides qualitative and quantitative research on market dynamics, competitive scenarios, opportunity analysis, market growth, industry chains, and forecasts to 2028.

Get a trial PDF of the Report -

Trade Management Market Analysis and Insights:

Trade management refers to the coordination, control, standardization and supervision of commodity circulation process, economic behaviors of trade subjects and trade activities.
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and Russia-Ukraine War Influence, the global market for Trade Management estimated at USD 1033.9 million in the year 2022, is projected to reach a revised size of USD 1710.2 million by 2028, growing at a CAGR of 8.8% during the forecast period 2022-2028.
Trade compliance solution is expected to grow at the highest CAGR during the forecast period.Asia Pacific (APAC) is expected to have the highest growth rate during the forecast period.

Get A trial Copy Of The Trade Management Market Report

Report Scope

This report aims to provide a comprehensive presentation of the global market for Trade Management, with both quantitative and qualitative analysis, to help readers develop business/growth strategies, assess the market competitive situation, analyze their position in the current marketplace, and make informed business decisions regarding Trade Management.

The Trade Management market size, estimations, and forecasts are provided in terms of output/shipments (K Tons) and revenue (USD millions), considering 2021 as the base year, with history and forecast data for the period from 2017 to 2028. This report segments the global Trade Management market comprehensively. Regional market sizes, concerning products by types, by application, and by players, are also provided. The influence of COVID-19 and the Russia-Ukraine War were considered while estimating market sizes.

Key Companies and Market Share Insights

In this section, the readers will gain an understanding of the key players competing. This report has studied the key growth strategies, such as innovative trends and developments, intensification of product portfolio, mergers and acquisitions, collaborations, new product innovation, and geographical expansion, undertaken by these participants to maintain their presence. Apart from business strategies, the study includes current developments and key financials. The readers will also get access to the data related to global revenue, price, and sales by manufacturers for the period 2017-2022. This all-inclusive report will certainly serve the clients to stay updated and make effective decisions in their businesses.

Some of the players in the research report include:

● Amber Road ● Aptean ● Integration Point ● Livingston International ● Mic Customs Solutions ● Miq Logistics ● Oracle Corporation ● Precision Software ● The Descartes Systems ● Thomson Reuters

To Understand How Covid-19 Impact Is Covered in This Report -

Trade Management segment by Type:

● On-Premises ● Cloud

Trade Management segment by Application:

● Transport ● Medical ● Manufacturing ● Consumer Goods ● Other

Regional Outlook

This section of the report provides key insights regarding various regions and the key players operating in each region. Economic, social, environmental, technological, and political factors have been taken into consideration while assessing the growth of the particular region/country. The readers will also get their hands on the revenue and sales data of each region and country for the period 2017-2028.

The market has been segmented into various major geographies, including North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, South America. Detailed analysis of major countries such as the USA, Germany, the U.K., Italy, France, China, Japan, South Korea, Southeast Asia, and India will be covered within the regional segment. For market estimates, data are going to be provided for 2021 because of the base year, with estimates for 2022 and forecast value for 2028.

Inquire or Share Your Questions If Any Before the Purchasing This Report -

Key Drivers and Barriers

High-impact rendering factors and drivers have been studied in this report to aid the readers to understand the general development. Moreover, the report includes restraints and challenges that may act as stumbling blocks on the way of the players. This will assist the users to be attentive and make informed decisions related to business. specialists have also laid their focus on the upcoming business prospects.

Reasons to Buy This Report

This report will help the readers to understand the competition within the industries and strategies for the competitive environment to enhance the potential profit. The report also focuses on the competitive landscape of the global Trade Management market, and introduces in detail the market share, industry ranking, competitor ecosystem, market performance, new product development, operation situation, expansion, and acquisition. etc. of the main players, which helps the readers to identify the main competitors and deeply understand the competition pattern of the market.

This report will help stakeholders to understand the global industry status and trends of Trade Management and provides them with information on key market drivers, restraints, challenges, and opportunities.

Get A trial Copy Of The Trade Management Market Report 2022

Core Chapters

Chapter 1: Introduces the report scope of the report, executive summary of different market segments (by region, product type, application, etc), including the market size of each market segment, future development potential, and so on. It offers a high-level view of the current state of the market and its likely evolution in the short to mid-term, and long term.

Chapter 2: Detailed analysis of Trade Management manufacturers competitive landscape, price, output and revenue market share, latest development plan, merger, and acquisition information, etc.

Chapter 3: Production/output, value of Trade Management by region/country. It provides a quantitative analysis of the market size and development potential of each region in the next six years.

Chapter 4: Consumption of Trade Management in regional level and country level. It provides a quantitative analysis of the market size and development potential of each region and its main countries and introduces the market development, future development prospects, market space, and capacity of each country in the world.

Chapter 5: Provides the analysis of various market segments according to product type, covering the market size and development potential of each market segment, to help readers find the blue ocean market in different market segments.

Chapter 6: Provides the analysis of various market segments according to application, covering the market size and development potential of each market segment, to help readers find the blue ocean market in different downstream markets.

Chapter 7: Provides profiles of key players, introducing the basic situation of the main companies in the market in detail, including product production/output, revenue, , price, gross margin, product introduction, accurate development, etc.

Chapter 8: Analysis of industrial chain, including the upstream and downstream of the industry.

Chapter 9: Analysis of sales channel, distributors and customers

Chapter 10: Introduces the market dynamics, latest developments of the market, the driving factors and restrictive factors of the market, the challenges and risks faced by manufacturers in the industry, and the analysis of relevant policies in the industry.

Chapter 11: Production and supply forecast, global and regional

Chapter 12: Consumption and demand forecast, global and regional

Chapter 13: Forecast by type and by application. It provides a quantitative analysis of the market size and development potential of each market segment in the next six years.

Chapter 14: The main points and conclusions of the report.

Purchase this Report (Price 5600 USD for a Single-User License) -

Detailed TOC of Global Trade Management Market Research Report 2022

1 Trade Management Market Overview

1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Trade Management

1.2 Trade Management Segment by Type

1.2.1 Global Trade Management Market Size Growth Rate Analysis by Type 2022 VS 2028

1.3 Trade Management Segment by Application

1.3.1 Global Trade Management Consumption Comparison by Application: 2022 VS 2028

1.4 Global Market Growth Prospects

1.4.1 Global Revenue Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)

1.4.2 Global Production Capacity Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)

1.4.3 Global Production Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)

1.5 Global Market Size by Region

1.5.1 Global Trade Management Market Size Estimates and Forecasts by Region: 2017 VS 2021 VS 2028

1.5.2 North America Trade Management Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)

1.5.3 Europe Trade Management Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)

1.5.4 China Trade Management Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)

1.5.5 Japan Trade Management Estimates and Forecasts (2017-2028)

2 Market Competition by Manufacturers

2.1 Global Trade Management Production Capacity Market Share by Manufacturers (2017-2022)

2.2 Global Trade Management Revenue Market Share by Manufacturers (2017-2022)

2.3 Trade Management Market Share by Company Type (Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3)

2.4 Global Trade Management Average Price by Manufacturers (2017-2022)

2.5 Manufacturers Trade Management Production Sites, Area Served, Product Types

2.6 Trade Management Market Competitive Situation and Trends

2.6.1 Trade Management Market Concentration Rate

2.6.2 Global 5 and 10 Largest Trade Management Players Market Share by Revenue

2.6.3 Mergers and Acquisitions, Expansion

3 Production Capacity by Region

3.1 Global Production Capacity of Trade Management Market Share by Region (2017-2022)

3.2 Global Trade Management Revenue Market Share by Region (2017-2022)

3.3 Global Trade Management Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)

3.4 North America Trade Management Production

3.4.1 North America Trade Management Production Growth Rate (2017-2022)

3.4.2 North America Trade Management Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)

3.5 Europe Trade Management Production

3.5.1 Europe Trade Management Production Growth Rate (2017-2022)

3.5.2 Europe Trade Management Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)

3.6 China Trade Management Production

3.6.1 China Trade Management Production Growth Rate (2017-2022)

3.6.2 China Trade Management Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)

3.7 Japan Trade Management Production

3.7.1 Japan Trade Management Production Growth Rate (2017-2022)

3.7.2 Japan Trade Management Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)

Get a trial Copy of the Trade Management Market Report 2022

4 Global Trade Management Consumption by Region

4.1 Global Consumption by Region

4.1.1 Global Consumption by Region

4.1.2 Global Consumption Market Share by Region

4.2 North America

4.2.1 North America Consumption by Country

4.2.2 United States

4.2.3 Canada

4.3 Europe

4.3.1 Europe Consumption by Country

4.3.2 Germany

4.3.3 France

4.3.4 U.K.

4.3.5 Italy

4.3.6 Russia

4.4 Asia Pacific

4.4.1 Asia Pacific Consumption by Region

4.4.2 China

4.4.3 Japan

4.4.4 South Korea

4.4.5 China Taiwan

4.4.6 Southeast Asia

4.4.7 India

4.4.8 Australia

4.5 Latin America

4.5.1 Latin America Consumption by Country

4.5.2 Mexico

4.5.3 Brazil

5 Segment by Type

5.1 Global Trade Management Production Market Share by Type (2017-2022)

5.2 Global Trade Management Revenue Market Share by Type (2017-2022)

5.3 Global Trade Management Price by Type (2017-2022)

6 Segment by Application

6.1 Global Trade Management Production Market Share by Application (2017-2022)

6.2 Global Trade Management Revenue Market Share by Application (2017-2022)

6.3 Global Trade Management Price by Application (2017-2022)

7 Key Companies Profiled

7.1 Manufacture 1

7.1.1 Manufacture 1 Corporation Information

7.1.2 Manufacture 1 Product Portfolio

7.1.3 Manufacture 1 Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)

7.1.4 Manufacture 1 Main Business and Markets Served

7.1.5 Manufacture 1 accurate Developments/Updates

7.2 Manufacture 2

7.2.1 Manufacture 2 Corporation Information

7.2.2 Manufacture 2 Product Portfolio

7.2.3 Manufacture 2 Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)

7.2.4 Manufacture 2 Main Business and Markets Served

7.2.5 Manufacture 2 accurate Developments/Updates

7.3 Manufacture 3

7.3.1 Manufacture 3 Corporation Information

7.3.2 Manufacture 3 Product Portfolio

7.3.3 Manufacture 3 Production Capacity, Revenue, Price and Gross Margin (2017-2022)

7.3.4 Manufacture 3 Main Business and Markets Served

7.3.5 Manufacture 3 accurate Developments/Updates

8 Trade Management Manufacturing Cost Analysis

8.1 Trade Management Key Raw Materials Analysis

8.1.1 Key Raw Materials

8.1.2 Key Suppliers of Raw Materials

8.2 Proportion of Manufacturing Cost Structure

8.3 Manufacturing Process Analysis of Trade Management

8.4 Industrial Chain Analysis

9 Marketing Channel, Distributors and Customers

9.1 Marketing Channel

9.2 Trade Management Distributors List

9.3 Trade Management Customers

10 Market Dynamics

10.1 Trade Management Industry Trends

10.2 Trade Management Market Drivers

10.3 Trade Management Market Challenges

10.4 Trade Management Market Restraints

11 Production and Supply Forecast

11.1 Global Forecasted Production of Trade Management by Region (2023-2028)

11.2 North America Production, Revenue Forecast (2023-2028)

11.3 Europe Production, Revenue Forecast (2023-2028)

11.4 China Production, Revenue Forecast (2023-2028)

11.5 Japan Production, Revenue Forecast (2023-2028)

12 Consumption and Demand Forecast

12.1 Global Forecasted Demand Analysis of Trade Management

12.2 North America Forecasted Consumption of Trade Management by Country

12.3 Europe Market Forecasted Consumption of Trade Management by Country

12.4 Asia Pacific Market Forecasted Consumption of Trade Management by Region

12.5 Latin America Forecasted Consumption of Trade Management by Country

13 Forecast by Type and by Application (2023-2028)

13.1 Global Production, Revenue and Price Forecast by Type (2023-2028)

13.1.1 Global Forecasted Production by Type (2023-2028)

13.1.2 Global Forecasted Revenue by Type (2023-2028)

13.1.3 Global Forecasted Price by Type (2023-2028)

13.2 Global Forecasted Consumption of Trade Management by Application (2023-2028)

13.2.1 Global Forecasted Production by Application (2023-2028)

13.2.2 Global Forecasted Revenue by Application (2023-2028)

13.2.3 Global Forecasted Price by Application (2023-2028)

14 Research Finding and Conclusion

15 Methodology and Data Source

15.1 Methodology/Research Approach

15.1.1 Research Programs/Design

15.1.2 Market Size Estimation

15.1.3 Market Breakdown and Data Triangulation

15.2 Data Source

15.2.1 Secondary Sources

15.2.2 Primary Sources

15.3 Author List

15.4 Disclaimer

For Detailed TOC -

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Thu, 13 Oct 2022 20:11:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Taxes on Investments: Understanding the Basics

If you're just getting started with investing — or if you simply need a refresher — knowing the basics of tax management for your portfolio is critical. We'll look at a variety of tax-related questions related to the most common types of portfolio income, and we'll also explain how taxes work for 401(k)s and real estate.

Woman working.

Image source: Getty Images.

1. Taxes on dividends

What are dividends?

Companies have the option of either reinvesting excess capital into new, profitable projects, or returning money to shareholders in the form of dividends.

Dividends tend to be a sought-after form of income due to their passive nature. Shareholders receive dividends on a monthly, quarterly, or semi-annual basis without any action. That is, you don't need to do anything to receive dividends other than be a shareholder.

Not all stocks pay dividends, but many do. Many value stocks, such as banks and utilities, pay consistent dividends that may increase over time. Growth stocks pay little or no dividends since more capital is devoted to new ventures with high expectations. Much of the tech sector is made up of growth stocks.

How it works

When you own shares of stock, you're eligible to receive dividends if the underlying company pays them. If you own dividend-paying stock, you automatically receive a dividend when a company declares one.

When you receive a dividend, you have the option to take the money in cash or reinvest your dividends back into the security. If you rely on dividend income to pay bills or to pay off debt, you'll want to take the dividends in cash. If you're investing for the long term, setting your dividend option to "reinvest" can help you harness the power of compound interest at an even greater rate. 

Minimizing taxes on dividends

When you're paid a dividend, you'll be liable for income tax whether you receive the dividend in cash or reinvest it. If you hold your dividend-paying investments in a regular taxable brokerage account, you will be taxed every time you receive a dividend. This is the very nature of a "taxable" account: Income accruing to your positions is taxed as it is received.

However, your dividends would be shielded from tax if you were to hold your dividend-paying investments in a tax-deferred account, such as a 401(k) or IRA, or a tax-exempt account, such as a Roth IRA.

In tax-deferred accounts, you won't pay taxes on dividends as they're received. You'll only owe tax when you withdraw the money, ideally in retirement. In tax-exempt accounts, you won't pay taxes as you receive dividends over the years, nor when you withdraw the money later on, because you pay taxes on the money before you invest it.

Another way to minimize taxes owed on any dividends received is to ensure that you hold your underlying positions for a specified period of time, which varies from security to security. If you've met the holding period requirements, your dividends will be treated as qualified dividends, which entitles them to preferential tax treatment.

Qualified dividends are taxed at the same rate as long-term capital gains, with tax rates ranging from 0% to 23.8%, depending on your total taxable income for the year.

To receive qualified dividend treatment, you must have held an underlying stock position for at least 61 days out of the 121-day period that begins 60 days before the ex-dividend date.

While the specific rules can be a lot to digest, the basic guidance is to hold your positions for as long as reasonably possible. Doing so helps ensure any dividends will be considered qualified.

2. Taxes on capital gains

What are capital gains?

Capital gains arise when you sell a stock for more than you paid for it. In an extremely simple example, if you bought a stock at $10 per share and sold it for $20 per share, you'd have a $10 capital gain.

There is a difference between realized capital gains and unrealized capital gains. Realized gains occur when you "lock in" the gain on your position by selling out of it. Realized capital gains are also officially "income", and you'll need to pay taxes as a result.

Unrealized gains — also known as "paper gains" — exist when you have a gain but do nothing in response. As long as you don't sell any shares, you won't be taxed at all on unrealized gains.

How it works

As mentioned above, you don't have capital gains income until you sell the investment that's gone up in value. Once you do sell, however, you'll need to pay taxes on the amount you've gained since you purchased the investment.

Continuing the above example, say you bought a stock at $10 and sold it for $20 at some point in the future. You'd have a $10 capital gain, and you'd owe income taxes on the entire amount.

If you held the position for a full year before selling it, your capital gain would be considered long-term, and, as such, would be eligible for reduced tax rates. As described in the section on dividends, long-term capital gains rates currently range from 0% to 23.8%, depending on your total taxable income.

If your holding period is less than a year, your capital gain is considered short-term, and it will be taxed at higher ordinary income rates. This is all to say that the IRS encourages long-term investing, particularly for periods longer than a year.

How to minimize taxes on capital gains

The most straightforward way to minimize capital gains tax is to hold your positions for as long as you can reasonably hold them. This ensures that your future gains will receive favorable tax treatment, and it also has the secondary effect of categorizing your dividends as qualified.

Further, if you're not a high earner, you can attempt to take advantage of a 0% capital gains tax rate — assuming your taxable income is less than $40,400 (for single filers), or $80,800 (for married filers), in 2021. 

3. Taxes on 401(k) investments

401(k)s are tax-deferred retirement accounts, typically sponsored by an employer (although the solo 401(k) does exist to serve self-employed people, too). This means that contributing to a traditional 401(k) will deliver you a tax deduction today and allow for invested money to grow tax-deferred. 

As your money grows, you won't be taxed on any dividends received or any capital gains realized. You can buy and sell every day in your 401(k) and still won't be liable for any taxes due. 

You'll only pay 401(k) taxes when you withdraw money from your account, which hopefully takes place after you're already retired. When you do ultimately withdraw money, you'll be taxed on the entire distribution and at ordinary income rates, which are higher than long-term capital gains rates. 

Usually, the benefit of investing in tax-deferred accounts will override the cost of any tax ultimately due. But it's important to know that by deferring taxes now, you'll eventually owe taxes in retirement

Man working.

Image source: Getty Images.

4. Taxes on the sale of real estate

When you sell your home, you may have a gain over the purchase price at which you originally bought it. This is considered a capital gain for income tax purposes. 

You're able to shield a large portion of the capital gain — up to $250,000 for single taxpayers and up to $500,000 for married taxpayers — if you follow certain IRS rules. Among them:

  • You need to have owned the home for at least two years, and,
  • You need to have lived in the home for at least two of the past five years.

In effect, you'll be able to avoid a significant tax burden if you own your home for several years and treat it as your primary residence. If you have other real estate investments, such as rental properties, you won't be able to exclude gains on the sale of such properties if you were to sell them for a profit.

5. Tax on interest income

Interest income — like the income produced by direct bond investments — is taxable to you as ordinary income. You won't have the opportunity to take advantage of lower long-term capital gains rates in the same way you would with qualified dividends or realized long-term gains from investing in stocks

The key to minimizing the taxability of interest income is to hold interest-producing investments in tax-deferred or tax-exempt accounts. This prevents interest from being taxed as it is received. 

Related investing topics

Taxes are inevitable but manageable

Remember that a sound financial plan leads with investments and builds in a tax management strategy — not the other way around. If you're paying taxes, it means you've done something right, so try not to get too caught up in tax avoidance if your investments are performing well. Nonetheless, it's always good to have a plan when it comes to harnessing your tax burden, and a quick revisit of the basics is never a bad idea.

The Motley Fool has a disclosure policy.
Tue, 14 Dec 2021 07:59:00 -0600 Sam Swenson, CFA, CPA en text/html
Killexams : Purchasing Basics: Plant water cooling systems

Effectively and efficiently controlling the temperature of molds through water or other fluids is one of the most basic functions your molding operation needs to handle well. Poor cooling affects cycle time, which affects residence time, which influences part quality, and so on. Controlling mold temperature, whether by cooling or heating, is not guesswork, but based on tried-and-true engineering formulas. The function of controlling the temperature in the mold can be achieved by a portable chiller, a central chilling system, or by a cooling tower. The cooling may be by air or by water. Mold temperature control that requires heat can use either water or oil as a medium, depending on the need.

Where to Start
Is this purchase for a specific application requiring chilled water, a replacement chiller to add capacity, a supplement to a central system, or for a new or expanded facility? A central system makes sense if most of the applications are in a similar temperature range. Those that fall outside that range can be handled by a portable chiller. Many plants have a combination of solutions.

If the plant is an existing one, vendors will want to know what you are doing now and how it is working. Is there additional capacity in your present system? What equipment are you now using? What materials are you running, and on what cycles? The plant's climate s important. Can excess capacity be used as heat to warm the plant in the winter? Are you looking at air cooling or water cooling?

What kind of water is available? Is it city water or well water? What is the available power in the plant, in voltage and amperage? What is ambient air temperature? What's the temperature of the water coming from the cooling tower? Do you know the desired temperature range for the material you are running? (See box) In an existing application, what is the current starting and ending temperature of the item being cooled? What is the entering and leaving water temperature? How long does it take for the part to reach the proper level of cool?

Chiller capacity for common resins
Use this chart to calculate chiller capacity for various parts and molds. For example, if you are molding 300 lb/hour of ABS, divide 300 by 50. The result would be 6.0, the chiller capacity required for this job for the mold alone.
Resin              Lb/hour/ton
Acrylic 35
PP 35
Nylon 40
PPE 40
Urethane 40
PET 45
ABS 50
PS 50
Acetal 50
PVC 75

More than the Mold
One important factor to note when gathering information to help size a chiller or a central system is that there are other things that need cooling besides just the mold. There are the machine hydraulics, for instance. Machine hydraulics need to be cooled only to 85F, however, so usually a cooling tower can handle this load. If you add up the total horsepower of all your molding machine hydraulics, then multiply by .1 ton/hp, you'll find the total chiller capacity for the machine hydraulics. For example, if your plant has two machines with 175 hp, 4 with 125 hp, 7 with 100 hp, and 4 with 60, you have a total hydraulic cooling load of 1790 hp, or 179 tons. A 180-ton air-cooled chiller will operate using approximately 200 hp.

A 144-ton tower, on the other hand, which has no compressor, will provide cooling for this same load using just 10 hp. With an operating cost of approximately $300/year/hp, the air-cooled chiller would cost roughly $60,000/year to operate, while the tower would cost $3000. Not a tough decision to make in favor of the tower for hydraulic system cooling.

However, there are still other machine-related cooling needs. Hot runner systems have a heat load of .15 ton/kW. Cooling requirements here are often overlooked. If you don't know the kW usage, multiply the amps times the volts and divide by 1000; this equals the kW load. If you are running nylon, the mold will have to be heated using a temperature control unit; the heaters generate a heat load of .2 ton/hp. Machine feed throat cooling, while usually lumped with machine hydraulics, has a 1/2 ton heat load per machine.

Here's an example of why cooling the mold by material formula isn't enough. A 300-ton molding machine processes 60 lb/hour of polyethylene in a hot runner tool with 27 kW of embedded heaters and uses two 3-hp mold temperature control (MTC) units. What is the mold load?

Material load = 60/30 lb/hr/ton = 2 tons

Hot runner load = 27 x .5/3.5 = 3.85 tons

MTC load = 6 hp x .2 ton/hp = 1.2 tons

Total load = 2 + 3.85 + 1.2 = 7.05 tons

Beyond that, you may require cooling for air compressors or material dryer aftercoolers. All should be taken into consideration before talking with your vendor.

Rules of thumb

  • If 80 percent of your materials are processed within a ±5 deg F temperature range, you should consider a central chilling system. If not, consider portables.
  • A chilling system requires 2 percent more capacity for every degree below the nominal rating of 50F.
  • Nominal design flow from a cooling tower is 3 gal/min/ton; from a chiller, it's 2.4 gal/ min/ton. These are the flow rates necessary to achieve a 10 deg F change in the process.

Price Variations
One of our contributing vendors explains why prices on any given size of chiller can vary by more than 200 percent. This is due to the variations in quality and components built into chillers. There are different types of compressors, each with its specific advantages. Semi-hermetic are more expensive, but can be torn apart and rebuilt. Hermetics are generally less expensive, but cannot be rebuilt. Scroll compressors, as hermetic, cannot be rebuilt, but operate more efficiently and at a reduced operating cost, though initially more expensive. Condensers vary from chiller to chiller; less expensive chillers combine condensers, fans, and compressors in a configuration that is relatively inexpensive to manufacture, but hard to service. Materials also make a difference; some use stainless steel, others do not. Cast vs. welded tanks, type of heaters and gauges, types of controls, and many other factors influence how well the chiller is built and how long it will last.

Mold temperatures
Most resin suppliers post a range of mold temperatures for their resin grades. These are merely guidelines for the most common levels. Consult your resin supplier or Pocket Specs for Injection Molding, a publication of Injection Molding Magazine and IDES, which lists mold temperatures for most of 12,000 individual grades of injection molding resins. For more information on Pocket Specs, please call Filippa Leedham at (303) 321-2322.
Resin Mold
deg F
Resin Mold
deg F

ABS 100-140 PET (high heat) 300
ABS, filled or rienforced 140-200 PETG 60-100
Acetal 170-200 Plastomer 50-85
Acrylic 100-175 Polyaryletherketone 300-400
Cellulose acetate 110-165 Polyetherimide 250-350
Ionomer 40-120 Polyethersulfone 200-350
LCP 85-200 Polyethylene, high density 40-100
LCP, filled 150-220 Polyethylene, low density 80-150
Nylon 6 150-200 Polyimide 300-400
Nylon 6/6 100-200 Polypropylene 70-140
Nylon 6/10 130-200 Polystyrene 100-180
Nylon 4/6 180-300 Polysulfone 200-300
Nylon 11 100-150 Polyurethane 60-140
Nylon 12 150-200 PPE 150-220
PBT 130-180 PPS 200-300
PBT, filled 140-250 PVC 50-150
PC 160-240 SAN 120-175
PET 180-250 Styrene butadiene 50-120

With our thanks . . .
. . . to all the suppliers who provided information for this article: Advantage Engineering, Budget Chillers, Capitol Temptrol, Conair, and Mokon.

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