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Savvy, talented and knowledgeable database professionals are always in demand. This article covers some of the best, most in-demand certifications for database administrators, database developers and anyone else who works with databases. 

During the past three decades, we’ve seen a lot of database platforms come and go, but there’s never been any question that database technology is a crucial component for all kinds of applications and computing tasks. 

Database certifications may not be as sexy or bleeding-edge as cloud computing, storage, or computer forensics. That said, there has been and always will be a need for knowledgeable database professionals at all levels and in a plethora of database-related job roles. 

To get a better grasp of the available database certifications, it’s useful to group these certs around job responsibilities. In part, this reflects the maturity of database technology and its integration into most aspects of commercial, scientific and academic computing. As you read about the various database certification programs, keep these job roles in mind: 

  • Database administrator (DBA): Responsible for installing, configuring and maintaining a database management system (DBMS). Often tied to a specific platform such as Oracle, MySQL, DB2 or SQL Server. 
  • Database developer: Works with generic and proprietary APIs to build applications that interact with a DBMS (also platform-specific, like DBA roles).
  • Database designer/database architect: Researches data requirements for specific applications or users, and designs database structures and application capabilities to match.
  • Data analyst/data scientist: Responsible for analyzing data from multiple disparate sources to discover previously hidden insight, determine meaning behind the data and make business-specific recommendations.
  • Data mining/business intelligence (BI) specialist: Specializes in dissecting, analyzing and reporting on important data streams, such as customer data, supply chain data, and transaction data and histories.
  • Data warehousing specialist: Specializes in assembling and analyzing data from multiple operational systems (orders, transactions, supply chain information, customer data, etc.) to establish data history, analyze trends, generate reports and forecasts, and support general ad hoc queries. 

Careful attention to these database job roles highlights two important technical issues for would-be database professionals to consider. 

First, a good general background in relational database management systems, including an understanding of Structured Query Language (SQL), is a basic prerequisite for database professionals of all stripes. 

Second, although various efforts to standardize database technology exist, much of the whiz-bang capability that databases and database applications deliver come from proprietary, vendor-specific technologies. Serious, heavy-duty database skills and knowledge are tied to specific platforms, including various Oracle products (such as the open-source MySQL environment and Oracle itself,) Microsoft SQL Server and IBM DB2. That’s why most of these certifications relate directly to those enormously popular platforms. 

It’s important to note that NoSQL databases – referred to as “not only SQL” and sometimes “non-relational” databases – handle many different types of data, such as structured, semi-structured, unstructured and polymorphic. NoSQL databases are increasingly used in big data applications, which tend to be associated with certifications for data scientists, data mining and warehousing, and business intelligence. Although there is some natural overlap, for the most part, we cover those certs in our annually updated “Best Big Data Certifications.” 

Before you look at our featured certifications in detail, consider their popularity with employers. The results of an informal search on several high-traffic job boards show which database certifications employers look for most when hiring. Though these results vary from day to day (and by job board), such numbers provide a useful perspective on database certification demand in current job listings.

Job board search results (in alphabetical order by certification)*

Certification

SimplyHired 

 Indeed 

 LinkedIn Jobs 

 LinkUp 

Total

IBM Certified Database Administrator – DB2

463

607

845

747

2,662

Microsoft SQL Server database certifications**

1,661

1,955

1,259

1,373

6,248

Oracle Certified Professional, MySQL Database Administrator

205

342

182

142

871

Oracle Database 12c Administrator

235

295

695

214

1,439

SAP HANA

101

150

84

80

415

*See our complete methodology for selecting top five certifications in the “Best Certifications” series.

**Combined totals for MCSA: SQL Database Administration (540), MCSA: SQL Database Development (569), MCSE: Data Management and Analytics (640) and MTA: Database (503).

If the sheer number of available database-related positions isn’t enough motivation to pursue a certification, consider average salaries for database administrators. SimplyHired reports $86,415 as the national average in the U.S., in a range from $60,960 to over $128,000. Glassdoor’s reported average is somewhat higher at $93,164, with a top rung for experienced, senior DBAs right around $135,000.

Top 5 database certifications

Now let’s look at the details of our top five database certification picks for 2020.

1. IBM Certified Database Administrator – DB2

IBM is one of the leaders in the worldwide database market by any objective measure. The company’s database portfolio includes industry standard DB2, as well as IBM Compose, Information Management System (IMS), lnformix, Cloudant and IBM Open Platform with Apache Hadoop. IBM also has a long-standing and well-populated IT certification program, which has been around for more than 30 years and encompasses hundreds of individual credentials. 

After redesigning its certification programs and categories, IBM’s major data-centric certification category is called IBM Data and AI, which includes a range of database credentials: Database Associate, Database Administrator, System Administrator, Application Developer and more. It’s a big and complex certification space, but one where particular platform allegiances are likely to guide readers straight to the handful of items that are relevant to their interests and needs. 

Database professionals who support DB2 (or aspire to) on Linux, Unix or Windows should check out the IBM Certified Database Administrator – DB2 certification. It’s an intermediate credential that addresses routine administration, basic SQL, and creation of databases and database objects, as well as server management, monitoring, availability and security. 

This certification requires candidates to pass two exams. Pre-exam training is recommended but not required.

IBM Certified Database Administrator – DB2 facts and figures

Certification name

IBM Certified Database Administrator – DB2 11.1 (Linux, UNIX and Windows)

Prerequisites and required courses

None required; recommended courses available

Number of exams

Two exams: IBM DB2 11.1 DBA for LUW (exam C2090-600) (60 questions, 90 minutes)

plus

DB2 11.1 Fundamentals for LUW (exam C2090-616) (63 questions, 90 minutes)

Cost per exam

$200 (or local currency equivalent) per test ($400 total). Sign up for exams at Pearson VUE.

URL

https://www.ibm.com/certify/cert?id=08002109

Self-study materials

Each test webpage provides test objectives, suggested training courses and links to study guides for sale through MC Press. Click the test Preparation tab for detailed information. You can also visit the Prepare for Your Certification Exam webpage.

2. Microsoft SQL Server database certifications 

SQL Server offers a broad range of tools and add-ons for business intelligence, data warehousing and data-driven applications of all kinds. That probably explains why Microsoft offers database-related credentials at every level of its certification program. 

Microsoft has taken significant steps over the last year to change its certification program from technology-focused to role-centric, centered on the skills one needs to be successful in specific technology jobs. With these changes in mind, Microsoft now identifies four job tracks in its certification program: Developers, Administrators, Solution Architects and Functional Consultants. You will find a wide variety of skills and technologies within each of those categories, but we’ll concentrate below on the company’s SQL Server certifications.

MTA: Database Fundamentals

The MTA program includes a single database-related exam: Database Fundamentals (98-364). This credential is ideal for students or as an entry-level cert for professionals looking to segue into database support.

MCSA

Microsoft offers several SQL-related credentials at the Microsoft Certified Solutions Associate (MCSA) level:

  • MCSA: SQL Server 2012/2014 (three exams)
  • MCSA: BI Reporting (two exams)
  • MCSA: SQL 2016 BI Development (two exams)
  • MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Administration (two exams)
  • MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Development (two exams)

MCSE

There is one SQL database credential at the Microsoft Certified Solutions Expert level: Data Management and Analytics. This certification has the MCSA as a prerequisite (a list of valid items follows in the table) and then requires passing one elective exam.

Microsoft SQL Server database certification facts and figures

Certification name

MTA: Database Fundamentals

MCSA: SQL Server 2012/2014

MCSA: BI Reporting 

MCSA: SQL 2016 BI Development

MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Administration

MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Development

MCSE: Data Management and Analytics

Prerequisites and required courses  

No prerequisites:

MTA: Database Fundamentals

MCSA: SQL Server 2012/2014

MCSA: BI Reporting

MCSA: SQL 2016 BI Development

MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Administration

MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Development

MCSE Data Management and Analytics prerequisites (only one required):

MCSA: SQL Server 2012/2014

MCSA: SQL 2016 BI Development

MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Administration

MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Development

MCSA: Machine Learning

MCSA: BI Reporting

MCSA: Data Engineering with Azure

Training courses are available and recommended for all certifications but not required.

Number of exams

MTA: Database Fundamentals: One exam

  • Database Fundamentals (98-364)

MCSA: BI Reporting: Two exams

  • Analyzing and Visualizing Data with Power BI (70-778)
  • Analyzing and Visualizing Data with Microsoft Excel (70-779)

MCSA: SQL Server: Three exams

  • Querying Microsoft SQL Server 2012/2014 (70-461)
  • Administering Microsoft SQL Server 2012/2014 Databases (70-462)  
  • Implementing a Data Warehouse with Microsoft SQL Server 2012/2014 (70-463

MCSA: SQL 2016 BI Development: Two exams

  • Implementing a SQL Data Warehouse (70-767)
  • Developing SQL Data Models (70-768) 

MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Administration: Two exams

  • Administering a SQL Database Infrastructure (70-764)
  • Provisioning SQL Databases (70-765) 

MCSA: SQL 2016 Database Development: Two exams

  • Querying Data with Transact-SQL (70-761)
  • Developing SQL Databases (70-762) 

MCSE: Data Management and Analytics: One test (from the following)

  • Developing Microsoft SQL Server Databases (70-464)
  • Designing Database Solutions for Microsoft SQL Server (70-465)
  • Implementing Data Models and Reports with Microsoft SQL Server (70-466)
  • Designing Business Intelligence Solutions with Microsoft SQL Server (70-467)
  • Developing SQL Databases (70-762)
  • Implementing a Data Warehouse Using SQL (70-767)
  • Developing SQL Data Models (70-768)
  • Analyzing Big Data with Microsoft R (70-773)
  • Implementing Microsoft Azure Cosmos DB Solutions (70-777

All exams administered by Pearson VUE.

Cost per exam

MTA: $127 (or equivalent in local currency outside the U.S.)

MCSA/MCSE: $185 (or equivalent) per exam

URL

www.microsoft.com/learning/en-us/certification-overview.aspx

Self-study materials

Microsoft offers one of the world’s largest and best-known IT certification programs, so the MTA, MCSA and MCSE certs are well supported with books, study guides, study groups, practice questions and other materials.

3. Oracle Certified Professional, MySQL 5.7 Database Administrator 

Oracle runs its certifications under the auspices of Oracle University. The Oracle Database Certifications page lists separate tracks for Database Application Development (SQL and PL/SQL), MySQL (Database Administration and Developer) and Oracle Database (versions 12c, 12c R2, and 11g, and Oracle Spatial 11g). 

MySQL is perhaps the leading open-source relational database management system (RDBMS). Since acquiring Sun Microsystems in 2010 (which had previously acquired MySQL AB), Oracle has rolled out a paid version of MySQL and developed certifications to support the product. 

A candidate interested in pursuing an Oracle MySQL certification can choose between MySQL Database Administration and MySQL Developer. The Oracle Certified Professional, MySQL 5.7 Database Administrator (OCP) credential recognizes professionals who can install, optimize and monitor MySQL Server; configure replication; apply security; and schedule and validate database backups. 

The certification requires candidates to pass a single test (the same test can be taken to upgrade a prior certification). Oracle recommends training and on-the-job experience before taking the exam.

Oracle Certified Professional, MySQL 5.7 Database Administrator facts and figures

4. Oracle Database 12c Administrator

Most Oracle DBMS credentials require candidates to attend authorized training classes to qualify for the related exam, but MySQL (and Sun-derived) credentials often do not. Oracle certifications also represent a true ladder, in that it is generally necessary to earn the associate-level credentials first, professional-level credentials second and master-level credentials third, culminating with the expert level. 

Oracle Database 12c R2 is the latest version, which includes enhancements to Oracle Database 12c. Oracle 12c certifications are currently offered at the associate, professional and master levels. 

A Foundations Junior Associate certification (novice level) is also available for Oracle Database 12c, as are three specialist designations: the Implementation Specialist, the Oracle Database Performance and Tuning 2015 Certified Implementation Specialist, and the Oracle Real Application Clusters 12c Certified Implementation Specialist. 

Available expert-level credentials include the Oracle Certified Expert; Oracle Database 12c: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administrator; Oracle Database 12c Maximum Availability Certified Expert; Oracle Certified Expert; Oracle Database 12c: Data Guard Administrator; Oracle Certified Expert; and Oracle Database 12c: Performance Management and Tuning. Oracle still offers 11g certifications as well. 

NoteAlthough premium support for Oracle 11g Database ended on Dec. 31, 2014, extended support lasts until December 2020, so it’s probable that Oracle Database 11g will remain in use for the short term. 

We focused on requirements for Oracle Database 12c certifications. One important consideration is that Oracle 11g is forward-compatible with Oracle 12c, but Oracle 12c is not backward- compatible with the prior version. Because Oracle 12c is a newer version, IT professionals with Oracle 11g certifications should consider upgrading their 11g credentials.

Oracle Database 12c Administrator facts and figures

Certification name

Oracle Database 12c Administrator Certified Associate (OCA 12c)

Oracle Database 12c Administrator Certified Professional (OCP 12c)

Oracle Database 12c Administrator Certified Master (OCM 12c)

Oracle Database 12c Maximum Availability Certified Master

Prerequisites and required courses

OCA 12c: Training recommended but not required

OCP 12c: OCA 12c credential and one training course required; complete course submission form

OCM 12c: OCP 12c or 12c R2 credential and two advanced training courses (must be different from the course used to achieve the OCP); complete course submission form; submit fulfillment kit request

Oracle Database 12c Maximum Availability Certified Master: Three credentials

  • Oracle Database 12c Administrator Certified Master
  • Oracle Certified Expert, Oracle Database 12c: RAC and Grid Infrastructure Administration
  • Oracle Certified Expert, Oracle Database 12c: Data Guard Administration

Oracle training: Classes typically run 2-5 days; costs range from $1,360 to over $5,580.

Number of exams

 OCA 12c: Choose one test from the following:

  • Oracle Database 12c SQL (1Z0-071) (73 questions, 100 minutes)
  • Oracle Database 12c: Installation and Administration (1Z0-062) (67 questions, 120 minutes)

OCP 12c: One exam: Oracle Database 12c: Advanced Administration (1Z0-063) (80 questions, 120 minutes)

OCM 12c: One exam: Oracle Database 12c Certified Master (12COCM), a two-day, performance-based exam

Oracle Database 12c Maximum Availability Certified Master: None

Cost per exam

OCA 12c: 1Z0-071and 1Z0-062 cost $245 each.

OCP 12c: 1Z0-063, 1Z0-082 and 1Z0-083 cost $245 each

OCM 12c: 12COCM costs $2,584; contact Oracle for pricing/availability of upgrade exam.

Oracle Database 12c Maximum Availability Certified Master: None

Note: Prices vary by geography.

URL

https://education.oracle.com/pls/web_prod-plq-dad/ou_product_category.getFamilyPage?p_family_id=32&p_mode=Certification

Self-study materials

Each Oracle certification test webpage lists test syllabus as well as recommended training courses, seminars and practice tests. A variety of self-study guides are available on Amazon. Oracle Database certification candidates benefit from student manuals, labs and software provided as part of class offerings.

5. SAP HANA: SAP Certified Technology Associate – SAP HANA (Edition 2016)

SAP SE has a large portfolio of business application and analytics software, including cloud infrastructure, applications, and storage. The foundation of the SAP HANA platform is an enterprise-grade relational database management system, which can be run as an appliance on premises or in the cloud. The cloud platform enables customers to build and run applications and services based on SAP HANA. 

SAP offers a comprehensive certification program, built to support its various platforms and products. We chose to feature the SAP Certified Technology Associate – SAP HANA cert because it aligns closely with other certifications in this article and is in high demand among employers, according to our job board surveys. This certification ensures that database professionals can install, manage, monitor, migrate and troubleshoot SAP HANA systems. It covers managing users and authorization, applying security, and ensuring high availability and effective disaster recovery techniques. 

SAP recommends that certification candidates get hands-on practice through formal training or on-the-job experience before attempting this exam. The SAP Learning Hub is a subscription service that gives certification candidates access to a library of learning materials, including e-learning courses and course handbooks. The annual subscription rate for individual users on the Professional certification track is $3,048. This online training program is designed for those who run, support or implement SAP software solutions. Though this may seem like a steep price for online training, you will likely be able to pass any SAP certification exams you put your mind to by leveraging all of the learning resources available to SAP Learning Hub Professional subscribers. 

Typically, SAP certifications achieved on one of the two most accurate SAP solutions are considered current and valid. SAP contacts professionals whose certifications are nearing end of life and provides information on maintaining their credentials.

SAP Certified Technology Associate facts and figures

Certification name

SAP Certified Technology Associate – SAP HANA (Edition 2016)

Prerequisites  and required courses        

 None required

 Recommended: SAP HANA Installation & Operations SPS12 (HA200) course ($3,750)

Number of exams

One exam: SAP Certified Application Associate – SAP HANA (Edition 2016), test code C_HANATEC_12 (80 questions, 180 minutes)

Cost per exam

$552

URL

https://training.sap.com/certification/c_hanatec_12-sap-certified-technology-associate—sap-hana-edition-2016-g/

Self-study materials

The certification webpage includes a link to trial questions. SAP HANA trade books and certification guides are available on Amazon. The SAP Help Center offers product documentation and a training and certification FAQs page. The SAP Learning Hub (available on a subscription basis) provides access to online learning content.

Beyond the top 5: More database certifications

Besides the ones mentioned in this article, other database certification programs are available to further the careers and professional development of IT professionals who work with database management systems. 

While most colleges with computer science programs offer database tracks at the undergraduate, master and Ph.D. levels, there are few well-known vendor-neutral database certifications. The Institute for the Certification of Computing Professionals (ICCP) is part of this unique group, offering its Certified Data Professional and Certified Data Scientist credentials. Find out more about ICCP certifications here

EnterpriseDB administers a small but effective certification program, with two primary certs: the EDB Certified Associate and the EDB Certified Professional. PostgreSQL was the fourth-ranked relational database management system in October 2019, according to DB-Engines

Credentials from GoogleMarkLogicTeradata and SAS may also be worth considering. All of these credentials represent opportunities for database professionals to expand their skill sets – and salaries. However, such niches in the database certification arena are generally only worth pursuing if you already work with these platforms or plan to work for an organization that uses them. 

Ed Tittel

Ed is a 30-year-plus veteran of the computing industry, who has worked as a programmer, a technical manager, a classroom instructor, a network consultant, and a technical evangelist for companies that include Burroughs, Schlumberger, Novell, IBM/Tivoli and NetQoS. He has written for numerous publications, including Tom’s IT Pro and GoCertify, and is the author of more than 140 computing books on information security, web markup languages and development tools, and Windows operating systems. 

Earl Follis

Earl is also a 30-year veteran of the computer industry, who has worked in IT training, marketing, technical evangelism, and market analysis in the areas of networking and systems technology and management. Ed and Earl met in the late 1980s when Ed hired Earl as a trainer at an Austin-area networking company that’s now part of HP. The two of them have written numerous books together on NetWare, Windows Server and other topics. Earl is also a regular writer for the computer trade press, with many e-books, whitepapers and articles to his credit.

Mon, 10 Oct 2022 12:01:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.businessnewsdaily.com/10734-database-certifications.html
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Verifying Computer Set-Up for Online Exams

Your Notice to Schedule (NTS) email from Scantron will have links for you to check your computer system. It is important to verify that your computer meets the minimum requirements below, and that you have reliable access to the Internet. An internet connection disruption will suspend the test session. If you have computer system questions after following the instructions provided by Scantron's schedule confirmation email, please contact Scantron at +1 919-572-6880 or candidatesupport@scantron.com

IMPORTANT: If taking the test online, you must use a computer on which you have full admin access.

Note: Scantron is changing to Meazure Learning. Scantron, Meazure Learning, and ProctorU are all one-in-the-same organization.

On or before 4 October, 2022:

After 4 October, 2022

Items to Bring for In-Person Exams

  • Your valid, government issued photo ID (e.g., driver's license, passport, state-issued ID card) 
  • The printed test confirmation notice you received from Scantron.
  • No other items can be brought into the test environment. A calculator and any other needed resource materials will be provided on the computer for those taking the test electronically.

All ISA certification exams are closed-book. No reference material will be allowed in any test room. Please note that storage space will be limited.

For all CCST level exams, Units Conversion Tables will be provided to candidates in either paper format (paper/pencil exams) or accessible within the electronic test interface for reference during the exam. Click here to review the Units Conversion Tables.

Cancelation and Rescheduling Policies

Cancelling an Exam

You can cancel an test through the online test scheduling system.

  • Online test appointments must be cancelled no less than 24 hours prior to the scheduled appointment date and time. There is no cancellation fee
  • Exam center appointments must be cancelled no less than two calendar days prior to the scheduled testing appointment. There is a cancellation fee of 50 USD payable to Scantron via a secure e-commerce site (credit card)

Scheduling a Retest or Missed Exam

You may retest as many times as needed within your test window. However, there is a retest fee each time that is payable to ISA. If you are outside your test window, contact certifications@isa.org. If you are within your test window, you may reschedule your test appointment before the online and Test Center reschedule cut-off times via the online test scheduling system.

Rescheduling Exams

There is no rescheduling fee to change the time and date from one online test appointment to another online test appointment. However, it must be changed no less than 24 hours prior to the scheduled appointment date and time.

There is no rescheduling fee to change the time and date of an online test appointment to an Test Center appointment. However, it must be changed at least 24 hours in advance of the scheduled appointment. Additionally, you must reschedule the new appointment no less than two calendar days in advance of the new appointment at a Scantron test center.

You will incur a rescheduling fee of 50 USD if you change the appointment time and/or date of a Test Center test appointment. Rescheduling fees are payable to Scantron via a secure e-commerce site (credit card). The reschedule cut-off time is no later than two calendar days prior to the test appointment. Additionally, if you are scheduling a new online test appointment, it must be done no less than 24 hours prior to the new appointment date and time.

No-Shows and Late Arrivals

If you fail to appear for a scheduled exam, or arrive more than 15 minutes after the scheduled start time, fees will apply. See reschedule fees without proper advance notification. You must reschedule your test within your twelve-month test window.

Retaking Missed Exams

If you are within your test window, you may retake a missed exam. However, there will be a reschedule fee, payable to ISA. To reschedule, email certifications@isa.org or contact customer service at info@isa.org or +1 919-549-8411 with your request.

You may qualify for an exception if you meet certain conditions and submit documentation to Scantron no later than five calendar days after the scheduled test appointment. If the exception is approved, there will be a no-show exemption fee of 50 USD payable via secure e-commerce (credit card) and collected by Scantron. Please contact Scantron by phone at +1 919-572-6880 or email candidatesupport@scantron.com for more details.

Exam Results

Scantron will email the results to you immediately after you complete the exam. If you pass, you will receive an email containing a digital badge from isa_badges@isa.org within 48 hours of completing the exam.

ISA does not provide a passing score; you are only notified whether you passed or failed. If you fail an exam, you will receive a score report that lists the domains and indicates the percentage of questions answered correctly within each domain. Note that the percentages are not used to calculate a candidate’s passing score.

If you do not receive an email containing your results within 24 hours, please contact Scantron by phone at +1 919-572-6880 or email candidatesupport@scantron.com.

Thu, 02 Dec 2021 09:44:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.isa.org/certification/certification-exams-and-testing
Killexams : Final test Guidelines

Final test Schedule

The matrix is a grid of predetermined test times for those classes that meet at regular block times during the semester. The day and time of the first class meeting during the week determine the date and time for each exam. Courses that meet outside the normal university block scheduling will be scheduled within the time block that best fits the schedule without creating conflicts for students

Exam times are as follows:

  • 8 – 11 a.m.
  • 11:30 a.m. – 2:30 p.m.
  • 3 – 6 p.m.
  • 6:30 - 9:30 p.m.

While test blocks are three hours long, the genuine length of the test is determined by the instructor.

If examination days are postponed because of weather conditions, the first make-up day is documented on the academic calendar.

Final "Common" Exams

Common Finals will need to be applied to all sections of a course not to individual instructors. For courses that are scheduled within the finals matrix, the timing of the final test will be determined immediately (by the location in the matrix). For courses requesting a common final, scheduling will not be available until late mid semester. Treatment of course conflicts for common finals will follow current set of priorities (courses with large enrollments will be scheduled first).

Common test Finals must be approved by the chair and the dean of the college and submitted to the Registrar's office. A multiple‐section course that has chosen to supply a "common" final test will be assigned to a common test block. Students who are scheduled for two common exams at the same time should check with their instructors to see which test has priority.

Course Examination Policies

Faculty are not required to administer cumulative final examinations and should assess their students as appropriate to their discipline and course content. Faculty who opt to administer final examinations must do so at the time and place specified by the Registrar's Office. Deadlines or due dates for final take-home examinations or final papers may not be earlier than the time that the Registrar's Office has scheduled the final examination for the course in question (although instructors may opt to allow such examinations or papers to be submitted early). Note: If an academic program requires that students take final examinations for accreditation purposes, faculty are expected to adhere to the requirements of their accrediting organization.

For any course with a final test during the test period, no hour-examination (or major paper or project) shall be administered or due during the last five academic days of the semester unless the college dean has allowed an exemption.

Examination Conflicts

In the event that a student has three (or more) finals scheduled on the same test day, the student has the right to ask that a make up test (or exams) be scheduled to reduce the number of exams in a given day to two. Under these circumstances, required courses take priority, so the student should make every effort to arrange the make-up test for a non-required course with the respective instructor. Likewise, in the event that a student has two finals scheduled in the same test period, the required course takes priority; the student should schedule a make-up test for the non required conflicting course with the respective instructor. If for any reason a mutually agreeable solution between the student and the instructor cannot be achieved, the student should see his or her college dean immediately.

Final Exams for Hybrid and Virtual Class Sections

Exams (including final exams) for fully virtual classes should be administered virtually, as that is the modality which students selected. Exceptions to hold on-campus exams require deans' approval.  An email (noting the approval) should be sent by email to: scheduling@uml.edu so that the test location may be updated – exceptions are subject to room availability. If approved, faculty must indicate the alternate test format in their course syllabus and accommodate students who are unable to attend in-person exams.

If a class section is hybrid (includes both an in-person meeting and either an online or virtual meeting pattern), then the final test will be assigned as in-person, but the instructor may request the final test to be virtual/online depending on the modes of instruction of the hybrid section. Hybrid courses also include courses that have more than one component with different modes of instruction (i.e., the lecture portion is virtual, but the recitation is in-person) and the instructor may decide whether or not the final test is in-person in this scenario as well. Any requests for final test updates should be sent by email to: scheduling@uml.edu.

Thu, 26 Feb 2015 17:42:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.uml.edu/Registrar/Schedules/final-exam-guidelines.aspx
Killexams : How to Format a USB Drive Into NTFS Format in Windows 11 © Provided by MUO

By default, your USB flash drive uses the FAT (File Allocation Table) file system. This is due to the vast compatibility the FAT32 file system offers. However, the NTFS (New Technology File System) file system offers better security and larger storage support, among other benefits.

At times, you may also need to format your USB drive to NTFS for troubleshooting purposes. Regardless, Windows makes it easy to format external drives to different file systems without using third-party tools. Here, we show you the many ways to format a USB drive to the NTFS file system in Windows 11.

Note that formatting your USB drive will permanently delete all the data in the drive. Make sure to create a backup of any important data before formatting your drive.

1. How to Format the USB Drive Using File Explorer

File Explorer's context menu houses a bunch of useful utilities, including the Format option. It is the easiest way to format your USB drive with a few clicks.

To format your USB drive using File Explorer:

  1. Connect your USB drive to your PC and make sure it is detected.
  2. Press Win + E to open File Explorer. You can also access it from the taskbar or Windows search.
  3. In the left pane of File Explorer, click on This PC to view all the connected devices and drives.
  4. Next, right-click on your USB drive and select Format.
  5. In the Format dialog, click the File System drop-down and select NTFS.
  6. Next, rename the Volume label (a name for your USB drive) or leave it as default.
  7. Check the Quick Format option under Format options.
  8. Click on Start to initiate the format process. Click OK when the data deletion warning appears.
  9. Windows format utility will quickly format the drive to the NTFS file system.

How to Check Your USB Drive File Format

You can check your USB drive properties to confirm the changes and make sure it is using the NTFS file system.

To check the USB Drive file system format:

  1. Open File Explorer and click on This PC.
  2. Right-click on your USB storage device and select Properties.
  3. In the Properties dialog, open the General tab.
  4. Here, check if the File system section reads NTFS.

2. How to Format a USB Drive to NTFS Using Disk Management

Disk Management is a built-in Windows disk management utility. You can use it to create and shrink volume, change driver letters and even format detected drives.

Follow these steps to format the USB drive using Disk Management:

  1. Press Win + X to open the WinX menu.
  2. Click on the Disk Management tool to open the app. Disk Management will list all the storage drives connected to your computer.
  3. Right-click on your USB drive in the list and select Format.
  4. Click Yes if a warning pop-up appears.
  5. In the format dialogue, type a name for Volume label.
  6. Next, click the File system drop-down and select NTFS.
  7. Leave the Allocation unit size as Default.
  8. Next, check the Perform a quick format option.
  9. Next, click OK to format the drive. Wait for the process to complete and close Disk Management.

3. How to Format a USB Drive Using Rufus

Rufus is a third-party tool for creating bootable USB drives. Since the bootable USB drive process involves formatting the drive, you can use the tool to format your USB drive to the NTFS file system.

To use Rufus to format a USB drive:

  1. Go to the Rufus page, obtain the latest available version, and run the tool.
  2. If connected, Rufus will detect and show your USB drive in the Device drop-down.
  3. Next, click the Boot selection drop-down and select Non bootable.
  4. Under Volume label, type a name for your USB drive. You can also leave it as default.
  5. Next, click the File system drop-down and select NTFS.
  6. Click on Show hide advanced format options. Skip to the next step if you see Hide advanced format options instead.
  7. Make sure the Quick format option is selected.
  8. Finally, click on Start to format the drive.
  9. Click OK to confirm the action.

4. How to Format a USB Drive to NTFS Using Command Prompt

If the built-in tools don't work, you can use the diskpart command line utility to clean the drive and then format it to the NTFS file system.

To format the USB drive using Command Prompt:

  1. Press the Win key and type cmd. Next, right-click on Command Prompt and select Run as administrator.
  2. In the Command Prompt window, type the following command to launch the DiskPart command-line tool and press Enter to execute: diskpart
  3. Next, type the following command and hit Enter to view all the connected drives to your computer: list disk
  4. In the output, locate your USB drive. It is often listed at the bottom of the list. You can sort through the Size column to identify your USB drive.
  5. Next, use the following command to select your disk: sel disk N
  6. Replace N in the above command with the disk number. For example, if your USB drive is listed as Disk 2, then the complete command will look something like this: sel disk 2
  7. Verify your disk selection once again to make sure you have selected the correct disk (USB drive). The next set of commands will erase your disk.
  8. Next, type the following command to wipe clean your UBS drive: clean
  9. Once the drive is clean, execute the following command to create a primary partition: Create partition primary
  10. Now you are ready to format the cleaned USB Drive. Use the following command to quickly format your USB drive to the NTFS file system: format fs=ntfs quick
  11. The above command will quickly format the drive and show a success message.
  12. If you would rather perform a regular format and check for bad sectors, use the following command instead: format fs=ntfs
  13. Next, you need to assign a drive letter to your USB drive. Use the following command. This step is optional. Assign letter=J
  14. If you need, you can replace J in the above command with any letter (currently unassigned).
  15. That's it! Close the Command Prompt, and open File Explore to confirm the changes to your USB drive.

The Many Ways of Formatting USB Drives to the NTFS Format in Windows 11

Whether you want to troubleshoot your Xbox with a repair or fix file transfer issues on Windows, an NTFS formatted USB drive is a prerequisite for many such things. Fortunately, Windows 11 offers multiple built-in tools to format your USB drive to NTFS. Additionally, you can also use the third-party tools like Rufus to format your USB drive to the NTFS file system.

Wed, 14 Sep 2022 04:19:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://www.msn.com/en-us/news/technology/how-to-format-a-usb-drive-into-ntfs-format-in-windows-11/ar-AA11PFmq
Killexams : SD Card won’t format on Windows 11/10 [Fixed]

If you are unable to format your SD card on a Windows 11/10 PC then this post is sure to help you. SD cards are used to store additional information. Now, you might want to format an SD card for cleaning up all the data from it. However, some users have reported of being experiencing the problem where their SD card just won’t format. If you are one of those users facing the same issues, this post is for you. In this post, we are going to mention some working fixes that should help you format your SD card.

SD Card won’t format on Windows 11/10 [Fixed]

Before we talk about the working fixes, let us discuss the scenarios which don’t let you format your SD card.

Why am I unable to format my SD card?

There are can be different reasons that might trigger this problem for individuals. Here are the most common causes that don’t let you format your SD card:

  • In a general scenario, you are most probably to face this issue if you have the write protection enabled on your SD card. So, make sure the write protection is turned off on your SD card to be able to successfully format your SD card.
  • It is also possible that there are bad sectors on your SD card that are not letting the SD card to format. If the scenario is applicable, repartitioning the SD card should help you fix the problem.

How do you fix a SD card that won’t format?

To fix an SD card that won’t format, ensure that there is write protection enforced on the SD card. Apart from that, you can try formatting your SD card through the Command-line interface, Disk Management tool, or a third-party SD card formatting software. If these methods don’t fix the problem, you can try repartitioning your SD card using DiskPart.

Here are the methods that you can try when SD card won’t format:

  1. Remove Write Protection on SD Card.
  2. Format SD Card using Command Prompt.
  3. Format SD Card with Disk Management.
  4. Repartition your SD Card with DiskPart.
  5. Use a third-party SD card formatting tool.

1] Remove Write Protection on SD Card

The first thing you should do is try removing write protection on your SD card to fix the problem. It is most likely that the problem is caused if write protection is enabled on your SD card that prevents any modification on the SD card. So, if the scenario is applicable, removing write protection on the SD card will resolve the issue.

If you are using a card reader, remove the card and then check there is a Lock written on the side. If yes, then make sure it is not enabled. In case there is no lock switch on the card, you can use Windows built-in DiskPart utility to disable write protection on your SD card. Here is how to do that:

Firstly, open the Run dialog box using Windows + R hotkey.

Now, type diskpart in the Open field and then press Enter. This will open up the Diskpart in Command Prompt.

Next, type the following command to display the list of active disks:

list disk

After that, enter the below command where X is the disk number:

select disk X

Then, write the below command to remove write protection:

attributes disk clear read-only

Finally, press the Enter button and when the process is complete, close the Command Prompt.

See if you are now able to format your SD card or not. If not, you can try the next potential fix to resolve the problem.

Read: Windows was unable to repair the drive – USB, SD Card or Hard Disk.

2] Format SD Card using Command Prompt

If you are unable to format an SD card conventionally, you can try formatting it using Command Prompt. Here are the steps to do that:

Firstly, open the Command Prompt as an administrator.

Now, enter the below commands in CMD one by one:

diskpart
list disk

Next, select your SD’s disk number using the below command:

select disk X

In the above command, X is the SD’s disk number.

After that, enter the below command:

format fs=ntfs quick

This should format your SD card.

In case you are still unable to format your SD card, move on to the next potential fix to resolve the issue.

See: Unspecified error when copying a file or folder.

3] Format SD Card with Disk Management

Disk Management is Windows inbuilt disk and partition management utility. You can also use it to format your SD card as well. Here are the steps to format SD card using Disk Management on Windows PC:

  1. First, open the Disk Management tool from the taskbar search option.
  2. Now, select the partition on the SD card which you need to format.
  3. Next, right-click the partition and tap on the Format option.
  4. After that, manually enter the volume label, file system, and allocation unit size and press the OK button.
  5. Finally, confirm the formatting process by clicking on the OK button.

4] Repartition your SD Card with DiskPart

If there are bad sectors on your SD card, you are likely to face the problem of being unable to format the SD card. In case this scenario is applicable, you should be able to fix the problem by repartitioning your disk. To do that, you can use Windows command-line utility DiskPart. It will clean the SD card and generate fresh partitions on it.

Here is how you can repartition the SD card using DiskPart:

Firstly, launch the Command Prompt with administrator privilege as we did in method (2).

Now, enter the below commands in the given order:

diskpart
list disk
select disk X

In the 3rd command, X is the SD card’s disk number that you need to format.

Next, type the below commands and press the Enter button:

clean
create partition primary

After that, to choose the partition you just created, enter the below command:

select partition 1

Then, to make the partition active, type and enter the following command:

active

You can now format the SD card by entering the below command:

format fs=ntfs label=SDCard quick

Now, you can assign the partition a letter to make it appear in File explorer using the below command:

assign letter=h

Finally, exit Command Prompt and see if the drive is active in File Explorer.

Read: Fix Please insert the last disk of the multi-volume set error.

5] Use a third-party SD card formatting tool

sd-card-formatter

If nothing works, you can try a third-party SD card formatting tool to format your SD card. It might enable you to format your SD card without any issue. You can try this free software called SD Memory Card Formatter. Just download and install this software and launch it on your PC. After that, format our SD card. Hopefully, this will enable you to successfully format your SD card without any problem.

How can I format a corrupted SD card?

To format a corrupted SD card, you can try removing bad sectors present on the SD card. You can also use a third-party tool that can format a corrupted SD card.

That’s it!

Now read:

FIXED: SD Card won’t format
Wed, 29 Dec 2021 11:20:00 -0600 en-us text/html https://www.thewindowsclub.com/sd-card-wont-format
Killexams : CUET UG 2022: All you need to know about the test format, history & concerns

The National Testing Agency (NTA) released results of the maiden Common University Entrance Test for Undergraduate (CUET-UG) admissions late on Thursday night with almost 20,000 candidates scoring 100percentile in around 30 subjects.

The union government had in March announced that it will conduct CUET-UG, in line with the National Education Policy (NEP) 2020, and made its score a mandatory yardstick for all central universities while keeping it optional for others.

At least 90 universities are participating in the CUET-UG this year.

While the NTA– an autonomous testing agency under the union ministry of education was entrusted to conduct the exam–, the higher education regulation University Grants Commission (UGC) worked as its nodal agency for the exam.

Also Read: CUET results: Social media users question delay

The debut edition of CUET-UG was conducted in six phases between July 15 and August 30 across 489 examination centres located in 259 cities across India and 10 cities abroad.

A total of 14,90,000 candidates had registered for the examination that witnessed 60% consolidated attendance in all six phases.

HT here explains the journey of CUET-UG 2022:

Origin of CUET

In 2010, the government had set up 12 new central universities across the country, and introduced a common entrance test known as Central University Common Entrance Test (CUCET) for them. Till 2021, those 12 central universities, including central universities of Gujarat, Haryana, Kerala Jammu and Punjab, were conducting admissions through it.

Later in 2020, when NEP was launched, it envisaged a common entrance test for all universities. To implement the policy recommendations, the UGC had in 2020 set up a seven-member committee headed by VC of Central University of Punjab, RP Tiwari, to prepare the modalities for the common entrance exam.

After several rounds of discussion. UGC submitted its recommendations in December 2020 and suggested implementing them from 2021-22.

However, the UGC had put it on hold in view of the challenges posed by the Covid-19 pandemic.

In March this year, UGC announced the implementation of the test under the title CUET from the session 2022-23 and made it the sole criterion for admission to undergraduate courses in all central universities.

Until now, many universities were either enrolling students on the basis of their class 12 performance or were conducting their individual entrance exams.

Why a common entrance exam?

While introducing CUET-UG, the UGC had said it would reduce the burden of students. “The students right now are applying to different universities and appearing in different entrance exams for undergraduate admissions. At the same time, they also have to focus on their board exams to get 99% and 100% marks. We should not assume that all central universities were conducting admissions on the basis of class 12 marks. Many universities have already been conducting their individual entrance exams for undergraduate admissions. Multiple exams were causing a lot of stress not just among the students but also their parents,” UGC Chairperson M Jagadesh Kumar had said.

“Another reason why the NEP 2020 advocated for a ‘one nation one entrance exam’ is to provide equal opportunity to students from different backgrounds and different education boards. It will provide a kind of level playing ground for the students,” he had said.

The criticism

A section of students, parents, teachers and principal raised concerns over making CUET-UG the sole criteria for undergraduate admissions. They argued that not giving any weightage to class 12 marks in the admission process will make board exams “irrelevant”. Another criticism was on the syllabus of CUCET-UG as it was “strictly” based on NCERT syllabus. People questioned how it would provide equal opportunity to students from other boards, ISC or state boards. Lastly, there were apprehensions that CUET may also mutate into a coaching driven competition like most entrance exams are in the country.

Exam pattern

The CUET-UG was a computer-based test and was conducted in multiple choice questions (MCQ) format. It was divided into four sections namely, I-A, I-B, II, and III. Section I-A and I-B consisted of language subjects. Section II was domain specific and section III was a general test.

A candidate was allowed to choose a maximum of any three languages from Section I-A and Section I-B together, and up to six domain subjects. It means, overall, candidates could take a test in a maximum of nine subjects, i.e., two languages + six domain specific subjects + one general test or three languages + five domain specific subjects + one general test.

The test will be strictly based on the class 12 NCERT syllabus.

The hiccups

The exam, which was initially planned in two phases, had to be conducted in six phases due to multiple cancellations and postponement of papers after technical issues were reported at the examination centres. While the first phase was conducted in July, the remaining five phases were held throughout August. The initial phases of CUET were marred with technical and administrative glitches. While on August 4, all exams scheduled in the evening shift were cancelled at all 489 centres across the country, 50 and 53 centres were affected on August 5 and 6, respectively.

However, the NTA rescheduled exams for all affected students and extended the dates till August 30.

How CUET-UG was different from NEET, JEE?

In case of both, the National Eligibility Criteria Test (NEET) for admission to medical courses, and the Joint Entrance test (JEE) for engineering admissions, there are no subject combinations. It is either Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics or Physics, Chemistry and Biology and everybody takes these combinations only.

However, in CUET-UG, each of the 1.49lakh candidates had applied for at least five universities choosing around 54,000 subject combinations. That makes CUET-UG a big exercise.

What next?

The NTA will provide universities with the CUET-UG scores of students who have applied for admission to that particular university. The universities will then prepare their individual cut-off list using those scores and conduct their counseling sessions for admission. Students will have to visit the admission portal of the universities they have applied for and complete the registration process.

Meanwhile, the government is likely to conduct CUET-UG twice next year– one in March-April and the other in November-December – to provide more opportunities to students.

Thu, 15 Sep 2022 23:38:00 -0500 en text/html https://www.hindustantimes.com/education/exam-results/cuet-ug-2022-all-you-need-to-know-about-the-exam-format-history-concerns-101663308537181.html
Killexams : How to format a USB thumb drive for both Mac and Windows

For those of us who rarely transfer files physically across devices, file-format capability may be a distant memory. It used to occupy a lot of attention. But it still crops up whenever you’re trying to put files on a USB thumb drive to hand off to someone else. If you’re both Mac users, swell; with Mac and Windows in the mix, you might be tempted to pick FAT32 when formatting that thumb drive.

But FAT32 is distinctly out of date. Designed for an earlier time, it can’t handle files larger than 4GB. Instead, pick ExFAT, its replacement (and still quite old), best used on drives of 32GB or larger capacity.

While first ensuring you have a copy of any data on a drive you want to format as ExFAT, as formatting will erase the drive’s contents, follow these steps:

  1. Attach the drive to your Mac.

  2. Launch Disk Utility (from Applications > Utilities > Disk Utility).

  3. Select the drive in the left-hand sidebar.

  4. Click Erase.

  5. From the Format menu, select ExFAT.

  6. From the Scheme menu, select Master Boot Record.

  7. Click Erase and follow prompts to confirm.

Disk Utility format drive

Foundry

This Mac 911 article is in response to a question submitted by Macworld reader Robin.

We have more advice about How to format a drive on a Mac in a separate article.

We’ve compiled a list of the questions we get asked most frequently along with answers and links to columns: read our super FAQ to see if your question is covered. If not, we’re always looking for new problems to solve! Email yours to mac911@macworld.comincluding screen captures as appropriate, and whether you want your full name used. Not every question will be answered, we don’t reply to email, and we cannot provide direct troubleshooting advice.

Thu, 22 Sep 2022 12:36:00 -0500 Author: Glenn Fleishman en text/html https://www.macworld.com/article/234613/how-to-format-a-thumb-drive-for-both-mac-and-windows.html
Killexams : How to Configure Wi-Fi on the IBM ThinkPad in Windows XP

Ruri Ranbe has been working as a writer since 2008. She received an A.A. in English literature from Valencia College and is completing a B.S. in computer science at the University of Central Florida. Ranbe also has more than six years of professional information-technology experience, specializing in computer architecture, operating systems, networking, server administration, virtualization and Web design.

Fri, 14 Aug 2020 08:54:00 -0500 en-US text/html https://smallbusiness.chron.com/configure-wifi-ibm-thinkpad-windows-xp-42785.html
Killexams : Get the tech that takes you places

Everything Microsoft Just Announced at Its Surface Event

There's a new Surface Pro 9, Surface Laptop 5 and a surprise Apple integration, with iCloud photos on Windows and Apple Music on Xbox.

Mon, 10 Jan 2022 09:32:00 -0600 en text/html https://www.cnet.com/tech/
000-541 exam dump and training guide direct download
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