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Exam Code: 000-303 Practice exam 2022 by team
IBM InfoSphere DataStage v9.1
IBM history
Killexams : IBM history - BingNews Search results Killexams : IBM history - BingNews Killexams : Could IBM Become the Next Microsoft? No result found, try new keyword!IBM's cloud strategy may remind investors of Microsoft's comeback, but the cloud industry has changed during that time. Thu, 28 Jul 2022 22:05:00 -0500 en-us text/html Killexams : Big Blue

What Is Big Blue?

Big Blue is a nickname used since the 1980s for the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM). The moniker may have arisen from the blue tint of its early computer displays, or from the deep blue color of its corporate logo.

Key Takeaways

  • Big Blue refers to the IBM corporation, an early developer of both business machines and personal computers.
  • The nickname may refer to the color used in its logo, or from its blue-colored computer displays and cases prevalent in the 1960s through 1980s.
  • IBM is also a blue-chip stock, a mature and dominant company that is a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average index.
  • IBM is responsible for including the UPC barcode, the magnetic stripe card, the personal computer, the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, and the ATM.
IBM Logo.

Understanding Big Blue

Big Blue arose in the early 1980s in the popular and financial press as a nickname for IBM. The name has unclear specific origins, but is generally assumed to refer to the blue tint of the cases of its computers.

The nickname was embraced by IBM, which has been content with leaving its origins in obscurity and has named many of its projects in homage of the nickname. For example, Deep Blue, IBM’s chess-playing computer, challenged and ultimately defeated grandmaster Garry Kasparov in a controversial 1997 tournament.

The first known print reference to the Big Blue nickname appeared in the June 8, 1981, edition of Businessweek magazine, and is attributed to an anonymous IBM enthusiast.

“No company in the computer business inspires the loyalty that IBM does, and the company has accomplished this with its almost legendary customer service and support … As a result, it is not uncommon for customers to refuse to buy equipment not made by IBM, even though it is often cheaper. ‘I don't want to be saying I should have stuck with the “Big Blue,”’ says one IBM loyalist. ‘The nickname comes from the pervasiveness of IBM's blue computers.’”

Other speculators have also associated the Big Blue nickname with the company’s logo and its one-time dress code, as well as IBM’s historical association with blue-chip stocks.

History of Big Blue

Investopedia / Alison Czinkota

IBM began in 1911 as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) in Endicott, NY. CTR was a holding company created by Charles R. Flint that amalgamated three companies that together produced scales, punch-card data processors, employee time clocks, and meat slicers. In 1924, CTR was renamed International Business Machines.

In the following century, IBM would go on to become one of the world’s top technological leaders, developing, inventing, and building hundreds of hardware and software information technologies. IBM is responsible for many inventions that quickly became commonplace, including the UPC barcode, the magnetic stripe card, the personal computer, the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, and the ATM.

IBM technologies were crucial to the implementation of U.S. government initiatives such as the launch of the Social Security Act in 1935 and many NASA missions, from the 1963 Mercury flight to the 1969 moon landing and beyond.

IBM holds the most U.S. patents of any business and, to date, IBM employees have been awarded many notable titles, including five Nobel Prizes and six Turing Awards.  

One of the first multinational conglomerates to emerge in U.S. history, IBM maintains a multinational presence, operating in 175 countries worldwide and employing some 350,000 employees globally.

Examples of Big Blue's Financial Performance

IBM has underperformed the broader S&P 500 index and Nasdaq-100 index. Significant divergence began in 1985 when the Nasdaq-100 and S&P 500 moved higher while IBM was mostly flat or lower until 1997. Since then it has continued to lose ground, especially when compared to the Nasdaq-100 index.

Image by Sabrina Jiang © Investopedia 2021

The underperformance in the stock price between 1985 and 2019 is underscored by the firm's financial performance. Between 2005 and 2012, net income generally rose, but at less than 12% per year on average. Between 2012 and 2017, net income fell by 65% over the time period, before recovering in 2018 and 2019. In 2019, though, net income was still about 43% lower than it was in 2012.

Tue, 19 Jul 2022 00:35:00 -0500 en text/html
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Mon, 11 Jul 2022 09:22:00 -0500 en-US text/html
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Sun, 24 Jul 2022 21:03:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : IBM Is Relevant Again, Here's When To Buy
IBM Canada Head Office Building in Markham near Toronto, Ontario.


In the history of information technology, there are not many companies that have reinvented themselves after missing out on seismic changes. IBM (NYSE:IBM) missed the cloud revolution, but the company has reinvented itself with the acquisition of Red Hat. The company's turnaround is just gaining speed. This decade will be an exciting one for IBM. I am looking to add to my holdings at $130, with the stock yielding 5% at that price.

Red Hat Acquisition is a Success

In 2017, I called Red Hat the "next cloud giant" in my article on Seeking Alpha. My prophecy has come true in many ways. First, IBM paid a massive 60% premium to acquire Red Hat in 2019. Then IBM CEO Ginni Rometty had to defend the acquisition's high cost publicly. IBM then made the Red Hat open source stack the centerpiece of its hybrid cloud and AI strategy [Exhibit 1] to capture market share in the $1 Trillion hybrid cloud opportunity. IBM used its vast sales and marketing teams to increase the reach of Red Hat.

IBM's management has done a great job pivoting its strategy by acquiring Red Hat. The hybrid cloud is a general-purpose software environment that provides the foundation to run any application. After spending over 15 years in oblivion, IBM is finally relevant again. They now have a competitive set of software and services that can help companies modernize their on-premise application stack while gaining the capability to leverage the near infinite compute and storage in the cloud.

At the time of my 2017 article, the prospects for hybrid clouds were cloudy (no pun intended) at best. The IT industry expected the three significant clouds (Amazon’s (AMZN) AWS, Google’s (GOOGL) GCP, and Microsoft’s (MSFT) Azure) to take over almost all the workloads running in on-premise datacenters. Mark Hurd, the late CEO of Oracle (ORCL), even predicted that 80% of enterprise apps would move to the cloud. Maintaining on-premises data centers was considered labor-intensive and expensive. But, a migration to the cloud came with its challenges. A company can get very closely tied to a cloud vendor’s API that is incompatible with the other clouds. A migration proved expensive and time-consuming for many traditional companies, especially in banking, insurance, and financial services.

The financial services industry is highly competitive, with many highly regulated banks competing against fintechs that face no regulation. Even Jamie Dimon, the CEO of JP Morgan Chase (JPM), complained about how fintech is taking market share away from traditional banks and how the competitive scales are tilted in favor of fintech due to the heavy regulatory requirements imposed on banks. So, many traditional companies in the financial services industry needed a way to modernize their technology and provide a great customer experience without breaking the bank or taking years to deliver a digital transformation. These companies also had their data in the databases such as Oracle or IBM DB2, which can be expensive to modernize. Many traditional banks had also deployed their applications on mainframes that continue to be a mainstay technology at banks and insurance companies.

Enter containerization, microservices architecture, and Kubernetes. Containerization and Kubernetes allow a company to move from one cloud to another or even move their application to their own data center without rewriting the code. Red Hat’s Openshift software enables the hybrid cloud. Red Hat is not the only player in the hybrid cloud business. VMware (VMW) has built hybrid cloud features into its VMware vSphere virtualization technology, and the cloud providers have launched their own set of technologies involving containers that help customers run their applications in their datacenters.

Red Hat had total revenues of $3.36 billion at the end of its fiscal year ending in February 2019. FY 2019 was the last full fiscal year before IBM acquired the company. In FY 2021, IBM declared $24.14 billion in software revenue. Hybrid Cloud and Solutions accounted for $17.75 billion or 73% of that total software revenue. The company does not break out the revenue from Red Hat but mentioned that its year-over-year revenue growth was 30.6%. IBM also said they had 3,800 customers on their hybrid cloud platform at the end of FY 2021 and added 200 more new customers in Q1 FY 2022 to bring the total number above 4,000. In 2017, Red Hat had about 300 customers.

Exhibit 1: Red Hat is the Centerpiece of IBM’s Hybrid Cloud and AI Strategy

Red Hat is the Centerpiece of IBM’s Hybrid Cloud and AI Strategy

Red Hat is the Centerpiece of IBM’s Hybrid Cloud and AI Strategy (IBM Investor Presentation)

Dividends, Share Buybacks, and Financial Performance

The company suspended its share buyback program when it announced the Red Hat acquisition in 2019. The company had $62.8 billion in debt at the end of FY 2019. It ended in 2021 with a total debt of $51.7 billion. IBM issued $4 billion in debt in February to replace some of the debt due this year. This new $4 billion debt brings the total to over $54 billion. About $12.2 billion of the debt is related to its financing arm, which offers clients loans to purchase IBM products. The company’s debt to EBITDA ratio is a very high 4.6x. The company will likely not resume share buybacks until the debt to EBITDA ratio is closer to 3x. IBM’s total debt will have to fall to around $35 billion to reach the debt to EBITDA ratio of 3x. The company paid nearly $6 billion in dividends yearly and generated about $12 billion in operating cash flows in FY 2021. The stock yields a dividend of 4.7% with a payout ratio of 68%.

The company’s return on invested capital [ROIC] was 7.34% [Exhibit 2]. I have estimated that the weighted average cost of capital [WACC] for IBM is 7.16% at the current 10-year treasury rate of 3.08%. The company’s ROIC is just marginally better than its WACC. But, the company generated a good return on equity [ROE] of 26%. Hewlett Packard Enterprises (HPE) and VMware had an ROIC of 11% and an ROE of 19.6% and 29.2%, respectively [Exhibit 3].

Exhibit 2: ROIC for VMware, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, and IBM

ROIC for VMware, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, IBM

ROIC for VMware, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, IBM (Seeking Alpha, YCharts)

Exhibit 3: ROE for VMware, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, and IBM

ROE for VMware, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, and IBM

ROE for VMware, Hewlett Packard Enterprise, and IBM (Seeking Alpha, YCharts)

Daily and Monthly Price Return Comparison

Between June 3, 2019, and July 8, 2022, IBM's daily price return data showed an average return of 0.031% or 3.1 basis points [Exhibit 5]. IBM's daily return was below 0.86% or 86 basis points 75% of the time [third quartile in Exhibit 5].

IBM has returned an average of 0.5% per month since June 2019 [Exhibit 4]. The company's monthly return was below 6.13% 75% of the time between June 3, 2019, and June 30, 2022 [third quartile in Exhibit 4].

Vanguard Information Technology ETF's (VGT) and IBM’s monthly returns have a moderate positive correlation of 0.41. IBM’s strategic and market struggles over the past decade are reflected in this moderate correlation between IBM and the rest of the IT stocks. In fact, over the past five years, the Vanguard Information Technology ETF has returned over 139%, while IBM has returned a -4%. But, IBM has returned 4.49% in the past year compared to -15% for the Vanguard Information Technology ETF.

It is safe to say that IBM’s returns have been disastrous in the past decade. IBM has now turned around its business and has a clear strategic direction. This new strategy at IBM should yield positive returns for investors in the coming years, but I do not expect to double my money in the next three to five years. I do expect that IBM will have annual total returns in the low to mid-double digits.

Exhibit 4: IBM Monthly Price Change (%) [June 3, 2019 - June 30, 2022]

IBM Monthly Price Change (%) [June 3, 2019 - June 30, 2022]

IBM Monthly Price Change (%) [June 3, 2019 - June 30, 2022] (, author compilation)

Exhibit 5: IBM Daily Price Change (%) [June 3, 2019 - July 8, 2022]

IBM Daily Price Change (%) [June 3, 2019 - July 8, 2022]

IBM Daily Price Change (%) [June 3, 2019 - July 8, 2022] (, author compilation)

Future Looks Bright For IBM, Its R&D May Pay Rich Dividends

IBM is long admired for its investments in R&D projects which make risky bets on technologies that have potential. But, the company has not always capitalized on the fruits of its R&D projects. The company’s CEO discussed their quantum computing efforts in the accurate earnings call by deploying “the world’s first 127-qubit processor”. Recently, McKinsey & Company highlighted various thorny problems in sustainability and green energy that can be researched using quantum computing. The management consultancy thinks quantum computing will arrive in the second half of this decade.

It also unveiled the first 2-nanometer chip technology that has the potential to pack 50 billion transistors on a chip the size of a fingernail. Many companies in IT invest their R&D dollars in making incremental product improvements. That conservative R&D investment does not yield any groundbreaking technologies or help the company gain much-needed hands-on experience in a specific area. In the end, those companies succumb to technology disruptions. Even though IBM has missed many shifts in computing in the past, the company has a better chance of winning in areas such as quantum computing and the latest semiconductor technologies when it has conducted deep-dive research.


IBM (IBM) has been a disastrous investment for the past decade. But, the Red Hat merger is a success, and the management has executed brilliantly. I am willing to bet that this decade will be prosperous for IBM. IBM's monthly returns have varied widely over the past three years, with a standard deviation of nearly 7%. I will add to my IBM holdings at $130, which is, coincidently, 7% below current prices. The stock would yield an excellent dividend of 5% at $130. Also, economists expect the U.S. to enter a recession, so there is a reasonable probability that the price may get to $130 or below in the next few months.

Mon, 11 Jul 2022 09:21:00 -0500 en text/html
Killexams : IBM Whale Trades For August 05 No result found, try new keyword!Someone with a lot of money to spend has taken a bearish stance on IBM (NYSE:IBM). And retail traders should know. We noticed this today when the big position showed up on publicly available options ... Fri, 05 Aug 2022 07:16:15 -0500 en-us text/html Killexams : IBM Stock Is Far More Appealing Than You Might Think

Some folks might pigeonhole IBM (NYSE:IBM) as an old-school business — the type of company your grandfather might have invested in. Don’t jump to any hasty conclusions, though. IBM stock might not be “sexy” or controversial, but it offers terrific growth prospects.

Granted, broad-market worries about technology stocks might make it emotionally difficult to invest in IBM. Yet, this doesn’t mean that all tech stocks are a no-go. As we’ll see, IBM shares have held up quite well amid 2020’s tech rout.

Besides, IBM isn’t the dinosaur that you might think it is. As the company dives headfirst into hybrid-cloud and other future-facing segments, there’s a strong case to consider that just maybe, Big Blue is the best blue-chip you can own.

Ticker Company Recent Price
IBM IBM $140.84

IBM Stock Is a Relatively Solid Performer

Using the Nasdaq as a proxy for technology stocks in general, we can see that IBM stock has fared comparatively well in 2022 so far. As of June 29, the Nasdaq lost 29.4% of its value while IBM shares were almost flat.

OK, so “almost flat” doesn’t sound like a compelling sales pitch, but think in relative terms. We’re living in a time of supply chain woes, high inflation and a less accommodative Federal Reserve.

IBM stock’s resilience despite these challenges is actually quite remarkable. Plus, the company pays a forward annual dividend yield of 4.65%. Not every technology company is that dedicated and generous to its shareholders.

Looking ahead, Bank of America analysts reportedly observed IBM Chief Financial Officer Jim Kavanaugh predicting that his company will “show greater resilience versus other tech hardware companies in uncertain macro conditions.” It’s hard to contest this claim, as IBM remains competitive with operations in 170 countries across 17 industries.

Wearing the Red Hat Well

When IBM acquired Red Hat in 2019, it might have seemed like a major gamble. Yet, it was actually a savvy move as it helped IBM shore up its cloud-market offerings.

As the data indicates, the company has succeeded in shaking off its old image as a provider of ancient, bulky computers. Today, IBM is knee-deep in the hybrid cloud, which is “all about providing a platform that can straddle multiple public clouds, private clouds, and on-premise properties that our clients typically have,” according to the company.

Moreover, this hybrid-cloud-enhanced platform is based on Red Hat, which “gives clients powerful software capabilities based on open-source innovation.” The results can be discerned in the data, as IBM’s first-quarter 2022 hybrid-cloud revenue totaled $5 billion, up 14% year over year.

What You Can Do Now

To put it simply, there’s almost no situation in which investors shouldn’t own at least a few IBM shares. There’s nothing offensive or off-putting about the company, as it has a history and pedigree that few businesses can match.

Sure, you won’t get any street cred among the meme-stock crowd for owning a stake in IBM. That’s perfectly fine, though. In the end, you’ll probably outperform the fast-action seekers with consistent dividend payments — and with a position in an often ignored but nonetheless ambitious hybrid-cloud innovator.

On the date of publication, David Moadel did not have (either directly or indirectly) any positions in the securities mentioned in this article. The opinions expressed in this article are those of the writer, subject to the Publishing Guidelines.

David Moadel has provided compelling content – and crossed the occasional line – on behalf of Motley Fool, Crush the Street, Market Realist, TalkMarkets, TipRanks, Benzinga, and (of course) He also serves as the chief analyst and market researcher for Portfolio Wealth Global and hosts the popular financial YouTube channel Looking at the Markets.

Sat, 09 Jul 2022 07:01:00 -0500 en-US text/html
Killexams : Do International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) beta value of 0.86 signposts another twist?

Let’s start up with the current stock price of International Business Machines Corporation (IBM), which is $132.04 to be very precise. The Stock rose vividly during the last session to $132.70 after opening rate of $130.75 while the lowest price it went was recorded $130.70 before closing at $130.79.Recently in News on July 27, 2022, IBM Report: Consumers Pay the Price as Data Breach Costs Reach All-Time High. 60% of breached businesses raised product prices post-breach; vast majority of critical infrastructure lagging in zero trust adoption; $550,000 in extra costs for insufficiently staffed businesses. You can read further details here

International Business Machines Corporation had a pretty Dodgy run when it comes to the market performance. The 1-year high price for the company’s stock is recorded $144.73 on 06/06/22, with the lowest value was $118.81 for the same time period, recorded on 02/24/22.

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International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) full year performance was -1.93%

Price records that include history of low and high prices in the period of 52 weeks can tell a lot about the stock’s existing status and the future performance. Presently, International Business Machines Corporation shares are logging -8.77% during the 52-week period from high price, and 15.26% higher than the lowest price point for the same timeframe. The stock’s price range for the 52-week period managed to maintain the performance between $114.56 and $144.73.

The company’s shares, operating in the sector of Technology managed to top a trading volume set approximately around 4126778 for the day, which was evidently lower, when compared to the average daily volumes of the shares.

When it comes to the year-to-date metrics, the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) recorded performance in the market was -1.21%, having the revenues showcasing -0.13% on a quarterly basis in comparison with the same period year before. At the time of this writing, the total market value of the company is set at 117.73B, as it employees total of 307600 workers.

Specialists analysis on International Business Machines Corporation (IBM)

During the last month, 0 analysts gave the International Business Machines Corporation a BUY rating, 0 of the polled analysts branded the stock as an OVERWEIGHT, 0 analysts were recommending to HOLD this stock, 0 of them gave the stock UNDERWEIGHT rating, and 0 of the polled analysts provided SELL rating.

According to the data provided on, the moving average of the company in the 100-day period was set at 133.74, with a change in the price was noted +6.36. In a similar fashion, International Business Machines Corporation posted a movement of +5.06% for the period of last 100 days, recording 5,279,335 in trading volumes.

Total Debt to Equity Ratio (D/E) can also provide valuable insight into the company’s financial health and market status. The debt to equity ratio can be calculated by dividing the present total liabilities of a company by shareholders’ equity. Debt to Equity thus makes a valuable metrics that describes the debt, company is using in order to support assets, correlating with the value of shareholders’ equity The total Debt to Equity ratio for IBM is recording 2.59 at the time of this writing. In addition, long term Debt to Equity ratio is set at 2.28.

Trends and Technical analysis: International Business Machines Corporation (IBM)

Raw Stochastic average of International Business Machines Corporation in the period of last 50 days is set at 35.26%. The result represents downgrade in oppose to Raw Stochastic average for the period of the last 20 days, recording 41.28%. In the last 20 days, the company’s Stochastic %K was 32.90% and its Stochastic %D was recorded 26.51%.

Now, considering the stocks previous presentation, multiple moving trends are noted. Year-to-date Price performance of the company’s stock appears to be encouraging, given the fact the metric is recording -1.21%. Additionally, trading for the stock in the period of the last six months notably deteriorated by -1.83%, alongside a downfall of -1.93% for the period of the last 12 months. The shares increased approximately by 2.72% in the 7-day charts and went up by -6.48% in the period of the last 30 days. Common stock shares were lifted by -0.13% during last recorded quarter.

Tue, 02 Aug 2022 04:03:00 -0500 en-US text/html
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