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The Information Technology Infrastructure Library, better known as ITIL, is the pre-eminent framework for managing IT service delivery around the world. ITIL defines a service lifecycle model that prescribes specific processes and activities during the design, development, delivery, and support of IT services. For the purposes of this discussion, IT services are any IT activities that deliver business value to a company’s end users, customers and other internal or external stakeholders. Examples of IT services include centralized corporate email and corporate websites based on back-end IT processes, such as server and network administration. The current version of ITIL is known as ITIL V3.

By adopting the ITIL framework, companies ensure that their services are delivered according to a set of consistent, well-defined processes that incorporate best practices and processes, resulting in a predictable level of service for users. The benefits of ITIL include reduced cost of service development and deployment, improved customer satisfaction with service delivery, increased productivity from IT personnel, quality improvements, better management metrics of services and increased flexibility in adapting services to changing business requirements.

ITIL Certification program overview

In July 2013, Axelos took ownership of ITIL. It now maintains the ITIL framework and accredits training and examination institutes. Hundreds of ITIL Accredited Training Organizations (ATOs) are available to deliver training, and ITIL certification exams may be administered at the end of a training course or by an Examination Institute (EI), many of which work directly with the ATOs.

ITIL offers five different certification levels:

  • Foundation
  • Practitioner
  • Intermediate (Service Lifecycle and Service Capability categories)
  • Expert
  • Master

Be aware that ITIL uses a credit system for the Foundation through Expert levels, in which each certification earns a certain number of credits. Ultimately, a total of 22 credits is required to achieve ITIL Expert certification. (The ITIL Master has its own set of requirements, which you’ll read about shortly). The following graphic shows the structure of that certification scheme and its corresponding credits.

Credit: Axelos

What is ITIL?

Before you read on for certification details, it’s important to understand how the ITIL IT service framework is structured and what it has to offer.

ITIL was first developed by the U.K. Government’s Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency (CCTA) in the 1980s as a set of standardized best practices for IT services used in government agencies. From that narrowly focused start, ITIL has been adopted, revised and expanded into a comprehensive framework for managing IT service delivery in companies and organizations of all sizes, across all industries and market sectors.

In fact, IT has become a mission-critical service delivery mechanism for companies that rely on complex computing resources to keep their businesses operating and generating revenue. ITIL allows companies to define and implement a documented, repeatable process that assists them in staying focused on the large and small details involved in rolling out new IT services and managing those services afterward.

The ITIL service lifecycle consists of five practice areas or phases, with supporting principles, policies and processes within each phase:

  • Service Strategy: This phase focuses on defining services as strategic assets, and then maintaining and implementing a coherent, deliberate strategy. Service strategy principles address business processes, corporate governance and compliance, policies, corporate culture and decision-making, and ensure that the business is geared for service improvement.
  • Service Design: This phase includes the assessment of business management processes (service level, availability, capacity, etc.) to design and develop new service offerings or Excellerate existing offerings.
  • Service Transition: This phase covers the transition from development to production operations, including testing and quality control.
  • Service Operation: This phase defines how to manage services once they’re in production use. It addresses service operation processes, such as event management, access management, incident response, the application lifecycle and helpdesk support.
  • Continuous Service Improvement: This phase defines new requirements for the preceding phases of ITIL based on operational feedback and service levels. It helps to ensure that policies and procedures are followed, that service level agreements are met and that operational lessons learned are incorporated into existing and future service refinements.

Don’t let the scope of ITIL scare you away from the overall value afforded by this comprehensive lifecycle for IT services. The ITIL framework gives companies the structure and discipline required to design, develop, deliver and manage new or improved services in a timely manner and, most importantly, on a budget. Before ITIL, a lack of service management discipline and expertise led many IT projects to suffer budget overruns, veer off course or fail outright due to scope-creep, mismanagement and a lack of repeatable results. ITIL solves these problems quite nicely. In fact, ITIL is widely regarded as the pre-eminent standard for IT service management frameworks.

ITIL Foundation certification

The ITIL Foundation certification covers the basics of ITIL and is where most newbies start the process of learning ITIL and becoming certified. The certification has no prerequisites, and anyone with an interest in the subject matter can sit for this exam. ITIL Foundation certification test prep can be accomplished via classroom or distance learning options, as well as via self-study. There is no requirement for you to complete a training course before you sit for the Foundations exam. The Foundation test consists of 40 multiple-choice questions that must be answered in 60 minutes with a grade of 65 percent, or 26 correct answers, required to pass the exam.

Although the certification covers all the five practice areas of the ITIL service lifecycle, including how the different lifecycle stages are linked to one another, an IT pro who completes the ITIL Foundation level will likely need to complete the Practitioner or Intermediate certification before being able to qualify for service management positions.

ITIL Practitioner

The ITIL Practitioner certification is the latest entry to the ITIL certification scheme. This test was offered for the first time in February 2016. As the name implies, the ITIL Practitioner certification is based on practical knowledge of ITIL processes and how those principles are implemented in the real world. An ITIL Practitioner can explain how to use the ITIL framework to support business objectives and focuses on organizational change management, communications, and measurement and metrics.

The ITIL Practitioner is considered the next step in the ITIL progression after achieving the ITIL Foundation (which is a prerequisite). It emphasizes the ability to adopt, adapt and apply ITIL concepts in an organization. Although the Practitioner certification is not required for upper-level ITIL credentials, achieving Practitioner certification provides three credits toward ITIL Expert certification. You can prepare for the Practitioner test through self-study, in-person classroom learning or online and distance learning options. The Practitioner test is 40 multiple-choice questions and requires a minimum score of 70 percent, or 28 correct answers,  to pass.

The ITIL Intermediate certification is module-based, each of which focuses on a different aspect of IT service management. Relevant modules are categorized as either Service Lifecycle or Service Capability.

The Service Lifecycle modules are:

  • Service Strategy (SS)
  • Service Design (SD)
  • Service Transition (ST)
  • Service Operation (SO)
  • Continual Service Improvement (CSI)

The Service Capability modules are:

  • Operational Support and Analysis (OSA)
  • Planning, Protection and Optimization (PPO)
  • Release, Control and Validation (RCV)
  • Service Offerings and Agreements (SOA)

To enable candidates to meet their own career goals, AXELOS lets you achieve qualification in one category or by choosing modules from both categories. AXELOS recommends that you have at least two years of IT service management experience. Note that you must complete your Intermediate test preparation by completing a training course offered by an accredited training organization (ATO), i.e., you cannot self-study then sit for the Intermediate exam.

ITIL Expert

The ITIL Expert is an advanced certification that encompasses the breadth and depth of ITIL processes and practices across all ITIL disciplines. ITIL Expert certification is a prerequisite for the ITIL Master certification.

To qualify for the ITIL Expert, you must obtain at least 17 credits from the Foundation, Practitioner and Intermediate modules, and pass the Managing Across the Lifecycle (MALC) exam, earning a total of 22 credits.

ITIL Master

The pinnacle ITIL Master certification demonstrates an ability to apply the ITIL framework in real-world situations. The ITIL Master encompasses all ITIL principles and processes covered in the Foundation through Expert certifications. An ITIL Master must demonstrate complete mastery of the ITIL framework by completing the following:

  • Achieve the ITIL Expert certification
  • Demonstrate at least five years of ITIL experience in a management or leadership role
  • Submit a proposal for a service improvement
  • Submit a work package that demonstrates your ability to apply ITIL principles to a real-world business case, including positive impacts to a business service
  • Successfully complete an interview with an ITIL assessment panel

The cost of the ITIL Master runs about $4,000, which you pay after an EI accepts your initial application. Given the expense of this certification and its stringent requirements, only serious candidates should pursue the ITIL Master. That said, earning this certification indicates you’ve reached the highest level of achievement in your field.

IT professionals who possess an ITIL certification have always been valued by large corporations who have adopted the ITIL framework as an internal IT standard. What is beginning to change is ITIL’s increasing proliferation. Many small- and medium-sized businesses also now recognize the value of employees with ITIL certifications under their collective belts.

As IT becomes more important, SMBs are realizing the biggest benefits of maintaining ITIL-trained personnel on staff. Though no company wants to see IT projects fail, larger companies can usually absorb the loss of productivity, time and money that accompanies a failed IT service project. SMBs may not have the financial luxury of allowing an important IT project to fail owing to poor management and lack of processes. Thus, the value of an ITIL certification may be greater for enlightened companies that cannot afford IT project failures.

The good news about ITIL certification is that it is a valuable skill for almost any IT professional, from system administrators to chief information officers (CIOs). Many large companies have dedicated ITIL coaches or mentors who help shepherd projects through the various steps of the ITIL framework. These ITIL gurus have a wide understanding of the IT landscape and can usually spot trouble with a service design document or implementation plan in a matter of minutes.

ITIL certification is also a valuable credential for IT project managers, who are in the IT service trenches every day. Most project managers are already familiar with the development lifecycle process, so the principles of ITIL come naturally to them. IT managers, architects and engineers might not ever become ITIL Masters, but even a basic knowledge of the ITIL framework can assist with understanding and supporting the ITIL process.

AXELOS provides a Career Paths chart that maps IT service management job roles with skill levels. This chart is handy for certification candidates interested in specific jobs who need to understand how they fit into the ITIL service lifecycle.

ITIL training

Each ITIL certification webpage provides links to relevant study guides and syllabi. Those pursuing the ITIL Foundation certification should read the three-part blog series on preparing for and taking the ITIL Foundation exam. Those who are thinking about pursuing the Intermediate certification should use the ITIL Intermediate Training Navigator to match desired job roles and skills with the appropriate modules.

Formal ITIL training is available in self-paced online courses, instructor-led distance learning and instructor-led classroom classes. The variety of ITIL training offered and the collection of certified companies offering ITIL training ensures that anyone who is interested in learning about ITIL or becoming ITIL certified has an option that fits their learning preferences.

Although non-accredited ITIL training is available, we strongly recommend that you only utilize an ITIL ATO when you pursue ITIL training. Find a complete list of such training providers on the Axelos ITIL website.


Axelos and the ITIL Development Group, made up of more than 2,000 ITIL stakeholders worldwide, began working on an update to ITIL V3 in late 2017. That work continued throughout 2018, and Axelos has announced upcoming changes to the ITIL certifications known as ITIL 4. ITIL 4 will provide sweeping changes to the ITIL certification program to better align with the growing complexity of modern IT. ITIL 4 also changes some of the certification program terms and titles to align with the new ITIL 4 program structure. Here is a look at the new ITIL 4 program overview:

Credit: Axelos

You’ll recognize some familiar terms as well as some new nomenclature incorporated into the ITIL 4 certification scheme. The certification still starts with the ITIL Foundation, and ITIL Master is still the highest level of ITIL certification, but how you get from Foundation to Master now allows two distinct paths, allowing you to choose the certification knowledge areas that best fit your interests and career goals.

The new Foundation test is scheduled to be released in Q1 of 2019, with additional certification test updates scheduled to be released in the second half of 2019. You can find more details on how existing ITIL V3 certifications map to the new program structure here: ITIL 4 Program Updates.

Note: We will update this article as the new ITIL 4 test preparation courses and certification exams are released by Axelos so check back here often to learn more about ITIL 4.

Credit: Ed Tittel

Ed Tittel

Ed is a 30-year-plus veteran of the computing industry, who has worked as a programmer, a technical manager, a classroom instructor, a network consultant and a technical evangelist for companies that include Burroughs, Schlumberger, Novell, IBM/Tivoli and NetQoS. He has written for numerous publications, including Tom’s IT Pro, and is the author of more than 140 computing books on information security, web markup languages and development tools, and Windows operating systems.

Credit: Earl Follis

Earl Follis

Earl is also a 30-year veteran of the computer industry, who worked in IT training, marketing, technical evangelism and market analysis in the areas of networking and systems technology and management. Ed and Earl met in the late 1980s when Ed hired Earl as a trainer at an Austin-area networking company that’s now part of HP. The two of them have written numerous books together on NetWare, Windows Server and other topics. Earl is also a regular writer for the computer trade press with many e-books, white papers and articles to his credit.

Thu, 04 Aug 2022 12:00:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Why Continuous Testing Is The Key To Unlocking Your ERP Transformation

Technology leader and co-founder of Opkey — a continuous testing platform redefining test automation for web, mobile and ERP applications.

Many business and technology leaders realize that their digital transformation initiatives can’t be utilized without modernizing their enterprise resource planning (ERP) software. Incorporating new technologies such as artificial intelligence and machine learning is essential to modernizing ERP solutions.

Through a 2019 study of ERP migration and transformation projects, McKinsey revealed that two-thirds of enterprises did not get the ROI they were looking for from their migration project. The common reasons for this dissatisfaction are delays in ERP implementations and misaligned project goals. Intelligent test automation, which powers a continuous testing approach, will help ERP transformation projects run on time and stay within budget.

Continuous testing for ERP applications: Why do you need it?

Next-gen ERPs and digital operations platforms require innovative software to be released rapidly, with minimal business risk. Leading analysts from Gartner, Forrester (paywall) and IDC (registration required) now recognize that software testing in its current form cannot handle the challenges posed by ERP applications. These analysts have concluded that software testing must be aligned with DevOps and AgileOps practices to handle giant ERP transformation projects.

The Agile/DevOps approach is incomplete, inefficient and ineffective without continuous testing. In ERP migration projects where platforms are extended to incorporate new features, functionalities and technologies, continuous testing helps you transparently validate the performance of critical business processes. This significantly reduces the risks associated with a new implementation, along with scheduled software updates. By catching bugs early in the development cycle, continuous testing ensures minimal time and budget overruns while providing advantages in risk reduction.

What are the testing challenges of ERP transformations?

According to a report by Bloor (registration required), more than 80% of migration projects ran over budget in 2007. While I have seen that statistic Excellerate over the years, I know migration projects regularly face issues of running over budget and over time. A 2019 ERP report from Panorama Consulting Group (registration required) shows that 45% of respondents had an average budget overrun of 30%.

Here are some specific testing challenges.

• Unclear Testing Scope: Determining what to test remains a major challenge for QA teams. The business risk grows every time too little testing is done. If you test too much, it wastes the time and resources of your business users.

• Inadequate Test Coverage: There are many moving parts in any ERP migration project. Functional and nonfunctional attributes get added, updated or removed with these migrations. Testing needs to pass various stages, from a unit test to a volume test, and eventually a mock go-live cutover.

• Change Frequency: In a latest Deloitte CIO survey, almost 45% of respondents reported that managing changes in an ERP project scope is one of the top frustrations in planning their ERP journey (pg. 10).

• Testing Fatigue: ERP projects are long and tedious processes. Using a manual testing methodology for ERP transformations can be inefficient and error-prone. Ask yourself: “Can my business users give their full effort to testing?”

Continuous testing for ERP applications: How can I make it work?

To incorporate continuous testing for a digital transformation, leaders must utilize automation. Teams should now focus on next-generation automation platforms that allow them to quickly build test cases, automate them and build the infrastructure to run them in a continuous fashion. Let’s review the four pillars of a continuous testing strategy.

• Know your ideal coverage: Here are some questions to ask yourself: “What’s my current test coverage? Am I testing all of our critical processes? If something goes seriously wrong, is it because I didn’t test enough?”

If the test cases you are automating only cover 30% of your core business processes, the automation might not be good enough. Emphasize knowing your ideal coverage and leverage a process mining technology to validate your ideal coverage. Test mining techniques surface your existing test cases, business processes and configurations from your system process log to determine your existing testing baseline.

• Apply continuous test development: Test assets require considerable reworks to keep pace with the frequent ERP changes typical in an accelerated release cycle. This speed cannot be achieved with continuous testing.

• Monitor changes continually: Ask yourself: “What has changed in the most latest ERP quarterly update? What business processes or test cases are going to be impacted?”

Emphasize the importance of knowing whether you are testing what is needed. Before the updates are pushed to production, use automation tools that give better change visibility to users by alerting them of processes that will be impacted.

• Test execution at scale: Prepare a scalable infrastructure to run thousands of tests on-demand with every change. Opt for a platform that can run your tests continuously on-premises, in the cloud and on mobile seamlessly.

What do you need from a test automation tool?

Three key capabilities must exist in a test automation tool to support an ERP transformation’s continuous testing paradigm.

• Autonomous Configuration Of Tests: Many changes happen at the configuration level for any ERP transformation. Leaders should leverage an automation tool that can autonomously create relevant data sets for test execution.

• Continual Impact Analysis: In the ERP world, updates are rolled out frequently. QA teams can find it difficult to decide the minimum number of test cases that need to be executed to ensure business continuity in post-application updates. AI-based impact analysis recommends a minimum number of test cases that need to be executed based on highlighted risks, keeping business application disruptions at bay.

• Autonomous Self-Healing Tests: QA teams often struggle to continuously maintain test scripts with each new release. Through leveraging AI-powered self-healing capabilities, changes can be identified automatically and test scripts can be fixed autonomously.

Continuous Test Automation: A Summary

The key to successful AgileOps is releasing updates as early and as often as possible.

With enterprise application vendors like Oracle, Microsoft and SAP rolling out updates on a weekly, monthly or quarterly basis, enterprises need to embrace those updates as early as possible. However, supporting your software testing initiatives will only be achieved with the right continuous testing strategy.

Forbes Technology Council is an invitation-only community for world-class CIOs, CTOs and technology executives. Do I qualify?

Wed, 20 Jul 2022 00:15:00 -0500 Pankaj Goel en text/html
Killexams : Lawmakers Question Oracle, Amazon And Others Over Location Data

House Democrats are questioning four data brokers about their policies regarding the sale of location information that could be used to identify women seeking abortions.

“Mobile phone location data can be used to track individuals who have visited abortion clinics or have left the state to seek care,” Representative Lori …

Wed, 20 Jul 2022 16:00:00 -0500 Wendy Davis en text/html
Killexams : Bringing Java To The World Of Microcontrollers

C is a beautiful language perfectly suited for development on low-power devices such as the 8-bit microcontrollers. With newer, more powerful ARM microcontrollers making their way onto the market and workbenches around the world, it was only fitting that Oracle got in on the action. They released a version of Java targeted at these newer, more powerful microcontrollers called Java ME embedded.

The new embedded version of Java has everything you would expect from a microcontroller development platform – access to GPIO pins, including SD cards and I2C devices. The new Java machine is designed for full headless operation and is capable of running on devices with as little as 130 kB of RAM and 350 kB of ROM.

As for the utility of programming a microcontroller in Java, it’s still the second most popular language, after spending the better part of a decade as the number one language programmers choose to use. The requirements of the new embedded version of Java are far too large to fit onto even the best 8-bit microcontrollers, but with a new crop of more powerful ARM devices, we’ll expect to see more and more ARM/Java projects making their way into the Hackaday tip line in the coming months.

Tip ‘o the hat to [roger] for sending this one in.

Thu, 04 Aug 2022 12:00:00 -0500 Brian Benchoff en-US text/html
Killexams : Oracle NetSuite revamps Sans Drinks’ business operations No result found, try new keyword!Non-alcoholic bottle shop and online store Sans Drinks has selected Oracle NetSuite to streamline its processes and unify its finance, inventory, and sales information including customer ... Tue, 05 Jul 2022 02:34:00 -0500 Brian Benchoff en-US text/html Killexams : Hospital-employed physician owners in ambulatory surgery joint ventures

“Should we offer our employed surgeons an ownership position in the freestanding ASC joint venture we are developing?”

Health system executives have asked us this question for decades. The answer isn’t always obvious. Some even mistakenly believe it is illegal to allow employed physicians an invest-ment opportunity. But as more health systems recognize the need to create a more substantial ambu-latory surgery capability, and with a growing number of surgeons employed by health systems or under professional services agreements (PSAs), exploring this option is essential.

Many health systems try to apply a standard policy to all arrangements. Examples include:

  • Prohibiting employed physicians from ownership in an ASC.
  • Permitting physicians who own an ASC prior to becoming employed by the health system to continue as owners, but not offering ownership to other employed physicians.
  • Allowing ownership by any employed physician who qualifies as an investor based on the ASC’s operating agreement.

But applying a standard policy to a complex situation is rarely successful. Rather, health system execu-tives should allow themselves flexibility to offer employed surgeons an ownership position in an ASC based on what is in health system’s best interest. Many strategic, financial, operational, and legal fac-tors should be considered.

Strategic Considerations Often Support Offering Ownership to Employed Physicians

Forward-looking health systems have been investing heavily in shifting cases to ASCs—in some cases strategically reducing inpatient revenue to better position themselves for the future. For many of these systems, including both independent and employed physicians in the ownership of their ASCs has be-come central to their ambulatory surgery strategy.
Table 1 presents common strategic considerations impacting the decision whether to offer ASC owner-ship to employed physicians.

TABLE 1: Strategic Considerations


Financial Considerations May Discourage Offering Ownership to Employed Physicians

Surgeons sit near the end of the continuum of care for a surgical episode, which makes it easier to cal-culate their overall financial contribution to a health system. Most of a surgeon’s financial contribution can be calculated by summing the income and losses of the surgeon’s clinic, ancillary services (imag-ing, PT, etc.), ambulatory surgery, and hospital surgeries/admissions. Health system executives are of-ten surprised to learn the degree to which the financial performance across these various services fluc-tuates among surgeons of different specialties and subspecialties.

The average annual investment among hospitals that employ surgeons to ensure access and communi-ty benefit is approximately $320,000 per provider. But the investment varies substantially across spe-cialties and subspecialties. Figure 1 shows the median annual net investment per provider for clinic operations for a variety of surgical specialties.2

FIGURE 1: Median Annual Clinic Investment per Adjusted Provider FTE


In contrast, hospitals frequently show a profit from surgeries and other ancillary services related to surgeries—many of which are commonly maintained within an independent surgical group’s practice. But just as the investment from clinic operations can vary substantially across specialties and by sur-geon, so can income from surgeries and ancillary services. Factors impacting an individual physician’s surgical and ancillary profitability include the physician’s volume, mix of inpatient versus outpatient surgeries, payer mix, cost efficiency, etc. Also, substantial variance occurs not only between specialties but also within a specialty and among physicians of the same subspecialty.

Figure 2 presents findings from an analysis of the financial contribution of the employed orthopedic surgeons at a health system by place of service, with ancillary services included as hospital income. At this health system, the annual average contribution for every orthopedic subspecialty is a loss at the clinic and a profit at the ASC and hospital. But the magnitude of the losses and profits varies substan-tially. The clinic losses are much less than the industry average for employed orthopedic surgeons, ranging from a low of $80,000 for general orthopedics to a high of approximately $380,000 for spine. Hand-and-wrist and foot-and-ankle surgeons generate the greatest ASC profits, but their minimal hos-pital profits result in an overall loss for hand and wrist and marginal profit of $5,000 for foot and ankle. Joint replacement and spine clearly provide the highest overall financial contribution to the health sys-tem but for this particular organization generate minimal ASC income.3

FIGURE 2: Annual Financial Contribution of Employed Orthopedic Surgeons


Based on this analysis, this health system could ill afford to offer ASC ownership to all its employed or-thopedic surgeons. Doing so would reduce the income the system receives from the ASC and relies on to make up for the clinic losses.

Operational Considerations Encourage Flexibility

The decision to include or exclude employed physicians from ASC ownership can significantly impact the success and operations of the ASC due to the following:

  • Volume and Payer Mix: Owners are more mindful of case types that present opportunity for increasing value and have a favorable impact on financial performance. A well-operated ASC provides education to its partners with respect to case costing, which informs the partners of case types that are advantageous in the ASC and provides insights on case types that may be cost prohibitive or present with concerns.
  • OR Efficiency: Owners help make sure ORs are used efficiently, block time is fully utilized, and cases start on time. They actively participate in optimizing and improving key performance in-dicators and are motivated to support implementation of change that will impact the overall operating performance of the center. As a side benefit, when the hospital supports an em-ployed physician’s participation in the ASC joint venture, the employed physician becomes more cognizant of cost and efficiency, which can help Excellerate processes and efficiency in the hospi-tal ORs as well.
  • Expense Management: Owners participate in the evaluation of high-cost implants, drugs, and medical supplies and are more apt to reach a consensus on standardization. They work collabo-ratively when purchasing instrumentation and capital equipment to ensure the ASC has what it needs to provide safe, high-quality care and are more likely to identify opportunities to reduce case costs.
  • Ownership and Governance Share: Independent physician owners of an ASC may view em-ployed physicians as part of the health system and seek to limit the combined health system and employed physician share of ownership and governance. This could have significant tax and financial reporting implications to the health system if the limitation results in the health sys-tem having a minority share in ownership and governance. The health system should seek to ensure the ASC is structured to further the health system’s charitable purposes and mission consistent with IRS rulings and case law.
  • Payer Contracting: Payer contracting is critical to the overall success of an ASC, and a hospital has the ability to Excellerate an ASC’s contracts. The hospital may be able to further Excellerate the contracts by offering to increase the percentage of cases performed at ASCs. Encouraging em-ployed physicians to work in the ASC is an excellent means to this end. It is often advantageous for the hospital to control payer contracting, and if the hospital has ASC provisions in existing payer contracts, those provisions may set criteria that must be considered with the joint ven-ture structure. For example, the hospital’s ownership position typically must be the majority to control payer contracting and/or add an ASC as an affiliate to a hospital contract.

Legal Considerations Present No Obstacles to Employed Physician Ownership4

ASCs are not considered a designated health service under the Stark law, and therefore, for the most part, Stark is inapplicable to ASCs. In contrast, the Medicare Anti-Kickback Statute does apply to ASCs. Federal regulations create an array of safe harbors protecting certain ASC structures.

However, it’s important to understand how the Medicare Anti-Kickback Statute works. While the safe harbors provide absolute protection to any venture that meets all of their conditions, an ASC is never required to meet a safe harbor. The benefit of meeting a safe harbor is that arrangements within a safe harbor cannot be prosecuted by the government. However, because of this, the safe harbors are designed to be incredibly narrow.

When an arrangement does not qualify for a safe harbor, its legality is determined solely by the partic-ipant’s intent. The Anti-Kickback Statute prohibits offering, paying, soliciting, or receiving any remu-neration if one reason for the payment is to influence referrals under a federal healthcare program. To analyze compliance with the Anti-Kickback Statute, one asks a very basic question: Is anyone paying, or seeking payment, for referrals?

While it is worth knowing the elements of a safe harbor, there is no reason to obsess about perfectly meeting every element. Generally speaking, the risk associated with permitting employed surgeons to invest in an ASC they will be actively using is very low.

Among the safe harbor requirements impacting the decision of whether to offer employed physicians ownership in an ASC is the so-called “one-third test.” This test has two parts.

  • First, to meet the safe harbor, one-third of each physician investor’s medical practice income must come from the physician’s performance of surgical procedures that appear on Medicare’s ASC outpatient list.
  • Second, one-third of the types of surgeries that are on that outpatient surgery list must be per-formed at the investment entity.5

The one-third test often prompts claims that an ASC may not allow investment by a surgeon who doesn’t meet both prongs of the test. Sometimes an ASC will use the test as a tool to force physicians who are not bringing a large share of their cases to the ASC to divest their ownership. While sound business practice and antikickback risk management both make it a good idea to limit investment to surgeons who are very active at an ASC, there is absolutely no legal requirement that an ASC pass the one-third test.

While it is not necessary to apply the one-third test, there can be benefits to using it as a means of en-suring all physician investors—both employed and independent—remain active. When individuals are taking money out of the center without actively aiding its economic performance, the ASC quickly can become unstable. The professionals who are bringing cases to the center may choose to leave if they feel passive owners are profiting from the active investors’ work. Therefore, while the one-third test may not be a regulatory necessity, it can be an important tool for ensuring the viability of a center.

Keep Your Options Open

So, should you offer your employed surgeons an ownership position in your freestanding ASC joint ven-ture? What may feel like the right strategic response may not be backed up by the financial impact. Take the time to evaluate and weigh the strategic, financial, and operational implications before de-ciding. Keep the following concepts in mind:

1. A financial arrangement can often be engineered to support a strategic objective. For example, the financial impact to the health system of offering ownership in an ASC to surgeons under an employment or PSA model is driven by the compensation paid per WRVU for professional ser-vices and the amount of equity offered in the ASC. By lowering the WRVU rate (and thus reduc-ing/eliminating the clinic losses), a health system can more easily justify offering surgeons eq-uity in an ASC.

2. Notwithstanding the previous statement, never confuse physician compensation with equity dis-tributions. From a fair market value perspective, they have nothing to do with one another. A health-system-employed physician’s ownership or lack of ownership in an ASC should have no bearing on the amount or method by which the physician is paid for clinical services provided to the health system.

3. Exiting or not renewing employment agreements is much easier for physicians than leaving a business in which they are an owner. Restrictive covenants of an ASC’s operating agreement and the inability to sell their units at a favorable rate can provide substantial deterrents to phy-sicians from leaving an ASC.

4. Involve legal counsel early in the decision process. Choose your words carefully to avoid any perception that employed physicians are required to refer to the ASC. Don’t track referrals made by employed physicians to the ASC and don’t have the employed physician’s compensa-tion be based in any way on the volume or value of referrals to the ASC. It is safest to allow all physicians the same ownership opportunity to avoid the perception that physicians are being of-fered a level of ownership based on their relative volume of referrals, though other models of ownership are possible.

John Fink, Principal, ECG Management Consultants,
Naya Kehayes, Principal, ECG Management Consultants,

1 Based on ECG’s 2020 Medical Group Performance Survey, which is based on 2019 data. Investment per provider for many specialtiesg increased substantially in the 2021 survey because of the pandemic.

2 This investment is often necessary because, compared to independent physicians, hospital-employed surgeons frequently see more patients with low reimbursement, sources of ancillary revenue are stripped from the clinic, and overhead costs are higher at hospital-operated clinics.

3 This case study is intended to illustrate the variance in the financial impact among subspecialties and should not be con-sidered typical. For example, many joint replacement and spine surgeons contribute greatly to ASC profitability.

4 Input for the legal section of this article was provided by David Glaser of Fredrikson & Byron.

5 It is easy to misunderstand this element of the safe harbor because it simply refers to “procedures.” But the safe harbor has defined the term “procedure” in a restricted fashion, using it only for a procedure that appears on Medicare’s ASC outpatient procedure list. Whenever the word “procedure” appears in the safe harbor, you should read it as “proce-dure on the ASC outpatient procedure list.”

Wed, 20 Jul 2022 11:23:00 -0500 en-gb text/html
Killexams : DDA JE Recruitment 2022: Check Syllabus & Latest test Pattern Post-wise

DDA JE Syllabus & test Pattern 2022: Delhi Development Authority (DDA) will be conducting the Single Stage Online Written test for eligible Indian candidates to fill up 279 vacancies of Junior Engineer (Civil/Electrical/Mechanical), Junior Translator (Official Language), Programmer, Assistant Director (Landscape), and Planning Assistant. Online applications were invited for the DDE Recruitment 2022 from 10th June 2022 to 10th July 2022. The Single Stage Online Written test will be held on 16th August 2022 for the posts of Assistant Director (Landscape), Planning Assistant, Jr. Translator (Official Language) and on 27th August 2022 for Programmer. Date of examination for the post of Jr. Engineer (Civil) and Jr. Engineer (Elect./Mech.) will be declared separately.

In this article, we share the DDA JE Syllabus & test Pattern for the posts of Assistant Director (Landscape), Junior Engineer (Civil), Junior Engineer (Elect. / Mech.), Programmer, Junior Translator (Official Language), and Planning Assistant.

DDA Recruitment 2022 Calendar

Events Important Dates
Opening date & time for online registration 11th June 2022 (10 am)
Last date & time for online registration and fee payment  10th July 2022 (6 pm) 

Single Stage Online Written Exam

Assistant Director (Landscape), Planning Assistant, Jr. Translator (Official Language) 

16th August 2022


27th August 2022

DDA Recruitment test Pattern 2022

For Assistant Director (Landscape), Junior Engineer (Civil/ Elec/ Mech), Programmer, Planning Assistant Posts

Name of the Subject

Number of Questions

Number of Marks


Respective discipline



2 hours


Quantitative Aptitude

General Awareness

English Language

For Junior Translator (Official Language) post

Stage I

Name of the Subject

Number of Questions

Number of Marks


General English



2 Hours

General Hindi



Stage II Convention Paper (Pen & Paper Method)

Name of the Subject

Number of Questions

Number of Marks


Translation from Hindi to English



2 Hours

Translation from English to Hindi



NOTE: The medium of the On-Line examination will be Hindi / English only for all categories of posts.  Penalty for wrong answers: in all such cases where the question is of 01 marks, there will be penalty of 0.33 marks (negative marking) for wrong answers/multiple answers marked by a candidate in the objective type question papers having four alternatives. However, where question is of 02 marks, there will be penalty of 0.66 marks (negative marking).

For the post of Junior Translator (Official Language): Stage II examination shall be evaluated in respect of only those candidates who attain the minimum qualifying standards in Stage I examination as may be fixed at the discretion of the Authority. Merit list will be prepared on the basis of marks obtained in Stage I and Stage II taken together.

Also Read: DDA JE Recruitment 2022: Check Eligibility, Age, Qualifications, How to Apply 

Also Read: DDA JE Recruitment 2022: Check Preparation Strategies for Reasoning & General Awareness

DDA Recruitment Syllabus 2022

For Assistant Director (Landscape), Junior Engineer (Civil/ Elec/ Mech), Programmer, Planning Assistant Posts

Assistant Director (Landscape)


1. Plants: Familiarity with local flora; criteria for plant selection; history of planting design; planting as a design element with respect to trees, shrubs, ground cover and creepers; planting features like form, leaf color and texture, color of flowers and fruits in different seasons; role of plant material in environmental improvement (e.g. soil conservation, modification of microclimate); maintenance of plant material; preparation of planting concepts, planting plans and plant schedules; estimation of costs and bill of quantity. Planting design in various environments such as woodlands, forests, rural areas, urban areas, roadside planting in urban and rural areas, industrial sites and in habitats such as grasslands, woodlands, sloping areas, marshes, bogs, wetlands, waterside and aquatic planting etc. Planting for shelter, windbreaks and shelter belts, visual effect and accent; Field ecology: Quadrat, line transect, community analysis.

2. Geology, Hydrology & Geomorphology: minerals and metals; rock type (igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic); principles of stratigraphy and geology of India; relationships between geology, soils and vegetation; morphology and classification of soil type; properties of soils; soil management (evaluation, water conservation, fertility and plant nutrition, degradation control and reclamation techniques); hydrological cycle, sources of surface water; watersheds and drainage basins; infiltration characteristics; rainwater harvesting, artificial recharge; groundwater management, ground water pollution; landscape evolution.

3. Site Planning and Landscape Engineering: Site planning process; site character and design requirement relation; site survey and appraisal; contours and grading principles; efficient surface drainage pattern and watershed area, calculation of surface runoff, catchments areas and discharge rate; types of drainage systems, design of surface and sub-surface drainage elements; sports field drainage; earthwork volume computations; construction of roads, parking, paths, plazas, planter, water elements, etc; external lighting; irrigation and plumbing system; street/ site furniture; landscape working drawings; site mobilization and protection measures; water conservation; protection of water retention structures; soil conservation and erosion control measures; land reclamation and rehabilitation process; disposal of sludge, fly-ash, solid and liquid waste; transportation corridors; environment-friendly materials; sustainable landscape features (bioswales, bio retention ponds etc); estimation of costs and preparation of bill of quantities, specifications and tender documents.

4. Landscape Design and Communication: Urban and rural landscape appraisal, analysis and design; application of ecological principles; language skills for technical report ‘writing and- professional communications with planning authorities, statutory bodies, contractors and other professionals; communication techniques in digital media; research ability towards establishing a strong theoretical background. Ecology: Concept of ecosystem: energy flow; production; biogeochemical cycles; carbon cycle, global water cycles, nitrogen cycle; bioaccumulation and biomagnifications; ecosystem services; ecosystem types; ecological succession and maturity; population dynamics; ecosystem management; climate change.

5. Theory of Landscape Architecture: Concepts of space, time and scale in terms of garden, landscape and nature; evolution of landscape and garden design in relation to art, architecture and city planning; changing perceptions of man’s relationship with nature in various phases of history; environmental and behavioral theories; social and cultural dimensions of landscape; Ancient Indian traditions; Landscape from various geographic locations and periods, highlighting aspects of Form, Space and Order; Development of landscape design and gardens; Eastern, Central and Western traditions; Ancient Heritage: Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, Rome. Western Civilization: Europe; Italy, France and England. The middle-east: The Persian tradition and its far reaching influence. Eastern Civilisation: China and Japan. Ancient and medieval period in India; Mughal and Rajput Landscapes. Influences and linkages across cultures and traditions, e.g Chinese tradition and the English Landscape style, influence of Persian traditions towards the West and East. Colonial landscape development in India.

6. Nineteenth-Century Europe: Open space development in its urban design and planning context. Early industrial towns and the Garden City movement. USA: Further evolution of the public park as a major component of urban landscape. The work of F. L. Olmsted and other pioneers. Park-Systems and suburban development centered on open space. The Modern Movement: changing concepts of space and the relationship of architecture and landscape illustrated through studies of selected works of the modern masters. Post-war development in Europe: New Towns in England and the concept of Landscape Structure. Landscape Urbanism; Examples of open space development in new towns and urban renewal to illustrate the close conceptual relationship between town planning, urban design and landscape architecture (e.g. Haussmann’s Paris, Lutyen’s Delhi); influence of Ian McHarg on mid and late 20th Century landscape architecture. The work of selected twentieth century landscape architects, in the west as well as in India. Contemporary concepts and concerns: “Green” Architecture and EnergySaving site planning and Landscape Architecture; Cultural landscapes, their definition, identification, characteristics and policies; Landscape inventory and conservation of historical landscape; Artistic sensibility in Landscape Architecture, land art; new developments in urban landscape design. The Indian Context: Understanding contemporary attitudes to open space design in India: ancient horticultural tradition, Mughal influence, British colonial influence. Trends in landscape design in India in the late 20th and the first decade of the 21st Century.

7. Landscape Economics, Management & Horticultural Practice: Economics: Cost and benefits related to open space development; costs: intangible costs, depletion of natural resources, Management: Landscape management at the regional scale in relation to soil conservation, water management, grassland management, forestry and agriculture. Management practices related to urban ecology and urban habitats, such as urban forests, river banks, regional parks and greenbelts: ecological, economic and administrative issues. Management models. Horticulture Practice: Nursery establishment and Plant propagation. Establishment and maintenance of grass, shrubs and trees with respect to: ground preparation, planting and transplanting, pruning;

8. Landscape Resources: Settlements and Landscape: Siting and evolution of cities; Role of landform, water systems, climate and vegetation; Illustrative studies of cities in India and elsewhere; Microclimate; Air pollution; Solid waste management; conservation of water resources and vegetation cover; Urban forest; Landscape heritage; City development Plans, Zonal Plans. Development controls and their role in the conservation and creation of urban landscape; Delhi Master Plan; National Environment Policy; The rural landscape; Forest types of India; Biodiversity, urban biodiversity, Wetlands: definition, wetland values and conservations; Wastelands management; Land reclamation and rehabilitation; Watersheds and its management; Ramsar Convention, Forest Policy and management of forest resources. Conservation Forestry, Bye laws and planning regulations applicable to landscape development.

9. Landscape Conservation and Regional Landscape Planning; Concept of Landscape Planning and Landscape Conservation; Landscape Assessment techniques; Basic quantitative methods of collecting, analyzing, projecting and presenting data for Landscape Planning. Landscape Conservation: Priorities, Policies and Programmes; National parks and other protective designations; Biodiversity and Biosphere reserves; Endangered landscapes; Aspects of watershed management. The application of landscape planning techniques to large scale developments such as infrastructure and power projects, extractive and manufacturing industry, new towns and urban extensions, and developments for tourism and eco-tourism; Landscape perception, visual assessment and the aesthetic dimension of landscape planning. Environmental Impact Assessment and the Environmental Impact Statement: Theory and Practice; role of Environmental Legislation and the Ministry of Environment and Forests.

10. Landscape Project Management and Professional Practice: The role of statutory and regulatory bodies such as the Municipal Corporation, N.D.M.C, D.D.A and Urban Art commission etc.; Construction administration , Implementation process; Sequence of activities from inception to completion; progress evaluation and monitoring: (Estimation), Site documentation, Techniques of inspection and quality control; Construction documents Comparison of various kind of tenders with regard to objectives, utility and appropriateness. Tender Documentation and evaluation of tender; negotiations with contractors. Contract Documentation: Forms of contract; General and special conditions, specifications, Bill of quantities; significant clauses pertaining to defects, maintenance, arbitrations, etc. Parties to the contract; their roles, contractual relationships and legal obligations; Forms of agreement, conditions of engagement, scope of work and services to be provided. Scale of Professional Fees: Relationship of Landscape Architect with other professionals. Landscape Design Competitions: Types, Guidelines.

Junior Engineer (Civil)

Civil Engineering

Building Materials: Physical and Chemical properties, classification, standard tests, uses and manufacture/quarrying of materials e.g. building stones, silicate based materials, cement (Portland), Asbestos products, Timber and Wood based Products, laminates, bituminous materials, paints, varnishes.

Surveying: Principles of surveying, working of properties, compass and bearing, plane table surveying, theodolite traverse, adjustment of theodolite, levelling and contouring, curvature, refraction, permanent adjustment of dumpy level, methods of contouring and uses of a control map, tachometric survey.

Soil Mechanics: Origin of soil phase diagram, definitions of void ratio, porosity, degree of saturation, water content, specific gravity of soil grains and unit weights, grain size distribution curves for different solid and their uses. Atterjerg's limits, ISI soil classification, plasticity chart, coefficient of permeability, effective stress, consolidation of soils. Calculation of shear strength of soils, direct shear test, vane shear test, triaxial test, soil compaction, Lab compaction, Lab compaction test, moisture content and bearing capacity of soils, plate load test, standard penetration test.

Hydraulics: Fluid properties, hydrostatics, measurements of flow, Bernoulli's theorem and its application, flow through pipes, flow in open channels, weirs, flumes, spillways, pumps and turbines.

Environmental Engineering: Quality of water, source of water supply, purification of water, distribution of water, need of sanitation, sewerage system, circular sewers, oval sewer, sewer appurtenances, surface water drainage, sewage treatments.

Structural Engineering: Theory of structures: Elasticity constants, type of beams, determinate and indeterminate, bending moment and shear force diagrams of simply supported, cantilever and over hanging beams. Moment of area and moment of inertia for rect. & circular section, bending moment and shear stress for tee, channel and compound sections, chimneys, dams and retaining walls, eccentric loads, slope deflection of simply supported and cantilever beams, critical load and columns, torsion of circular section.

Concrete Technology: Properties, Advantages and uses of concrete, cement aggregates quality, water cement ratio, workability, mix design, storage, batching, mixing, placement, compaction, finishing and curing of concrete, quality control of concrete, hot weather and cold weather concreting, repair and maintenance of concrete structure.

RCC Design:

RCC beams: flexural strength, shear strength, bond strength, design of single reinforced beans, lintels, cantilever beams, double reinforced beams, one way slabs, two way slabs, isolated footings, reinforced brick work. T-beams, columns, staircases, retaining walls, water tanks (RCC design questions may be based on both Limit State method and Working Stress method).

Steel Design: Steel design and construction of steel columns, beams, roof trusses, plate girders.

Junior Engineer (Electrical/Mechanical)

General Engineering (Electrical and Mechanical)

Electrical Engineering

Basic Electrical Engg.: Elect. Measurements, Concepts of current, voltage, resistance, power and energy, their units, Ohm’s law.

Circuit Law: Kirchooff’s law, solution of simple network problems, Network theorems and their applications, Electro-magnetism, concept of flux, e m f, reluctance, magnetic circuits. Electromagnetic induction, self and mutual inductance. A.C. fundamentals, instantaneous, peak, R.M.S. and average values of alternating waves, Equation of sinusoidal wave form, simple series and parallel AC. circuits consisting of R.L. and C, Resonance. Measurement and measuring instruments, Moving coil and moving iron ammeters and voltmeters, Extension of range, Wattmeters, Multimeters, megger, Basic Electronics.

Electrical machines: Basic principles of D.C. motors, generators, their characteristics, Speed control and starting of D.C. motors, losses and efficiency of D.C. machines.1-Phase and 3-phase transformers: Principles of operation, equivalent circuit, voltage regulation, O.C. and S.C. tests, efficiency, auto transformers. Synchronous machines, generation of 3-phase e m f, armature reaction, Voltage regulation, parallel operation of two alternators, synchronizing, starting and applications of synchronous motors. 3-Phase Induction motor, rotating magnetic field, principle of operation, equivalent circuit, torque-speed characteristics, starting and speed control of 3-phase induction motors, Fractional KW motors, 1-phase induction motors, A.C. series motor, reluctance motor.

General, Transmission and Distribution: Different types of power stations, Load factor, diversity factor, demand factor, simple problems thereon, cost of generation, inter- connection of power stations. Power factor improvement, various types of tariffs, types of faults, short circuit current for symmetrical faults. Switchgears- rating of circuit breakers: Principles of a extinction by oil and air, H.R.C. fuses, Protection, earth leakage, over current, Buchhotgz relay, Merz- Prince system of protection of generators & transformers, protection of feeders and bus bars. Lightning arresters, Various transmission and distribution systems, Comparison of conductor materials, efficiency for different systems. Utilization of Electrical Energy, Illumination, electric heating, Electric welding, electroplating, electric drives and motors.

Mechanical Engineering

Flow of Fluids: Laminar & turbulent flow, equation of continuity, Bernoulli’s theorem, measurement of discharge, flow through pipes, friction losses, Forces of jet impinging on vanes, blades, work done and efficiency, classification of turbines & pumps.

Thermal Engineering: Laws of thermodynamics, change in entropy in various processes; uses of steam, Properties of steam table & charts; Construction & Working of Cochran, Lancashire locomotive & Babcock & Wilcox boilers, working of steam turbine, Otto & Diesel Cycles, working of IC engines, Carburetion, Solex Carburettor. Diesel fuel, pump & injector: Cooling & lubrication.

Production Engineering: Foundry- Different casting processes, concept of Patterns; types of mould making, purring defect in castings, causes & remedies, Welding-classification and types of welding, Testing and defects in welds. Lathes- working of lathe, various tools, operation on lathes, types of lathes. Drilling operations performed on drilling machines. Description, principles of working and various operations on machine tools, milling machine, shaper, grinder, boring and slotting machines.

Strength of Materials: Stresses in composite bars, relation between elastic constants, Resilience under different types of loads, SF and BM diagrams; stresses in beams-combined direct and bending stresses, Struts and columns – Euler’s and Rankin’s theories, Torsion of circular shafts.

Theory of Machines: Simple Machines – Four bar chain, Slider crank chain, double slider crank chain, Flywheel – Turning moment diagrams. Fluctuation of energy, Friction-in collar and pivots, plate clutch, conical clutch, journal bearing. Transmission of power through flat and V-belts, Gears, profile of gears, Governors- Watt and Hartnell governors.


Computer Architecture, Computer Organization. Data Communication And Net-Working, Artificial Intelligence, Micro-Processors, Number Systems & Digital Logics, Peripherals And Storage Devices.

Operating Systems: Windows, Unix And Linux

Programming: Programming in Angular Java, PSP, Asp.Net, Java And Android/ Mobile Aps Programming, Programming In D2k, Programming In Visual Basic, PL/SQL, HTML.

Data Base Management (DBMS): Oracle 8i And Above, SQL server 2003 and above, Open Sources DBMS, My SQL Sybase Ingress etc.

Internet and Web Technologies

Planning Assistant

i. Basic concepts of urban planning and Architecture, Planning Legislation and GIS

Section 1: Architecture Elements, construction, architectural styles and examples of different periods of Indian and Western History of Architecture; Oriental, Vernacular and Traditional architecture; Architectural developments since Industrial Revolution; Influence of modern art on architecture; Art nouveau, Eclecticism, International styles, Post Modernism, Deconstruction in architecture; latest trends in Contemporary Architecture; Works of renowned national and international architects.

Section 2: Environmental Planning and Design Ecosystem- natural and man-made ecosystems; Ecological principles Concepts of Environmental Impact Analysis; Environmental considerations in planning and design; database for incorporation of environmental concerns in planning analysis, land suitability analysis, vulnerability analysis; Climate responsive design; Solar architecture; methods of addressing environmental quality; Green Building Concepts and Rating; ECBC; Building Performance Simulation and Evaluation; Environmental pollution- types, cause, controls and abatement strategies.

Section 3: Services, Infrastructure and Transportation Urban infrastructure- Transportation, Water Supply, Sewerage, Drainage, Solid Waste Management, Electricity and Communications, Process and Principles of Transportation Planning and Traffic Engineering; Road capacity; Traffic survey method; Traffic flow characteristics; Traffic analyses and design considerations; Travel demand forecasting; Land use transportation – urban from inter-relationships; Design of roads, intersections/ grade separates and parking areas, Hierarchy of roads and level of service; Traffic and transport management and control in urban areas; Mass transportation planning; Para-transits and other modes of transportations Pedestrian and slow moving traffic planning; Intelligent Transportation Systems.

Section 4: Planning Legislation and GIS Planning legislation will include acts and legislation related to development management and maintenance of Delhi and other towns of NCR, municipal corporation and local bodies, Land Acquisition Act, PPP etc. Local self- Governance.

ii. Delhi Development Act, (DD Act), 1957 will include all sections and provisions of the Act.

iii. Master plan of Delhi 1962-2021 will include provisions, strategies and Master Plan proposals as per documents published from time to time.

Junior Translator


a) General Hindi: 100 marks (Objective type)

b) General English: 100 marks (Objective type)

The questions will be designed to test the candidate's understanding of the languages and literature, correct use of words, phrases and idioms, and ability to write the languages correctly, precisely, and effectively. The questions will be of degree level.


Translation and Essay: 200 Marks (Conventional Type) The paper will contain two passages for translation-one passage for translation from Hindi to English and one passage for translation from English to Hindi, and an Essay each in Hindi and English, to test the candidates‟ translation skills and their ability to write as well as comprehend the two languages correctly, precisely and effectively. The level of the paper will be consistent with the educational qualifications prescribed.

DDA Recruitment 2022 Apply Online

Tue, 26 Jul 2022 01:07:00 -0500 text/html
Killexams : The Pi Zero 2 W Is The Most Efficient Pi

Last week we saw the announcement of the new Raspberry Pi Zero 2 W, which is basically an improved quad-core version of the Pi Zero — more comparable in speed to the Pi 3B+, but in the smaller Zero form factor. One remarkable aspect of the board is the Raspberry-designed RP3A0 system-in-package, which includes the four CPUs and 512 MB of RAM all on the same chip. While 512 MB of memory is not extravagant by today’s standards, it’s workable. But this custom chip has a secret: it lets the board run on reasonably low power.

When you’re using a Pi Zero, odds are that you’re making a small project, and maybe even one that’s going to run on batteries. The old Pi Zero was great for these self-contained, probably headless, embedded projects: sipping the milliamps slowly. But the cost was significantly slower computation than its bigger brothers. That’s the gap that the Pi Zero 2 W is trying to fill. Can it pull this trick off? Can it run faster, without burning up the batteries? Raspberry Pi sent Hackaday a review unit that I’ve been running through the paces all weekend. We’ll see some benchmarks, measure the power consumption, and find out how the new board does.

The answer turns out to be a qualified “yes”. If you look at mixed CPU-and-memory tasks, the extra efficiency of the RP3A0 lets the Pi Zero 2 W run faster per watt than any of the other Raspberry boards we tested. Most of the time, it runs almost like a Raspberry Pi 3B+, but uses significantly less power.

Along the way, we found some interesting patterns in Raspberry Pi power usage. Indeed, the clickbait title for this article could be “We Soldered a Resistor Inline with Raspberry Pis, and You Won’t Believe What Happened Next”, only that wouldn’t really be clickbait. How many milliamps do you think a Raspberry Pi 4B draws, when it’s shut down? You’re not going to believe it.

Testing Performance and Power Draw

When it comes to picking a tiny Linux computer to embed in your project, you’ve got a lot more choice today than you did a few years ago. Even if you plan to stay within the comfortable world of the Raspberry Pi computers, you’re looking at the older Pi 3B+, the tiny Pi Zero, the powerhouse Pi 4B in a variety of configurations, and as of last week, the Pi Zero 2 W.

I ran all of the Raspberries through two fairly standard torture tests, all the while connected to a power supply with a 0.100 Ω precision resistor inline, and recorded the voltage drop across the resistor, and thus the current that the computers were drawing. The values here are averaged across 50 seconds by my oscilloscope, which accurately accounts for short spikes in current, while providing a good long-run average. All of the Pis were run headless, connected via WiFi and SSH, with no other wires going in or out other than the USB power. These are therefore minimum figures for WiFi-using Pi — if you run USB peripherals, don’t forget to factor them into your power budget.

Test number one is stress-ng which simply hammers all of the available CPU cores with matrix inversion problems. This is great for heat-stressing computers, but also for testing out their maximum CPU-driven power draw. All of the Pis here have four cores except for the original Pi Zero, which has only one. What you can see here is that as you move up in CPU capability, you burn more electrons. The Pi Zero 2 has four cores, but runs at a stock 1 GHz, while the 3B+ runs at 1.4 GHz and the 4B at 1.5 GHz. More computing, more power.

Test number two is sbc-bench which includes a memory bandwidth test (tinymemtest), a mixed-use CPU benchmark (7-zip), and a test of cryptographic acceleration (OpenSSL). Unfortunately, none of the Raspberry Pis use hardware cryptographic acceleration, so the OpenSSL test ends up being almost identical to the 7-zip test — a test of mixed CPU and memory power — and I’m skipping the results here to save space.

For ease of interpretation, I’m using the sum of the two memory sub-tests as the result for TinyMemBench, and the 7-zip test results are an average of the three runs. For all of these, higher numbers are better: memory written faster and more files zipped. This is where things get interesting.

Looking first at the memory bandwidth scores, the 4B is way out ahead, and the old Pi Zero is bringing up the rear, but the 3B+ and the Zero 2 are basically neck-in-neck. What’s interesting, however, is the power used in the memory test. The Zero 2 W scores significantly better than the 3B+ and the 4B. It’s simply more efficient, although if you divide through to get memory bandwidth per watt of power, the old Pi Zero stands out.

Turn then to the 7-zip test, a proxy for general purpose computing. Here again, the four-core Pis all dramatically outperform the pokey Pi Zero. The Pi 4 is the fastest by far, and with proper cooling it can be pushed to ridiculous performance. But as any of you who’ve worked with Raspberry Pis and batteries know, the larger form-factor Raspberry Pi computers consume a lot more power to get the job done.

But look at the gap between the Pi Zero 2’s performance and the Pi 3B+. They’re very close! And look at the same gap in terms of power used — it’s huge. This right here is the Pi Zero 2’s greatest selling point. Almost 3B+ computational performance while using only marginally more power than the old Pi Zero. If you divide these two results to get a measure of zipped files per watt, which I’m calling computational “grunt” per watt, the Zero 2 is far ahead.

If you’re looking for a replacement for a slow Raspberry Pi Zero in some portable project, it really looks like the Pi Zero 2 fits the bill perfectly.

Idle Current and Zombie Current

Some projects only need to do a little bit of work, and then can shut down or slow down during times of inactivity to use less total power over the course of a day. With an eye toward power saving, I had a look at how all of the boards performed when they weren’t doing anything, and here one of the answers was very surprising.

Unless you’re crunching serious numbers or running a busy web server on your Raspberry Pi, chances are that it will be sitting idle most of the time, and that its idle current draw will actually dominate the total power consumption. Here, we can see that the Pi Zero 2 has a lot more in common with the old Pi Zero than with the other two boards. Doing nothing more than keeping WiFi running, the Zeros use less than a third of the power consumed by their bigger siblings. That’s a big deal.

I also wanted to investigate what would happen if you could turn WiFi off, or shut the system down entirely, analogous to power-saving tricks that we use with smaller microcontrollers all the time. To test this, I ran a routine from an idle state that shut the WiFi off, waited 10 seconds, and then shut the system down. I was surprised by two things. One, the power consumed by WiFi in standby isn’t really that significant — you can see it activating periodically during the idle phase.

Second, the current draw of a shut-down system varied dramatically across the boards. I’m calling this current “zombie current” because this is the current drawn by the board when the CPU brain is shut off entirely. To be absolutely certain that I was measuring zombie current correctly, I unplugged the boards about ten seconds after shutdown. These are the traces that you see here, plotted for each system. There are four phases: idle, idle with no WiFi, shut down / zombie, and finally physically pulling the plug.

The Pi 4 draws around 240 mA when it is shut down, or 1.2 W! The Pi 3 draws around 90 mA, or 0.45 W. For comparison, the Pi Zero 2’s idle current is similar to the Pi 3’s zombie current. The Pi Zero 2 has a much-closer-to-negligible 45 mA zombie draw, and the original Pi Zero pulls even less.

The point here is that while it’s not surprising that the power required to idle would increase for the more powerful CPUs, the extent of both the variation in idle and zombie current really dictates which boards to use in a battery powered project. Watch out!

Size and Power Isn’t Everything

In that respect, with the processing power of the Pi 3B, significantly better power management all around, and coming in at half the price, the Raspberry Pi Zero 2 W is incredibly attractive for anything that needs to sip the juice but also needs to pack some punch. The old Pi Zero shined in small, headless projects, and it was the only real choice for battery-driven projects. The Pi Zero 2 definitely looks like a worthy successor, adding a lot more CPU power for not all that much electrical power.

Still, I don’t think that the Pi Zero 2 will replace the 3B+, its closest competitor, for the simple reason that the Pi 3 has more memory and much more versatile connectivity straight out of the box. If your project involves more than a few USB devices, or wired Ethernet, or “normal” HDMI connections, adding all of these extra parts can make a Zero-based setup almost as bulky as a B. And when it comes down to pure grunt, power-budget be damned, the Pi 4 is clearly still the winner.

But by combining four cores tightly with on-chip memory, the Raspberry Pi Zero 2 W is definitely the most energy-efficient Pi.

Sat, 06 Aug 2022 11:59:00 -0500 Elliot Williams en-US text/html
Killexams : Sizewell C gets green light in boost for Britain’s nuclear power push

Kwasi Kwarteng has overruled officials and granted planning permission for the Sizewell C nuclear power plant despite concerns it will reduce water supplies available for households.

The Business Secretary approved the scheme on Wednesday against the recommendation of the Planning Inspectorate, arguing that the “very substantial and urgent need for the proposal outweighs the harms”.

He pointed to the Government’s plan to boost Britain’s energy security with a new generation of nuclear reactors and said Sizewell C would make a “substantial contribution” to that goal.

However, the decision faces a potential legal challenge following warnings that the area of Suffolk the plant will be built in lacks the necessary water supplies and that wildlife habitats will be damaged.

Essex and Suffolk Water has warned that it cannot meet the combined needs of households, other customers and Sizewell C with existing water supplies.

Allison Downes, a spokesman for campaign group Stop Sizewell C, said the project's critics were busily “combing through” Mr Kwarteng’s decision and could seek a judicial review. 

Campaigners have six weeks to challenge Mr Kwarteng’s decision. 

Ms Downes added: “The Government has been forced to ram through a damaging project to shore up its energy strategy but the fact that the Planning Inspectorate recommended Sizewell C be refused consent is a huge victory for all of us. 

“The wrong decision has been made but it’s not the end of our campaign to Stop Sizewell C. Not only will we be looking closely at appealing this decision, we'll continue to challenge every aspect of Sizewell C, because - whether it is the impact on consumers, the massive costs and delays, the outstanding technical questions or the environmental impacts - it remains a bad project and a very bad risk.”

The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds and the Suffolk Wildlife Trust also said they were “disappointed” by the decision.

Ben McFarland, head of conservation at the trust, said: “We maintain that this is not a suitable location, it's far too important for wildlife.”

Sizewell C, which would produce enough electricity to power six million homes, has been proposed by state-owned French giant EDF and is expected to cost about £20bn. 

It would be completed in the early 2030s, becoming just the second nuclear plant built in the UK since the opening of Sizewell B in 1995.

The other is Hinkley Point C, which is expected to come online in 2027.

Nuclear plants have become a key pillar of the Government’s energy security strategy, with ministers hoping they will eventually produce 25pc of the country’s power.

They are also seen by many experts as an essential component of plans to reach “net zero” carbon emissions by 2050.

Tom Greatrex, chief executive of the Nuclear Industry Association, said the granting of planning approval was a “huge step forward for Britain’s energy security and net zero ambitions”. 

He said: “Sizewell C will provide reliable low-carbon power for more than 80 years, cutting gas use, creating thousands of high-quality, skilled jobs, and long-term investment and opportunity up and down the country." 

However, in a report to Mr Kwarteng, the Planning Inspectorate said approval for the plant should not have been granted unless concerns about water supplies and wildlife habitats had been resolved.

Sizewell C would have two pressurised water reactors, compared to Sizewell B which has one, meaning more water will be needed to cool the plant. A supply will also be needed for construction.

However, Northumbrian Water, which owns Essex and Suffolk Water, says local supplies in Blyth are currently not enough to meet the plant's needs during construction or operation.

The utility company has agreed with EDF that the problem can be addressed during construction by drawing saltwater from the ocean with a temporary desalination plant.

But in order to secure a permanent water supply for the completed plant, Northumbrian may need to transport water from another catchment area in Suffolk.

No suitable supply has been identified yet, although options include a new pipeline that would divert water from the River Waveney, importing supplies from neighbouring suppliers, reusing wastewater and creating new reservoirs. 

If those proposals fail, EDF has suggested it will consider building a permanent desalination plant.

Mr Kwarteng's decision said he had considered the concerns but believed the various water supply options “represent potentially viable solutions... as would the fall-back of the permanent desalination plant”. 

“The Secretary of State is therefore content that if consent is granted, there is a reasonable level of certainty that a permanent water supply solution can be found,” the decision added. 

Wed, 20 Jul 2022 06:09:00 -0500 en-GB text/html
Killexams : Cost of VA's new electronic health record system could triple to more than $50 billion; launch at Boise facility delayed
The Department of Veterans Affairs building in Washington, D.C., is shown in this undated file photo.

The Department of Veterans Affairs building in Washington, D.C., is shown in this undated file photo. (Carlos Bongioanni/Stars and Stripes)

WASHINGTON — The cost of the Department of Veterans Affairs' new electronic health record system could increase to more than $50 billion in 28 years, and a new company is now working to fix the problem-riddled system, senators said Wednesday.

"This should serve as a wake-up call to everybody, including the folks at VA, Oracle Cerner, and of course us because we have a lot of work ahead of us," Sen. Jon Tester, D-Mont., said during at the Senate Veterans' Affairs Committee hearing about the health record system.

In addition, the VA notified the Senate committee that its plan to deploy the electronic health record system at the Boise VA Medical Center was now delayed. The record system was originally scheduled to launch there Saturday.

"I will tell you that I support that decision," said Tester, the chairman of the committee. "I believe additional improvements are needed to ensure any future deployments are safe and successful. We need to know what's working and what's not, and we need to listen to the local VA administrators and employees about what they are saying."

The VA originally signed a $10 billion contract with Cerner in May 2018 to overhaul the agency’s health record system and make it compatible with the Defense Department. However, the cost later increased to $16 billion.

An independent review by the nonprofit Institute for Defense Analysis estimated the implementation of the electronic health record system would cost nearly $39 billion in 13 years. The estimate also included more than $17 billion to sustain the system.

"Until Monday, we were not aware of how large the cost overrun truly is," Sen. Jerry Moran of Kansas, the ranking Republican on the committee, said during the hearing.

The system was first launched at the Mann-Grandstaff VA Medical Center in Spokane, Wash., in October 2020. Since then, records issues have plagued the facility. VA Inspector General Michael Missal said in March that his office received wide-ranging complaints since the system launched in Spokane. Complaints included unauthorized and inaccurate medication orders, patients’ name and gender errors, issues in scheduling primary care appointments, misdirected links to video medical appointments and lost referrals.

"I'll be blunt," Terry Adirim, executive director of the VA's Office of Electronic Health Record Modernization, said at the hearing. "In hindsight, Mann-Grandstaff wasn't ready to adopt a new electronic health record. Planning was inadequate and lacked a thorough assessment of the site's readiness. And most importantly, in October 2020, VA medical centers were still being seriously impacted by the [coronavirus] pandemic."

Adirim also said VA personnel in Spokane were not at fault, and they should be commended. She also said the agency learned lessons from that failed launch.

In addition to the cost analysis, the VA Office of Inspector General released two reports last week. One report found the electronic health record system sent medical care orders — such as psychiatric consults — to an undetectable location, which caused harm for 149 VA patients.

In another report, the inspector general found two senior staff members at the Spokane facility gave inaccurate information to IG reviewers about the health record system training.

David Case, VA deputy inspector general, said the actions of the staff members were not intended, meaning a crime was not committed. However, the inspector general found that their actions did represent careless disregard.

"It was a whole mix, a lack of communication, a lack of checking what the data was, a lack of even understanding what data was being produced by the consultant who was working on [electronic health record system], so there were a lot of problems," Case said. "It's within [VA's] purview how they want to hold these folks accountable, or whatever actions they want to take. We have no purview or authority to take action or really to recommend action.”

VA Secretary Denis McDonough said Wednesday at the VA's monthly news conference that the agency's Office of Electronic Health Record Modernization has been meeting weekly to ensure they sort out any issues related to patient safety or patient harm.

"What our veterans should expect, what our clinicians should expect, what Congress, the [inspector general], and all of our partners should expect is that we take very seriously our obligations to patient safety, which is our No. 1 priority at VA," McDonough said. "We will get to the bottom of problems when they're identified and make sure that we can realize the promise at the heart of a modernized electronic health record that draws the full history of our veterans' service to the country by accessing his or her defense or DOD health record and the VA health record."

Oracle Corp. completed its $28 billion acquisition of Cerner on June 8, with the latter now dubbed Oracle Cerner. The Austin-based company also took over Cerner's electronic health record contract with the VA, Defense Department and the Coast Guard.

Mike Sicilia, executive vice president for industries at Oracle, said he spent the last six weeks reviewing the system's issues and working through engineering plans. Moreover, he said the company had established a command center led by Oracle's senior engineers.

"Our war room is conducting a top-to-bottom analysis of the entire system," Sicilia said. "It is already hard at work making a number of improvements that previously were not possible. If something isn't working for caregivers or patients, we plan to fix it first and work out the economics later.”

Sicilia also said the company intends to move Cerner's electronic health record application to a modern cloud data center within the next six to nine months. He said the move would deliver better performance and stability for the user.

"The Cerner [electronic health records] system is currently running on a dated architecture with technology that is, in some cases, two decades old … and it requires massive amounts of manual support. This isn't unusual in the [electronic health records] industry, but it does lead to more frequent outages and degradations of service," Sicilia said.

He said Oracle's cloud infrastructure has built-in security, which will remove the possibility of human error that is a major cause of breaches.

"I really do hope that the acquisition by Oracle is going to be a game-changer," Tester said. "I hope it is, and if it is, that's going to be good news for our veterans."

Thu, 21 Jul 2022 09:13:00 -0500 en text/html
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