Hitoshi Kume, a recipient of the 1989 Deming Prize for use of quality principles, defines problems as "undesirable results of a job." Quality improvement efforts work best when problems are addressed systematically using a consistent and analytic approach; the methodology shouldn't change just because the problem changes. Keeping the steps to problem-solving simple allows workers to learn the process and how to use the tools effectively.
Easy to implement and follow up, the most commonly used and well-known quality process is the plan/do/check/act (PDCA) cycle (Figure 1). Other processes are a takeoff of this method, much in the way that computers today are takeoffs of the original IBM system. The PDCA cycle promotes continuous improvement and should thus be visualized as a spiral instead of a closed circle.
Another popular quality improvement process is the six-step PROFIT model in which the acronym stands for:
P = Problem definition.
R = Root cause identification and analysis.
O = Optimal solution based on root cause(s).
F = Finalize how the corrective action will be implemented.
I = Implement the plan.
T = Track the effectiveness of the implementation and verify that the desired results are met.
If the desired results are not met, the cycle is repeated. Both the PDCA and the PROFIT models can be used for problem solving as well as for continuous quality improvement. In companies that follow total quality principles, whichever model is chosen should be used consistently in every department or function in which quality improvement teams are working.
Figure 1. The most common process for quality improvement is the plan/do/check/act cycle outlined above. The cycle promotes continuous improvement and should be thought of as a spiral, not a circle.
Once the basic problem-solving or quality improvement process is understood, the addition of quality tools can make the process proceed more quickly and systematically. Seven simple tools can be used by any professional to ease the quality improvement process: flowcharts, check sheets, Pareto diagrams, cause and effect diagrams, histograms, scatter diagrams, and control charts. (Some books describe a graph instead of a flowchart as one of the seven tools.)
The concept behind the seven basic tools came from Kaoru Ishikawa, a renowned quality expert from Japan. According to Ishikawa, 95% of quality-related problems can be resolved with these basic tools. The key to successful problem resolution is the ability to identify the problem, use the appropriate tools based on the nature of the problem, and communicate the solution quickly to others. Inexperienced personnel might do best by starting with the Pareto chart and the cause and effect diagram before tackling the use of the other tools. Those two tools are used most widely by quality improvement teams.
Flowcharts describe a process in as much detail as possible by graphically displaying the steps in proper sequence. A good flowchart should show all process steps under analysis by the quality improvement team, identify critical process points for control, suggest areas for further improvement, and help explain and solve a problem.
The flowchart in Figure 2 illustrates a simple production process in which parts are received, inspected, and sent to subassembly operations and painting. After completing this loop, the parts can be shipped as subassemblies after passing a final test or they can complete a second cycle consisting of final assembly, inspection and testing, painting, final testing, and shipping.
Figure 2. A basic production process flowchart displays several paths a part can travel from the time it hits the receiving dock to final shipping.
Flowcharts can be simple, such as the one featured in Figure 2, or they can be made up of numerous boxes, symbols, and if/then directional steps. In more complex versions, flowcharts indicate the process steps in the appropriate sequence, the conditions in those steps, and the related constraints by using elements such as arrows, yes/no choices, or if/then statements.
Check sheets help organize data by category. They show how many times each particular value occurs, and their information is increasingly helpful as more data are collected. More than 50 observations should be available to be charted for this tool to be really useful. Check sheets minimize clerical work since the operator merely adds a mark to the tally on the prepared sheet rather than writing out a figure (Figure 3). By showing the frequency of a particular defect (e.g., in a molded part) and how often it occurs in a specific location, check sheets help operators spot problems. The check sheet example shows a list of molded part defects on a production line covering a week's time. One can easily see where to set priorities based on results shown on this check sheet. Assuming the production flow is the same on each day, the part with the largest number of defects carries the highest priority for correction.
Figure 3. Because it clearly organizes data, a check sheet is the easiest way to track information.
The Pareto diagram is named after Vilfredo Pareto, a 19th-century Italian economist who postulated that a large share of wealth is owned by a small percentage of the population. This basic principle translates well into quality problems—most quality problems result from a small number of causes. Quality experts often refer to the principle as the 80-20 rule; that is, 80% of problems are caused by 20% of the potential sources.
A Pareto diagram puts data in a hierarchical order (Figure 4), which allows the most significant problems to be corrected first. The Pareto analysis technique is used primarily to identify and evaluate nonconformities, although it can summarize all types of data. It is perhaps the diagram most often used in management presentations.
Figure 4. By rearranging random data, a Pareto diagram identifies and ranks nonconformities in the quality process in descending order.
To create a Pareto diagram, the operator collects random data, regroups the categories in order of frequency, and creates a bar graph based on the results.
Cause and effect diagrams
The cause and effect diagram is sometimes called an Ishikawa diagram after its inventor. It is also known as a fish bone diagram because of its shape. A cause and effect diagram describes a relationship between variables. The undesirable outcome is shown as effect, and related causes are shown as leading to, or potentially leading to, the said effect. This popular tool has one severe limitation, however, in that users can overlook important, complex interactions between causes. Thus, if a problem is caused by a combination of factors, it is difficult to use this tool to depict and solve it.
A fish bone diagram displays all contributing factors and their relationships to the outcome to identify areas where data should be collected and analyzed. The major areas of potential causes are shown as the main bones, e.g., materials, methods, people, measurement, machines, and design (Figure 5). Later, the subareas are depicted. Thorough analysis of each cause can eliminate causes one by one, and the most probable root cause can be selected for corrective action. Quantitative information can also be used to prioritize means for improvement, whether it be to machine, design, or operator.
Figure 5. Fish bone diagrams display the various possible causes of the final effect. Further analysis can prioritize them.
The histogram plots data in a frequency distribution table. What distinguishes the histogram from a check sheet is that its data are grouped into rows so that the identity of individual values is lost. Commonly used to present quality improvement data, histograms work best with small amounts of data that vary considerably. When used in process capability studies, histograms can display specification limits to show what portion of the data does not meet the specifications.
After the raw data are collected, they are grouped in value and frequency and plotted in a graphical form (Figure 6). A histogram's shape shows the nature of the distribution of the data, as well as central tendency (average) and variability. Specification limits can be used to display the capability of the process.
Figure 6. A histogram is an easy way to see the distribution of the data, its average, and variability.
A scatter diagram shows how two variables are related and is thus used to test for cause and effect relationships. It cannot prove that one variable causes the change in the other, only that a relationship exists and how strong it is. In a scatter diagram, the horizontal (x) axis represents the measurement values of one variable, and the vertical (y) axis represents the measurements of the second variable. Figure 7 shows part clearance values on the x-axis and the corresponding quantitative measurement values on the y-axis.
Figure 7. The plotted data points in a scatter diagram show the relationship between two variables.
A control chart displays statistically determined upper and lower limits drawn on either side of a process average. This chart shows if the collected data are within upper and lower limits previously determined through statistical calculations of raw data from earlier trials.
The construction of a control chart is based on statistical principles and statistical distributions, particularly the normal distribution. When used in conjunction with a manufacturing process, such charts can indicate trends and signal when a process is out of control. The center line of a control chart represents an estimate of the process mean; the upper and lower critical limits are also indicated. The process results are monitored over time and should remain within the control limits; if they do not, an investigation is conducted for the causes and corrective action taken. A control chart helps determine variability so it can be reduced as much as is economically justifiable.
In preparing a control chart, the mean upper control limit (UCL) and lower control limit (LCL) of an approved process and its data are calculated. A blank control chart with mean UCL and LCL with no data points is created; data points are added as they are statistically calculated from the raw data.
Figure 8. Data points that fall outside the upper and lower control limits lead to investigation and correction of the process.
Figure 8 is based on 25 samples or subgroups. For each sample, which in this case consisted of five rods, measurements are taken of a quality characteristic (in this example, length). These data are then grouped in table form (as shown in the figure) and the average and range from each subgroup are calculated, as are the grand average and average of all ranges. These figures are used to calculate UCL and LCL. For the control chart in the example, the formula is ± A2R, where A2 is a constant determined by the table of constants for variable control charts. The constant is based on the subgroup sample size, which is five in this example.
Many people in the medical device manufacturing industry are undoubtedly familiar with many of these tools and know their application, advantages, and limitations. However, manufacturers must ensure that these tools are in place and being used to their full advantage as part of their quality system procedures. Flowcharts and check sheets are most valuable in identifying problems, whereas cause and effect diagrams, histograms, scatter diagrams, and control charts are used for problem analysis. Pareto diagrams are effective for both areas. By properly using these tools, the problem-solving process can be more efficient and more effective.
Those manufacturers who have mastered the seven basic tools described here may wish to further refine their quality improvement processes. A future article will discuss seven new tools: relations diagrams, affinity diagrams (K-J method), systematic diagrams, matrix diagrams, matrix data diagrams, process decision programs, and arrow diagrams. These seven tools are used less frequently and are more complicated.
Ashweni Sahni is director of quality and regulatory affairs at Minnetronix, Inc. (St. Paul, MN), and a member of MD&DI's editorial advisory board.
IBM is continuing its effort to democratize blockchain technology for developers. The company announced the availability of the IBM Blockchain Platform Starter Plan designed to deliver developers, startups and enterprises the tools for building blockchain proofs-of-concept and an end-to-end developer experience.
“What do you get when you offer easy access to an enterprise blockchain test environment for three months?” Jerry Cuomo, VP of blockchain technology at IBM, wrote in a blog post. “More than 2,000 developers and tens of thousands of transaction blocks, all sprinting toward production readiness.”
RELATED CONTENT: Unlocking the blockchain potential
IBM has been focused on bringing the blockchain to enterprises for years. Earlier this year, the company announced IBM Blockchain Starter Services, Blockchain Acceleration Services and Blockchain Innovation Services.
The platform is powered by the open-source Hyperledger Fabric framework, and features a test environment, suite of education tools and modules, network provisioning, and $500 in credit for starting up a blockchain network. Hyperledger Fabric is an open-source blockchain framework implementation originally developed by Digital Asset and IBM.
According to the company, the Blockchain Platform was initially built for institutions working collectively towards mission-critical business goals. “And while Starter Plan was originally intended as an entry point for developers to test and deploy their first blockchain applications, users also now include larger enterprises creating full applications powered by dozens of smart contracts, eliminating many of the repetitive legacy processes that have traditionally slowed or prevented business success,” Cuomo explained.
Other features include: access to IBM Blockchain Platform Enterprise Plan capabilities, code samples available on GitHub, and Hyperledger Composer open-source technology.
“Starter Plan was introduced as a way for anyone to access the benefits of the IBM Blockchain Platform regardless of their level of blockchain understanding or production readiness. IBM has worked for several years to commercialize blockchain and harden the technology for the enterprise based on experience with hundreds clients across industries,” Cuomo wrote.
RHEL 9.0, the latest major release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, delivers tighter security, as well as improved installation, distribution, and management for enterprise server and cloud environments.
The operating system, code named Plow, is a significant upgrade over RHEL 8.0 and makes it easier for application developers to test and deploy containers.
Available in server and desktop versoins, RHEL remains one of the top Linux distributions for running enterprise workloads because of its stability, dependability, and robustness.
It is free for software-development purposes, but instances require registration with the Red Hat Subscription Management (RHSM) service. Red Hat, owned by IBM, provides 24X7 subscription-based customer support as well as professional integration services. With the money Red Hat receives from subscriptions, it supports other open source efforts, including those that provide upstream features that eventually end up in RHEL itself.
RHEL 9 can be run on a variety of physical hardware, as a virtual machine on hypervisors, in containers, or as instances in Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) public cloud services. It supports legacy x86 hardware as well as 64-bit x86_64-v2, aarch64, and ARMv8.0-A hardware architectures. RHEL 9 supports IBM Power 9, Power 10, and Z-series (z14) hardware platforms.
RHEL also supports a variety of data-storage file systems, including the common Ext4 file system, GFS2 and XFS. Legacy support for Ext2, Ext3, and vfat (FAT32) still exists.
RHEL scales to large amounts of persistent and transient store, and RHEL 9 increases maximum amount of memory to 48 TB for x86_64 architectures.
The first step is downloading the operating system and following some straight-forward steps.
When installing RHEL 9, users are prompeted for "Software Selection" options, and we chose Server with GUI. There are others such as Minimal Install, Server, Workstation, Custom Operating System, and Virtualization Host.
At this point, additional software can be chosen based on the environment and install functions like DNS Name Server, File and Storage Server, Debugging Tools, GNOME, and Guest Agents, if running a hypervisor. These allow tailoring the type of install based on the role of the server. Next, users can select add-ons for additional environment software to install automatically.
Server with GUI or any of the desktop variants of RHEL 9 come with the GNOME 40 desktop environment. (The latest GNOME version is 42.) For a graphical interface, RHEL 9 uses the Wayland 1.19 graphics-display server protocol with NVIDIA drivers. Wayland is the C library communications protocol that specifies how data will be sent to the display server and clients. The latest Wayland release is 1.21 with RHEL again opting for stability and general availability.
RHEL is a solid operating system for application developers who plan to move working code into production. RHEL 9 comes with GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) 11.2.1 with LLVM, glibc 2.34, and binutils 2.35. Link Time Optimization (LTO) is now enabled by default to help make executables smaller and more efficient.
RHEL 9 comes with Python 3.9 installed by default and supports modern programming languages like Rust and Go. RHEL 9 also comes with updated programming languages including Node.js, Ruby 3.0.3, Perl 5.32, and PHP 8.0.
Red Hat offers the OpenShift Container Platform as its primary product for running Linux containers in a Kubernetes management environment. OpenShift runs on RHEL, and RHEL 9 has available Universal Base Image (UBI) images to support building containerized applications. RHEL 9 also has automatic container updates and rollbacks, and the Podman tool can help notify DevOps teams if containers are failing and automatically rollback to known-good configurations.
Linux software-package management systems have been evolving in latest years. The yum (Yellow-Dog Updater Modified) software update utility is being deprecated, but the command itself is still supported. The transition to dnf (Dandified Yum) has occurred, and the yum command is just a symbolic link to dnf3.
RHEL 9 comes with Red Hat Package Manager (RPM) 4.16, and the rpm command can still be used to install files with the .rpm file extension. Flatpak (formerly sdg-app) is another method of packaging and distributing software to Linux systems. Flatpak defines permissions and resource access that apps require.
RHEL 9 also supports the Red Hat Software Collections (RHSCL) for releasing semi-annual stable updates of critical application software. RHSCL provides updates to software-development tools, web services, database software, and other key software for application environments.
Integrity Measurement Architecture (IMA) can detect files that have been maliciously modified and assess the integrity of the Linux kernel. To validate the authenticity and integrity of the OS distribution, RHEL 9 supports IMA along with Extended Verification Module (EVM) to protect file-extended attributes. RHEL 9 Malware Detection, provided with Red Hat Insights, can perform a security assessment by using YARA pattern-matching software to show evidence of malware.
RHEL 9 also provides greater control over root-user password authentication using SSH. It is possible to disable root-user login with basic passwords to help Excellerate server security. Updated classes, permissions, and features of SELinux are part of RHEL 9 to leverage Linux Kernel security capabilities.
RHEL 9 also uses OpenSSL 3.0.1, which improves the cryptographic libraries and processes to Excellerate confidentiality and integrity of web communications.
Red Hat systems are often used in environments that require heightened levels of security and must meet certain security compliance requirements. Governments often require Security Technical Implementation Guide (STIG) configuration standards along with validation using Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP). RHEL 9 supports OpenSCAP 1.3.6 and can use the SCAP Security Guide (SSG) and the RHEL 9 Open Vulnerability Assessment Language (OVAL) signatures to check for compliance.
Red Hat Insights is a management and operations service that reviews RHEL systems for compliance, vulnerabilities, patch, gain configuration advice, and optimization. Red Hat Insights Image Builder allows creation of custom RHEL images for simplified deployment to environments including cloud infrastructure.
Red Hat offers Image Builder as-a-Service to customize and standardize a preferred RHEL 9 image and run it in an IaaS cloud service provider. Image Builder can create blueprints to customize the bootable ISO installer image. The new version of Image Builder supports creation of separate logical filesystems. This helps when meeting security-compliance requirements that call for specific directories and file systems to use dedicated partitions for STIGs.
Web-based monitoring and administration tool Cockpit comes with RHEL 9, making management and operations easier for those new to Red Hat system management.
Red Hat emphasizes uptime and supportability while keeping systems patched. RHEL 9 supports kernel live patch management that allows patching a running Linux kernel without rebooting or restarting processes.
Red Hat systems often run in cloud environments. RHEL 9 includes Resource Optimization for cloud deployments to help size the system appropriately for its workload and to balance performance and costs.
The first step toward using RHEL 9 is installing it in a test environment to get to know how it works. The 60-day demo subscription can get you started. It is important to thoroughly test RHEL 9 before lifting and shifting workloads onto new RHEL 9 systems; upgrading in-place is discouraged.
Next, perform an asset inventory of all the RHEL systems in the environment. It’s okay to admit that there are some old RHEL 6 and 7 systems in the environment in desperate need of upgrades. Some organizations may even have a few RHEL 5 and CentOS 4 systems lurking about their data centers. Those older servers are ideal candidates for RHEL 9 upgrades.
Red Hat contributes to many open-source software projects, and CentOS Linux is their upstream source for RHEL. Check out CentOS Stream 9 (released December 3, 2021) to experience what features may be coming to RHEL 9.1.
If you want to check out the latest Linux features for free, the Fedora Project (now Fedora 36) may be something to download and install. Fedora is intended to have the most leading-edge features and provide a vision for the future progression of the RHEL OS. Red Hat is the primary contributor to the Fedora Project, but it also has worldwide community contributors.
Fedora Workstation 36 (released May 10, 2022) comes with the latest GNOME 42 desktop along with many other new features and software. Fedora 37 will be released in December 2022, an aggressive release schedule that promotes innovation and rapid evolution of new features.
Red Hat provides long-term support for customers who run production applications for many years and require the stability. It also publishes its release schedule and the support life cycle of the operating systems. The schedule had been for a new release every five years, but with RHEL 9 has returned to a three-year cadence. Dot releases occur annually, so RHEL 9.1 should be out around May 2023.
Support for major RHEL releases span 10 years, five years of full support followed by five years of maintenance. For example, RHEL 6 was released May of 2011 and is now in the Extended Life-cycle Support (ELS) phase for customers who purchase that Add-on subscription).
RHEL 9 won't enter the ELS phase until May 2032. It's hard to plan that far in advance, but Red Hat has a long tradition of honoring commitments to customers. Here is a diagram of the lifespan of RHEL 9 from the RHEL support matrix.
Based on the transparency of the release schedule and Red Hat’s history of meeting it, we can expect RHEL 10 to be out sometime in May 2025.
Copyright © 2022 IDG Communications, Inc.
Systems-on-a-Chip (SoC) are becoming increasingly complex, leading to corresponding increases in the complexity and cost of SoC design and development. We propose to address this problem by introducing comprehensive change management. Change management, which is widely used in the software industry, involves controlling when and where changes can be introduced into components so that changes can be propagated quickly, completely, and correctly.
In this paper we address two main topics: One is typical scenarios in electronic design where change management can be supported and leveraged. The other is the specification of a comprehensive schema to illustrate the varieties of data and relationships that are important for change management in SoC design.
SoC designs are becoming increasingly complex. Pressures on design teams and project managers are rising because of shorter times to market, more complex technology, more complex organizations, and geographically dispersed multi-partner teams with varied “business models” and higher “cost of failure.”
Current methodology and tools for designing SoC need to evolve with market demands in key areas: First, multiple streams of inconsistent hardware (HW) and software (SW) processes are often integrated only in the late stages of a project, leading to unrecognized divergence of requirements, platforms, and IP, resulting in unacceptable risk in cost, schedule, and quality. Second, even within a stream of HW or SW, there is inadequate data integration, configuration management, and change control across life cycle artifacts. Techniques used for these are often ad hoc or manual, and the cost of failure is high. This makes it difficult for a distributed group team to be productive and inhibits the early, controlled reuse of design products and IP. Finally, the costs of deploying and managing separate dedicated systems and infrastructures are becoming prohibitive.
We propose to address these shortcomings through comprehensive change management, which is the integrated application of configuration management, version control, and change control across software and hardware design. Change management is widely practiced in the software development industry. There are commercial change-management systems available for use in electronic design, such as MatrixOne DesignSync , ClioSoft SOS , IC Manage Design Management , and Rational ClearCase/ClearQuest , as well as numerous proprietary, “home-grown” systems. But to date change management remains an under-utilized technology in electronic design.
In SoC design, change management can help with many problems. For instance, when IP is modified, change management can help in identifying blocks in which the IP is used, in evaluating other affected design elements, and in determining which tests must be rerun and which rules must be re-verified. Or, when a new release is proposed, change management can help in assessing whether the elements of the release are mutually consistent and in specifying IP or other resources on which the new release depends.
More generally, change management gives the ability to analyze the potential impact of changes by tracing to affected entities and the ability to propagate changes completely, correctly, and efficiently. For design managers, this supports decision-making as to whether, when, and how to make or accept changes. For design engineers, it helps in assessing when a set of design entities is complete and consistent and in deciding when it is safe to make (or adopt) a new release.
In this paper we focus on two elements of this approach for SoC design. One is the specification of representative use cases in which change management plays a critical role. These show places in the SoC development process where information important for managing change can be gathered. They also show places where appropriate information can be used to manage the impact of change. The second element is the specification of a generic schema for modeling design entities and their interrelationships. This supports traceability among design elements, allows designers to analyze the impact of changes, and facilitates the efficient and comprehensive propagation of changes to affected elements.
The following section provides some background on a survey of subject-matter experts that we performed to refine the problem definition.
We surveyed some 30 IBM subject-matter experts (SMEs) in electronic design, change management, and design data modeling. They identified 26 problem areas for change management in electronic design. We categorized these as follows:
Major themes that crosscut these included:
We held a workshop with the SMEs to prioritize these problems, and two emerged as the most significant: First, the need for basic management of the configuration of all the design data and resources of concern within a project or work package (libraries, designs, code, tools, test suites, etc.); second, the need for designer visibility into the status of data and configurations in a work package.
To realize these goals, two basic kinds of information are necessary: 1) An understanding of how change management may occur in SoC design processes; 2) An understanding of the kinds of information and relationships needed to manage change in SoC design. We addressed the former by specifying change-management use cases; we addressed the latter by specifying a change-management schema.
3. USE CASES
This section describes typical use cases in the SoC design process. Change is a pervasive concern in these use cases—they cause changes, respond to changes, or depend on data and other resources that are subject to change. Thus, change management is integral to the effective execution of each of these use cases. We identified nine representative use cases in the SoC design process, which are shown in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Use cases in SoC design
In general there are four ways of initiating a project: New Project, Derive, Merge and Retarget. New Project is the case in which a new project is created from the beginning. The Derive case is initiated when a new business opportunity arises to base a new project on an existing design. The Merge case is initiated when an actor wants to merge configuration items during implementation of a new change management scheme or while working with teams/organizations outside of the current scheme. The Retarget case is initiated when a project is restructured due to resource or other constraints. In all of these use cases it is important to institute proper change controls from the outset. New Project starts with a clean slate; the other scenarios require changes from (or to) existing projects.
Once the project is initiated, the next phase is to update the design. There are two use cases in the Update Design composite state. New Design Elements addresses the original creation of new design elements. These become new entries in the change-management system. The Implement Change use case entails the modification of an existing design element (such as fixing a bug). It is triggered in response to a change request and is supported and governed by change-management data and protocols.
The next phase is the Resolve Project and consists of 3 use cases. Backout is the use case by which changes that were made in the previous phase can be reversed. Release is the use case by which a project is released for cross functional use. The Archive use case protects design asset by secure copy of design and environment.
4. CHANGE-MANAGEMENT SCHEMA
The main goal of the change-management schema is to enable the capture of all information that might contribute to change management
The schema, which is defined in the Unified Modeling Language (UML) , consists of several high-level packages (Figure 2).
Click to enlarge
Figure 2. Packages in the change-management schema
Package Data represents types for design data and metadata. Package Objects and Data defines types for objects and data. Objects are containers for information, data represent the information. The main types of object include artifacts (such as files), features, and attributes. The types of objects and data defined are important for change management because they represent the principle work products of electronic design: IP, VHDL and RTL specifications, floor plans, formal verification rules, timing rules, and so on. It is changes to these things for which management is most needed.
The package Types defines types to represent the types of objects and data. This enables some types in the schema (such as those for attributes, collections, and relationships) to be defined parametrically in terms of other types, which promotes generality, consistency, and reusability of schema elements.
Package Attributes defines specific types of attribute. The basic attribute is just a name-value pair that is associated to an object. (More strongly-typed subtypes of attribute have fixed names, value types, attributed-object types, or combinations of these.) Attributes are one of the main types of design data, and they are important for change management because they can represent the status or state of design elements (such as version number, verification level, or timing characteristics).
Package Collections defines types of collections, including collections with varying degrees of structure, typing, and constraints. Collections are important for change management in that changes must often be coordinated for collections of design elements as a group (e.g., for a work package, verification suite, or IP release). Collections are also used in defining other elements in the schema (for example, baselines and change sets).
The package Relationships defines types of relationships. The basic relationship type is an ordered collection of a fixed number of elements. Subtypes provide directionality, element typing, and additional semantics. Relationships are important for change management because they can define various types of dependencies among design data and resources. Examples include the use of macros in cores, the dependence of timing reports on floor plans and timing contracts, and the dependence of test results on tested designs, test cases, and test tools. Explicit dependency relationships support the analysis of change impact and the efficient and precise propagation of changes,
The package Specifications defines types of data specification and definition. Specifications specify an informational entity; definitions denote a meaning and are used in specifications.
Package Resources represents things (other than design data) that are used in design processes, for example, design tools, IP, design methods, and design engineers. Resources are important for change management in that resources are used in the actions that cause changes and in the actions that respond to changes. Indeed, minimizing the resources needed to handle changes is one of the goals of change management.
Resources are also important in that changes to a resource may require changes to design elements that were created using that resource (for example, when changes to a simulator may require reproduction of simulation results).
Package Events defines types and instances of events. Events are important in change management because changes are a kind of event, and signals of change events can trigger processes to handle the change.
The package Actions provides a representation for things that are done, that is, for the behaviors or executions of tools, scripts, tasks, method steps, etc. Actions are important for change in that actions cause change. Actions can also be triggered in response to changes and can handle changes (such as by propagating changes to dependent artifacts).
Subpackage Action Definitions defines the type Action Execution, which contains information about a particular execution of a particular action. It refers to the definition of the action and to the specific artifacts and attributes read and written, resources used, and events generated and handled. Thus an action execution indicates particular artifacts and attributes that are changed, and it links those to the particular process or activity by which they were changed, the particular artifacts and attributes on which the changes were based, and the particular resources by which the changes were effected. Through this, particular dependency relationships can be established between the objects, data, and resources. This is the specific information needed to analyze and propagate concrete changes to artifacts, processes, resources.
Package Baselines defines types for defining mutually consistent set of design artifacts. Baselines are important for change management in several respects. The elements in a baseline must be protected from arbitrary changes that might disrupt their mutual consistency, and the elements in a baseline must be changed in mutually consistent ways in order to evolve a baseline from one version to another.
The final package in Figure 2 is the Change package. It defines types that for representing change explicitly. These include managed objects, which are objects with an associated change log, change logs and change sets, which are types of collection that contain change records, and change records, which record specific changes to specific objects. They can include a reference to an action execution that caused the change
The subpackage Change Requests includes types for modeling change requests and responses. A change request has a type, description, state, priority, and owner. It can have an associated action definition, which may be the definition of the action to be taken in processing the change request. A change request also has a change-request history log.
An example of the schema is shown in Figure 3. The clear boxes (upper part of diagram) show general types from the schema and the shaded boxes (lower part of the diagram) show types (and a few instances) defined for a specific high-level design process project at IBM.
Click to enlarge
Figure 3. Example of change-management data
The figure shows a dependency relationship between two types of design artifact, VHDLArtifact and FloorPlannableObjects. The relationship is defined in terms of a compiler that derives instances of FloorPlannableObjects from instances of VHDLArtifact. Execution of the compiler constitutes an action that defines the relationship. The specific schema elements are defined based on the general schema using a variety of object-oriented modeling techniques, including subtyping (e.g., VHDLArtifact), instantiation (e.g., Compile1) and parameterization (e.g. VHDLFloorplannable ObjectsDependency).
5. USE CASE IMPLEMENT CHANGE
Here we present an example use case, Implement Change, with details on its activities and how the activities use the schema presented in Section 4. This use case is illustrated in Figure 4.
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Figure 4. State diagram for use case Implement Change
The Implement Change use case addresses the modification of an existing design element (such as fixing a bug). It is triggered by a change request. The first steps of this use case are to identify and evaluate the change request to be handled. Then the relevant baseline is located, loaded into the engineer’s workspace, and verified. At this point the change can be implemented. This begins with the identification of the artifacts that are immediately affected. Then dependent artifacts are identified and changes propagated according to dependency relationships. (This may entail several iterations.) Once a stable state is achieved, the modified artifacts are Checked and regression tested. Depending on test results, more changes may be required. Once the change is considered acceptable, any learning and metrics from the process are captured and the new artifacts and relationships are promoted to the public configuration space.
This paper explores the role of comprehensive change management in SoC design, development, and delivery. Based on the comments of over thirty experienced electronic design engineers from across IBM, we have captured the essential problems and motivations for change management in SoC projects. We have described design scenarios, highlighting places where change management applies, and presented a preliminary schema to show the range of data and relationships change management may incorporate. Change management can benefit both design managers and engineers. It is increasingly essential for improving productivity and reducing time and cost in SoC projects.
Contributions to this work were also made by Nadav Golbandi and Yoav Rubin of IBM’s Haifa Research Lab. Much information and guidance were provided by Jeff Staten and Bernd-josef Huettl of IBM’s Systems and Technology Group. We especially thank Richard Bell, John Coiner, Mark Firstenberg, Andrew Mirsky, Gary Nusbaum, and Harry Reindel of IBM’s Systems and Technology Group for sharing design data and experiences. We are also grateful to the many other people across IBM who contributed their time and expertise.
Swipe left to report a pothole. Swipe right for social services. (Illustration: Andrés Moncayo)
In September, the Philadelphia Police Department posted a surveillance video of a hate crime to its YouTube channel. Shortly thereafter, a handful of civic-minded social media sleuths tracked down the suspects—connecting the video with Twitter photos and Facebook check-ins—and contacted the police. After investigating the leads, the detective on the case thanked them with a tweet.
Since 2008, the city police have explored social media as a new avenue to protect and serve. Reaching more than 60,000 people with the push of a button, with updates including everything from the digial-age wanted poster to the pilot testing of body cameras, the @PhillyPolice Twitter feed and its YouTube channel have become increasingly vital tools for connecting with the people the department protects.
The benefits of “having authentic voices engage in public conversation” outweigh the threats of social media, says Susan Crawford, currently a visiting professor at Harvard Law School. Crawford also recently co-authored The Responsive City: Engaging Communities Through Data-Smart Governance, and argues that effective Twitter use is one way governments can “show their work” and get unfiltered feedback.
Up to 75 percent of the population will live in cities by 2050, so finding new ways to make city governments responsive and accountable will become even more important with time. “Cities are at the heart of citizen-centric services,” says Charles Prow, general manager of the global government team at IBM. That makes them best-positioned to use civic technology to reinvigorate democracy and strengthen the social fabric between the people and their public servants, says Crawford.
Social networking is just one of the most visible ways that technology is changing the ways that citizens and their governments can interact and communicate. Big cities like New York and Chicago have embraced the idea that, like many businesses and industries, they can best function as data-driven enterprises. But having direct access to citizen feedback has its own difficulties. The biggest challenge is balancing the need for being responsive—actually listening to citizens and acting to address their needs—without being overwhelmed. There will always be more complaints than policemen, more potholes than construction crews.
One way cities can make time for communication is to provide automated services that citizens can access directly. Permits, registrations, service requests—much of a government’s work is informational in nature, and historically required lots of paperwork. But these days, when we can do almost anything from our smartphones, paper-bound government processes are increasingly seen as too slow and expensive. “Governments realize that the expectations of citizens have fundamentally changed,” says Prow, and what citizens want is digital access to government services anytime and anywhere. Self-service government isn’t just convenient—it’s also more efficient, saving time for employees and lowering costs for taxpayers
Ultimately, says Crawford, the more digital tools make it easier to interact with the government, the more confidence citizens will have in the government to provide important public services. The way that technology changes the nature of an interaction has the power to also change the perception of it. When Chicago launched its “Open311” mobile app, in many ways it was an extension of the city’s existing 311 service. But because users were encouraged to submit photos of things they were reporting, it changed the way they felt about the service. People are more used to posting to Facebook or Instagram than calling hotlines, and, when similar programs across the nation were surveyed, users said that the app made them feel like they were helping, not just complaining. Says Crawford, “the sense of agency it creates is tremendous.”
In turn, pictures made it easier for employees to determine the severity of the problem. As an added benefit, because most pictures are geo-coded with detailed location information, work crews know exactly where the problem is and can respond quicker. Mobile apps on a cloud infrastructure are a great “opportunity to put information in citizens' hands and make citizens real partners in making government work better,” says Prow..
Q: We hear more and more about how government needs to do more to adapt to today’s technology. Can you the discuss approach it’s taking?
Governments realize that the expectations of citizens have fundamentally changed. So it is no longer good enough for government to be able to provide capabilities in very long cycles of system implementation programs—taking years to upgrade services or make it easier to access employment programs, early childhood programs, programs for the elderly, programs for the disabled.
When I think about citizen demand for faster and easier access to government, I think about what I call systems of engagement. Social and mobile applications are fundamentally—and for the better—transforming how citizens and governments can interact. For example, iPad applications that allow caseworkers to work more directly with clients, untethered from their desks, allowing them to be much more efficient and effective in dealing with individual citizens.
And in the U.S. alone there are about 700,000 caseworkers. latest industry studies have indicated those caseworkers spend more than 50 percent of their time on activities unrelated to direct client engagement. So there is a major opportunity to Excellerate the lives of millions of people by allowing caseworkers to focus more of their time on helping citizens.
Q: How could those systems of engagement help?
As jurisdictions begin to provide mobile applications to do things that citizens used to have to wait in line for or do by mail, it does two things. It provides the citizen immediate access to whatever particular program or service they’re looking for and it really does eliminate a lot of cost and workload from the jurisdiction—whether it be a city, a county, a municipality—that they’re now not having to provide manually.
Q: Can you deliver a couple examples of how that’s happening?
We’re beginning to see some results—being able to quantitatively prove, through analytics and social media—that there are steps that can be taken by governments to keep people employed once they get a job and keeping them off of the unemployment rolls.
Then there are examples of cities wanting to take their 311 programs, which provide a broad range of information on and access to government services—from homeless shelters to trash pickup—and put it on a mobile application. It is exciting to see so much happening in this area in cities around the world and we can expect this trend to accelerate in the future.
Q: And how far along are we to arriving at that future? Are government officials buying into these ideas?
Every about 18 months or so we host a forum on social programs. I remember that at the last program, there were large debates about the lawfulness and the efficacy of systems of engagement—social and mobile type applications. At the most latest forum, which took place recently, the conversation had shifted completely and the focus of the participants was on "How can we do mobile and social faster?"
If you listen to government officials that are responsible to serving citizens through these programs, they are way past the intellectual conversation of will this or will this not happen. Their citizens are demanding new ways to engage government and officials see that mobile and social offer powerful new tools for citizens—and employees—that will enhance the ability of government to serve the people. Now it’s all about how fast will it happen and how can we make sure we do it in a secure way.
Using social technology can even Excellerate face-to-face interaction. Prow notes that nationwide, there are nearly 700,000 caseworkers who are interacting with constituents, but they’re a limited resource. “That creates a bottleneck in how we serve citizens,” Prow says, and “it’s amazing to see the improved engagement when (caseworkers) have access to social analytics.” For example, workers in employment programs can use social networking data to detect warning signs that indicate a slip back toward unemployment, and then work proactively to prevent that. In Manchester, England, a program working with troubled teens found that just a few influencers were responsible for dragging down a bunch of their friends. By focusing only on these few, the caseworkers produced better results—and were able to work more efficiently.
And as more services go digital, it will also be important to make sure that all citizens have the devices, cloud-connectivity, and digital literacy to be able to take advantage of them. For citizens in the small town of Jun, Spain, that means all residents need a Twitter account. That’s because the town has fully embraced Twitter as a communications platform, and tweets can do a lot more than express an opinion. Even the conference rooms in City Hall have their own twitter accounts: Anyone in town can send a direct message to reserve a room, and a second direct message even unlocks the doors. To make the system accessible, though, the town had to make sure everyone had a unique digital ID and Twitter handle. Just as today’s cities are responsible for providing clean water and electricity, says Crawford, it will be important for future cities to provide ubiquitous, cheap, and well-understood digital tools.
he real power of social media, however, is that because it’s designed to be used with other people, it’s inherently humanizing. It strips away barriers—real or perceived—to working together, offering a new way to convene to solve problems, as the collaboration between the Philadelphia police and a handful of citizens proved earlier this year. And the more that technology gives government employees and citizens a way to rapidly and effectively solve problems together, the less that government seems like an abstract entity.
Crawford hopes that eventually using such technologies will bring citizens and government closer together, breaking down barriers between civil servants and their constituents, and ushering in a new transparency—and collaboration—to civic engagement. The alternative, she says, is a government “retreats behind the invisibility of big walls.”
“Microsoft (US), IBM (US), DISCO (US), KLDiscovery (US), Nuix (Australia), Relativity (US), Logikcull (US), ZyLAB (Netherlands), Deloitte (US), Casepoint (US), Exterro (US), Knovos (US), Nextpoint (US), OpenTex (Canada), Everlaw (US), Epiq (US), Consilio (US), IPRO (US), Servient (US), Zapproved (US),Reveal (US), CloudNine (US), Lighthouse (US).”
eDiscovery Market by Component (Solutions and Services), Deployment Type (Cloud and On-premises), Organization Size, Vertical (BFSI, IT & Telecom, Government & Public Sector, and Legal) and Region – Global Forecast to 2027
The eDiscovery Market is projected to grow from USD 11.2 Billion in 2022 to USD 17.1 Billion by 2027, at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 8.7% during the forecast period.
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Electronic discovery, also known as e-discovery, ediscovery, eDiscovery, or e-Discovery, is the process of identifying, collecting, and producing Electronically Stored Information (ESI); ESI includes documents, emails, databases, voicemail, presentations, audio and video files, web sites, and social media. According to Logikcull, “eDiscovery software allows legal professionals to process, review, tag, and produce electronic documents as part of a lawsuit or investigation. The right software can help attorneys discover valuable information regarding a matter while reducing costs, speeding up resolutions, and mitigating risks.” According to Exterro, “Electronic discovery (also known as e-discovery, e discovery, or eDiscovery) is a procedure by which parties involved in a legal case preserve, collect, review, and exchange information in electronic formats for the purpose of using it as evidence.”
Scope of the Report
Market size available for years
Base year considered
Value (USD Billion)
Market Value in 2022
USD 11.2 billion
Forecast Value in 2027
USD 17.1 billion
Component, Organization size, Deployment type, Vertical and Region
North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Middle East & Africa and Latin America
Microsoft (US), IBM (US), DISCO (US), KLDiscovery (US), Nuix (Australia), Relativity (US), Logikcull (US), ZyLAB (Netherlands), Deloitte (US), Casepoint (US), Exterro (US), Knovos (US), Nextpoint (US), OpenText (Canada), Everlaw (US), Epiq (US), Consilio (US), IPRO (US), Servient (US), Zapproved (US),Reveal (US), CloudNine (US), Lighthouse (US), ONE Discovery (US), Onna (US), Texifter (US), and Evichat (Canada).
The services segment is estimated to have the largest market size during the forecast period
Services for Electronic Discovery from preservation to production, it strive for efficiency and accuracy at every stage. Review of responsiveness traditional eDiscovery is prohibitively expensive and inefficient. Exorbitant increases in the organizational burden posed by eDiscovery have resulted from ballooning data volumes and infinite complexity. These services are designed to support organizations through both civil and legal proceedings. With eDiscovery, organizations cannot afford to tolerate unreliable networks and inflexible data systems. eDiscovery services ensure reliable access to millions of files is required 24×7, with a continuous focus on performance and uptime. The services segment has been further divided into training and consulting system integration and testing and support and maintenance services. These services play a vital role in the functioning of eDiscovery solutions, as well as ensure faster and smoother implementation that maximizes the value of the enterprise investments. With the increase in the use of eDiscovery solutions, the demand for services would also increase the requirement for integration services. Other services, such as training & consulting and support, are projected to gain traction with the growing demand for eDiscovery solutions.
The solution offered in the market is comprehensive eDiscovery solutions designed to help organizations meet all legal, IT, operational, and risk-related requirements. Moreover, some companies are offering dedicated eDiscovery solutions, such as compliance management, risk management, and audit management, developed to cater to the specific need of the end users. The solutions are integrated with smart technologies and processes to help organizations simplify the process of managing the eDiscovery program. By integrating eDiscovery solutions into the operations, decision-makers are taking advantage of BI and analytical capabilities embedded into the solutions to achieve actionable insights and thereby formulate various strategies and focus on reducing risks. eDiscovery solutions are used to find, manage, secure, and store relevant data to be presented as evidence during a legal or criminal case. It helps solve various legal, constitutional, political, security, and personal privacy issues. The process of eDiscovery is done manually on paper or on a system. The rise in data generation and litigations can be considered as a major reason for the growth of eDiscovery solutions worldwide, as the need to manage and present this huge data can be easily achieved using the eDiscovery solutions. eDiscovery solutions enable easy and efficient implementation of the Electronic Discovery Reference Model (EDRM) model that includes identification, preservation, collection, processing, review, production, and presentation of the relevant data during legal cases leading to reduced time, costs, and manual intervention.
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Some of the major eDiscovery market vendors are Microsoft (US), IBM (US), DISCO (US), KLDiscovery (US), Nuix (Australia), Relativity (US), Logikcull (US), ZyLAB (Netherlands), Deloitte (US), Casepoint (US), Exterro (US), Knovos (US), Nextpoint (US), OpenTex (Canada), Everlaw (US), Epiq (US), Consilio (US), IPRO (US), Servient (US), Zapproved (US),Reveal (US), CloudNine (US), Lighthouse (US), ONE Discovery (US), Onna, US), Texifter (US), and Evichat (Canada).
IBM is an American multinational technology corporation. IBM produces and sells computer hardware, middleware, and software and provides hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology. IBM is also a major research organization, holding the record for most annual US patents generated by a business (as of 2020) for 28 consecutive years. It is a computer technology and consulting corporation. IBM operates through five business segments: cognitive solutions, Global Business Services (GBS), technology services and cloud platforms, systems, and global financing. The company offers robust product portfolios in analytics, social and security, IoT, cloud, and mobile.
IBM has established a strong global footprint, with its presence in more than 175 countries. IBM eDiscovery Manager helps handle immediate litigation and investigation matters by enabling users to search, manage, and export Electronically Stored Information (ESI), including email and other business content. It provides a wide range of solutions and services to various industry verticals, including automotive, aerospace & defense, banking, consumer products, financial markets, healthcare, insurance, media & entertainment, oil & gas, education, electronics, energy & utilities, petroleum, and travel & transportation. It has established a strong channel partner ecosystem using the strategy of partnerships.
Microsoft is a multinational technology corporation that manufactures computer software, consumer electronics, and related services. The Microsoft Windows operating system line, the Microsoft Office suite, and the Internet Explorer and Edge web browsers are among its most well-known software products. The company offers Operating Systems (OS), server application software, business and customer application software, and internet and intranet software. Its major business segments include more personal computing, productivity and business processes, and intelligent cloud. It caters to several verticals, including automotive, government, healthcare, manufacturing, financial services, and retail. With approximately 144,000 employees, the company provides products to its broad customer base in over 180 countries. It has a presence in North America, Asia Pacific, Latin America, the Middle East & Africa, and Europe. It offers Azure Media Services, Adobe Marketing Cloud, Microsoft Dynamics 365 AI for Sales, Zone·tv Studio, and Ad Monetization Platform in the data monetization market. The Ad Monetization Platform offers enhanced customer experiences, engagement services, and other facilities in a single platform.
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Vincent Caprio founded the Water Innovations Alliance Foundation (WIAF) in October 2008. In this role he created the Water 2.0 Conference series of which he is currently the Chairman Emeritus. As an early advocate for nanotechnology, Mr. Caprio is the Founder and Chairman Emeritus of the NanoBusiness Commercialization Association (NanoBCA). In 2002, he launched the highly successful NanoBusiness Conference series, now in its 19th year.
A pioneer at the intersection of business and technology, Vincent Caprio possesses a unique ability to spot emerging and societally significant technologies in their early stages. He successfully creates brands and business organizations focused on specific technology markets, and launches events that not only educate, but also connect and empower stakeholders that include investors, technologists, CEOs and politicians.
It is Mr. Caprio’s avid interest in history and background in finance that enabled him to be among the first to recognize the impact that specific technologies will have on business and society. By building community networks centered around his conferences, he has facilitated the growth of important new technologies, including nanotechnology, clean water technology and most recently, engineering software.
Mr. Caprio is also one of the foremost advocates for government funding of emerging technology at both the State and Federal levels. He has testified before Congress, EPA, Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), as well as the state legislatures of New York and Connecticut, and has been an invited speaker at over 100 events. Mr. Caprio has also organized public policy tours in Washington, DC, educating politicians about emerging tech through meetings with high-level technology executives.
In the events sector, Mr. Caprio served as the Event Director who launched of The Emerging Technologies Conference in association with MIT’s Technology Review Magazine. He also acted as consultant to the leading emerging technology research and advisory firm Lux Research, for its Lux Executive Summit in 2005 & 2006. In 2002, Mr. Caprio served as the Event Director and Program Director of the Forbes/IBM Executive Summit.
Prior to founding the NanoBCA, Mr. Caprio was Event Director for Red Herring Conferences, producing the company’s Venture Market conferences and Annual Summit reporting to Red Herring Magazine Founder and Publisher Tony Perkins, and Editor, Jason Pontin. His industry peers have formally recognized Mr. Caprio on several occasions for his talents in both tradeshow and conference management.
Mr. Caprio was named Sales Executive of the Year in 1994 while employed with Reed Exhibitions, and was further honored with three Pathfinder Awards in 1995 for launching The New York Restaurant Show, Buildings Chicago and Buildings LA.
Prior to joining Reed Elsevier’s office of the Controller in 1989, Mr. Caprio was employed at Henry Charles Wainwright investment group as a Senior Tax Accountant. In the 1980’s, he specialized in the preparation of 1120, 1065 and 1040 tax forms, and was also employed with the Internal Revenue Service from 1979- 1981.
During the past 10 years, Mr. Caprio has been involved in numerous nonprofit philanthropic activities including: Fabricators & Manufacturers Association (FMA), Easton Learning Foundation, Easton Community Center, Easton Racquet Club, First Presbyterian Church of Fairfield, Omni Nano, FBI Citizen’s Academy, Villanova Alumni Recruitment Network and Easton Exchange Club.
Mr. Caprio graduated from Villanova University with a Bachelor of Science in Accounting/MIS from the Villanova School of Business. He received an MBA/MPA from Fairleigh Dickinson University.
In the spring of 2015, Mr. Caprio was appointed to Wichita State University's Applied Technology Acceleration Institute (ATAI) as a water and energy expert. In 2017 he was named Program Director of the Center for Digital Transformation at Pfeiffer University. Mr. Caprio was elected in November 2016 and serves as the Easton, Connecticut Registrar of Voters.
NEW YORK, July 5, 2022 /PRNewswire/ -- The Insight Partners published latest research study on "Security as a Service Market Forecast to 2028 - COVID-19 Impact and Global Analysis By Component (Solution and Service), Organization Size (SMEs and Large Enterprises), Application (Network Security, Endpoint Security, Application Security, Cloud Security, and Others), and Vertical (BFSI, Government & Defense, Retail, Healthcare, IT & Telecom, Energy & Utilities, Manufacturing, and Others)", the global security as a service market size is projected to reach $34.85 Billion by 2028 from $13.71 Billion in 2022; it is expected to grow at a CAGR of 16.8% from 2022 to 2028.
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Security as a Service Market Report Scope & Strategic Insights:
Market Size Value in
US$ 13.71 Billion in 2022
Market Size Value by
US$ 34.85 Billion by 2028
CAGR of 16.8% from 2022 to 2028
No. of Pages
No. of Charts & Figures
Historical data available
Component, Organization Size, Application and Vertical
North America; Europe; Asia Pacific; Latin America; MEA
US, UK, Canada, Germany, France, Italy, Australia, Russia, China, Japan, South Korea, Saudi Arabia, Brazil, Argentina
Revenue forecast, company ranking, competitive landscape, growth factors, and trends
Security as a Service Market: Competitive Landscape and Key Developments
Alert Logic, Inc.; Barracuda Networks, Inc.; Clearswift; Silversky; IBM Corporation; McAfee, LLC; Microsoft Corporation; Radware; Trend Micro Incorporated, and Zscaler, Inc. are the key market players profiled during this study. In addition, several other important market players were studied and analyzed during this study to get a holistic view of the global market and its ecosystem.
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In 2022, HelpSystems announced its plans to acquire Alert Logic to provide customers with a hybrid IT approach to address the shortage of cybersecurity skills.
In 2022, IBM Corporation announced its plans to acquire Randori, a provider of offensive cyber protection and attack surface management. IBM intends to combine Randori's software with the extended detection and response (XDR) features of IBM Security QRadar, according to ITPro.
Security as a Service Market Analysis: Key Insights
The security as a service market growth driven by the increasing adoption of cloud infrastructure and increasing government initiatives to promote cyber security, multi cloud infrastructure. The US, Germany, India, South Africa, and Brazil are the countries are registering a high growth rate during the forecast period. The solution segment led the global market in 2021.
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The security as a service market is broadly segmented into five major regions—North America, Europe, Asia Pacific (APAC), Middle East & Africa (MEA), and South America (SAM). North America is the most technologically advanced region with major economies, such as the US and Canada. According to a latest study by Specops Software, a password management company, the US has seen more severe cyberattacks over the past 14 years than any other nation has. Cybersecurity & Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) advises all businesses, regardless of size, to adopt a more aggressive approach to cybersecurity and safeguarding their most important assets. It recognizes that finding money for critical security improvements can be difficult for many companies. Such factors are contributing to the security as a service market growth.
In terms of region, APAC accounted for the third-largest share in the security as a service market. APAC includes various developed and developing economies, such as Australia, China, India, Japan, and South Korea. With the growing usage of cloud infrastructure in both developed and emerging economies, the use of cybersecurity services is anticipated to increase over the forecast period. This is expected to promote the security as a service market growth substantially.
Additionally, data vulnerability has increased due to the expansion of the wireless network for mobile devices, making cybersecurity a crucial component of every organization. Numerous developing nations in the region, including India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, are dealing with a rising number of cybersecurity-related problems. India has seen a sharp rise in the number of cybercrime reports, and it currently ranks fifth globally in terms of DNS hijacks. Additionally, according to Gemalto, 37% of all worldwide data breaches involve stolen or compromised Indian records.
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According to the most latest report from the CISCO Cybersecurity Series, Asia Pacific nations often host a more significant percentage of their infrastructures in the cloud rather than on-premise. 52% of organizations in Asia Pacific countries felt the ease of use of cloud deployment, and 50% of the organization in the region felt cloud deployment of cybersecurity solutions offers better data security. All these factors contribute to the revenue generated in the security as a service market in APAC.
Security as a Service Market Analysis: Technology Overview
Based on the component, the security as a service market is segmented into solution and service. Security-as-a-Service (SaaS) is a business model similar to Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) in that it allows vendors to provide cloud-based solutions to clients on a subscription basis. In this situation, however, the solutions would be focused on cybersecurity to protect the customer's networks and information systems from intrusion attempts. Customers, who are typically business entities, are effectively contracting their security operations to the SECaaS service provider, who is responsible for ensuring that the customer's operations, network, and information security satisfy industry requirements. Security as a service (SECaaS) is a business model in which a service provider integrates their security services into a corporate infrastructure on a subscription basis at a lower cost than most people or organizations can supply on their own. SECaaS is based on the "software as a service" approach as applied to information security services, and it does not require on-premises hardware, which saves money. Such benefits are leading to a higher growth rate of the SaaS segment in the security as a service market.
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Browse Adjoining Reports:
Cloud Security Market to 2028 – COVID-19 Impact and Global Analysis – by Solution (Data Loss Protection, Email Protection, Web Security, Cloud IDS/IPS, Network Security, Encryption Services, Cloud IAM); Service (Implementation and Maintenance, Training and Certification); Industry Vertical (BFSI, Healthcare, IT and Telecom, Government and Military, Commercial, Others) and Geography
Cloud Infrastructure Market Forecast to 2028 - COVID-19 Impact and Global Analysis By Component (Hardware, Services); End-Use Industry (BFSI, IT and Telecom, Healthcare, Government, Retail, Manufacturing, Media and Entertainment, Others) and Geography
Cloud Infrastructure Services Market Forecast to 2028 - Covid-19 Impact and Global Analysis - by Service (Compute as a Service, Storage as a Service, Recovery & Backup as a Service, Networking as a Service and Others); Deployment Mode (Public Cloud, Private Cloud and Hybrid Cloud); End-user Industry (BFSI, IT & Telecom, Government, Retail, Manufacturing, Power & Energy, Entertainment and Others)
Cyber security as a Service Market to 2028 – COVID-19 Impact and Global Analysis – by Type (Enterprise Security, Endpoint Security, Cloud Security, Network Security, Application Security); Industry Vertical (IT and Telecom, Retail BFSI, Healthcare, Government and defense, Automotive, Others); Organization Size (Large Enterprise, SMEs) and Geography
Defense Electronic Security and Cybersecurity Market Forecast to 2028 - COVID-19 Impact and Global Analysis By Solutions (Identity and Access Management, Unified Threat Intelligence and Response Management, Data Loss Prevention Management, Security and Vulnerability Management); Security Type (Network Security, Endpoint Security, Application Security, Cloud Security, Industrial Control System Security, Other Security) and Geography
Content-Aware Data Loss Prevention Market Forecast to 2028 - COVID-19 Impact and Global Analysis By Deployment (Cloud-Based, On-Premise); End User (Manufacturing, Telecommunication and IT, Healthcare, Aerospace and Defense, Retail and Logistics, Government, Others) and Geography
Data Loss Prevention Market Forecast to 2028 - COVID-19 Impact and Global Analysis by Solution (Network DLP, Data Center DLP, Endpoint DLP); Service Type (Professional Services, Managed Services); Enterprise Size (Small and Medium-Size Enterprises, Large Enterprises); Deployment Type (Cloud, On-premises); Application (Cloud Storage, Encryption , Web and Email Protection, Policy Standards and Procedures , Others); End-user (BFSI, IT and Telecom, Government and Defense, Healthcare, Public Utilities, Others) and Geography
Service Orchestration Market Forecast to 2028 - COVID-19 Impact and Global Analysis By Offering (Solutions, Services); Cloud Deployment Model (Public Cloud, Private Cloud, Hybrid Cloud); End-User (Cloud Service Providers, Telecom Service Providers, Business Service Providers) and Geography
Aviation Cyber Security Market Forecast to 2028 - COVID-19 Impact and Global Analysis By Solution (Antivirus and Anti-Malware, Data Encryption, Data Loss Prevention, Identity and Access Management, Unified Threat Management, Others); Security Type (Network Security, Endpoint Security, Application Security, Content Security, Wireless Security, Cloud Security, Others); Deployment Type (On-Premises, Cloud); End User (Commercial, Military) and Geography
Application Security Market Forecast to 2028 - Covid-19 Impact and Global Analysis - by Component, Deployment Type, Testing Type, Enterprise Size, and Vertical
Content Delivery Network Security Market Forecast to 2028 - Covid-19 Impact and Global Analysis - by Component (Solution, Service); Content Type (Static Content, Dynamic Content); Application (Media and Entertainment, Online Gaming, Ecommerce, Others) and Geography
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