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Exam Code: 1Z0-146 Practice test 2022 by team
Oracle Database 11g: Advanced PL/SQL
Oracle Database mock
Killexams : Oracle Database mock - BingNews Search results Killexams : Oracle Database mock - BingNews Killexams : Oracle 12.1 users warned as mainstream support ends in July No result found, try new keyword!12.1 friends without benefits as database pros question LTR with Oracle 12.2 Users of Oracle 12.1 database will move off mainstream support at the end of the month, ending access to bug fixes and ... Fri, 08 Jul 2022 01:09:22 -0500 en-us text/html Killexams : Unit Testing ASP.NET

Many developers recently discovered that the Test Driven Development (TDD) process improves the development process significantly. While writing tests is relatively easy in the desktop world, Web applications are not so easily tested. One of the problems is that a Web application runs in a different process, thus being isolated from the test code. As a result, what we are able to test is a raw HTML output, rather than the application's internals. Another problem is that it is very difficult to put a Web application into a special environment that is more suitable for testing. For example, we cannot check the behavior of the system when a database is unavailable, unless we manually stop the database server. Compare this to the desktop unit testing, where we can easily mock the database connection, telling the system to throw an exception without actually trying to connect.
Several Asp.NET frameworks exist, but they are either parsing the HTML output and recreating the structure of the page (NUnitAsp, now discontinued), or test the client-side functionality (Selenium and WatiN). Another framework, Plazma, hosts the Asp.Net runtime so that it is executed in the test runner process; however, due to the runtime's inherent untestability, we are still unable to test, let alone mock, the page's intrinsics. As a result, we can write integration, but not unit, tests. For example, to verify that a certain label displays the user's name, we have to add a user to our database, navigate to the login page, enter the user's credentials, navigate to the page being tested, parse the output in order to find a span with a certain ID, and check the span's inner text. In addition, we have to manually return the database to the previous state.
Frustrated by these complexities, and driven by the common idea that testability equals good code (and vice versa), developers often tend to push as much code from the codebehind files as they can into the presentation logic library, coupling it too much to the view (for example, letting the Presenter handle control events and manipulate controls' properties). The remaining View is left untested, just because it's not worth the effort.
It is clear that developers need to be able to access and manipulate various server-side intrinsics, such as the current HttpContext, the page being requested and its controls, the Session etc. You often want to verify that certain events are being fired in a certain order with certain arguments, or that your custom control is initialized properly at the Init stage. Even more important, sometimes you need to test your page in isolation, so you need to be able to mock the rest of your application. On the other hand, you need some browser-side functionality as well: setting up cookies and checking the return status, filling up form values and pushing buttons etc. This is where the Ivonna framework can help.
Testing with the Ivonna framework is completely different from the client-side frameworks. You are programming in a way similar to desktop testing. You setup your mocks, for example, mock the Membership service, then you request a page (you have a "real" instance of the Page class, not the raw Html), find the label you need and check its Text property. But there's more: you can execute your asserts not only against the response, but also during the page's lifecycle. For example, you can add a Page_Init handler and verify the label's initial value or visibility. You can also run tests against concrete page classes (for example, if you want to test a page-specific method) or App_Code classes.
A simple example
We'll start with a simple task. Let's create a page with a textbox (“NameTextBox”), a button (“SayButton”), and a label (“MessageLabel”). Let's test the following scenario: if the textbox contains “John”, and the button is clicked, the label should display “Hi John!”.
Note that this is an integration test, and we could do the same, or similar, with any other Web testing framework. To demonstrate Ivonna's unit testing capabilities, we'll aim to refactor our code into a View and a Presenter, writing tests for the former (unit testing the Presenter is not a problem, since the class resides in a separate assembly). In particular, we'll write a test for our View that whenever the button is pressed, a certain event is raised. Also, we'll test a View's method and verify that it displays the message on the page. This is, to our knowledge, impossible with any other testing framework.
The setup process is described in the online documentation. First, you have to ensure thatTypeMock Isolator and Ivonna is installed. You can download Isolator here and Ivonna here. If you want to use an external test runner, you should enable Isolator before you launch the runner (see this link for details). Next, we create a Web site and a test project. We add references to System.Web, MbUnit, TypeMock Isolator, and Ivonna to our test project. Finally, we set the output of our test project to our Web's bin folder.
The first test
The first, integration, test is simple: request a page, enter “John” in the textbox, click the button, and check the label text.
ASP.NET Code Example VB.NET
Public Sub ClickingTheButton_DisplaysHiJohn()
    Dim session As New TestSession 'start a browsing session
    Dim page = session.GetPage("Default.aspx") 'request a page
    Dim NameTextBox As TextBox = page.FindControl("NameTextBox") 'find textbox
        NameTextBox.Text = "John" 'enter the text
        page = session.ProcessPostback("SayButton") 'click the button
    Dim MessageLabel As Label = page.FindControl("MessageLabel") 'finds the label
        Assert.AreEqual("Hi John!", MessageLabel.Text, "Invalid text") 'check text
End Sub
ASP.NET Code Example C#
public void Test()
   var session = new TestSession(); /start a browsing session
   var page = session.GetPage("Default.aspx"); /request a page
   var NameTextBox = (TextBox)page.FindControl("NameTextBox"); /find the textbox
   NameTextBox.Text = "John"; /enter the text
   page = session.ProcessPostback("SayButton"); /click the button*/
   var MessageLabel = (Label)page.FindControl("MessageLabel"); /finds the  label
   Assert.AreEqual("Hi John!", MessageLabel.Text, "Invalid text!"); /checks the  text
Although this looks similar to a typical Windows Forms test, there's something really unusual going on. The first request happens on line 6 (see the VB version), but after it's finished, the Page instance is still alive. Not only we can inspect its properties and controls, we can even set some properties and post the values back, “clicking” a button or a similar control. This is possible because the “server” and the “client” code live in the same process.
But wait, there's more. As you will see in the next section, not only you can execute test code before or after a request (or, as in our first test, between the requests). You can execute it duringthe request, attached to one of the page's lifecycle events.
Back to our test, in order to make it pass, you just handle the button click event:
protected void SayButton_Click(object sender, EventArgs e) {
 this.MessageLabel.Text = String.Format("Hi {0}!", this.NameTextBox.Text);
But then, you might discover that this code is a mix of presentation logic and view concerns, and might want to refactor it into View and Presenter classes. We'll follow the classic MVP pattern, only without the Model part. The View doesn't hold a reference to the Presenter, but rather raises the appropriate events, to which the Presenter is subscribed. The Presenter then invokes the appropriate method on the View, modifying the output. For example, the View raises the SayHi event in response to the button click, and has the ShowMessage method that modifies the text of the label.
Following the tradition, we'll define the IView interface as follows:
public interface IView
    event EventHandler SayHi;
    string Name { get; }
    void ShowMessage(string message);
Testing the View events
Our next task is to verify that our View raises the SayHi event in response to the button click.
There are a number of steps we should perform in order to verify that the SayHi event is raised. We should subscribe to this event somehow, which means we should have a reference to its source, the page. This should happen after the page is created, but before the postback event is raised, so we have to execute this code during the request. We can achieve our goal adding a handler to the page's Init event. In other words, since we can't just subscribe to the SayHi eventbefore the postback (the sender doesn't exist yet), we have to do it during the postback, and the best way is to handle the Init (or Load) event, which Ivonna can help you with. This becomes a two-step process:
1.    Subscribe to the Init event using Ivonna's infrastructure.
2.    In the Init event handler, subscribe to the SayHi event. The page instance is the sender parameter of the Init handler, and we should cast it to IView.
While the IView interface is defined in the App_Code folder, we can use it if we reference the App_Code assembly in the precompiled Web's bin folder. Typically, you would want to put it into a separate assembly.
Let's see the test code:
Code sample ASP.NET - VB.NET
Public Class EventTester
     Dim catcher As New Ivonna.Catchers.EventCatcher
     Public Sub WhenButtonIsClicked_SayHiEventIsRaised()
     Dim session As New TestSession
     'Create a WebRequest instance corresponding
      'to a postback initiated by clicking the SayButton button.
      Dim request = New WebRequest("Default.aspx", "POST", "SayButton", Nothing)
     'Attach the catcher to the event
      request.EventHandlers.Page_Init = AddressOf AttachTheCatcher
      Assert.IsTrue(catcher.Raised, "Should have raised the event")
      End Sub
 Sub AttachTheCatcher(ByVal view As IView, ByVal e As EventArgs)
     AddHandler view.SayHi, AddressOf catcher.CatchEvent
      End Sub
End Class
Code sample ASP.NET - C#
public class EventTester
    public void WhenButtonIsClicked_SayHiEventIsRaised()
        /start a browsing session
        var session = new TestSession();
        var catcher = new Ivonna.Catchers.EventCatcher();
        /Create a WebRequest instance corresponding
        /to a postback initiated by clicking the SayButton button.
        var request = new WebRequest("Default.aspx", "POST", "SayButton", null);
        request.EventHandlers.Page_Init = delegate(object sender, EventArgs e)
            var view = sender as IView;
            /Attach the catcher to the event; when the event is raised,
            /the catcher will record this for further verification
            view.SayHi += catcher.CatchEvent;
        Assert.IsTrue(catcher.Raised, "The event hasn't been raised");
First, we create a TestSession instance, as we do in almost every Ivonna test. Then, we have to retrieve the page we are going to post. At line 13 (C# version), we create an instance of EventCather. This is a helper class designed to verify event raising. Next, we create a WebRequest instance. This is different from our previous test, where we used session.GetPage(), but this syntax allows us to modify the request before processing. At line 17, we add a delegate to the page's Init event (VB doesn't support anonymous delegates, so we have to create a separate Sub). Note that we can do it before the page itself is created: the delegate is stored in another object and attached after the page is created. The delegate casts the page to IView and attaches another delegate to the SayHi event. After we have prepared everything, we execute the postback at line 23 and verify that the SayHi event has been raised at line 24.
In order to make the test pass, we have to add two modifications to out page. We have to implement IView, since the test raises an InvalidCastException exception at line 18. And we have to raise the SayHi event in the SayButton_Click method. But making the test pass is beyond the scope of this article.
Testing the View methods
In response to events raised by the View, the Presenter invokes various methods that change the View's appearance. In our case, the Presenter should instruct the View to display the message. It is up to the View to decide how the message is displayed. We already know that the message should appear as the text of MessageLabel. So, our purpose is to verify that invoking the ShowMessage method changes the MessageLabel's text appropriately.
This method is invoked during the page's life cycle, and is better tested using the Prerender even handler, similar to the previous test. However, we can simplify things a little and invoke the method after the request, which is executed in order to obtain the page object:
Code sample ASP.NET - VB.NET
Public Class MethodTester
     Public Sub WhenShowMessageIsInvoked_MessageLabelShowsTheMessage()
      Dim session As New TestSession 'start a browsing session
      Dim page = session.GetPage("Default.aspx") 'request a page
      DirectCast(page, IView).ShowMessage("message") 'invoke the method
      Dim messageLabel As Label = page.FindControl("MessageLabel")'find the label
      Assert.AreEqual("message", messageLabel.Text, "Invalid text") 'checks the text
     End Sub
End Class
ASP.NET Code sample - C#
public class MethodTester
  public void WhenShowMessageIsInvoked_MessageLabelShowsTheMessage()
    var session = new TestSession(); /start a browsing session
       var page = session.GetPage("Default.aspx"); /request a page
       (page as IView).ShowMessage("message"); /invoke the method
       Label messageLabel = page.FindControl("MessageLabel") as Label;/finds the label
       Assert.AreEqual("message", messageLabel.Text, "Invalid text");/checks the text
Ivonna makes possible to write both integration and unit tests. In fact, combined with the power of TypeMock Isolator, you can write functional tests for any part of your application: mock the external dependencies to test your system, mock the repositories to test the MVP part, etc. Developers are not forced to move all code from the page being tested to an external library; instead, you are free to start with integration tests and refactor gradually, or start with unit testing the page and add integration tests later.

Mon, 06 Jun 2022 13:41:00 -0500 text/html
Killexams : Can APIs be Copyrighted?

The exact Oracle vs Google case, covered by InfoQ elsewhere, has brought around a significant change in the original complaint. The outcome of the trial has much wider ramifications to the technology industry than a licensing dispute over mobile phones.

Whilst the case was initially based on the assumption that Oracle's patents were valid – now all but demolished – Oracle has switched tack to claim that it is a copyright violation. At heart is the question of whether an API or even a computer language can be copyrightable.

The Android language is a subset of the Java language, and even compiles down to Java classes via the javac compiler (or other IDE based compiler). This output is then handed to the Android/Dalvik specific DX tool, which translates the output to Dalvik bytecode, for execution on Android's Dalvik VM.

The Java bytecode and Dalvik bytecode are completely different, with Java's bytecode and VM being stack-based and Dalvik's bytecode and VM being register based. At the VM level, the two systems are completely different.

However, the language for both Android and Java is – to most intents – the same. The Android toolchain even uses the same JavaC compiler as a front-end translation tool, although not necessarily as a final destination. As a result, the APIs that are used in Dalvik follow the same language as Java. In order to operate with the JavaC compiler, a specific subset of the Android APIs match with the Java APIs – for example, classes like java.lang.String.

Most of the implementation in the Android toolchain is based off of the (now-defunct) Apache Harmony project, which was a clean-room implementation of Java which shut down last year on the basis that Oracle would never allow it to run against the Testing Compatibility Kit without a field-of-use restriction for mobile space.

Oracle is now claiming that as designer of the Java APIs, not just its OpenJDK (GPL) implementation is covered by also every implementation ever of the Java APIs are covered by its copyright. Thus, any implementation of the Java APIs – whether they are called Java or not – are violations of Oracle's copyright.

SCO used the same tactic when alleging copyright of a massive scale of Linux against its codebase, despite the fact that most of these were the names of APIs. (That case essentially collapsed when it was ruled that SCO didn't own the copyrights in the first place.)

Florian Mueller of FOSS Patents thinks that it's a slam-dunk case that Google needed a license for Java, not the least of which was the now-famous Lindholm mail in which reports that an engineer's opinion is that they need a license to do what they're doing with Java:

What we've actually been asked to do (by Larry [Page] and Sergey [Brin]) is to investigate what technical alternatives exist to Java for Android and Chrome. We've been over a bunch of these, and think they all suck. We conclude that we need to negotiate a license for Java under the terms we need.

However, this doesn't necessarily state that APIs are covered by copyright, just that if they wanted to use Java as-is they would need a license. Oracle is now claiming even stronger that due to the effort involved in creating the APIs that they should own copyright on it as well. It's also worth noting that Florian is in a consulting relationship with Oracle:

That said, as a believer in transparency I would like to inform you that Oracle has very recently become a consulting client of mine. We intend to work together for the long haul on mostly competition-related courses including, for one example, FRAND licensing terms.

Until now, languages have been considered exempt from copyright. Only the ideas expressed in a specific way are copyrightable; so a specific English text (like Shakespeare's Hamlet) is copyrightable, but the English language itself isn't. If ownership of a language is copyrightable, then potentially Oracle is claiming copyright of every Java program ever written.

If the language isn't copyrightable, what about a specific set of APIs? In this case, Android and Java share 37 APIs (i.e. methods on classes like String and ClassLoader). It's also clearly the case that Android doesn't pass itself off as Java – unlike Microsoft's extensions in the late '90s – so doesn't need to be a superset. Microsoft was subsequently forced to change the name of its language to J+ to avoid any future incompatibility claims, but was allowed to continue if it didn't call itself Java.

Creating a good API certainly takes time, and it's a non-trivial effort (witness the ongoing design discussions about the Lambda project, for example). However, is the result of the API copyrightable in and of itself, particularly when it comes to alternative implementations? It is this question which Oracle and Google are divided over.

Google's argument that the method names and type signatures are not themselves copyrightable is based on an argument against a 'Mock implementation' which returns default answers such as 0 or "" for every method. This clearly wouldn't be the same as in Java; would that be considered as a copyrightable claim? If the names and types are not themselves sufficient for copyright protection, what is?

Oracle's argument is that since the API design takes time (and good APIs even longer) that the collection should be considered as a combined work, and thus is copyrightable. However, if this were ruled as true, it would have a significant impact in any programming language as APIs are used by client programs and – in some cases, implemented – by other programs. (Every Java JDBC driver which implemented the Connection interface, would be violating that copyright, since an implementation of an interface has a de facto copy of the API's signatures.)

Simon Phipps writes in InfoWorld that If Oracle wins, Everyone loses:

… flies in the face of the received wisdom of the software industry. It's so widely accepted that programming interfaces and languages are beyond the scope of copyright that very few cases have ever been brought to court. In those that have, the received wisdom has largely been upheld.

This is a good thing. Without it, the lives of programmers would be much more complex. Header files and function prototypes would all need licensing from their owners, so programming for any operating system would at best require attention to license compatibility and at worst would involve total control of the programming lifecycle by the platform vendor.

Even if Oracle wins, it's not clear that it will help its own customers. If they manage to get a ruling that decries APIs as copyrightable suddenly any APIs that are used in computer programming language might be asserted to be violations. This in turn will make developing software more expensive for everyone, not just in the Google and Oracle case. Phipps argues that this would only affect America:

This would be largely an American phenomenon. In Europe, there is continentwide law asserting that programming languages and interfaces are unlikely to be copyrightable, and even if they are, an exception written into the law allows copyright to be ignored if the purpose of infringing it is for interoperability. Any precedent set by an Oracle win would likely just harm the American technology industry and offer an advantage to its competitors.

Whatever the outcome of the trial, the result will have ripples in the technology industry. The case continues.

Sun, 22 Apr 2012 21:30:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Oracle to host Colombian cloud region in Claro facility

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Thu, 14 Jul 2022 00:14:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Oracle ponders $1B cost reductions, laying off thousands

Oracle is considering cost cuts that could mean layoffs in August, according to tech publisher The Information.

An unnamed source with knowledge of the situation told the publication Oracle has considered eliminating thousands of jobs, primarily in the U.S. and Europe, as part of $1 billion cost reduction efforts.

The layoffs are being considered as Oracle evaluates its strategy to serve TikTok, the viral video app, as one of its cloud customers.

Oracle completed its $28.4 billion acquisition of Cerner in June and has since announced intentions of creating a unified national database of healthcare information. Oracle Cerner has 24.4 percent of the hospital market, and Oracle also provides the cloud infrastructure and customer relationship management platform for health systems across the U.S.

Oracle did not respond to a July 11 request for comment.

Tue, 12 Jul 2022 03:07:00 -0500 en-gb text/html
Killexams : Oracle and Claro Partner to Expand Global Cloud Services in Colombia

Press release content from PR Newswire. The AP news staff was not involved in its creation.

Claro will offer Oracle Cloud Infrastructure as part of its managed cloud services

Collaboration will enable organizations to take advantage of Oracle Cloud Infrastructure’s high performance, built-in security, and lower costs

Partnership is designed to modernize IT infrastructure and stimulate the economic recovery in Colombia

AUSTIN, Texas and BOGOTA, Colombia, July 14, 2022 /PRNewswire/ -- Today Oracle and Claro announced a partnership to jointly offer Oracle Cloud Infrastructure (OCI) services to public and private sector organizations and enterprises in Colombia. Claro will become the host partner for an Oracle Cloud region in Colombia, which will enable Claro to offer OCI platform services along with professional and managed services to help customers adopt cloud solutions. In addition, to help Boost its customer service and billings processes, Claro will migrate over 100 on-premises servers running mission-critical workloads to OCI.

“Partnering with Claro accelerates the technology modernization of businesses and consumers across Latin America. Our collaboration with Claro will also accelerate cloud adoption, stimulate economic recovery, and spur competitiveness in these countries,” said Germán Borromei, managing director, Oracle Colombia and Ecuador.

Claro has one of the broadest managed and professional services offerings in the Colombian market, including cloud infrastructure and platform-as-a-service capabilities. Businesses from all industries and the public and private sector in Colombia rely on Claro and its team of highly qualified professionals, who maintain the highest certifications in cloud and cybersecurity services. Oracle’s hybrid offerings align with Claro’s mission to respond to the needs of businesses and support the technology modernization in Colombia.

“We’ve reached another milestone in Colombia by hosting Oracle’s first public cloud region in the country. With this, we continue to support the modernization of organizations in the public and private sector with a comprehensive and differentiated portfolio. Oracle chose our Triara Data Center, certified with ICREA 5, that complies with the highest security standards so that local businesses have access to database services and middleware applications from one of the leading cloud providers in the market,” said Carlos Zenteno, CEO, Claro Colombia.  

About Oracle

Oracle offers integrated suites of applications plus secure, autonomous infrastructure in the Oracle Cloud. For more information about Oracle (NYSE: ORCL), please visit us at


Oracle, Java, and MySQL are registered trademarks of Oracle Corporation.

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Thu, 14 Jul 2022 00:23:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : Oracle (ORCL) to Launch New Sovereign Cloud Regions Across EU No result found, try new keyword!Oracle ORCL recently unveiled plans to launch new sovereign cloud regions in the European Union (EU) in 2023 to enable personal enterprises and public sector organizations to host functions and ... Wed, 13 Jul 2022 02:30:00 -0500 text/html Killexams : Oracle revenue, profit top estimates on cloud boom No result found, try new keyword!(Reuters) -Oracle Corp topped Wall Street estimates for quarterly profit and revenue on Monday, as demand for its cloud products soars amid an industry-wide shift to cloud-based platforms. Mon, 13 Jun 2022 08:19:00 -0500 en-ca text/html Killexams : Management Information Systems (MIS) BS

Ranked #3 nationally by College Factual, RIT's MIS degree combines computing security, database design, networking, and IT to create dynamic, comprehensive database systems.

Program skills

Students have the technical and managerial skills to: evaluate, design, implement, and manage both prevailing and emergent information technologies; gain valuable experience in the hands-on use of IT design platforms, enterprise system technologies (e.g., SAP, Oracle, Microsoft.NET), and cloud computing applications; and develop critical business skills, such as effective communication, leadership, business analysis, and project management skills,

Program facilities equipment

The Sklarsky Center for Business Analytics features the latest technology and equipment, including Bloomberg Terminals and the most advanced analytics software. The REDCOM Active Learning Lab provides a business environment that maximizes the utilization of technology for digital interaction and team networking. Computer labs currently have 60 PC’s hooked up to a network server, including wireless connectivity.

Program job titles reported

Associate data analyst; Business Analyst; Data Analyst; Developer; HR Administrator; IT Analyst; Management Consultant; Sales Associate; Technical Support

Program significant points

  • Saunders College of Business moved up 18 spots to #73 in the U.S. News & World Report 2019 edition of Best Graduate School Rankings among graduate business schools in America.
  • Placing in the top 10 for the third year in a row, Saunders ranked #8 in the top 25 online MBA programs in a Princeton Review list that was the first to base rankings on both school and student opinion data
  • Ranked by CEO Magazine as a Tier One MBA Program in back-to-back years, Saunders College has also been recognized by U.S. News & World Report as #36 among 282 of the Best Online Graduate MBA Programs for 2018
  • Saunders College ranks #79 on Bloomberg Businessweek's list of best U.S. business schools with full-time MBA programs

Select program hiring partners

Accenture; Allstate; Avangrid; Baker Hughes; Bank of America; Cisco; Citi; CooperVision; Enterprise RentACar; Ernst & Young; Fast Enterprises; Fidelity Investments; IBM; JPMorgan Chase & Co.; L3Harris Corporation; Palo Alto Networks; Paychex; Rich Products; Southwest Airlines; Tesla; TJX Companies; WB Mason; Wegmans


Outcome Rates*

Total percentage of graduates who have entered the workforce, enrolled in full-time graduate study, or are pursuing alternative plans (military service, volunteering, etc.).


Knowledge Rate

*Total percentage of graduates for whom RIT has verifiable data, compared to national average knowledge rate of 41% per NACE.

Outcome % of Students
Employed 84.60%
Full-time Graduate Study 2.60%
Alternative Plans 5.10%
Outcome % of Students
Employed 84.60%
Full-time Graduate Study 2.60%
Alternative Plans 5.10%

Cooperative Education

Cooperative Education

What’s different about an RIT education? It’s the career experience you gain by completing cooperative education and internships with top companies in every single industry. You’ll earn more than a degree. You’ll gain real-world career experience that sets you apart. It’s exposure–early and often–to a variety of professional work environments, career paths, and industries. 

Students in the MIS degree are required to complete at least one block of cooperative education.

Sun, 31 Mar 2019 05:01:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : NCAA transfer portal: What it is, how it works

NCAA transfer portal: What it is, how it works originally appeared on NBC Sports Chicago

The NCAA transfer portal was introduced as a compliance system to create a more efficient transfer process for student-athletes who are looking to compete for a different institution.

The portal, which is an online database readily available to all college coaches and schools, is intended to transform Division I athletics by "better supporting the sustainability of college sports," according to the NCAA.

While the portal has served as a massive positive for student-athletes, it has also created difficulties for coaches, especially when trying to facilitate a positive team environment when taking in multiple new players each year. 

Additionally, while much of the transfer portal has been working smoothly, there are parts that the NCAA is looking to update to create an even more efficient system.

Here’s everything you need to know about the NCAA transfer portal:

How does the NCAA transfer portal work?

When an NCAA student-athlete decides they want to enter the transfer portal, they have to supply their information to someone in the compliance office and the player will be submitted to the online database within 48 hours.

Once a player is in the portal, coaches from any school can decide if they want to reach out to a player as coaches have access to all contact information.

When the portal was introduced, it was intended to create more transparency in the transfer system and increase visibility for each player's desire to switch institutions.

In April 2021, players were given the chance to play at a school immediately after transferring one time. Prior to the new rule, players had to sit out a full season before getting the opportunity to compete.

When did the NCAA transfer portal start?

The NCAA transfer portal made its debut in October 2018.

When is the NCAA transfer window?

While there is no specific window for NCAA athletes, players must notify schools that they are looking to enter the transfer portal by May 1 of each academic year.

Why is the NCAA transfer portal good for student-athletes?

The NCAA transfer portal is a great opportunity for athletes to get exposure as all coaches are looking at the database daily.

The portal can also be used as leverage for players, who are allowed to enter both the transfer portal and the NBA Draft. The move gives players other options should they decide to go back to school.

How can the NCAA transfer portal be bad for a team?

When the NCAA transfer portal was introduced, players took full advantage of the opportunity to play at their favorite schools even if they didn’t first get in.

When the rules changed and players could officially transfer once without missing a year of competition, the number of transfers skyrocketed.

The numbers went up so much that it was negatively impacting teams as coaches have to constantly reteach their systems to new players, according to Jeff Goodman, a basketball analyst.

"There's so much movement that I think it is affecting and will affect the quality of play as much as anything else because you're going to have a complete roster overall every single year, not have the chemistry and the continuity that you've had over the years,” Goodman told NBC.

What is the NCAA looking to update within the transfer portal?

Todd Berry, the executive director of the American Football Coaches Association, said in May that he would like there to be two transfer windows for players to enter the portal: one from the final Sunday in November until the early signing date in mid-December, and another from April 15 to May 1. 

The periods would only be for players to enter the portal with no requirement to transfer.

Additionally, there is a push to Boost the NCAA's infractions process for those who violate NCAA recruiting rules. Critics of the process say it takes so long that it punishes programs and coaches after much time has passed and offenders have continued on.

This was seen in 2018-2019 when Mercer's women's cross country program violated multiple recruiting rules and had to pay the price in 2001, which included three years of probation for the coaches, a one-year postseason ban for the sport and a reduction of scholarships.

The NCAA states that the adjustments would be “more efficient so we can focus our attention on Division I membership expectations and, most importantly, benefits for student-athletes.”

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